1. Crusades – The First Crusade arose after a call by Pope Urban II. Urban urged military support for the Byzantine Empire and its Emperor, Alexios I, who needed reinforcements for his conflict with westward migrating Turks in Anatolia. Others, historians argue, participated to satisfy feudal obligations, gain glory and find opportunities for economic and political gain. Regardless of the motivation, the response to Urban's preaching across Western Europe established the precedent for later crusades. Different perspectives of the actions carried out, at least nominally, during the crusades have polarised historians. Crusaders often pillaged as they travelled, while their leaders retained control of much captured territory rather than returning it to the Byzantines. The People's Crusade included the Rhineland massacres: the murder of thousands of Jews. Constantinople was sacked during the Fourth Crusade, rendering the reunification of Christendom impossible. These tales consequently galvanised medieval romance, literature. The crusades also reinforced the connection between Western Christendom, militarism. The crusade is derived from a Middle Latin cruxata, cruciata. Use of cruxata for "military expedition against enemies of the church" is in use by the 1280s. Spanish cruzada are recorded by the 16th century. The Crusades in the Holy Land are traditionally counted as nine distinct campaigns, numbered from the First Crusade of 1095–99 to the Ninth Crusade of 1271/2. Usage of the term "crusade" may differ depending on the author.Crusades – Madrid Skylitzes illuminated manuscript depicting Byzantine Greeks punishing ninth-century Cretan Saracens
2. First Crusade – The First Crusade was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to capture the Holy Land, called by Pope Urban II in 1095. The Crusaders arrived at Jerusalem, captured it in July 1099, massacring many of the city's Muslim and Jewish inhabitants. They also established the crusader states of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the County of Tripoli, the County of Edessa. The First Crusade was followed to the Ninth Crusades. It was also the major step towards reopening international trade in the West since the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The view is that it had elements of both in its nature. The origin of the Crusades in general, particularly that of the First Crusade, is widely debated among historians. The confusion is partially due to their lack of direct unity. The connections were rarely strong, the unity broke down often. The Umayyad Caliphate had conquered Syria, Egypt, North Africa from Hispania from the Visigothic Kingdom. Essentially, between 1096 and 1101 the Byzantine Greeks experienced the crusade as it arrived at Constantinople in three separate waves. In the early summer of 1096, the first unruly group arrived on the outskirts of Constantinople. This wave was reported to be ill-equipped as an army. This first group is often called the Peasants’ or People’s Crusade. The second wave was made up of a number of armies with their own commanders.First Crusade – The Capture of Jerusalem marked the First Crusade's success
3. People's Crusade – The People's Crusade was the prelude to the First Crusade and lasted roughly six months from April to October 1096. Historically, there has been much debate over whether Peter was the real initiator of the Crusade as opposed to Pope Urban II. The expedition's independence has been used by some historians such as Hagenmeyer to prove this. An outbreak of ergotism had also occurred just before the Council of Clermont. Millenarianism, the belief that the end of the world was imminent, popular in the 11th century, experienced a resurgence in popularity. Powerful orator named Peter the Hermit of Amiens was the spiritual leader of the movement. He was known for dressing in simple clothing. He had vigorously preached the crusade throughout northern France and Flanders. While the majority were unskilled in fighting, there were some minor knights leading them, such as Walter Sans-Avoir, experienced in warfare. In Worms some 800 were murdered. In Mainz, over thousand Jews were murdered, as well as more in Trier, Metz, Cologne, elsewhere. Others were subjected to forced conversion. The preacher Folkmar and Count Emicho of Flonheim were the main leaders of the massacre. The major chroniclers of the 1096 killings are Albert of Aachen. Estimates of the number of Jewish men, children murdered or driven to suicide by crusaders vary, ranging from 2,000 to 12,000.People's Crusade – The defeat of the People's Crusade
4. Crusade of 1101 – The Crusade of 1101 was a minor crusade of three separate movements, organized in 1100 and 1101 in the successful aftermath of the First Crusade. Pope Paschal II, successor to Pope Urban II, urged a new expedition. He especially urged those who had turned back while on the march. In September 1100, a large group of Lombards left from Milan. These were mostly untrained peasants, led by Archbishop of Milan. Byzantine emperor Alexios I escorted them to a camp outside Constantinople. They made their way inside the city where they pillaged the Blachernae palace, even killing Alexios' pet lion. The Lombards were quickly made their camp at Nicomedia, to wait for reinforcements. Joining them at Nicomedia was Raymond IV of one of the leaders of the First Crusade, now in the service of the emperor. A Byzantine force of Pecheneg mercenaries was sent out with them under the command of General Tzitas. This group marched out at the end of May, following the route taken by Raymond and Stephen in 1097 during the First Crusade. After returning it to Alexios, the crusaders turned north. Then continued north to attempt to capture the Turkish-controlled city of Kastamonu. However, a foraging party was destroyed in July. In early August the crusaders met this combined Muslim army at Mersivan.Crusade of 1101 – Lombard-Tuscan man-at-arms from c. 1100, Vita Mathildis.
5. Norwegian Crusade – The crusaders did not lose a single battle during the Norwegian Crusade. His men sailed from Norway in the autumn of 1107 with sixty ships and perhaps around 5,000 men. In the autumn he arrived in England, where Henry I was king. His men stayed there the entire winter, until the spring of 1108, when they again set sail westwards. However, when the winter came there was a shortage of food, which caused the lord to refuse to sell food and goods to the Norwegians. Sigurd then gathered his army, looted what they could there. During the journey, the Norwegians encountered a great fleet of galleys which were seeking peaceful trading ships to rob. However, Sigurd stormed their ships. Sigurd acquired eight ships from them. After this they came in Muslim Al-Andalus called Sintra. They killed every man there, as they had refused to be christened. They then sailed to a "half Christian and half heathen" city, said to be on the dividing line between Christian and Muslim Iberia. There they acquired great treasures. Here, they looted many treasures. The Balearics were at the time perceived by Christians to be nothing more than slaving center.Norwegian Crusade – King Sigurd sails from the country by Gerhard Munthe.
6. Venetian Crusade – The Venetian Crusade of 1122–24 was an expedition to the Holy Land launched by the Republic of Venice that succeeded in capturing Tyre. It was an important victory at the start of a period when the Kingdom of Jerusalem would expand to its greatest extent under King Baldwin II. The Venetians gained valuable trading concessions in Tyre. Baldwin de Burg was a nephew of the Count of Edessa from 1100 to 1118. He became King Baldwin II of Jerusalem. The Franks were seriously weakened. Baldwin asked from Pope Callixtus II. The pope forwarded the request to Venice. The terms of the crusade were agreed through negotiations between the doge of Venice. The church also extended its protection to the families and property of the crusaders. In 1122 Domenico Michiel, launched the seaborne crusade. The Venetian fleet of more than 120 ships carrying over 15,000 men left the Venetian Lagoon on 8 August 1122. This seems to have been the first crusade in which the knights brought their horses with them. They invested Corfu, then a possession of the Byzantine Empire, with which Venice had a dispute over privileges. In 1123 Baldwin II was imprisoned in Kharput.Venetian Crusade – Outremer around 1100
7. Second Crusade – The Second Crusade was the second major crusade launched from Europe as Catholic holy war against Islam. The Second Crusade was started to the forces of Zengi. The county had been founded during the First Crusade in 1098. While it was the first Crusader state to be founded, it was also the first to fall. The armies of the two kings marched separately across Europe. After crossing Byzantine territory into Anatolia, both armies were separately defeated by the Seljuk Turks. The remnants of their armies reached Jerusalem and participated in 1148 in an ill-advised attack on Damascus. The crusade in the east was a great victory for the Muslims. It would ultimately give rise to the Third Crusade at the end of the 12th century. The only Christian success of the Second Crusade came in 1147. The County of Tripoli, was established in 1109. Count Baldwin II and count Joscelin of Courtenay were taken captive after their defeat at the Battle of Harran in 1104. Joscelin had also quarreled with the Prince of Antioch, leaving Edessa with no powerful allies. Both Zengi and King Baldwin II turned their attention towards Damascus; Baldwin was defeated outside the great city in 1129. In late 1144, Joscelin II marched out of Edessa with almost his entire army to support the Ortoqid army against Aleppo.Second Crusade – Edessa, seen here on the right of this map (c. 1140), was recaptured by the Turks. This was the primary cause of the Second Crusade.
8. Third Crusade – The Third Crusade, also known as The Kings' Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. After the failure of the Second Crusade, the Zengid dynasty engaged in a conflict with the Fatimid rulers of Egypt. The Syrian forces were ultimately unified under Saladin, who employed them to reduce the Christian states and recapture Jerusalem in 1187. Spurred by religious zeal, King Philip II of France ended their conflict with each other to lead a new crusade. The death of Henry in 1189, however, meant the English contingent came under the command of King Richard I of England. Most of his troops returned home. On 2 Richard and Saladin finalized a treaty granting Muslim control over Jerusalem but allowing unarmed Christian pilgrims and merchants to visit the city. Richard departed the Holy Land on 2 October. The successes of the Third Crusade allowed the Crusaders to maintain considerable states on the Syrian coast. However, the failure to recapture Jerusalem would lead to the Fourth Crusade. After the failure of the Second Crusade, Nur ad-Din Zangi had control of a unified Syria. Eager to expand his power, Nur ad-Din set his sights on the Fatimid dynasty of Egypt. In 1163, Nur ad-Din sent Shirkuh, on a military expedition to the Nile. Accompanying the general was his young nephew, Saladin. With Shirkuh's troops camped outside of Cairo, Egypt's sultan Shawar called for assistance.Third Crusade – The Siege of Acre was the first major confrontation of the Third Crusade
9. Crusade of 1197 – Thus the military campaign is also known as the "Emperor's Crusade." While his forces were already to the Holy Land, Henry VI died before his departure in Messina on 28 September 1197. The nobles remaining on the campaign captured the Levant coast between Tyre and Tripoli before returning to Germany. The Crusade ended abruptly in 1198. On October 1187 the Ayyubid sultan Saladin captured Jerusalem and large parts of the Crusader states. Frederick departed with a huge army, then drowned in the Göksu River near Silifke in Cilicia. Henry VI, elected King of the Romans since 1169, was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Celestine III in 1191. In 1194 Henry could assert the inheritance claims of his Constance by conquering the Kingdom of Sicily. By declaring a new Crusade to reconquer Jerusalem, Henry aimed at an agreement with Pope Celestine III to acknowledge his rule over Sicily. In 1195 the armistice concluded by King Richard ended. Sultan Saladin had already died over his succession raged in the Ayyubid lands. In view of these favourable developments, the emperor hoped to continue the momentum of the previous campaign. Henry had a threatening letter sent to the Byzantine emperor in order to finance the planned Crusade. Alexius immediately exacted high taxes from his subjects to pay the Crusaders 5,000 pounds of gold. Henry also forged alliances with Prince Leo of Cilicia.Crusade of 1197 – Crusader states about 1200
10. Fourth Crusade – Instead, a sequence of events culminated in the Crusaders sacking the city of Constantinople, the capital of the Christian-controlled Byzantine Empire. The intention of the crusaders was then to continue with promised Byzantine financial and military assistance. On June 1203 the main crusader fleet reached Constantinople. Smaller contingents continued to Acre. Following clashes outside Constantinople, Alexios Angelos was crowned co-Emperor with crusader support. However, in January 1204, he was deposed by a popular uprising in Constantinople. In April 1204, they captured and set up a new Latin Empire as well as partitioning other Byzantine territories among themselves. Byzantine resistance based in unconquered sections of the empire such as Nicaea, Trebizond, Epirus ultimately recovered Constantinople in 1261. Ayyubid Sultan Saladin had conquered most of the Frankish, Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, including the ancient city itself, in 1187. The Kingdom had been established 88 years before, after the sack of Jerusalem in the First Crusade. Returning it to Christian hands had been a primary purpose of the First Crusade. Saladin led his incorporation of Jerusalem into his domains shocked and dismayed the Catholic countries of Western Europe. The timing of his death makes that impossible. The crusader states had been reduced to three cities along the coast: Tyre, Tripoli, Antioch. The experiences of the first two crusades had thrown into stark relief the cultural differences between the two Christian civilizations.Fourth Crusade – Conquest of Constantinople by the Crusaders in 1204
11. Children's Crusade – Early versions of events, of which there are many variations told over the centuries, are largely apocryphal. The variants of the long-standing story of the Children's Crusade have similar themes. Through a series of miracles he gained a considerable following, including up to 30,000 children. Some may have failed dying or giving up from starvation and exhaustion. They were betrayed by some of the adults in their group. According to more recent researchers there seem to have actually been two movements of people in 1212 in Germany and France. The similarities of the two allowed later chroniclers to embellish the tales. Nicholas said that the sea would allow his followers to cross into the Holy Land. Rather than intending to fight the Saracens, he said that the Muslim kingdoms would be defeated when their citizens converted to Christianity. They massed in Cologne after a few weeks. Splitting into two groups, the crowds took different roads through Switzerland. Two out of every three people on the journey died, while many others returned to their homes. About 7,000 arrived in late August. They immediately marched to the harbor, expecting the sea to divide before them; when it did not many became bitterly disappointed. They offered citizenship to those who wished to settle in their city.Children's Crusade – The Children's Crusade, by Gustave Doré
12. Fifth Crusade – A nighttime attack by Sultan Al-Kamil resulted in a great number of crusader losses, eventually in the surrender of the army. Al-Kamil agreed with Europe. Pope Innocent III had already planned since 1208 a crusade to recapture Jerusalem. In April 1213 he issued the papal Quia maior, calling all of Christendom to join a new crusade. This was followed by the Ad Liberandam in 1215. Every crusader would receive an indulgence, including those who simply did not go on crusade themselves. Emperor Frederick II attempted to join in 1215. Frederick was the last monarch Innocent wanted to join, as he had challenged the Papacy. Andrew had the largest royal army in the history of the crusades. The first to take up the cross in the Fifth Crusade was King Andrew II of Hungary. His troops embarked on 23 August 1217, in Split. They were transported by the Venetian fleet, the largest European fleet in the era. Until his return to Hungary, king Andrew remained the leader of Christian forces in the Fifth Crusade. Muslims fled the city, afraid that there would be a repeat of the bloodbath of the First Crusade in 1099. King Andrew's well-mounted army defeated sultan Al-Adil I on the Jordan River on 10 November 1217.Fifth Crusade – Frisian crusaders confront the Tower of Damietta, Egypt.
13. Sixth Crusade – The Sixth Crusade started in 1228 as an attempt to regain Jerusalem. It involved very little actual fighting. However, Frederick again promised to go on a crusade by Pope Honorius III. In 1225 Frederick married Yolande of Jerusalem, Maria of Montferrat. Frederick now reason to attempt to restore it. Gregory stated that the reason for the excommunication was Frederick's reluctance to go on crusade, dating back to the Fifth Crusade. Frederick claimed that his regency was demanded the surrender of John's mainland fief of Beirut to the imperial throne. This would have important consequences for the crusade, as it alienated the powerful Ibelin faction, turning them against the emperor. Acre, as the nominal capital of the seat of the Latin Patriarchate, was split in its support for Frederick. Patriarch Gerald of Lausanne followed the hostile papal line. Once news of Frederick's excommunication had spread, public support for him waned considerably. The native barons were wary of the emperor's history of centralization and his desire to impose imperial authority. This was largely due to his apparent disdain for the constitutional concerns of the barons. Even with the military orders on board, Frederick's force was a mere shadow of the army that had amassed when the crusade had originally been called. In addition, Frederick received Bethlehem.Sixth Crusade – Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right).
14. Seventh Crusade – The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254. In 1244, the Khwarezmians, recently displaced by the advance of the Mongols, took Jerusalem on their way to ally with the Egyptian Mamluks. This time, despite calls from the Pope, there was no popular enthusiasm for a new crusade. There were also many conflicts within Europe that kept its leaders from embarking on the Crusade. Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor continued the papal-imperial struggle. In 1245 he was formally deposed by Innocent IV. Louis had refused. Thus, the Holy Roman Emperor was in no position to crusade. Béla IV of Hungary was rebuilding his kingdom after the devastating Mongol invasion of 1241. Henry III of England was still struggling in England. Louis IX had also invited King Haakon IV of Norway to crusade, sending Matthew Paris as an ambassador, but again was unsuccessful. The only man interested in beginning another crusade therefore was Louis IX, who declared his intent to go East in 1245. France was perhaps one of the strongest states in Europe at the time, as the Albigensian Crusade had brought Provence into Parisian control. Poitou was ruled by Louis IX's Alphonse of Poitiers, who joined him on his crusade in 1245. Charles I of Anjou, also joined Louis.Seventh Crusade – Louis IX during the Seventh Crusade.
15. Shepherds' Crusade (1251) – The Shepherds' Crusade of 1251 was a popular movement in northern France aimed at rescuing King Louis IX during the Seventh Crusade. In 1249, Saint Louis IX of France was away on crusade leaving his mother, Blanche of Castile, as regent during his absence. Louis was defeated and captured in Egypt. He was apparently a very old Hungarian monk living in France. His followers, said to number 60,000, were mostly young peasants, children, from Brabant, Hainaut, Flanders, Picardy. They followed him to Paris in May, where the Master met with Blanche of Castile. Matthew Paris thought he was an impostor, that he was actually one of the leaders of the Children's Crusade from earlier in the century. The crowd of shepherds split up after leaving the city. Some of them went to Rouen, where they expelled the archbishop and threw some priests into the Seine river. In Tours they attacked monasteries. The others under the Master arrived in Orléans on June 11. Here they were denounced by the bishop, whom they also attacked, along with other clerics, including Franciscans and Dominicans. They fought with the university students in the city as well, as Blanche might have feared would happen in Paris. Moving on to Amiens, then Bourges, they also began to attack Jews. Blanche responded by ordering the crowds to be rounded up and excommunicated.Shepherds' Crusade (1251) – Plaque commemorating the Shepherds' Crusade in Orléans.
16. Eighth Crusade – The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX of France against the city of Tunis in 1270. The Eighth Crusade is sometimes counted as the Seventh, if the Fifth and Sixth Crusades of Frederick II are counted as a single crusade. The Ninth Crusade is sometimes also counted as part of the Eighth. It is said that King Louis always regretted the result of his Seventh Crusade that led to his capture at the hands of the Mamluks. Louis was additionally disturbed by events in Syria, where the Mamluk Sultan Baibars had been attacking the remnant of the Crusader states. By 1265, Baibars had captured Arsuf. In 1268, the ancient city of Antioch fell with all its inhabitants slaughtered. Initially, as with all Crusades, the Crusade would have targeted lands with the ultimate aim of recapturing Jerusalem. Charles, as King of Sicily, also had his own interests in this area of the Mediterranean. The Khalif of Tunis, Muhammad I al-Mustansir, also was considered a good candidate for conversion. It is suspected that Charles' interest was purely economical, rather than religious. In 1268, Charles managed to secure his inheritance of Sicily from the Hohenstaufens after defeating Conradin at the Battle of Tagliacozzo. Louis left from Southern France, landing on the African coast in July 1270, a very unfavourable season for landing. Much of the army became sick with his Damietta-born son John Tristan dying of dysentery on 3 August. On 25 Louis himself died from a "flux in the stomach", one day after the arrival of Charles, on August 25, 1270.Eighth Crusade – Death of Louis IX during the siege of Tunis
17. Ninth Crusade – The Ninth Crusade, sometimes grouped with the Eighth Crusade, is commonly considered to be the last major medieval Crusade to the Holy Land. It took place in 1271–1272. The Ninth Crusade saw several impressive victories over Baibars. It is arguable that the Crusading spirit was nearly "extinct," by this period well. It also foreshadowed the imminent collapse of the remaining crusader strongholds along the Mediterranean coast. As Sultan, Baibars proceeded to attack the Christian crusaders at Caesarea. Assistance was slow in coming. Prince Edward of England arrived in Tunis late to contribute to the remainder of the crusade in Tunis. On May 1271, Edward finally arrived at Acre. He brought a small but not insignificant contingent of no more than 1,000 men, including 225 knights. Edward arrived at Acre while it was still under siege. His arrival caused Baibars to turn away from Acre. They settled for launching a series of raids. Later, the arrival of additional forces under the command of Edward's younger brother Edmund, emboldened Edward. He launched a larger raid on the town of Qaqun.Ninth Crusade – Operations during the Ninth Crusade.
18. Shepherds' Crusade (1320) – The Shepherds' Crusade of 1320 was a popular movement in northern France aimed to help the Reconquista of Iberia. Further, there were prophecies and talks about a new crusade. Similar to the 1251 crusade, this movement included children. They marched to Paris to ask Philip V to lead them, but he refused to meet with them at all. While in Paris they liberated prisoners in the Grand Châtelet. Instead they marched south to Aquitaine, attacking castles, lepers along the way. Their usual targets, however, were Jews, whom they attacked at Saintes, Verdun-sur-Garonne, Cahors, Albi, Toulouse, which they reached on June 12. Pope John XXII, in Avignon, gave orders to stop them. When they eventually crossed into Spain, their attacks on the Jews were well-known, James II of Aragon vowed to protect his citizens. As expected the shepherds did attack some Jews, especially at the fortress of Montclus, where over 300 Jews were killed. James's son Alfonso was sent out to bring them under control. Those responsible for the massacre at Montclus were arrested and executed. There were no further incidents and the crusade dispersed. This "crusade" is seen as a revolt against the French monarchy, somewhat like the first Shepherds Crusade. Only a few years previously, the Jews had been allowed to return to France, after being expelled in 1306.Shepherds' Crusade (1320) – Pastoureaux likking 500 jews at Verdun-sur-Garonne in 1320
19. Savoyard crusade – The Savoyard crusade was born out of the same planning that led to the Alexandrian Crusade. It was led by Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy, against the Ottoman Empire in eastern Europe. It made small gains in the vicinity of Constantinople and on Gallipoli. In the event, all but two who could not go for reasons of health, travelled east. The Order, like the crusade, was dedicated to the Virgin Mary. The deadline was met by nobody, although on June the king of Cyprus left Venice on the Alexandrian Crusade. In the spring he invaded, not Turkish Europe, but rather the north of Bulgaria, then ruled by Sratsimir. He took Sratsimir captive back to Hungary. His expedition was thus completed in time for him to cooperate in the spring of 1366. All confiscated "ill-gotten gains" from theft, usury which could not be restituted were to be used for the next six years for the crusade. In early 1366 Amadeus was in Savoy assembling his army. Almost no family in his dominions was unrepresented. Son of his half-brother Humbert, both joined. Younger brother of James of Piedmont, Amadeus's two illegitimate sons, both named Antoine, participated. Although Amadeus apparently received a Papal blessing for his adventure, the bulls remained revoked.Savoyard crusade – Statue of Amadeus slaying a Turk by Pelagio Palagi, which stands in Turin
20. Barbary Crusade – Froissart's Chronicles is the chief account of what was one of the last crusades. During the lulls of the Hundred Years War knights looked for glory and honor. As Genoese ambassadors approached the French king Charles VI to subscribe to a crusade, they eagerly supported the plan to fight Muslim pirates from North Africa. These pirates had their main base at Mahdia on the Barbary coast. Genoa was ready to supply ships, supplies, 8,000 foot soldiers, if France would provide the knights. The proposal by the doge Antoniotto Adorno was presented as a crusade. As such it would give prestige to its participants, a moratorium on their debts, papal indulgence. The French force also consisted of 1,500 knights under the leadership of Louis II, Duke of Bourbon. It has been estimated that the total force numbered about 5,000 soldiers plus 1,000 sailors. Two priests representing both popes blessed the departing. The crusaders invested the fortified city for the next two months. They had failed to bring sufficient siege engines to breach the walls. The crusaders had to fortify it. The Berbers send out a negotiating party asking why the French would attack them, they had only troubled a natural affair among neighbors. In answer they were told that they were unbelievers who had "put to death the son of God called Jesus Christ."Barbary Crusade – The French army disembarking in Africa, led by the duke of Bourbon, holding a shield bearing the royal arms of France
21. Crusade of Varna – The Crusade of Varna was a string of events in 1443–44 between the crusaders and the Ottoman Empire. It culminated in a decisive Ottoman victory at the Battle of Varna on 10 November 1444. After the war ended in 1430, the Ottomans returned to their earlier policy of controlling all lands south of the Danube. In 1432, Sultan Murad II began raiding into Transylvania. After King Sigismund died in 1437, the attacks intensified, with the Ottomans occupying Borač in 1439. At the end of 1439, Smederevo capitulated and Murad succeeded in making an Ottoman province. Despot of Serbia, fled to his estates in Hungary. In 1440, Murad besieged Belgrade. After failing to take the fortress, he was forced to return to Anatolia to stop attacks by the Karamanids. Meanwhile, Sigismund's successor Albert had died in October 1439, shortly after signing a law to "restore the ancient customs of the realm". The law restricted the royal authority by requiring the participation of landed nobility in political decisions. Four months after Albert's death, Ladislaus, was born while Hungary was in the midst of a civil war over the next monarch. On 17 1440 Vladislaus, king of Poland, was crowned despite continuing disputes. By the end of 1442, Vladislaus denied an Ottoman proposal of peace in exchange for Belgrade. The impetus required to turn the plans into action was provided by Hunyadi between 1441–42.Crusade of Varna – Painting by Stanisław Chlebowski portraying king Wladyslaw's death after the battle of Varna
22. Northern Crusades – The crusades resulted in the forced baptism of indigenous peoples. Most notable campaigns were Livonian and Prussian crusades. The campaigns started with the 1147 Wendish Crusade against the Polabian Slavs of what is now northern and eastern Germany. The crusade occurred parallel to the Second Crusade to the Holy Land, continued irregularly until the 16th century. The Swedish crusades were campaigns from 1150 to 1293. The difference in creeds was one of the reasons they had not yet been effectively converted. Estonians for their part made raids upon Denmark and Sweden. There were peaceful attempts by some Catholics to convert the Estonians, starting with missions dispatched by Adalbert, Archbishop of Bremen in 1045-1072. However, these peaceful efforts seem to have had only limited success. Although the crusaders won their first battle, Bishop Berthold was mortally wounded and the crusaders were repulsed. In 1199, Albert of Buxhoeveden was appointed by the Archbishop Hartwig II of Bremen to Christianise the Baltic countries. By the time Albert died 30 years later, the conquest and formal Christianisation of present-day Estonia and northern Latvia was complete. The first crusaders usually returned in the autumn. To ensure a permanent military presence, the Livonian Brothers of the Sword were founded in 1202. The founding by Bishop Albert of the market at Riga in 1201 attracted citizens from the Empire and economic prosperity ensued.Northern Crusades – Ruins of the castle in Sigulda.
23. Wendish Crusade – By the 12th century, the German archbishoprics of Bremen and Magdeburg sought the conversion to Christianity of neighboring pagan West Slavs through peaceful means. During the preparation of the Second Crusade to the Holy Land, however, a papal bull was issued supporting a crusade against these Slavs. The Slavic Niklot preemptively invaded Wagria in June 1147, leading to the march of the crusaders later that summer. They were repulsed from Demmin. Another crusading army marched on the already Christian city of Szczecin, whereupon the crusaders dispersed upon arrival. The Ottonian dynasty supported eastward expansion of the Holy Roman Empire during the 10th century. Margraves Gero and Hermann Billung, advanced eastward and northward respectively to claim tribute from conquered Slavs. Bishoprics were established at Meissen, Brandenburg, Havelberg, Oldenburg to administer the territory. A Slavic rebellion in 983 reversed the initial German gains, however. While the burgwards allowed the Saxons to retain control of Meissen, they lost Brandenburg and Havelberg. The Elbe River thus became the eastern limit of German-Roman control. Lacking support from the Salian dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire, secular Saxon princes seeking Slavic territory found themselves with their adversaries. Pagans raided each other across the Limes Saxonicus, usually for tribute. From 1140-43 Holsatian nobles advanced into Wagria to permanently settle in the lands of the pagan Wagri. Adolf encouraged German colonization and missionary activity in Wagria.Wendish Crusade – Wendish Crusade
24. Second Swedish Crusade – The Second Swedish Crusade was a Swedish military expedition to areas in present-day Finland by Birger Jarl in the 13th century. As a result of the crusade, Swedish kingdom began to exert influence in western Finland. According to Eric's Chronicle from ca. The so-called "Detmar Chronicle" of Lübeck from around 1340 confirms the expedition with a short note that Birger Jarl submitted Finland under Swedish rule. From other sources, Birger Jarl is known to have been absent from Sweden in winter 1249-50. On, the conquest of Finland was redated to the 1150s by the official Swedish legends, crediting the national saint King Eric for it. The point of time when the attack took place has been somewhat disputed. Attempts have been made to date the attack either to 1256. Neither date has received wide acceptance. For one reason or another Finland was high on Birger Jarl's agenda. Finland became an integrated part of Sweden since there was a lot of exchange between the regions, especially via the Åland archipelago. During those days, it was easier to travel by sea than by land. Sweden's previous attempts to gain a foothold in Estonia in 1220 may have urged Sweden to settle for what was still available. Eric's Chronicle also points out the threat from Russians, mentioning that the "Russian king" had now lost the conquered land. All details of the crusade are from Eric's Chronicle, largely propagandist in nature, written internal unrest and war against Novgorod.Second Swedish Crusade – 19th century representation of Birger Jarl, who started the Swedish conquest of Finland in 1249.
25. Livonian Crusade – The lands on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea were the last corners of Europe to be Christianized. After the success of the crusade, the German - and Danish-occupied territory was divided by William of Modena. Christianity had come to Latvia by Swedes in the 7th century and the Danes in the 11th. Saint Meinhard of Segeberg was consecrated as Bishop of Üxküll in 1186. In those days the town was the center of the upcoming missionary activities in the Livonian area. The prominent Livonian to be converted was their leader Caupo of Turaida, baptized around 1189. Pope Celestine III had called for a crusade against pagans in Northern Europe in 1193. When peaceful means of conversion failed to produce results, the impatient Meinhard was thwarted. He died in 1196, having failed in his mission. His appointed replacement, bishop Berthold of Hanover, a Cistercian abbot of Loccum arrived in 1198. Shortly afterward, his forces defeated by Livonians. To avenge Berthold's defeat, Pope Innocent III issued a bull declaring a crusade against the Livonians. As the German grip tightened, their christened chief rebelled against the crusaders. The Livonians were declared to be converted. Caupo subsequently remained an ally of the crusaders in 1217.Livonian Crusade – Dannebrog falling from the sky during the Battle of Lyndanisse, 1219.
26. Prussian Crusade – The Prussian Crusade was a series of 13th-century campaigns of Roman Catholic crusaders, primarily led by the Teutonic Knights, to Christianize the pagan Old Prussians. Invited by Polish princes, the Teutonic Knights began campaigning against the Balts in 1230. By the end of the century, having quelled Prussian Uprisings, the Knights had established control over Prussia and administered the Prussians through their monastic state. An agent of Alfred of Wessex, recorded the seafaring and cattle-herding Prussians as a strong and independent nation. Mieszko I of the Polans tried to extend his realm from land he had just conquered around the mouth of the Oder far as Prussia. The missionary was killed by the pagans. After some initial success among the Prussians, Bruno of Querfurt, was also killed in 1009. The Poles waged war over the following two centuries. Many Prussians nominally accepted baptism only to revert to pagan beliefs after hostilities ended. Henry of Sandomierz was killed fighting the Prussians in 1166. King Valdemar II of Denmark supported Danish expeditions against Samland until his capture in 1223. Inspired, he travelled to Rome to prepare for a larger mission. Forced converts to return to the old beliefs. The pagans attacked Chełmno Land and Masovia again, plundering 300 cathedrals and churches. Duke Conrad of Masovia succeeded in expelling the Prussians by paying a huge tribute, which only encouraged the Prussians, however.Prussian Crusade – Hermann von Salza, Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights.
27. Bosnian Crusade – The Bosnian Crusade was fought against unspecified heretics from 1235 until 1241. It was, essentially, a Hungarian war of conquest against the Banate of Bosnia sanctioned as a crusade. Led by the Hungarian Coloman, the crusaders only managed to conquer peripheral parts of the country. They were followed by Dominicans, who erected a cathedral and put heretics by burning. The crusade came to an abrupt end when Hungary itself was invaded by Tatars. The crusaders were forced to engage their own invaders, most of them perishing, including Coloman. None ever took place. The failed crusade led to mistrust and hatred among the Bosnian population that lasted for centuries. Several crusades were called against Bosnia, a country long deemed infested with heresy by both the rest of its Eastern Orthodox neighbours. Kulin also reaffirmed the supremacy of the kings of Hungary over Bosnia. In effect, however, the independence of Bosnia continued to grow. Bosnians were accused of being sympathetic to a Christian sect closely related to Catharism and likewise dualist. In 1221, the concern finally prompted Pope Honorius III to preach a crusade against the Bosnian heretics. Internal problems prevented the Hungarians from answering his call. He was duly replaced with a German Dominican prelate, John of Wildeshausen, the first non-Bosnian Bishop of Bosnia.Bosnian Crusade – Hungarians fleeing Mongol invaders
28. Albigensian Crusade – The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc, in the south of France. The reforms were a reaction against the often scandalous and dissolute lifestyles of the Catholic clergy in southern France. Their theology was basically dualist. They became known as the Albigensians, because there were many adherents in the surrounding area in the 13th centuries. Innocent III's diplomatic attempts to roll back Catharism met with little success. After the murder of his legate, Pierre de Castelnau, in 1208, Innocent III declared a crusade against the Cathars. He offered the lands of the Cathar heretics to any French nobleman willing to take up arms. After initial successes, the French barons faced a general uprising in Languedoc which led to the intervention of the French royal army. The Albigensian Crusade also had a role in the institutionalization of both the medieval inquisition. The movement attracted many sympathisers. They held that the physical world was evil and created by this demiurge, which they called Rex Mundi. Rex Mundi encompassed all, powerful. He was the God of peace. Jesus was an angel with only a phantom body, the accounts of him in the New Testament were to be understood allegorically. As the physical world and the human body were the creation of the evil principle, sexual abstinence was encouraged.Albigensian Crusade – This Pedro Berruguete work of the 15th century depicts a story of Saint Dominic and the Albigensians, in which the texts of each were cast into a fire, but only Saint Dominic's proved miraculously resistant to the flames.
29. Aragonese Crusade – Martin bestowed Aragon on Charles, Count of Valois, nephew of Peter III. The crusade soon caused civil war within Aragon, as King James II of Majorca, joined the French. James had also thus stood between the dominions of the French and Aragonese monarchs. Peter had reaped the consequence of such rivalry in the crusade. In 1284, the French armies under Philip and Charles entered Roussillon. They included 16,000 cavalry, 100,000 infantry, along with 100 ships in south French ports. Though they had James' support, the local populace rose against them. The city of Elne was valiantly defended by the so-called Bâtard de Roussillon, late count of Roussillon. The cathedral was burned, despite the presence of papal legates, while the population was massacred, all save the Bâtard. He accompanied the advancing royal forces as a prisoner. In 1285, Philip the Bold entrenched himself before Girona in an attempt to besiege it. The city was taken. Charles was without an actual crown. On 28 Cardinal Jean Cholet placed his own hat on the count's head. For this, Charles not unaffectionately nicknamed roi du chapeau.Aragonese Crusade – A fresco from the Castle of Cardona depicting the Siege of Girona in 1285; now preserved in the Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya
30. Despenser's Crusade – It took place during the Hundred Years' War between England and France. While France supported Clement, whose court was based in Avignon, the English supported Pope Urban VI in Rome. Among contemporary critics of the crusade were John Wyclif and the French chronicler Jean Froissart, who charged its leaders with hypocrisy. The County of Flanders, in which Ghent lay, was an ally of France. In 1382 -- 83, only 2,192 sacks passed through the English staple port of Calais, leading to the rise of Middelburg in competition. When the citizens of Ghent rebelled in January 1382, they requested English assistance. Louis attempted to block English imports. Under the leadership of Philip van Artevelde the Flemings took Bruges. The city was forced to accept Louis's terms, to aid in the fight against the English. The fleet of Ghent escaped to England, where it kept up the war. Charles VI of France confiscated all the English merchants' goods. In October 1383, Parliament convened to debate the financing of a crusade. These were "two noble ways" to aid the king's friends against his enemies. The "way of Portugal", was a pet project of John of Gaunt's. The king's brother, led a disastrous military campaign in Portugal in favour of John's claim in 1379.Despenser's Crusade – Map of France in 1382, showing English conquests in pink and Flanders (top) in yellow
31. Hussite Wars – These wars lasted from 1419 to circa 1434. The Hussite community included most of the Czech population of the Kingdom of Bohemia, formed a major military power. They defeated five crusades proclaimed against them by the Pope, intervened in the wars of neighboring countries. The Hussite Wars were notable for the extensive use of early hand-held firearms such as hand cannons. The fighting ended after 1434, when the moderate Utraquist faction of the Hussites defeated the radical Taborite faction. The Hussites agreed to submit to the authority of the King of Bohemia and the Church, were allowed to practice their somewhat variant rite. His preaching was widely heeded in Bohemia, provoked suppression by the Church, which had declared Wycliffe a heretic. To raise money for this, he proclaimed indulgences in Bohemia. Hus bitterly denounced this and explicitly quoted Wycliffe against it, provoking further complaints of heresy but winning much support in Bohemia. In 1414, Sigismund of Hungary convened the Council of Constance to end the Schism and resolve other religious controversies. Hus went to the Council, under a safe-conduct from Sigismund, but was imprisoned, tried, executed on 6 July 1415. This angered Sigismund, "King of the Romans", brother of King Wenceslaus of Bohemia. He had been persuaded by the Council that Hus was a heretic. He sent threatening letters to Bohemia declaring that he would shortly drown all Wycliffites and Hussites, greatly incensing the people. Disorder broke out in various parts of Bohemia, drove many Catholic priests from their parishes.Hussite Wars – Jan Žižka with a priest looking over Prague after the Battle of Vítkov Hill