1. Second Crusade – The Second Crusade was the second major crusade launched from Europe as Catholic holy war against Islam. The Second Crusade was started to the forces of Zengi. The county had been founded during the First Crusade in 1098. While it was the first Crusader state to be founded, it was also the first to fall. The armies of the two kings marched separately across Europe. After crossing Byzantine territory into Anatolia, both armies were separately defeated by the Seljuk Turks. The remnants of their armies reached Jerusalem and participated in 1148 in an ill-advised attack on Damascus. The crusade in the east was a great victory for the Muslims. It would ultimately give rise to the Third Crusade at the end of the 12th century. The only Christian success of the Second Crusade came in 1147. The County of Tripoli, was established in 1109. Count Baldwin II and count Joscelin of Courtenay were taken captive after their defeat at the Battle of Harran in 1104. Joscelin had also quarreled with the Prince of Antioch, leaving Edessa with no powerful allies. Both Zengi and King Baldwin II turned their attention towards Damascus; Baldwin was defeated outside the great city in 1129. In late 1144, Joscelin II marched out of Edessa with almost his entire army to support the Ortoqid army against Aleppo.Second Crusade – Edessa, seen here on the right of this map (c. 1140), was recaptured by the Turks. This was the primary cause of the Second Crusade.
2. Siege of Lisbon – It is seen as a pivotal battle of the wider Reconquista. The Fall of Edessa in 1144 led by Pope Eugene III in 1145 and 1146. In the spring of 1147, the Pope authorized the crusade in the Iberian peninsula. He also authorized Alfonso VII of León and Castile to equate his campaigns against the Moors with the rest of the Second Crusade. In May 1147, a contingent of crusaders left in England. There they were convinced to meet with King Afonso I of Portugal. The siege began on July 1. After four months, the Moorish rulers agreed to surrender on October 24, primarily because of hunger within the city. Some of the crusaders set sail and continued to the Holy Land. Lisbon eventually became the city of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1255. The traditional start of the Reconquista is identified with the defeat of the Muslims in 722. The Fall of Edessa in 1144 led by Pope Eugene III in 1146. Pope Eugene encouraged other Mediterranean cities to fight in Iberia. He also authorized Alfonso VII of León and Castile to equate his campaigns against the Moors with the rest of the Second Crusade. Leadership was provided by Constable of Suffolk.Siege of Lisbon – The Conquest of Lisbon painting by Alfredo Roque Gameiro (1917)
3. Battle of Constantinople (1147) – Following perceived insults from Conrad, Manuel arrayed some of his forces outside the walls of Constantinople. A part of the German army then was heavily defeated. Following this defeat the crusaders agreed to be quickly ferried to Asia Minor. The county had been founded during the First Crusade. This crusade was the first to be led by kings, namely Conrad III of Germany and Louis VII of France. The armies of the two kings marched separately across Europe. After crossing into Byzantine territory in the Balkans, both armies made their way towards Constantinople. The crusader armies intended to then take the overland route across Asia Minor to reach the Holy Land. A Byzantine force under the general Prosouch, of Turkish origin, shadowed the Germans. The crusaders also suffered a natural disaster, when part of their encampment was swept away with considerable loss of life. Manuel wished keeping them away from Constantinople. However, they pushed towards Constantinople, arriving on 10 September. Manuel had extensively strengthened the walls of his capital as a safeguard against any crusader aggression. The Germans so pillaged it that it became quickly uninhabitable. They then moved to Pikridion.Battle of Constantinople (1147) – Arrival of the Second Crusade before Constantinople, portrayed in Jean Fouquet 's painting from around 1455–1460, Arrivée des croisés à Constantinople
4. Siege of Damascus (1148) – The Siege of Damascus took place between 24 July and 29 July 1148, during the Second Crusade. It led to the disintegration of the crusade. Both faced disastrous marches across Anatolia with most of their armies being destroyed. In Jerusalem, the preferred target of King Baldwin III and the Knights Templar was Damascus. At the Council of Acre, the Kingdom of Jerusalem decided to divert the crusade to Damascus. The crusaders decided to attack Damascus from the west, where orchards would provide them with a constant supply. Having arrived outside the walls of the city, they immediately put it to siege, using wood from the orchards. Nur ad-Din Zangi cut off the crusader's route to their previous position. The three kings had no choice but to abandon the city. The entire army retreated back to Jerusalem by 28 July. Conrad's force included the Curly and Vladislaus II of Bohemia, as well as Frederick of Swabia, his nephew who would become Emperor Frederick I. The crusade had been called on 24 December 1144. The crusaders arrived at Constantinople in September and October 1147. Most of their armies were destroyed. Louis travelled by ship to the Principality of Antioch, where his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine's uncle, Raymond, was prince.Siege of Damascus (1148) – Crusaders intended for Edessa, seen here on the right of this map (c.1140), were diverted by King Baldwin III of Jerusalem to Damascus.