1. Crusades – The First Crusade arose after a call by Pope Urban II. Urban urged military support for the Byzantine Empire and its Emperor, Alexios I, who needed reinforcements for his conflict with westward migrating Turks in Anatolia. Others, historians argue, participated to satisfy feudal obligations, gain glory and find opportunities for economic and political gain. Regardless of the motivation, the response to Urban's preaching across Western Europe established the precedent for later crusades. Different perspectives of the actions carried out, at least nominally, during the crusades have polarised historians. Crusaders often pillaged as they travelled, while their leaders retained control of much captured territory rather than returning it to the Byzantines. The People's Crusade included the Rhineland massacres: the murder of thousands of Jews. Constantinople was sacked during the Fourth Crusade, rendering the reunification of Christendom impossible. These tales consequently galvanised medieval romance, literature. The crusades also reinforced the connection between Western Christendom, militarism. The crusade is derived from a Middle Latin cruxata, cruciata. Use of cruxata for "military expedition against enemies of the church" is in use by the 1280s. Spanish cruzada are recorded by the 16th century. The Crusades in the Holy Land are traditionally counted as nine distinct campaigns, numbered from the First Crusade of 1095–99 to the Ninth Crusade of 1271/2. Usage of the term "crusade" may differ depending on the author.Crusades – Madrid Skylitzes illuminated manuscript depicting Byzantine Greeks punishing ninth-century Cretan Saracens
2. Levant – The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the eastern Mediterranean. The Levant entered English in the late 15th century from French. It derives from the Italian Levante, meaning "implying the rising of the sun in the east. As such, it is broadly equivalent to the Arabic Mashriq, meaning "the land where the sun rises". Eventually the term was restricted to the Muslim countries of Syria-Palestine and Egypt. In 1581, England set up the Levant Company to monopolize commerce with the Ottoman Empire. Levant States was used to refer to the French mandate over Syria and Lebanon after World War I. This is probably the reason why the Levant has come to be used synonymously with Syria-Palestine. Some scholars misunderstood the term thinking that it derives from the name of Lebanon. The term is typically used in conjunction with prehistoric or ancient historical references. It does not include Anatolia, any part of the Arabian Peninsula proper. The Sinai Peninsula is sometimes included, though more considered an intermediate, marginal area forming a land bridge between the Levant and northern African Egypt. The Levant has been described as the the "northwest of the Arabian plate". The Levant, which appeared in English in 1497, originally meant the East in general or "Mediterranean lands east of Italy". It is borrowed from the French levant ` rising', referring to the point where the sun rises.Levant – The Levantine Sea, the eastern portion of the Mediterranean.
3. First Crusade – The First Crusade was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to capture the Holy Land, called by Pope Urban II in 1095. The Crusaders arrived at Jerusalem, captured it in July 1099, massacring many of the city's Muslim and Jewish inhabitants. They also established the crusader states of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the County of Tripoli, the County of Edessa. The First Crusade was followed to the Ninth Crusades. It was also the major step towards reopening international trade in the West since the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The view is that it had elements of both in its nature. The origin of the Crusades in general, particularly that of the First Crusade, is widely debated among historians. The confusion is partially due to their lack of direct unity. The connections were rarely strong, the unity broke down often. The Umayyad Caliphate had conquered Syria, Egypt, North Africa from Hispania from the Visigothic Kingdom. Essentially, between 1096 and 1101 the Byzantine Greeks experienced the crusade as it arrived at Constantinople in three separate waves. In the early summer of 1096, the first unruly group arrived on the outskirts of Constantinople. This wave was reported to be ill-equipped as an army. This first group is often called the Peasants’ or People’s Crusade. The second wave was made up of a number of armies with their own commanders.First Crusade – The Capture of Jerusalem marked the First Crusade's success
4. Siege of Xerigordon – The crusader party captured the Turkish fort of Xerigordon, about four days march from Nicaea, in an attempt to set up a pillaging outpost. Elchanes besieged the crusaders. After eight days of siege, they surrendered on September 29, 1096. Some of the crusaders converted to Islam, while others who refused were killed. Kilij Arslan I, was in the middle of a military campaign to the east, fighting the Danishmend emirate. While waiting for the disorganized "People's Crusade" army began to attack the villages surrounding Nicaea. The Norman party returned unhindered many times with their booty, at some point even defeating the garrison of Nicaea when it tried to stop them. Reinald led 6,000 Germans, including 200 knights, on similar raids. On September 1096, Reinald easily defeated the Xerigordon garrison. Kilij Arslan ordered his general, Elchanes, to deal with his troops, mostly mounted archers. Elchanes besieged the crusaders tightly. The speed of the Turkish mounted troops surprised the Germans; they had not expected to be were unprepared and without adequate supplies. Relief forces never came. For eight days, the Crusaders resisted a rain of arrows and smoke from the Turks. After, the leader of the Germans offered to fight for the Turks.Siege of Xerigordon – The defeat of the People's Crusade
5. Siege of Nicaea – The Siege of Nicaea took place from May 14 to June 19, 1097, during the First Crusade. In 1096, the first stage of the First Crusade, had plundered the land surrounding the city, before being destroyed by the Turks. As Sultan Kilij Arslan I initially felt that the second wave of crusaders were not a threat. He went east to fight the Danishmends for control of the Melitene. The crusaders began to leave Constantinople at the end of April 1097. Bohemond arranged for food to be brought by land and by sea. They put the city on May 14 assigning their forces to different sections of the walls, which were well-defended with 200 towers. Bohemond camped on the eastern gate. The Turks were defeated in a skirmish with the loss of 200 men. When he realized the strength of the crusaders he quickly turned back. Losses were heavy on both sides but despite the pleas of the Nicaean Turks. The rest of the crusaders arrived with Robert Curthose and Stephen of Blois arriving at the beginning of June. No further progress was made. Byzantine emperor made his camp at nearby Pelecanum. The boats arrived under the command of Manuel Boutoumites.Siege of Nicaea – 13th-century miniature (BNF Fr. 779)
6. Battle of Dorylaeum (1097) – On June 29, they learnt that the Turks were planning an ambush near Dorylaeum. Contemporary figures place this number between,000, more recent estimates are between 6,000 and 8,000 men. Fulcher of Chartres gives the exaggerated number of 360,000. In addition to large numbers of noncombatants, Bohemond's force probably numbered the majority on foot. On July 1, Bohemond's force was surrounded by Kilij Arslan. Their sporadic counterattacks were unable to deter the Turks. While this sheltered the more vulnerable men-at-arms and noncombatants, it also gave the Turks free rein to maneuver on the battlefield. The Turkish mounted archers attacked in their usual style - charging in, quickly retreating before the crusaders could counterattack. They inflicted heavy casualties on the horses and unarmoured foot soldiers. Just after midday, Godfrey arrived with a force of 50 knights, fighting through the Turkish lines to reinforce Bohemond. Through the day small groups of reinforcements arrived, some killed by others fighting to reach Bohemond's camp. Adhemar's force attacked the Turks from the rear. The crusaders did indeed become rich, at least for a short time, after capturing Kilij Arslan's treasury. Arslan turned to other concerns in his eastern territory. They also took the Greek children from the region extending from Dorylaeum to Iconium, some of whom were sent as slaves to Persia.Battle of Dorylaeum (1097) – The Battle of Dorylaeum
7. Siege of Antioch – The Siege of Antioch took place during the First Crusade in 1097 and 1098. The first siege, by the crusaders against the Muslim-held city, lasted from 21 October 1097 to June 1098. Antioch lay to Palestine. Supplies, retreat could all be controlled by the city. Anticipating that it would be attacked, the Muslim governor of Yaghi-Siyan, began stockpilling food and sending requests for help. The leaders of the crusade felt compelled to besiege Antioch anyway. The crusaders began the siege. The garrison sortied unsuccessfully on 29 December. However, people began deserting in January. This time under the command of Ridwan of Aleppo, advanced towards Antioch, arriving on 9 February. Like the army of Duqaq before, it was defeated. Antioch was captured on 3 June, although the citadel remained in the hands of the Muslim defenders. Kerbogha began June 1098. The second siege ended when the crusaders succeeded in defeating them. On seeing the Muslim army routed, the defenders remaining in the citadel surrendered.Siege of Antioch – The Siege of Antioch, from a 15th-century miniature painting
8. Siege of Jerusalem (1099) – The Siege of Jerusalem took place from June 7 to July 15, 1099, during the First Crusade. After the successful siege of Antioch in June 1098, the Crusaders remained for the rest of the year. Bohemond of Taranto had claimed Antioch for himself. Baldwin of Boulogne remained in Edessa, captured earlier in 1098. By the end of the year the minor knights and infantry were threatening to march without them. On their way the Crusaders besieged Arqa but abandoned the siege on May 13. Therefore, he expelled all of Jerusalem's Christian inhabitants. Further march towards Jerusalem met no resistance. On 7 the crusaders reached Jerusalem, recaptured from the Seljuqs by the Fatimids only the year before. Many Crusaders wept upon seeing the city they had journeyed long to reach. The Fatimid governor Iftikhar ad-Daula had expelled most of the Christians. Of the estimated 5,000 knights who took part in the Princes' Crusade, about 1,500 remained, along with another 12,000 healthy foot-soldiers. They claimed that he instructed them to march around the city walls barefoot. They did so for a few days, singing holy chants. It was at this time that they were ready for a siege.Siege of Jerusalem (1099) – Capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders (19th-century artist impression)
9. Battle of Ascalon – The army led by Godfrey of Bouillon defeated and drove off the numerically-superior Fatimid army, securing the safety of Jerusalem. The crusaders acted quickly. They were ignored. When the Egyptian presence was confirmed, they marched out well the next day. Near Ramla, they met Tancred and Godfrey's Eustace, who had left to capture Nablus earlier in the month. The Fatimids were led by vizier al-Afdal Shahanshah, who commanded perhaps as many as 50,000 troops. His army consisted of Turks, Arabs, Persians, Armenians, Kurds, Ethiopians. The number given by Raymond of Aguilers is 1,200 knights and 9,000 infantry. This is surely impossible at this stage of the crusade. On August 11 the crusaders found oxen, sheep, camels, goats, gathered there to feed the Fatimid camp, grazing outside the city. However, al-Afdal did not yet know the crusaders were in the area and was apparently not expecting them. In any case, these animals marched with them the next morning exaggerating the appearance of their army. On the morning of the 12th, crusader scouts reported the location of the army marched towards it. The two main lines of battle fought each other with arrows until they were close enough to fight hand-to-hand with other hand weapons. Despite his numerical superiority, al-Afdal's army was as strong or dangerous as the Seljuk armies that the crusaders had encountered previously.Battle of Ascalon – Battle of Ascalon
10. Crusade of 1101 – The Crusade of 1101 was a minor crusade of three separate movements, organized in 1100 and 1101 in the successful aftermath of the First Crusade. Pope Paschal II, successor to Pope Urban II, urged a new expedition. He especially urged those who had turned back while on the march. In September 1100, a large group of Lombards left from Milan. These were mostly untrained peasants, led by Archbishop of Milan. Byzantine emperor Alexios I escorted them to a camp outside Constantinople. They made their way inside the city where they pillaged the Blachernae palace, even killing Alexios' pet lion. The Lombards were quickly made their camp at Nicomedia, to wait for reinforcements. Joining them at Nicomedia was Raymond IV of one of the leaders of the First Crusade, now in the service of the emperor. A Byzantine force of Pecheneg mercenaries was sent out with them under the command of General Tzitas. This group marched out at the end of May, following the route taken by Raymond and Stephen in 1097 during the First Crusade. After returning it to Alexios, the crusaders turned north. Then continued north to attempt to capture the Turkish-controlled city of Kastamonu. However, a foraging party was destroyed in July. In early August the crusaders met this combined Muslim army at Mersivan.Crusade of 1101 – Lombard-Tuscan man-at-arms from c. 1100, Vita Mathildis.
11. Battle of Ramla (1105) – The third Battle of Ramla took place on 27 August 1105 between the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Fatimids of Egypt. The town of Ramla lay on the road to Ascalon, the latter of, the largest Fatimid fortress in Palestine. From Ascalon Al-Afdal Shahanshah, launched almost annual attacks into the newly founded Crusader kingdom from 1099 to 1107. Of the three battles the Crusaders fought at Ramla early in the twelfth century, the third was the most bloody. Egyptian armies of the period relied on masses of Sudanese bowmen supported by Arab and Berber cavalry. While overconfidence led at the second battle of Ramla, the more frequent result was a Fatimid defeat. "The Franks never, until the reign of Saladin, feared the Egyptian as they did the armies from Muslim Syria and Mesopotamia." In 1105 the Crusaders had both cavalry and infantry under the leadership of Baldwin I. At the third battle, however, the Egyptians were reinforced by a Seljuk Turkish force including mounted archery, the great menace of the Crusaders. After they withstood the initial Frankish charge the battle raged for most of the day. The major engagement between Fatimids and Crusaders was the Battle of Yibneh in 1123. R. E. and T. N. Dupuy, eds. The Encyclopedia of Military History. New York: Harper & Row, 1977. ISBN 0-06-011139-9 Smail, R. C.Battle of Ramla (1105) – Battles of Ramla
12. Siege of Sidon – The Siege of Sidon was an event in the aftermath of the First Crusade. In the summer of 1110 a Norwegian fleet of 60 ships arrived under the command of King Sigurd. Arriving in Acre he was received by King of Jerusalem. Together they made a journey to the river Jordan, after which Baldwin asked in capturing Muslim-held ports on the coast. Baldwin's army besieged the city by land, while the Norwegian came by sea. A naval force was needed to prevent assistance at Tyre. Repelling it was however only made possible with the fortunate arrival of a Venetian fleet. The city fell after 47 days. The Icelandic skald Einarr Skúlason gives the following account. By the Patriarch of Jerusalem, Ghibbelin of Arles, a splinter was taken off the holy cross and given to Sigurd. The Lordship of Sidon was given to Eustace Grenier, later a constable of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.Siege of Sidon – King Sigurd and King Baldwin ride from Jerusalem to the river Jordan by Gerhard Munthe.
13. Battle of Ager Sanguinis – The other Crusader States were constantly at war with the Muslim states of Northern Syria and the Jazeerah, principally Aleppo and Mosul. When Ridwan of Aleppo died in 1113, there was a period of peace, at least for a few years. In 1115, Roger defeated a Seljuk Turkish force led by Bursuq bin Bursuq at the Battle of Sarmin. In 1117 Aleppo came under the rule of the Artuqid atabeg Ilghazi. In 1118 Roger captured Azaz, which left Aleppo open to attack from the Crusaders; in response, Ilghazi invaded the Principality in 1119. Roger marched out with Bernard of Valence, the Latin Patriarch of Antioch. Roger camped in the pass of Sarmada, while Ilghazi besieged the fort of al-Atharib. He too was tired of waiting. Using little-used paths, his army quickly surrounded Roger's camp during the night of June 27. The prince had recklessly chosen a campsite in few avenues of escape. Roger's army including turcopoles, hastily formed into five divisions. These drew up from the Muslim battle array. From left to right, the divisions were commanded by Robert of St. Lo, Prince Roger, Guy de Frenelle, Peter. Meanwhile, Roger told off a sixth division under Renaud Mansoer to protect the Antiochene rear. As the Muslim army waited, the qadi Abu al-Fadl al-Khashshab, wearing his lawyer's turban but brandishing a lance, rode out in front of the troopers.Battle of Ager Sanguinis – Battle of Ager-Sanguinis, 1337 miniature
14. Venetian Crusade – The Venetian Crusade of 1122–24 was an expedition to the Holy Land launched by the Republic of Venice that succeeded in capturing Tyre. It was an important victory at the start of a period when the Kingdom of Jerusalem would expand to its greatest extent under King Baldwin II. The Venetians gained valuable trading concessions in Tyre. Baldwin de Burg was a nephew of the Count of Edessa from 1100 to 1118. He became King Baldwin II of Jerusalem. The Franks were seriously weakened. Baldwin asked from Pope Callixtus II. The pope forwarded the request to Venice. The terms of the crusade were agreed through negotiations between the doge of Venice. The church also extended its protection to the families and property of the crusaders. In 1122 Domenico Michiel, launched the seaborne crusade. The Venetian fleet of more than 120 ships carrying over 15,000 men left the Venetian Lagoon on 8 August 1122. This seems to have been the first crusade in which the knights brought their horses with them. They invested Corfu, then a possession of the Byzantine Empire, with which Venice had a dispute over privileges. In 1123 Baldwin II was imprisoned in Kharput.Venetian Crusade – Outremer around 1100
15. Siege of Shaizar – The Siege of Shaizar took place from April 28 to May 21, 1138. The allied forces of the Byzantine Empire, Principality of Antioch and County of Edessa besieged Shaizar in Syria, the capital of the Munqidhite Emirate. The siege resulted in the Emir of Shaizar becoming the vassal of the Byzantine emperor. These rights dated back to the Treaty of Devol of 1108, though Byzantium had not been in a position to enforce them. The necessary preparation for a descent on Antioch was the recovery of Byzantine control over Cilicia. Control of Cilicia opened the route for the Byzantines. Joscelin II, Count of Edessa, recognized themselves the emperor's vassals. Then, Antioch would revert to direct imperial rule. In March, the contingents from Antioch and Edessa, plus a company of Templars, joined up with it. They crossed on April 3 they arrived before Biza'a which held out for five days. He had enough warning of the emperor's operations to quickly reinforce Aleppo. On April 20, the Christian army found it too strongly defended. Neither wanted the other to gain from participating in the campaign. With the lukewarm interest his allies had in the prosecution of the siege, the emperor was soon thrown entirely on his own resources. The emperor's reproaches could only goad the two princes into fitful action.Siege of Shaizar – John II Komnenos negotiating with the Emir of Shaizar, 13th-century French manuscript
16. Siege of Edessa – The County of Edessa was the first of the crusader states to be established after the First Crusade. Count Baldwin II and count Joscelin of Courtenay were taken captive after their defeat at the Battle of Harran in 1104. Joscelin had also quarreled with Raymond II of Antioch, leaving Edessa with no powerful allies. In 1144, Joscelin was able to make an alliance with the Ortoqid ruler of Diyarbakır, against the growing power and influence of Zengi. Joscelin marched out of Edessa with almost his entire army to support Kara Aslan against Aleppo. Zengi, already seeking to take advantage of Fulk's death in 1143, hurried north to besiege Edessa, arriving on November 28. The defense of the city was led by the Latin Archbishop Hugh, the Jacobite Bishop Basil. John and Basil ensured that none of the native Christians would desert to Zengi. When Joscelin heard of the siege he took the army to Turbessel, knowing that he could never dislodge Zengi from the other crusader states. In Jerusalem, Queen Melisende responded by sending an army led by Manasses of Hierges, Philip of Milly, Elinand of Bures. Raymond of Antioch ignored the call for help, as his army was already occupied against the Byzantine Empire in Cilicia. Zengi surrounded the entire city, realizing that there was no army defending it. He began to mine the walls, while his forces were joined by Kurdish and Turcoman reinforcements. The inhabitants of Edessa resisted much as they could, but had no experience in siege warfare; the city's numerous towers remained unmanned. Part of the wall near the Gate of the Hours collapsed on December 24.Siege of Edessa – Map of the Second Crusade
17. Second Crusade – The Second Crusade was the second major crusade launched from Europe as Catholic holy war against Islam. The Second Crusade was started to the forces of Zengi. The county had been founded during the First Crusade in 1098. While it was the first Crusader state to be founded, it was also the first to fall. The armies of the two kings marched separately across Europe. After crossing Byzantine territory into Anatolia, both armies were separately defeated by the Seljuk Turks. The remnants of their armies reached Jerusalem and participated in 1148 in an ill-advised attack on Damascus. The crusade in the east was a great victory for the Muslims. It would ultimately give rise to the Third Crusade at the end of the 12th century. The only Christian success of the Second Crusade came in 1147. The County of Tripoli, was established in 1109. Count Baldwin II and count Joscelin of Courtenay were taken captive after their defeat at the Battle of Harran in 1104. Joscelin had also quarreled with the Prince of Antioch, leaving Edessa with no powerful allies. Both Zengi and King Baldwin II turned their attention towards Damascus; Baldwin was defeated outside the great city in 1129. In late 1144, Joscelin II marched out of Edessa with almost his entire army to support the Ortoqid army against Aleppo.Second Crusade – Edessa, seen here on the right of this map (c. 1140), was recaptured by the Turks. This was the primary cause of the Second Crusade.
18. Siege of Damascus (1148) – The Siege of Damascus took place between 24 July and 29 July 1148, during the Second Crusade. It led to the disintegration of the crusade. Both faced disastrous marches across Anatolia with most of their armies being destroyed. In Jerusalem, the preferred target of King Baldwin III and the Knights Templar was Damascus. At the Council of Acre, the Kingdom of Jerusalem decided to divert the crusade to Damascus. The crusaders decided to attack Damascus from the west, where orchards would provide them with a constant supply. Having arrived outside the walls of the city, they immediately put it to siege, using wood from the orchards. Nur ad-Din Zangi cut off the crusader's route to their previous position. The three kings had no choice but to abandon the city. The entire army retreated back to Jerusalem by 28 July. Conrad's force included the Curly and Vladislaus II of Bohemia, as well as Frederick of Swabia, his nephew who would become Emperor Frederick I. The crusade had been called on 24 December 1144. The crusaders arrived at Constantinople in September and October 1147. Most of their armies were destroyed. Louis travelled by ship to the Principality of Antioch, where his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine's uncle, Raymond, was prince.Siege of Damascus (1148) – Crusaders intended for Edessa, seen here on the right of this map (c.1140), were diverted by King Baldwin III of Jerusalem to Damascus.
19. Battle of Inab – The Battle of Inab, also called Battle of Ard al-Hâtim or Fons Muratus, was fought on 29 June 1149, during the Second Crusade. The Zengid army of Atabeg Nur ad-Din Zangi destroyed the combined army of the Hashshashin of Ali ibn-Wafa. The Principality of Antioch was subsequently reduced in size as its eastern border was pushed west. After successfully defending Edessa in 1147, Nur ad-Din invaded Antioch in late 1148 and besieged Afamiya. Raymond captured his baggage train. When he returned a few months later to attack Yaghra, Raymond, at the head of a small force, forced him to retire to Aleppo. In June 1149, Nur ad-Din besieged the fortress of Inab, with aid from Unur of Damascus and a force of Turcomans. Nur ad-Din had about 6,000 troops, mostly cavalry, at his disposal. Count Joscelin II of Edessa, had been enemies since Raymond had refused to send a relief army to Edessa in 1146. Joscelin even made a treaty of alliance with Nur ad-Din against Raymond. For their part, the regent, Melisende of Jerusalem refused to aid the Prince of Antioch. Prince Raymond allied himself with Ali ibn-Wafa, an enemy of Nur ad-Din. Before he had collected all his available forces, his ally mounted a relief expedition. Upon the approach of the combined force, Nur ad-Din withdrew. Rather than staying close to the stronghold, Raymond and ibn-Wafa camped in open country.Battle of Inab – The battle of Inab
20. Siege of Bilbeis – The war began in the Fatimid Caliphate, which began to crumble under the pressure of Syria and the Crusader states. While one side called from Nur ad-Din Zangi, the other called for Crusader assistance. As the war progressed however it became a war of conquest. A number of Syrian campaigns into Egypt were stopped short of total victory by the aggressive campaigning of Amalric I of Jerusalem. So, the Crusaders generally speaking did not have things go their way, despite several sackings. Later crusades tried to support the Kingdom of Jerusalem to no avail. The Second Crusade aimed to reverse the gains of Zengi, ironically with an assault on Zengi's most powerful rival. The siege forced the Kingdom to turn south for better fortunes. The Fatimid Caliphate in the 12th century was riddled with internal squabbles. In the 1160s, Power lay not in the hands of the Vizier of Egypt, Shawar. The situation in Egypt made it ripe for conquest, either by the forces of Zengi's successor, Nur ad-Din Zangi. In 1163, the ousted Vizier of Egypt called Zengi for support in reinstating him to his former position as the de facto ruler of Egypt. Nur ad-Din agreed to support his cause - an alliance between Syria and Egypt would ensure the demise of the Crusaders. Little did Nur ad-Din realize that, while his plan would succeed, it would not be he who would enjoy such unity. On May 1164 Shawar became vizier of Egypt.Siege of Bilbeis – Crusader invasion of Egypt
21. Capture of Bilbeis – The war began in the Fatimid Caliphate, which began to crumble under the pressure of Syria and the Crusader states. While one side called from Nur ad-Din Zangi, the other called for Crusader assistance. As the war progressed however it became a war of conquest. A number of Syrian campaigns into Egypt were stopped short of total victory by the aggressive campaigning of Amalric I of Jerusalem. So, the Crusaders generally speaking did not have things go their way, despite several sackings. Later crusades tried to support the Kingdom of Jerusalem to no avail. The Second Crusade aimed to reverse the gains of Zengi, ironically with an assault on Zengi's most powerful rival. The siege forced the Kingdom to turn south for better fortunes. The Fatimid Caliphate in the 12th century was riddled with internal squabbles. In the 1160s, Power lay not in the hands of the Vizier of Egypt, Shawar. The situation in Egypt made it ripe for conquest, either by the forces of Zengi's successor, Nur ad-Din Zangi. In 1163, the ousted Vizier of Egypt called Zengi for support in reinstating him to his former position as the de facto ruler of Egypt. Nur ad-Din agreed to support his cause - an alliance between Syria and Egypt would ensure the demise of the Crusaders. Little did Nur ad-Din realize that, while his plan would succeed, it would not be he who would enjoy such unity. On May 1164 Shawar became vizier of Egypt.Capture of Bilbeis – Crusader invasion of Egypt
22. Siege of Damietta (1169) – The war began in the Fatimid Caliphate, which began to crumble under the pressure of Syria and the Crusader states. While one side called from Nur ad-Din Zangi, the other called for Crusader assistance. As the war progressed however it became a war of conquest. A number of Syrian campaigns into Egypt were stopped short of total victory by the aggressive campaigning of Amalric I of Jerusalem. So, the Crusaders generally speaking did not have things go their way, despite several sackings. Later crusades tried to support the Kingdom of Jerusalem to no avail. The Second Crusade aimed to reverse the gains of Zengi, ironically with an assault on Zengi's most powerful rival. The siege forced the Kingdom to turn south for better fortunes. The Fatimid Caliphate in the 12th century was riddled with internal squabbles. In the 1160s, Power lay not in the hands of the Vizier of Egypt, Shawar. The situation in Egypt made it ripe for conquest, either by the forces of Zengi's successor, Nur ad-Din Zangi. In 1163, the ousted Vizier of Egypt called Zengi for support in reinstating him to his former position as the de facto ruler of Egypt. Nur ad-Din agreed to support his cause - an alliance between Syria and Egypt would ensure the demise of the Crusaders. Little did Nur ad-Din realize that, while his plan would succeed, it would not be he who would enjoy such unity. On May 1164 Shawar became vizier of Egypt.Siege of Damietta (1169) – Crusader invasion of Egypt
23. Battle of Montgisard – The Battle of Montgisard was fought between the Ayyubids and the Kingdom of Jerusalem on November 25, 1177. The 16-year-old King Baldwin IV, seriously afflicted by leprosy, led an Christian force against the army of Saladin. Only a fraction managed to flee to safety. Meanwhile, Saladin planned his own invasion of the Kingdom of Jerusalem from Egypt. It is also uncertain whether the so-called knights included whether they were true knights. Just as uncertain are the numbers of their opponents. An 1181 review listed Saladin's Mamluk forces at 1,553 Qaraghulams. However, there would have been additional soldiers available in elsewhere, while auxiliaries might have accompanied the Mamluks. Whether these would have added up to a total of 26,000 reported by William of Tyre is impossible to say. Saladin marched northward with the rest. Accompanying Baldwin was Raynald of Châtillon, lord of Oultrejordain, who had just been released in 1176. Raynald was King Baldwin's second-in-command. Also with the army were Baldwin of Ibelin, his brother Balian, Reginald of Sidon, Joscelin III of Edessa. Master of the Knights Templar, came with 84 Templar knights. They remained besieged at Gaza.Battle of Montgisard – The Battle of Montgisard, 1177, by Charles Philippe Larivière
24. Battle of Jacob's Ford – The Battle of Jacob's Ford was a victory of the Muslim sultan Saladin over the Christian King of Jerusalem, Baldwin IV. Jacob's Ford is also known as Ateret. Many scholars believe that Saladin's reconquest of the Holy Land and Jerusalem in 1187 was heralded by this earlier victory. One of the most famous Islamic rulers, was Sultan of Egypt and, by 1174, sultan of Syria after his takeover of Damascus. After seizing power in Syria, Saladin vowed to forge an Islamic empire around Jerusalem. Naturally, the goal was to recapture the Holy City from the Crusaders, a significant stride towards an end to the Jihad. However, such a plan would take the Holy Land without military conflict. Baldwin was a staunch believer in Christianity and, as a result, Saladin’s biggest problem to overcome. Although Baldwin was a powerful leader, he was stricken with leprosy at a very young age. After approximately three years on the throne at Jerusalem, Baldwin was faced with his very first military challenge. Saladin invaded the Christian kingdom in approximately 1177 to rout the Crusaders. Although Saladin was more experienced than Baldwin, the youthful Christian monarch did not flounder in stressful situations. His Crusaders outwitted the Muslims at Mont Gisard on 25 November 1177. By the end of the battle, Saladin was forced to flee back to Egypt after narrowly escaping death. Although the victory resulted for Baldwin's armies, his image throughout the kingdom gained in strength.Battle of Jacob's Ford – Ruins of the crusader fortress at Jacob's Ford.
25. Battle of Cresson – The Battle of Cresson was a small battle, fought on 1 May 1187 at the springs of Cresson, or'Ain Gozeh, near Nazareth. It was a prelude to the decisive defeat of the Kingdom of Jerusalem at the Battle of Hattin two months later. The political situation in Jerusalem was tense because of factional rivalries between two branches of the royal house. A second probably larger Ayyubid force, led by Saladin's son Al Afdal, did not participate in the battle. Gerard reached May. As the Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi, a chronicle of the Third Crusade, records it: So Saladin marched violently on Palestine. He sent the emir of Edessa, Manafaradin, with 7,000 Turks to ravage the Holy Land. In the unexpected battle which followed, he killed the latter. The Muslims easily repulsed a Christian attack, killing both the exhausted knights, later, the foot-soldiers. Gerard survived; however, almost all the others were killed. According to the Itinerarium, however, Gerard was actually caught unaware and was the victim of an attack himself. Balian had also stopped at Sebastea to celebrate a feast day. After reaching the castle of La Fève, where the Templars and Hospitallers had camped, he found that the place was deserted. News of the disastrous battle soon arrived from the few survivors. Raymond heard about the battle as well and agreed to accompany them back to Jerusalem.Battle of Cresson – The Battle of Cresson, miniature by Jean Colombe, ca. 1474
26. Siege of Kerak – The Siege of Kerak took place in 1183, with Saladin's forces attacking and being repelled from the Crusader stronghold. Kerak was the stronghold of Raynald of Lord of Oultrejordain, 124 km south of Amman. The fortress was built by Pagan the Butler, Lord of Montreal. While Raynald ruled, several truces existed in the Holy Land, none of which he made any qualms about breaking. The last straw came in 1183 when he organized an expedition around the Red Sea. He captured the town of Aqaba, giving a base of operations against Islam's holiest city, Mecca. The leader of the Muslim forces, could not tolerate this and moved against Raynald's stronghold. Now they stretched its defenses to the breaking point. At one point, nine catapults were bombarding the inhabitants within. Inside the walls, a royal marriage was taking place. Raynald's stepson and heir, was to take the hand of Isabella of Jerusalem, the King's half sister. Pressure on Kerak continued. Messengers managed to take word to the King, Baldwin IV. Baldwin immediately marched with a force, accompanied by his regent, Raymond III of Tripoli. The Christian forces arrived while Saladin was still struggling against the heavy fortifications.Siege of Kerak – Kerak Castle
27. Battle of Hattin – It is also known from a nearby extinct volcano. The Muslim armies under Saladin killed the vast majority of the Crusader forces, removing their capability to wage war. As a direct result of the battle, Muslims again became the eminent military power in the Holy Land, re-conquering Jerusalem and several other Crusader-held cities. These Christian defeats prompted the Third Crusade, which began two years after the Battle of Hattin. The battle took place in present-day Israel. The Darb al-Hawarnah road, built by the Romans, served as the east-west passage between the Jordan fords, the Sea of Galilee and the Mediterranean coast. Guy of Lusignan became king of Jerusalem in 1186, in right of his wife Sibylla, after the death of Sibylla's son Baldwin V. Disgusted, Raymond of Tripoli watched as his fellow poulain barons hastened to Jerusalem to make obeisance to King Guy and Queen Sibylla. The great lord of Tripoli rode in the opposite direction, to Tiberias. War was avoided through the mediation of Raymond's Balian of Ibelin. Meanwhile, the Muslim states surrounding the kingdom had been united by Saladin. Saladin soon came to rule the country as sultan. In 1174, he imposed his rule over Damascus; his authority extended to Aleppo by 1183. For the first time, the Kingdom of Jerusalem was encircled by Muslim territory united under one ruler. Raynald also threatened to attack itself.Battle of Hattin – The Battle of Hattin, from a 15th-century manuscript
28. Siege of Jerusalem (1187) – Citizens wishing to leave paid a ransom. The defeat of Jerusalem signaled the end of the first Kingdom of Jerusalem. Europe responded by launching the Third Crusade led by Richard the Lionheart, Philip Augustus, Frederick Barbarossa separately. The Kingdom of Jerusalem, weakened by internal disputes, was defeated on 4 July 1187. Most of the nobility were taken prisoner, including King Guy. Thousands of Muslim slaves were freed. By mid-September, Saladin had taken Ascalon. Balian agreed. Balian found the situation in Jerusalem dire. The city was filled with refugees fleeing Saladin's conquests, with more arriving daily. There were fewer than fourteen knights in the whole city, so he created new knights from the ranks of the squires and burgesses. He prepared by storing food and money. After a brief and unsuccessful siege of Tyre, the sultan arrived outside Jerusalem on September 20. Thus the siege began. Saladin's army was facing the Tower of the Damascus Gate.Siege of Jerusalem (1187) – Saladin and Christians of Jerusalem
29. Siege of Tyre (1187) – The Siege of Tyre took place from November 12, 1187 to January 1, 1188. An army commanded by Saladin made an amphibious assault on the city, defended by Conrad of Montferrat. After two months of continuous struggle, Saladin retreated to Acre. After the disastrous Battle of Hattin, much of the Holy Land had been lost including Jerusalem. The remnants of the army flocked to Tyre, one of the major cities still in Christian hands. Conrad became the leader of the army. The Muslim army started the siege. The rest of the army arrived 13 days later. The fight was hard. His skill were said to cause admiration in both the Christian and Muslim armies, particularly in Saladin. It was said that Saladin offered many riches if he would convert to Islam and fight in his army. Nevertheless, he kept leading the Christian attacks against the Muslim army. It became clear to Saladin that only by winning at sea could he take the city. He summoned a fleet of 10 galleys commanded by a African sailor named Abd al-Salam al-Maghribi. Muslim chroniclers claim that Al-Faris Bedran's incompetency led to the defeat.Siege of Tyre (1187) – 15th century miniature depicting a charge of the Christian defenders against Saladin's army. Part of the manuscript Les Passages d’Outremer, by Sébastien Mamerot.
30. Third Crusade – The Third Crusade, also known as The Kings' Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. After the failure of the Second Crusade, the Zengid dynasty engaged in a conflict with the Fatimid rulers of Egypt. The Syrian forces were ultimately unified under Saladin, who employed them to reduce the Christian states and recapture Jerusalem in 1187. Spurred by religious zeal, King Philip II of France ended their conflict with each other to lead a new crusade. The death of Henry in 1189, however, meant the English contingent came under the command of King Richard I of England. Most of his troops returned home. On 2 Richard and Saladin finalized a treaty granting Muslim control over Jerusalem but allowing unarmed Christian pilgrims and merchants to visit the city. Richard departed the Holy Land on 2 October. The successes of the Third Crusade allowed the Crusaders to maintain considerable states on the Syrian coast. However, the failure to recapture Jerusalem would lead to the Fourth Crusade. After the failure of the Second Crusade, Nur ad-Din Zangi had control of a unified Syria. Eager to expand his power, Nur ad-Din set his sights on the Fatimid dynasty of Egypt. In 1163, Nur ad-Din sent Shirkuh, on a military expedition to the Nile. Accompanying the general was his young nephew, Saladin. With Shirkuh's troops camped outside of Cairo, Egypt's sultan Shawar called for assistance.Third Crusade – The Siege of Acre was the first major confrontation of the Third Crusade
31. Battle of Arsuf – The Battle of Arsuf was a battle of the Third Crusade in which Richard I of England defeated the forces of Ayyubid leader Saladin. The battle took place just of Arsuf, when Saladin attacked Richard's army when it was moving from Acre to Jaffa. Following a series of harassing attacks by Saladin's, battle was joined on the morning of 7 September 1191. Richard's army successfully resisted attempts to disrupt its cohesion until the Hospitallers charged; Richard then committed all his forces to the attack. He led it to victory. The battle resulted in the coastal area of southern Palestine, including the port of Jaffa, returning to Christian control. Saladin, whose main objective was to prevent the recapture of Jerusalem, mobilised his army to attempt to stop the Crusaders' advance. Richard organized the advance to detail. Mindful of the lessons of the disaster at Hattin, Richard knew that heat exhaustion was its greatest danger. Although pressed for time he proceeded at a relatively slow pace. He marched his army only in the morning always beside sources of water. The fleet sailed down the coast in close support, a refuge for the wounded. The infantry marched on the landward flank, affording them some protection from missiles. The outermost ranks of the infantry were composed of crossbowmen. On the seaward side was the baggage and also units of infantry being rested from the continuous harassment inflicted by Saladin's forces.Battle of Arsuf – Battle of Arsuf
32. Battle of Iconium (1190) – The Battle of Iconium took place on May 18, 1190 during the Third Crusade, in the expedition of Frederick Barbarossa to the Holy Land. As a result, the city of the Sultanate of Rûm fell to the Imperial forces. After the Siege of Jerusalem, much of the Crusader states had been seized by Saladin's forces. Pope Gregory VIII called for a new crusade to help the remaining crusader strongholds. Barbarossa responded to the call immediately. He was also joined from the Hungarian prince Géza, the younger brother of the king, Béla III of Hungary. After passing through Hungary, Serbia, the Byzantine Empire, the forces arrived to Anatolia, held by the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm. As a result, the Turks continuously harassed the German forces, using hit-and-run tactics. The Germans, in turn, launched attacks against whatever Turkish forces they could find. More important than the battles was the logistical situation; morale was very low. Desertion was frequent among the foot soldiers, as was death from dehydration. Despite this, the crusaders continued their march until they reached Iconium. They arrived on May 13th. On May 14th, the Crusaders defeated the main Turkish army, putting it to rout. Turkish records attribute the Crusader victory to a heavy cavalry charge which supposedly consisted of 7,000 mounted lancers.Battle of Iconium (1190) – The battle of Iconium, by Wislicensus(c.1890)
33. Battle of Jaffa (1192) – It was the final battle of the Third Crusade, after which Saladin and King Richard were able to negotiate a truce. The battle illustrated the courage and tactical skill of Richard. It was the armed encounter between the two monarchs before the ratification of the Treaty of Jaffa brought the Crusade to an end. The battle ensured that the Crusader presence in the south of Palestine was secure. After the Battle of Arsuf, the Crusader army proceeded from Arsuf to Jaffa, which the Crusaders took and fortified. Jaffa, they hoped, would be the base of operations in a drive to reconquer itself. As the winter of 1191 -- 1192 approached, sporadic negotiations between Saladin were taken up, though without any immediate result. In November of 1191 the Crusader army advanced inland towards Jerusalem. On the 12 December Saladin was forced from his emirs to disband the greater part of his army. Learning this, Richard pushed his army forward, spending Christmas at Latrun. The army then marched to Beit Nuba, only 12 miles from Jerusalem. Muslim morale in Jerusalem was so low that the arrival of the Crusaders would probably have caused the city to fall quickly. During the winter months, Richard's men refortified Ascalon, whose fortifications had earlier been razed by Saladin. The spring of 1192 saw further skirmishing between the opposing forces. During this period, Richard began to receive disturbing news of the activities of the French king, Philip Augustus.Battle of Jaffa (1192) – A Victorian illustration of Richard I at the battle
34. Fifth Crusade – A nighttime attack by Sultan Al-Kamil resulted in a great number of crusader losses, eventually in the surrender of the army. Al-Kamil agreed with Europe. Pope Innocent III had already planned since 1208 a crusade to recapture Jerusalem. In April 1213 he issued the papal Quia maior, calling all of Christendom to join a new crusade. This was followed by the Ad Liberandam in 1215. Every crusader would receive an indulgence, including those who simply did not go on crusade themselves. Emperor Frederick II attempted to join in 1215. Frederick was the last monarch Innocent wanted to join, as he had challenged the Papacy. Andrew had the largest royal army in the history of the crusades. The first to take up the cross in the Fifth Crusade was King Andrew II of Hungary. His troops embarked on 23 August 1217, in Split. They were transported by the Venetian fleet, the largest European fleet in the era. Until his return to Hungary, king Andrew remained the leader of Christian forces in the Fifth Crusade. Muslims fled the city, afraid that there would be a repeat of the bloodbath of the First Crusade in 1099. King Andrew's well-mounted army defeated sultan Al-Adil I on the Jordan River on 10 November 1217.Fifth Crusade – Frisian crusaders confront the Tower of Damietta, Egypt.
35. Capture of Jerusalem (1218) – A nighttime attack by Sultan Al-Kamil resulted in a great number of crusader losses, eventually in the surrender of the army. Al-Kamil agreed with Europe. Pope Innocent III had already planned since 1208 a crusade to recapture Jerusalem. In April 1213 he issued the papal Quia maior, calling all of Christendom to join a new crusade. This was followed by the Ad Liberandam in 1215. Every crusader would receive an indulgence, including those who simply did not go on crusade themselves. Emperor Frederick II attempted to join in 1215. Frederick was the last monarch Innocent wanted to join, as he had challenged the Papacy. Andrew had the largest royal army in the history of the crusades. The first to take up the cross in the Fifth Crusade was King Andrew II of Hungary. His troops embarked on 23 August 1217, in Split. They were transported by the Venetian fleet, the largest European fleet in the era. Until his return to Hungary, king Andrew remained the leader of Christian forces in the Fifth Crusade. Muslims fled the city, afraid that there would be a repeat of the bloodbath of the First Crusade in 1099. King Andrew's well-mounted army defeated sultan Al-Adil I on the Jordan River on 10 November 1217.Capture of Jerusalem (1218) – Frisian crusaders confront the Tower of Damietta, Egypt.
36. Siege of Jerusalem (1244) – The 1244 Siege of Jerusalem took place after the Sixth Crusade, when the Khwarezmians conquered the city on July 15, 1244. These were recovered from the Ayyubid Sultan Al-Kamil. However, Jerusalem did not remain in Christian hands as there was not enough Christian-held hinterland to make it defensible. The Ayyubids invited the free-roaming Khwarazmian clans, whose empire had been destroyed by the Mongols, to reconquer the city. The Siege on Orthodox Wiki The Siege on Encyclopædia Britannica The Siege on Timeline:History of Jerusalem The Siege on The Jewish History Resource CenterSiege of Jerusalem (1244) – Ministry of Jesus & Apostolic Age
37. Crusader states – The name also refers to territorial gains made by medieval Christendom against pagan adversaries. The conquered Iberian principalities are not customarily called Crusader states, except for the Kingdom of Valencia, despite fitting the general criteria. In 1071, the Byzantine army was defeated by the Muslim Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Manzikert, resulting in the loss of most of Asia Minor. The situation represented a serious existential threat for the Eastern Orthodox Byzantine Empire. The Emperor sent a plea to the Pope in Rome to send military aid with the goal of restoring the formerly Christian territories to Christian rule. The result was a series of military campaigns into the eastern Mediterranean, known as the Crusades. The Principality of Antioch, founded in 1098, lasted until 1268. The Kingdom of Jerusalem, founded in 1099, lasted until 1291, when the city of Acre fell. During the Third Crusade, the Crusaders founded the Kingdom of Cyprus. Richard I of England conquered Cyprus on his way to Holy Land. The Templars promptly returned the island to Richard who resold it to the displaced King of Jerusalem Guy of Lusignan in 1192. The Kingdom's decline began when it became embroiled in the dispute between the Italian Merchant Republics of Genoa and Venice. These states faced the attacks of the Greek successor states of Nicaea and Epirus, well as Bulgaria. The Latin Empire were reconquered by 1261. Descendants of the Crusaders continued to rule in Athens and the Peloponnesus until the 15th century when the area was conquered by the Ottoman Empire.Crusader states – Asia Minor and the Crusader states, c. 1140
38. Siege of Acre (1291) – The Siege of Acre took place in 1291 and resulted in the loss of the Crusader-controlled city of Acre to the Mamluks. It is considered one of the most important battles of the period. Although the crusading movement continued for several more centuries, the capture of the city marked the end of further crusades to the Levant. When Acre fell, the Crusaders lost their major stronghold of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. The main point in the Crusades was in 1187 when, after the pivotal Battle of Hattin, the Christians lost Jerusalem to the forces of Saladin. In the same year, Saladin was able to conquer a great part including Acre and Jerusalem. The religious orders had their headquarters from which they made crucial decisions in military and diplomatic efforts. However, most relations with the Mamluks were not as cordial. They also proved to be much more hostile. After the Battle of Ain Jalut, Mamluk forces began attacking Crusader holdings as early as 1261 under Sultan Baibars. In 1265, Caesarea, Haifa, Arsuf all fell to the Sultan. The following year saw the loss of all the Latin holdings in Galilee. In 1268 Antioch was taken. To help these losses, a number of minor Crusading expeditions left Europe for the East. The abortive Crusade of Louis IX of France to Tunis in 1270 was one such attempt.Siege of Acre (1291) – The Hospitalier Maréchal Matthieu de Clermont defending the walls at the Siege of Acre, 1291, by Dominique Papety (1815–49) at Versailles.
39. Fall of Krak des Chevaliers – The Crusader fortress of Krak des Chevaliers fell to the Mamluk sultan Baibars in 1271. Baibars went north to deal after the death of Louis IX of France on 29 November 1270. Before marching on the castle Baibars captured the smaller castles in the area, including Chastel Blanc. On 3 Baibars' army arrived at Krak des Chevaliers. By the time the Sultan arrived the castle may already have been blockaded for several days. There are three Arabic accounts of the siege; that of Ibn Shaddad, was by a contemporary although he was not present. Peasants who lived in the area were kept in the outer ward. Soon as Baibars arrived he began erecting mangonels, powerful siege weapons which he would turn on the castle. Rain interrupted the siege, but on March a triangular outwork immediately south of Krak des Chevaliers, possibly defended by a timber palisade, was captured. On 29 the tower in the south-west corner was undermined and collapsed. Baibars' army attacked on entering the outer ward where they encountered the peasants who had sought refuge in the castle. Though in the process a handful of the garrison killed, the Crusaders retreated to the more formidable inner ward. The Sultan spared their lives. The new owners of the castle undertook repairs, focused mainly on the outer ward. Two mihrabs were added to the interior.Fall of Krak des Chevaliers – The Krak des Chevaliers
40. Fall of Ruad – The Fall of Ruad in 1302–3 was one of the culminating events of the Crusades in the Eastern Mediterranean. When the garrison on the tiny Isle of Ruad fell, it marked the loss of the last Crusader outpost on the coast of the Levant. The plans were to coordinate those of the Ilkhanate. The Mamluks besieged and captured Ruad in 1302 or 1303. With the loss of the island, the Crusaders lost their last foothold in the Holy Land. The remaining elements of the dwindling Kingdom of Jerusalem relocated their headquarters offshore to the island of Cyprus. In 1298–99 the Mamluks attacked Syria, capturing Servantikar and Roche-Guillaume. This marked the capture of the last Templar stronghold in the Levant. For a few months, until February 1300, began rebuilding the fortress of Nephin. Ghazan inflicted a crushing defeat on the Mamluks December 1299 at the Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar near Homs in Syria. He was assisted by his vassal Hethum II, whose forces included a contingent of Templars and Hospitallers from Little Armenia. Before leaving, Ghazan sent letters and ambassadors to the West so that they could prepare themselves. In May however, when the Egyptians again advanced from Cairo, the remaining Mongols retreated with little resistance. In July 1300, King Henry II of the other Cypriots set up a naval raiding operation. From Cyprus, members of the three military orders, attempted to retake Tortosa in 1300.Fall of Ruad – Ruins of the fortress of Ruad, where the Crusaders attempted to set up a bridgehead to re-take the Holy Land
41. Siege of Tripoli (1271) – It was an attempt by the Mamluks to completely destroy the Crusader states of Antioch and Tripoli. When the bulk of the Mongol forces returned in 1262, they were never able to avenge the loss. Meanwhile, the Mamluks proceeded to reclaim the rest of the Levant from Crusader hands. The Egyptian Mamluks worked their way northward, capturing castle after castle. In 1268, the Egyptian Mamluks captured Antioch, leaving Bohemond with only Tripoli. Baibar asked him to pay all the expenses of the Mamluk campaign. Bohemond had enough pride left to refuse the offer. Edward had landed on May 9, 1271, where he was soon joined by Bohemond and his cousin King Hugh of Cyprus and Jerusalem. He therefore opted to negotiate his own truce with the Mamluks, before returning to England. He then died in 1290. The Fall of Acre was achieved by Qalawun's son, Al-Ashraf Khalil. René Grousset, Histoire des Croisades IIISiege of Tripoli (1271) – Baibars 's siege of Bohemond VI in Tripoli was lifted in May 1271 when Edward I arrived in the Levant, starting the Ninth Crusade.
42. Fall of Tripoli (1289) – The Fall of Tripoli was the capture and destruction of the Crusader state, the County of Tripoli, by the Muslim Mamluks. Around the same time, the Mongols were slowed by internal conflicts in their thinly spread Empire. The Mamluks took advantage of this pushing the Ilkhans back into Persia. They were persuaded to agree to a truce with both Tripoli and Prince Edward, although his forces had been too small to be truly effective. The Mongols, for their part, had not proven to be staunch defenders of the Christian state of Tripoli. He was succeeded to Islam. Under Tekuder's leadership, the Ilkhanate was not inclined to defend Christian territories against Muslim encroachment. This enabled the Mamluks to continue their attacks against the remaining coastal cities which were still under Crusader control. Tekuder was replaced by Abaqa's son Arghun, more sympathetic to Christianity. He continued his father's communications with Europe towards the possibility of forming an alliance, but still did not show much interest in protecting Tripoli. However, the Mamluks continued conquering Margat in 1285, Lattakiah in 1287. The Christians afforded him an opportunity to break it. The Christian powers had been pursuing an unwise course. Rather than maintaining a united front against the Muslims, they had fallen into bickering among themselves. The best known example of this was the dispute between the merchant republics of Genoa and Venice.Fall of Tripoli (1289) – The siege of Tripoli by the Mamluks in 1289.