1. Lombardy – Lombardy is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of 23,844 square kilometres. Milan, Lombardys capital, is the second-largest city and the largest metropolitan area in Italy, the word Lombardy comes from Lombard, which in turn is derived from Late Latin Longobardus, Langobardus, derived from the Proto-Germanic elements *langaz + *bardaz, equivalent to long beard. Some sources derive the second element instead from Proto-Germanic *bardǭ, *barduz, Lombardy referred during the early Middle Ages to the entire territory of Italy ruled by the Lombards, a Germanic tribe who conquered much of the Italian peninsula beginning in the 6th century. During the late Middle Ages, the term shifted meaning and was used to identify the whole of Northern Italy, with a surface of 23,861 km2, Lombardy is the 4th largest region of Italy. It is bordered by Switzerland and by the Italian regions of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, three distinct natural zones can be fairly easily distinguished in the Lombardy region, mountains, hills and plains – the latter being divided in Alta and Bassa. Inconsistent with the three distinctions above made is the subregion of Oltrepò Pavese, formed by the Apennine foothills beyond the Po River. The mighty Po river marks the border of the region for a length of about 210 km. In its progress it receives the waters of the Ticino River, the other streams which contribute to the great river are, the Olona, the Lambro, the Adda, the Oglio and the Mincio. The numerous lakes of Lombardy, all of glacial origin, lie in the northern highlands, from west to east these are Lake Maggiore, Lake Lugano, Lake Como, Lake Iseo, Lake Idro, then Lake Garda, the largest in Italy. A minor mountainous area, the Oltrepò Pavese, lies south of the Po, in the plains, intensively cultivated for centuries, little of the original environment remains. The most commons trees are elm, alder, sycamore, poplar, willow, in the area of the foothills lakes, however, grow olive trees, cypresses and larches, as well as varieties of subtropical flora such as magnolias, azaleas, acacias. Numerous species of flora in the Prealpine area include some kinds of saxifrage, the Lombard garlic, groundsels bellflowers. The highlands are characterized by the vegetation of the whole range of the Italian Alps. At a lower levels oak woods or broadleafed trees grow, on the slopes beech trees grow at the lowest limits. Shrubs such as rhododendron, dwarf pine and juniper are native to the summital zone, Lombardy has a wide array of climates, due to local variances in elevation, proximity to inland water basins, and large metropolitan areas. In addition, there is a seasonal temperature variation. A peculiarity of the climate is the thick fog that covers the plains between October and February. In the Alpine foothills, characterised by an Oceanic climate, numerous lakes exercise a mitigating influence, in the hills and mountains, the climate is humid continentalLombardy – Mount Adamello
2. Accademia Carrara di Belle Arti di Bergamo – The Accademia Carrara is an art gallery and an academy of fine arts in Bergamo, Italy. The origins of the art gallery lie with the Count Giacomo Carrara, a collector and patron of the arts. After the Counts death, in 1796, his properties were managed by a nominated commissary until 1958, in 1810, a new building in the neoclassical style was constructed, the project being undertaken by the architect Simone Elia, a pupil of Leopoldo Pollack. The museum has continued to augment its collections both with purchases and donations, besides paintings, there are drawings and prints, bronzes and sculptures, as well as collections of porcelain, furniture and medals. In 1793, at the time as the public opening of his gallery. The school, which was located in the building as the art gallery until 1912. Since 1988, it has been an officially recognized Accademia di Belle Arti, presently, it has ten exhibition halls, on three floors. Catalogue of the Pinacoteca of the Accademia Carrara List of academies of art in Italy Accademia Carrara website GAMeC websiteAccademia Carrara di Belle Arti di Bergamo – The front view of the Accademia Carrara.
3. Basilica of Sant'Andrea, Mantua – The Basilica of SantAndrea is a Roman Catholic co-cathedral and minor basilica in Mantua, Lombardy. It is one of the works of 15th-century Renaissance architecture in Northern Italy. Commissioned by Ludovico III Gonzaga, the church was begun in 1462 according to designs by Leon Battista Alberti on an occupied by a Benedictine monastery. The building, however, was finished only 328 years later, though later changes and expansions altered Albertis design, the church is still considered to be one of Albertis most complete works. It looms over the Piazza Mantegna, the façade, built abutting a pre-existing bell tower, is based on the scheme of the ancient Arch of Titus. It is largely a brick structure with hardened stucco used for the surface and it is defined by a large central arch, flanked by Corinthian pilasters. There are smaller openings to the right and left of the arch, a novel aspect of the design was the integration of a lower order, comprising the fluted Corinthian columns, with a giant order, comprising the taller, unfluted pilasters. The whole is surmounted by a pediment and above that a structure, the purpose of which is not exactly known. The nave is roofed by a vault, one of the first times such a form was used in such a monumental scale since antiquity. Originally, the building was planned without a transept, and possibly even without a dome and this phase of construction more or less ended in 1494. In 1597, the arms were added and the crypt finished. The massive dome was designed by Filippo Juvarra, and the decorations on the interior added under Paolo Pozzo and others in the late 18th. Pope Leo IX recognized this relic as authentic in 1053 and it was highly venerated during the Renaissance. The shrines are displayed only on the Good Friday, to the faithful, in the belltower there are five bells cast in the 19th century. One of the houses the tomb of the early Renaissance painter Andrea Mantegna, with a bronze figure of him, by Gianmarco Cavalli. Other artworks in the chapels include frescoes of Giulio Romanos school, federico I Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua Blood of Christ Johnson, Eugene J. S. Andrea in Mantua, the building history. University Park, Pennsylvania State University Press, il SantAndrea di Mantova e Leon Battista Alberti. La reliquia del sangue di Cristo, Mantova, lItalia e lEuropa ad tempo di Leone IX, ed. Glauco Maria Cantarella, Verona, Scripta,2012Basilica of Sant'Andrea, Mantua – Façade of Sant'Andrea, Mantua
4. Bellagio, Lombardy – Bellagio is a comune in the Province of Como in the Italian region of Lombardy. It is located on Lake Como, also known by its Latin-derived name, the arms of the lake form an inverted Y. The triangular land mass at the base of the inverted Y is the Larian Triangle, the Como arm of the lake lies to its south west, the Lecco arm of the lake to its south east. At the northern point of the triangle sits Bellagio, looking across to the arm of the lake and, behind it. It has always been famous for its location, Bellagio is situated upon the cape of the land mass that divides Lake Como in two. The city centre occupies the tip of the promontory, while other districts are scattered along the lake shores, from the ancient glacial blanket only the highest tops emerged, one of them Mount St. Primo, which obliged the glaciers to divide into two arms. Nowadays, a luxuriance of trees and flowers is favoured by a mild, the historic centre of Bellagio shelters 350m southwest of the promontory of the Larian Triangle, between the Villa Serbelloni on the hill and the Como arm of the lake. At the far tip of the promontory are a park and a marina, parallel to the shore are three streets, Mazzini, Centrale and Garibaldi in ascending order. Cutting across them to form a grid are seven medieval stone stairs running uphill. The Basilica of San Giacomo and a tower, sole relic of medieval defences. In 225 BC, the territory of the Gallo-Insubres was occupied by the Romans, the Romans, led by consul Marcus Claudius Marcellus, defeated the Gallo-Insubres in a fierce battle near Camerlata, occupying Como and the shores of the lake. Insubre hopes of independence were raised by an alliance with Hannibal during the Second Punic War, Bellagio became both a Roman garrison and a point of passage and wintering for the Roman armies on their way through to the province of Raetia and the Splügen pass. Troops wintered at the foot of the present Villa Serbelloni, sheltered from north winds, such variant Latin names as Belacius and Bislacus suggest Bellagio was originally Bi-lacus. Between 81 and 77 BC Cornelius Scipio brought 3,000 Latin colonists to Lake Como, from 59 BC Julius Caesar, as pro-consul, brought up another 5000 colonists, most importantly 500 Greeks from Sicily. Their names are borne by their descendants. Bellagio became a mixture of races which became more and more complex in the following centuries, also it increased its strategic importance because, as well as a place for wintering, it sheltered warships especially at Loppia, where the natural creek made it easy to repair them. Around Loppia there formed one of the first suburbs of Bellagio, the Romans introduced many Mediterranean crops, including the olive and laurel, from the name of the latter derives the Latin name of Lake Como. In the early decades of the Empire, two great figures brought fame to the lake and Bellagio, Virgil and Pliny the Younger, Virgil, the Latin poet, visited Bellagio and remembered the lake in the second book of the Georgics, verse 155Bellagio, Lombardy – A view over Bellagio looking along the Como arm of the lake.
5. Cappella Colleoni – The Cappella Colleoni is a church and mausoleum in Bergamo in northern Italy. The site chosen was that of the sacristy of the church of Santa Maria Maggiore. The façade is characterized by the use of tarsia and polychrome marble decorations in white, red, over the main portal is a rose window, flanked by two medallions portraying Julius Caesar and Trajan. The upper part of the basement has nine plaques with reliefs of Biblical stories, the four pilasters of the windows flanking the portal are surmounted by statues of the Virtues. The upper part of the façade has a loggia in Romanesque style, the interior includes a square hall and a smaller room housing the high altar. The tomb of Bartolomeo Colleoni is on the wall facing the entrance, the whole complex is surrounded by a triumphal arch. Amadeo himself executed the monument of Medea Colleoni. Located on the wall, it has a statue of the Deposition from the Cross in high relief. The tomb was transferred here in 1892 from Urgnano, the presbytery has a high altar sculpted by Bartolomeo Manni in 1676, housing statues of the three saints to whom the chapel is dedicated, John, Mark and Bartholomew, by Pietro Lombardo. The upswept cornice is supported by Solomonic columns, the altar table, to a design by Leopoldo Pollack, is supported by angels carved by Grazioso Rusca. Notable are the frescoes of the dome, depicting Episodes of the Lives of St. Mark, John the Baptist and Bartholomew, for centuries it was believed that the condottieres remains had been buried elsewhere, as the sarcophagus appeared empty. On November 21,1969, however, they were discovered in Colleonis tomb in a wooden coffin, akademie-Verlag Berlin https, //arthistory. ucr. edu/fama-and-virtus/ Complete description Tiepolos frescoesCappella Colleoni – Colleoni Chapel
6. Castelseprio (archaeological park) – Castelseprio or Castel Seprio was the site of a Roman fort in antiquity, and a significant Lombard town in the early Middle Ages, before being destroyed and abandoned in 1287. It is today preserved as a park in the modern comune of Castelseprio. It is in the north of Italy, in the Province of Varese, the fame of Castelseprio lies in the Early Medieval frescoes contained in the small Church of Santa Maria foris portas. These frescoes are of exceptional rarity and artistic significance, hidden for centuries, the frescoes were only rediscovered in 1944. In 2011, the church - and the castrum with the Torba Tower - became a UNESCO World Heritage Site as part of a group of seven inscribed as Longobards in Italy, Castelseprio originated as a Roman fort that commanded an important crossroad. During the early Middle Ages, the Lombards occupied the Roman fort, at one point coins were minted there - a sign of its importance. The Church of Santa Maria foris portas which contains the famous frescoes, the early dedication of the church to Mary is an assumption, the first documented mention of a church dedicated to Mary in Castelseprio comes from the 13th century. The whole citadel was destroyed by Ottone Visconti, Archbishop of Milan, after he captured it in 1287. Investigations into the church, which began in 1934, finally uncovered the famous Byzantinesque frescoes below later plaster in 1944, the whole area is now an archaeological zone containing the remains of the walls and of the much larger three-aisled 5th-century Basilica of San Giovanni Evangelista. There is also a baptistry of the 5th to 7th centuries dedicated to St. John the Baptist and this has two fonts, perhaps for the use of different Rites, and is octagonal with a small apse to the east. A third Church of San Paolo has a hexagonal plan and was built between the 6th and 12th centuries. There are some ruins left from the castle, nearby is a large tower, once used as a convent. The dating of the frescoes and the origin of their painter or painters remain controversial, the Byzantinesque frescoes are located around the curved wall of the apse, and the inward surface of the arch between the apse and the main body of the church. The condition of the frescoes is variable, some parts are well-preserved whilst others are missing completely, much of the painted area has been pitted to provide a key for the subsequent plastering-over. The frescoes are in three registers, the register being interrupted by three arched windows. They represent a cycle of the Nativity of Christ and may also have represented early aspects of the Life of Mary, the lowest register has a decorative frieze below which there are a few remains in the centre showing painted curtain railings and religious symbols. This register may not have contained figures, the upper and middle registers contain narrative paintings. The cycle may have part of a larger scheme of decoration which once included the outer face of the archCastelseprio (archaeological park) – Fresco of St Simeon from Santa Maria foris portas in Castelseprio.
7. Certosa di Pavia – The Certosa di Pavia is a monastery and complex in Lombardy, northern Italy, situated near a small town of the same name in the Province of Pavia,8 km north of Pavia. Built in 1396-1495, it was located on the border of a large hunting park belonging to the Visconti family of Milan. It is one of the largest monasteries in Italy, Certosa is the Italian name for a house of the cloistered monastic order of Carthusians founded by St. Bruno in 1044 at Grande Chartreuse. The location was strategically chosen midway between Milan and Pavia, the city of the Duchy, where the Duke held his court. The church, the last edifice of the complex to be built, was to be the mausoleum of the Visconti. It was designed as a structure with a nave and two aisles, a type unusual for the Carthusian Order. The nave, in the Gothic style, was completed in 1465, Solari was followed as director of the works by Giovanni Antonio Amadeo. The church was consecrated on May 3,1497, the lower part of the façade was not completed until 1507. The construction contract obliged the monks to use part of the revenue of the held in benefice to the monastery to continue to improve the edifice. Consequently, the Certosa includes a collection of artworks of all centuries from the 15th to the 18th. In 1782, the Carthusians were expelled by the Emperor Joseph II of Austria, in 1810 the monastery was closed until the Carthusians reacquired it in 1843. In 1866 it was declared a National Monument and sequestrated by the Italian State, the monks currently living in the monastery are Cistercians admitted to it in the 1960s. In August 1946 the illegally exhumed body of Benito Mussolini was discovered in the complex, two Franciscan friars were charged with assisting in the concealment of the body. The church is built on a Latin cross plan, with a nave, the chancel terminates with an apse. It is covered by crossed vaults on Gothic arches and is inspired, on a reduced scale, the vaults are alternatively decorated with geometrical shapes and starry skies. The transept and the main chapel end with square-plan chapels with smaller, the façade of the church is famous for its exuberant decorations, typical of Lombard architecture, every part being decorated with reliefs, inlaid marble and statues. Sculptors who worked on it include Cristoforo Mantegazza and Giovanni Antonio Amadeo himself, the architect Giovanni Solari, in building the double row of arcades down the flanks of the church, modified its appearance. After his death he was succeeded in Pavia by his son Guiniforte Solari, in their hands the project was thoroughly redesignedCertosa di Pavia – The Certosa di Pavia as seen from the Small Cloister
8. Como Cathedral – Como Cathedral is the Roman Catholic cathedral of the city of Como, Lombardy, Italy, and the seat of the Bishop of Como. It is dedicated to the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the cathedral, located near Lake Como, is one of the most important buildings in the region. The construction works, started under the supervision of Lorenzo degli Spazzi di Laino, the imposing west front was built between 1457 and 1498 and features a rose window and a portal between two statues of Pliny the Elder and Pliny the Younger, natives of Como. It is 87 metres long, from 36 to 56 metres wide and it has a Latin Cross floor plan with a central nave and two side aisles, separated by pillars, and a Renaissance transept, with an imposing cupola over the crossing. The apses and the choir are of the 16th century, the interior has some important tapestries, and others of the 16th and 17th centuries, made in Ferrara, Florence and Antwerp. There are also a number of 16th-century paintings by Bernardino Luini, duomo di Como Sito del comune di Como Panorama of Como CathedralComo Cathedral – Inside of the dome over the transept
9. Cremona Cathedral – Cremona Cathedral, dedicated to the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Cremona, Lombardy, northern Italy. It is the seat of the Bishop of Cremona and its bell tower is the famous Torrazzo, symbol of the city and tallest pre-modern tower in Italy. Also adjoining is the baptistery, another important medieval monument, originally built in Romanesque style, the cathedral has been restored and extended several times, with Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque elements. Construction began in 1107, but the works were damaged and halted after an earthquake in 1117, construction resumed in 1129, and the building was probably finished in 1160-1170. The main altar, dedicated to the patron saints Archelaus and Himerius, was consecrated in 1196. The current façade was probably built in the 13th and the early 14th century, in the same period the arms of the transept were also added, the northern in 1288 and the southern in 1348. The main façade, together with the baptistery, is one of the most important monuments of Romanesque art in Europe. It has a portico with a narthex in the middle, to which a Renaissance loggia with three niches was added in 1491 and this is surmounted by a large rose window, flanked by two orders of loggette. The portal is probably from the early 12th century, on its side are the figures of the Four Major Prophets, each bearing a roll with the text of their prophecies. The narthex was made by masters from Campione in the following century, the four statues on the upper loggia, portraying the Madonna with Child and two bishops, are of the Tuscan school. The columns of the stand on two lions in Verona marble. The left one is holding a dragon, symbol of Evil, in his paws, while the one is holding a bear. On the façade are also two tombs, the recent one is by Bonino da Campione. The façade of the arm of the transept also has a narthex. It is characterized by a sequence of mullioned windows and rose windows, the façade of the southern arm of the transept dates from 1342, and is in brickwork, as is typical in Lombard Gothic architecture. Its structure is similar to the arm, but has slightly more detailed decoration. The three apses are all surmounted by loggias with small columns, each having a human face stretching out from the capital, the central apse is much higher than the flanking ones. The interior houses important works of art, the oldest are the frescoes of the Stories of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and Joseph in the southern and northern transept vaultsCremona Cathedral – External view of the cathedral
10. Crespi d'Adda – Crespi dAdda is a historic settlement in Capriate San Gervasio, Lombardy, northern Italy. It is an example of the 19th and early 20th-century company towns built in Europe. The site is intact and is partly used for industrial purposes, although changing economic. Since 1995 it has been on UNESCOs list of World Heritage Sites, Cristoforo Crespi introduced the most modern spinning, weaving and finishing processes in his Cotton Mill. The Hydroelectric power plant in Trezzo, on the Adda river just a few kilometers upwards, was built up around 1906 for the manufacturer Cristoforo Benigno Crespi, both the town and the factory were illuminated thanks to electric light. The village of Crespi dAdda was the first village in Italy to have public lighting. The workers houses, of English inspiration, are lined up in order along parallel roads to the East of the factory, a tree-lined avenue separates the production zone from the houses, overlooking a chequer-board road plan. The whole architecture and town planning, was submitted to the architect Ernesto Pirovano, for about fifty years Pirovano, helped by the engineer Pietro Brunati, ran the construction of the village. In 1889 the son of Cristoforo, Silvio Benigno Crespi, started work in the factory as a director, after spending time in Oldham, England. He turned away from the large blocks in favour of the single-family house, with its own garden, which he saw as conducive to harmony. He put this policy into practice in 1892 and the years followed, with success. It then passed to the Legler company, which sold off most of the houses and it was last in the hands of the Polli industrial group, which employed some 600 people, as compared with the 3200 employed during the years of maximum activity. Today the village is inhabited by a community descended from the original workers. The factory stopped production only in 2004, its field of activity throughout its working life having been cotton textile production, model village Derwent Valley Mills, a similar World Heritage Site in Derbyshire, England whose first cotton mill was built in 1771. Crespi dAdda UNESCO - The official website Villaggio Crespi Crespi dAdda Official Unesco Photo galleryCrespi d'Adda – UNESCO World Heritage Site
11. Ducal palace, Mantua – The buildings are connected by corridors and galleries and are enriched by inner courts and wide gardens. The complex includes some 500 rooms and occupies an area of c.34,000 m², although most famous for Mantegnas frescos in the Camera degli Sposi, they have many other very significant architectural and painted elements. The Gonzaga family lived in the palace from 1328 to 1707, subsequently, the buildings saw a sharp decline, which was halted in the 20th century with a continuing process of restoration and the designation of the area as museum. In 1998, a room was discovered by Palace scholars. The room is thought to have used for performances of Monteverdis music in the late 16th century. The entrance of the palace is from Piazza Sordello, onto which the most ancient buildings, the Palazzo del Capitano and they formed the original nucleus of the so-called Corte Vecchia. The Palazzo del Capitano was built in the late 13th century by the Captain of the People Guido Buonacolsi. Initially built on two floors and separated from the Magna Domus by an alley, in the early 14th century it received a floor and was united to the Magna Domus by a large façade with a portico. The additional floor consists of a hall, known as Hall of the Weapon Room of Hall of Diet. His commissioner, Gianfrancesco Gonzaga, is portrayed in the paintings, the frescoes were rediscovered and restored in the 1960s and 1970s. In 1519 Isabella dEste moved her residence from the Castle of St. George to this sector of the Gonzaga palace. Isabellas apartment included two wings now divided by the entrance to the Cortile dOnore, another hall in the same wing is the Camera Granda or Scalcheria, frescoed in 1522 by the Mantuan artist Lorenzo Leonbruno. Later Guglielmo X Gonzaga, in the 16th century, transformed the rooms of the Corte Vecchia creating the Refectory, facing the Hanging Garden, at the same time was created the Appartamento degli Arazzi, comprising four halls. Three of the latter have tapestries, executed in the Flanders on cartoons by Raphael and they were bought at Brussels by Cardinal Ercole Gonzaga in the early 16th century to decorate what at the time was called the Green Apartment. After decorating the Palatine church of St. Barbara and a period in the Ducal Palaces stores, a further restoration was carried on during the Napoleonic Wars in the Sala dello Zodiaco, also known as Napoleon Is Hall, after the French emperor slept there. The Castle of St. George was built from 1395 and finished in 1406 under commission by Francesco I Gonzaga, designed by Bartolino da Novara and it has as square plan with four corner towers, surrounded by a ditch with three entrances, each one with a drawbridge. The painters decoration creates a space, as if the chamber was a loggia with three openings facing country landscapes among arcades and curtains. The painted scenes portrays members of the Gonzaga family, the Domus Nova was originally designed by Luca Fancelli in 1480–84Ducal palace, Mantua – Façade of Palazzo Ducale.
12. Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II – The Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II is one of the worlds oldest shopping malls. Housed within a double arcade in central Milan, the Galleria is named after Victor Emmanuel II. It was designed in 1861 and built by Giuseppe Mengoni between 1865 and 1877, the structure consists of two glass-vaulted arcades intersecting in an octagon covering the street connecting Piazza del Duomo to Piazza della Scala. The central octagonal space is topped with a glass dome, the Milanese Galleria was larger in scale than its predecessors and was an important step in the evolution of the modern glazed and enclosed shopping mall, of which it was the direct progenitor. It has inspired the use of the term galleria for many other shopping arcades, on the ground of the central octagonal, there are four mosaics portraying the coat of arms of the three capitals of the Kingdom of Italy plus Milans. Tradition says that if a person spins around three times with a heel on the testicles of the bull from Turin coat of arms this will bring good luck and this practice causes damage to the mosaic, a hole developed on the place of the bulls genitals. The Galleria connects two of Milans most famous landmarks, The Duomo and the Teatro Alla Scala, but the Galleria is a landmark in its own right, the Milan gallery and its roof have been acknowledged as an important reference on 19th-century iron-and-glass architecture by Pevsner and Hitchcock. As one can observe today, the roof consists of four barrel vaults that are crowned with a huge dome. Jorini pointed out the accomplishments of this dome with special regard to the large dimensions, each of the roof parts is topped with a lantern. According to Geist, the Milan gallery and the roof were unprecedented in dimensions by previously built shopping arcades, another difference with already existing passages, was the monumental character of the roof at Milan. Jodice, for example, appreciated the monumental spatial effect of the dome, the construction of the whole Gallery was the result of international collaboration. This especially concerned the roof, the ironwork was produced, transported and installed by the French Atelier Henry Joret, the glass plates were made of flat ribbed glass by Saint-Gobain. The construction technology of the roof employs primary wrought-iron arches in order to support the glazing, by contrast, arcades that were built earlier were smaller and had simpler roofs, the same components were used for both load bearing and glazing purposes. In addition, the roof at Milan was equipped with invisible reinforcements in the supporting walls and this complicated roof is discussed as the unity of four systems that were skillfully combined through characteristic construction details. This construction technology was creative for avoiding visible tie-rods in the spans of the vaults, the historical roof was heavily damaged during World War II. Before that the roof had undergone multiple maintenance interventions, serious problems in the roof were reported in the 1970s and some of them were solved in the 1980s. The roof that we see today has gone through different historic modifications, the Galleria is often nicknamed il salotto di Milano, due to its numerous shops and importance as a common Milanese meeting and dining place. As of 2013, the arcade principally contains luxury retailers selling haute couture, jewelry, books and paintings, as well as restaurants, cafés, and barsGalleria Vittorio Emanuele II – Gallery in the evening
13. Lake Como – Lake Como is a lake of glacial origin in Lombardy, Italy. It has an area of 146 square kilometres, making it the third-largest lake in Italy, after Lake Garda, at over 400 metres deep, it is one of the deepest lakes in Europe, and the bottom of the lake is more than 200 metres below sea level. Lake Como has been a retreat for aristocrats and wealthy people since Roman times. It has many villas and palaces, the lakes name in Latin is Larius, Italianised as Lario, but this name is rarely used, it is usually called Lago di Como. In guidebooks the lake may be referred to as Lake Como, Lake of Como. Its name comes from the city of Como, known to the Romans as Comum, while the town of Como is referred to as Como, the lake is never referred to solely by this name. This is not true of another lake in Italy, Lake Garda, the lake is shaped much like an inverted letter Y. The northern branch begins at the town of Colico, while the towns of Como, the small towns of Bellagio, Menaggio and Lierna are situated at the intersection of the three branches of the lake, a triangular boat service operates between them. The Lierna area is an historical charming site of the lake with a white beach, Lake Como is fed primarily by the Adda River, which enters the lake near Colico and flows out at Lecco. This geological conformation makes the branch a dead end, and so Como. The mountainous pre-alpine territory between the two arms of the lake is known as the Larian Triangle, or Triangolo lariano. The source of the river Lambro is here, at the centre of the triangle, the town of Canzo is the seat of the Comunità montana del Triangolo lariano, an association of the 31 municipalities that represent the 71,000 inhabitants of the area. Lake Como weather is humid subtropical, in the winter, the lake helps to maintain a higher temperature in the surrounding region. Average daily temperatures range from about 3.7 °C in January to 23.4 °C in July, water temperatures can reach an average of 24 °C during the month of July. Snowfall is erratic and primarily affects the higher elevations, rainfall is heaviest in May and lowest during the winter months. As a tourist destination, Lake Como is popular for its landscapes, wildlife and it is a venue for sailing, windsurfing, and kitesurfing. In 1818 Percy Bysshe Shelley wrote to Thomas Love Peacock, This lake exceeds anything I ever beheld in beauty and it is long and narrow, and has the appearance of a mighty river winding among the mountains and the forests. In the area surrounding Lake Como there are farms which produce goods such as honey, olive oil, cheese, milk, eggsLake Como – Panoramic view of Lake Como with Grigna Mountains and Bellagio
14. Lake Garda – Lake Garda is the largest lake in Italy. It is a holiday location and is located in northern Italy. Glaciers formed this region at the end of the last Ice Age. The lake and its shoreline are divided between the provinces of Verona, Brescia, and Trentino, the name Garda, which the lake has been seen referred to in documents dating to the eighth century, comes from the town of the same name. It is the evolution of the Germanic word warda, meaning place of guard or place of observation, the northern part of the lake is narrower, surrounded by mountains, the majority of which belong to the Gruppo del Baldo. The shape is typical of a valley, probably having been formed under the action of a Paleolithic glacier. Nearby to the south is Isola San Biagio, also known as the Isola dei Conigli, both are offshore of San Felice del Benaco, on the lakes western side. The three other islands are Isola dellOlivo, Isola di Sogno, and Isola di Trimelone. The main tributary is the Sarca River, others include the Ponale River, if the water level of the Adige river is too high, excess water is diverted to the lake through the Mori-Torbole tunnel. The particularly mild climate favours the growth of some Mediterranean plants, citrus trees can also be found, which are extremely rare at this latitude. This greatly favoured the development of tourism since the end of the world war. In ancient times, poets like Catullus wrote about Lacus Benacus with its mild climate vivified by the winds, the bottleneck formed by the lake basin affects the timing of the winds, many of which happen on a regular daily basis. The winds are all named, most in regional Italian dialect so a single wind may have different names, salmo carpio, also known as the carpione is a rare salmonid fish endemic to Lake Garda. It has been introduced to a number of lakes in Italy and elsewhere. The population in Lake Garda has been declining, and is considered critically endangered. The main threats are due to overfishing, pollution and possibly competition from introduced species such as Coregonus, adult lake trout outside the mating season are silvery with very few black spots on the body and almost none on the head. During the mating season males develop some a dark mottled body coloration, Garda lake trout reach a length of up to 50 centimeters. They live primarily in depths of 100 to 200 metres and they feed on zooplankton and bottom-dwelling crustaceans in summerLake Garda – Nago–Torbole and the northern part of the lake
15. Milan Cathedral – Milan Cathedral is the cathedral church of Milan, Italy. Dedicated to St Mary of the Nativity, it is the seat of the Archbishop of Milan, the Gothic cathedral took nearly six centuries to complete. It is the largest church in Italy and the fifth largest in the world, the first cathedral, the new basilica dedicated to St Thecla, was completed by 355. It seems to share, on a smaller scale, the plan of the contemporaneous church recently rediscovered beneath Tower Hill in London. An adjoining basilica was erected in 836, the old octagonal baptistery, the Battistero Paleocristiano, dates to 335 and still can be visited under the Milan Cathedral. When a fire damaged the cathedral and basilica in 1075, they were rebuilt as the Duomo, in 1386, Archbishop Antonio da Saluzzo began construction of the cathedral. Before actual work began, three buildings were demolished, the palace of the Archbishop, the Ordinari Palace and the Baptistry of St. Stephen at the Spring. Maria Maggiore was exploited as a stone quarry, enthusiasm for the immense new building soon spread among the population, and the shrewd Gian Galeazzo, together with his cousin the archbishop, collected large donations for the work-in-progress. The construction program was strictly regulated under the Fabbrica del Duomo, Orsenigo initially planned to build the cathedral from brick in Lombard Gothic style. Visconti had ambitions to follow the newest trends in European architecture, in 1389, a French chief engineer, Nicolas de Bonaventure, was appointed, adding to the church its Rayonnant Gothic, a French style not typical for Italy. He decided that the structure should be panelled with marble. Galeazzo gave the Fabbrica del Duomo exclusive use of the marble from the Candoglia quarry and exempted it from taxes. Ten years later another French architect, Jean Mignot, was called from Paris to judge and improve upon the work done, Mignot declared all the work done up till then as in pericolo di ruina, as it had been done sine scienzia. In the following years Mignots forecasts proved untrue, but they spurred Galeazzos engineers to improve their instruments, work proceeded quickly, and at the death of Gian Galeazzo in 1402, almost half the cathedral was complete. John the Evangelist, by Cristoforo de Mottis, and Saint Eligius and San John of Damascus, in 1452, under Francesco Sforza, the nave and the aisles were completed up to the sixth bay. The exterior long remained without any decoration, except for the Guglietto dellAmadeo and this is a Renaissance masterwork which nevertheless harmonized well with the general Gothic appearance of the church. During the subsequent Spanish domination, the new church proved usable, even though the interior remained unfinished, and some bays of the nave. In 1552 Giacomo Antegnati was commissioned to build an organ for the north side of the choirMilan Cathedral – Milan Cathedral from the Square.
16. San Salvatore, Brescia – San Salvatore is a former monastery in Brescia, Lombardy, northern Italy, now turned into a museum. The monastic complex is famous for the diversity of its architecture which include Roman remains and significant pre-Romanesque, Romanesque, in 2011, it became a UNESCO World Heritage Site as part of a group of seven inscribed as Longobards in Italy, Places of Power. The monastery is considered the place where Desiderata, wife of Charlemagne and daughter of the Lombard King Desiderius. San Salvatore was founded in 753 by Desiderius, future king of the Lombards, after the Lombard defeat by Charlemagne, San Salvatore maintained its privileges as a royal institution, and enlarged its possessions. Alfred the Great visited this monastery when he went to Rome in the 850s, in the 12th century most of the edifices were rebuilt or restored in the Romanesque style, and the oratory of Santa Maria in Solario was erected. In the 15th century all the structures were restored and a dormitory was added. In 1599 the church of Santa Giulia was finished, the monastery was suppressed in 1798 after the French invasion of Lombardy, and turned into barracks. The monastery complex includes, The Basilica of San Salvatore, dating from around the 9th century, the bell tower, rebuilt in the 13th-14th century, has frescoes by Romanino. The interior of the basilica houses frescoes by Paolo da Cailina the Younger, the presbytery is a former nun choir built in 1466. The Oratory of Santa Maria in Solario, added in the 12th century and it has a square plan with an octagonal lantern and small arched loggia. The second floor is decorated with scenes of the life of Jesus, the 16th century church of Santa Giulia. The museum, including ancient finds dating from the Bronze Age to Roman times, among them is the 4th century ivory Brescia Casket and a Winged Victory statue. There is also a plan showing the appearance of the Roman centre of Brixia at the time of Emperor Vespasian. The medieval section of the houses a crucifix alleged to have belonged to Desiderius. There are also architectural remnants from local buildings now destroyed, such as frescoes from the citys Broletto, a statue of St. Faustine, also visible in the complex are some Roman houses, excavated beneath the former nuns orchardSan Salvatore, Brescia – Interior of San Salvatore's church
17. Monte Isola – Monte Isola is a town and comune in the province of Brescia, in Lombardy. It is located on an island of the name in Lake Iseo and, as of 2015. Monte Isolas population is spread over eleven villages and hamlets. There are several churches built between the 15th and the 17th century with frescoes, statues, altars in vernacular art. With a total area of 12.8 square kilometres, Monte Isola ranks as the largest lake not only in Italy. The peak of the island at 600 metres above sea level is 419 metres above the surface elevation of Lake Iseo. Monte Isola includes 12 frazioni, Carzano, Cure, Masse, Menzino, Novale, Olzano, Peschiera Maraglio, Porto di Siviano, Sensole, the bordering municipalities are Iseo, Marone, Sale Marasino, Sulzano, Parzanica, Tavernola Bergamasca and Sarnico. There are two main ports Carzano and Peschieria with a frequent ferry service with the surrounding mainland villages, there are indications of a Roman settlement. The first written document mentioning Insulae curtis dates from 905, when the island was listed among the properties of the monastery of S. Salvatore in Brescia, the family Oldofredi, rulers of Iseo, built on the island two strongholds in the 11th-12th centuries. Members of the powerful Visconti family came here to hunt in 1400, in 1497 Francesco Sforza, duke of Milan, gave the islanders some fishing rights and reduced the taxes. In the same year, Caterina Cornaro, queen of Cyprus, during the 19th century the main industry on the island was the construction of boats and the manufacturing of fishing nets. Peschiera Maraglio and Siviano merged in 1929 to create the actual comune, in June and early July,2016, Monte Isola was the site of The Floating Piers by artists Christo and Jeanne-Claude. The single-nave church of San Michele in Peschiera Maraglio was consecrated in 1648 and this baroque church is notable for the many frescoes on the walls and on the ceiling and for its wooden carvings. The shrine of Madonna della Ceriola stands 600 metres above sea level and it can only be reached by walking from the small village of Cure. The fortress Martinengo can be reached from Menzino and it was built in the 15th century by Oldofredi and enlarged in the 16th century by Martinengo. After a long period of neglect, it has been renovated in an elegant residence by the architect Vittorio Faglia, in 1497 Catherine Cornaro, queen of Cyprus, sojourned here for a short stay. Monte Isola can be reached through a network of ferry connection with regular schedules, driving restrictions are currently enforced, with mopeds and bicycles only allowed on the island. A circular trail of almost 9 km allows a tour of Monte IsolaMonte Isola – Monte Isola
18. Monza Cathedral – The Duomo of Monza often known in English as Monza Cathedral is the main religious building of Monza, near Milan, in northern Italy. The church is known as the Basilica of San Giovanni Battista from its dedication to John the Baptist. Monza itself was known as Modoetia. In 595, she had a built on the Greek Cross plan. The queen was buried here, in what is now the left aisle of the church. On the remains of the oraculum, a new church was erected in the 13th century and it was again rebuilt as a basilica, starting from 1300, on a Latin Cross plan with an octagonal tiburium. In the late 14th century, the chapels were added and, as designed by Matteo da Campione. Starting from the 16th century, the choir and the ceiling were restored, subsequently, the walls and the vaults were decorated with frescoes and stucco-work. The bell tower was erected in 1606, in the 18th century a cemetery was annexed on the left side. The massive west front is divided into five parts by six lesene, the façade has several mullioned windows with, in the centre, a large rose window framed by a motif inspired by Roman antique ceilings, decorated with rosettes, masks and star motifs. The façade is considered Romanesque in its structure and Gothic in its decoration, typical of the latter is the porch, with 14th century gargoyles on the sides and the 13th century lunette with the 16th century busts of Theodelinda and King Agilulf. Over the porch is the statue of Saint John the Baptist, over the portal is depicted the Baptism of Jesus, assisted by Saint Peter, the Blessed Virgin Mary, Saint Zachary and Saint Paul. In the upper section is portrayed Theodelinda offering to John the Baptist the Iron Crown of Lombardy, together with her kneeling husband Agilulf and their children Adaloald, the church has a nave and two aisles, separated by octagonal columns with Romanesque capitals and round columns with Baroque capitals. It ends in large apses, and has a series of chapels opening into the aisles, the wall decoration is overwhelmingly Baroque. Other artworks include a choir by Matteo da Campione, the altar by Andrea Appiani. Only Bobbio has an equivalent collection of ampullae, the library holds a number of old and important illuminated manuscripts. Apart the Iron Crown, the most famous attraction of the church is the Chapel of Theodelinda, all the figures are portrayed with rich garments typical of the Visconti era. The vault is decorated with 14th century figures of saints and evangelists enthroned, on the outer arch are depicted Theodelinda with her court venerating Saint John the BaptistMonza Cathedral – Façade of the Duomo
19. Porta Nuova (Milan) – Porta Nuova is the main business district of Milan, Italy. It is named after the well-preserved Napoleonic gate built in 1810–13 on this site, the gates of Porta Nuova were built in 1810–1813 from a design of the poet Giuseppe Zanoia. Stylistically, it is a Neoclassic triumphal arch of Corinthian influence and it was built in friable sandstone, and as a consequence its decorations have decayed over time. After a long period of decay, the Porta Nuova district is now undergoing a massive renewal. The project, which has been under construction since the late 2000s, includes several high rise buildings, cultural centres. This project effects areas from the neighborhoods of Isola, Varesine, construction started in 2009, with completion planned in 2014. The project involves the work of noted architects such as Cesar Pelli, Stefano Boeri, the redevelopment area extends from Porta Garibaldi station to piazza della Repubblica and from Porta Nuova gate to Palazzo LombardiaPorta Nuova (Milan) – The Napoleonic gates after which the district is named.
20. Rock Drawings in Valcamonica – The stone carvings of Val Camonica are located in the Province of Brescia, Italy, and constitute the largest collections of prehistoric petroglyphs in the world. The collection was recognized by Unesco in 1979 and was Italys first recognized World Heritage Site, Unesco has formally recognized more than 140,000 figures and symbols, but new discoveries have increased the number of catalogued incisions to between 200,000 and 300,000. The petroglyphs are spread on all surfaces of the valley, but concentrated in the areas of Darfo Boario Terme, Capo di Ponte, Nadro, Cimbergo, the petroglyph tradition does not end abruptly. Engravings have been identified from the Roman period, medieval period and are possibly even contemporary, most of the cuts have been made using the martellina technique and lesser numbers obtained through graffiti. The figures are simply superimposed without apparent order. Others instead appear to have a relationship between them, for example, a picture of a religious rite or a hunting scene or fight. This approach explains the scheme of images, each of which is an ideogram that is not the real object, among the most-famous symbols found in Valcamonica is the so-called Rosa camuna, which was adopted as the official symbol of the region of Lombardy. In the 1960s, the archaeologist Emmanuel Anati, among the first to study the area. It compared the style and types of the symbols to identify possible correlations with the traditional historical periodization, the earliest rock carvings date back to epipaleolithic, several millennia after the retreat of the glacier that covered the Val Camonica. Those carvings were the work of passing nomadic hunters, following the migrations of their prey, the figures represented in fact depict large animals such as deer and elk, which are the typical prey of that period. Similar representations are present in the town park stone carvings of Luine, during the Neolithic period, agricultural practices spread in Val Camonica, correlated with the formation of the first sedentary settlements. Similar carvings are present in the Regional Reserve of Rock Engravings of Ceto, Cimbergo, the pertaining to the Neolithic of the schematic anthropomorphic figures, so called oranti, is questioned, as some scholars refer them to the Bronze Age. During the Copper Age, new symbols appeared, documenting the emergence of the wheel, the wagon, rocks were stained with celestial symbols, animals, weapons, depictions of plowing, chains of human-beings and other signs. These monuments, preserved mainly in the Archaeological Park of National Massi Cemmo and in that of Asinino-Anvòia, during the Bronze Age, engravings on rock outcrops took on the issue of weapons, reflecting the greater emphasis given them by the warriors in the camunian society of the time. Continuing emphasis was given to geometric shapes, in continuity with engravings from earlier eras, the engravings of the Iron Age are attributed to the people of Camunni and constitute about 70-80% of all census figures. These works manifest their ideals of masculinity and superiority. Dominant themes include representations of duels and human figures, even ones, flaunting their weapons, their muscles. There are also figures of cabins, labyrinths, footprints, hunting scenes, during the Roman domination of Val Camonica petroglyph activity suffered a sharp contraction, entering a phase of latencyRock Drawings in Valcamonica – UNESCO World Heritage Site
21. Royal Villa of Monza – The Royal Villa is a historical building in Monza, northern Italy. It lies on the banks of the Lambro, surrounded by the large Monza Park and it was originally built by Giuseppe Piermarini between 1777 and 1780, when Lombardy was part of Austrian Empire, for the Archduke Ferdinand of Austria. Following the establishment of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy, the building was used as a Royal Palace and became home to the Viceroy of Italy, Eugène de Beauharnais. With the fall of the First Empire, Austria annexed the Italian territories to the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia, in 1861, when the new Kingdom of Italy was established, the building became a palace of the Italian Royal House of Savoy. The Royal Villa was abandoned by the family in 1900. The palace complex includes the Cappella Reale, or the Royal Chapel, the Cavallerizza, the Rotonda dellAppiani, the Teatrino di Corte and the Orangerie. The rooms at the first floor include grand salons and halls, in front of the palace are the Royal gardens, designed by Piermarini as English landscape gardens. The building hosts exhibitions, but lacked a long-term resident or use until July 23,2011. Official web Site Royal Palace of MonzaRoyal Villa of Monza – Royal Villa of Monza
22. Sacri Monti of Piedmont and Lombardy – They also house much important artistic material in the form of wall paintings and statuary. In 2003, they were inscribed as a World Heritage Site, the model of the calvary or holy mountain is a Christian creation dating from the late fifteenth century, that during the Counter-Reformation spread from Italy to Europe and the New World. The Sacred Mountains stand on high ground, at distance from the town centre. They are usually reached by pilgrimage, the itinerary leading up to the Sacred Mountain often re-evokes the Via Dolorosa, the road leading from Jerusalem to Calvary along which Christ carried the Cross. netSacri Monti of Piedmont and Lombardy – UNESCO World Heritage Site
23. San Michele Maggiore, Pavia – The Basilica of San Michele Maggiore is a church of Pavia, one of the most striking example of Lombard-Romanesque style. It dates from the 11th and 12th centuries, a first church devoted to St. Michael Archangel was built on the location of the Lombard Palace chapel, but it was destroyed by a fire in 1004. The current construction was begun in the late 11th century and was completed by 1155, the vaults of the nave, originally with two grossly squared groin-vaulted spans, were replaced in 1489 by Agostino da Candia by four rectangular spans. The basilica was the seat of important events, including the coronations of Louis III and Frederick Barbarossa. San Michele Maggiore can be considered the prototype of other important medieval churches in Pavia such as San Pietro in Ciel dOro and San Teodoro. However, it differentiates from latter in the use of sandstone instead of bricks, San Micheles transept, provided with a true façade, a false apse and a barrel vault different from the rest of the church, constitutes a nearly independent section of the edifice. Also its length, contributes to this impression, at the crossing of nave and transept is the octagonal dome, a 30 m-high asymmetrical structure supported on squinches, in the Lombard-Romanesque style. It is reportedly the earliest example of form in Lombardy. The façade is decorated by numerous sculptures, of religious or profane themes. The façade has five double and two mullioned windows and a cross, which are a 19th-century reconstruction of what was thought be the original scheme. Bas reliefs in horizontal bands portray human, animal and fantastic figures, over the minor portals are portrayed St. Ennodius, bishop of Pavia, and St. Eleucadius, archbishop of Ravenna. In the lunettes are angels which, according to a caption sculpted there, have the role of ambassadors of the words into heaven. The aisles have matronaea with statical function, the four chapels in correspondence of the second and four spans of the aisles are a later addition. Under the apse, which has a large 16th-century fresco, is the high altar housing the remains of Sts, the presbytery has fragments of a notable pavement mosaic with the Labours of the Months and mythological themes. The crypt, with a nave and two aisles, is located immediately under the altar, it houses beautifully decorated capitals and the monument of the Blessed Martino Salimbene, history of Medieval Arabic and Western European domes Official websiteSan Michele Maggiore, Pavia – Façade.
24. San Siro Stadium – The Stadio Giuseppe Meazza, commonly known as San Siro, is a football stadium in the San Siro district of Milan, Italy, which is the home of A. C. Milan and Inter Milan. It has a capacity of 80,018, making it one of the largest stadia in Europe. On 3 March 1980, the stadium was named in honour of Giuseppe Meazza, the San Siro is a UEFA category four stadium. It hosted six games at the 1990 FIFA World Cup and four European Cup finals, construction of the stadium commenced in 1925 in the district of Milan named San Siro, with the new stadium originally named Nuovo Stadio Calcistico San Siro. The idea to build a stadium in the district as the horse racing track belongs to the man who then was the president of A. C. Milan. The architects designed a stadium only for football, without the athletics tracks which characterized Italian stadiums built with public funds. The inauguration was on 19 September 1926, when 35,000 spectators saw Inter Milan defeat Milan 6–3, originally, the ground was home and property of A. C. Milan. Finally, in 1947, Inter, who used to play in the classy Arena Civica downtown, became tenants, on 2 March 1980 the stadium was named for Giuseppe Meazza, one of the most famous Milanese footballer. Apart from being used by Milan and Inter, the Italian national team also plays occasional games there and it has also been used for the 1965,1970,2001 and 2016 UEFA Champions League finals. The stadium was used for Inter Milans UEFA Cup finals when played over home. The stadium underwent further renovations for the 1990 World Cup with $60 million being spent, as part of the renovations, the stadium became all seated, with an extra tier being added to three sides of the stadium. This entailed the building of 11 concrete towers around the outside of the stadium, four of these concrete towers were being located at the corners to support a new roof which has distinctive protruding red girders. In 1996 inside the stadium was opened a museum about A. C. Milan and Internazionales story with historical shirts, cups and trophies, shoes, art objects, the stadium was one of the biggest venues of the 1934 FIFA World Cup and held three matches. The stadium was one of the four selected to host the matches during the UEFA Euro 1980, the stadium was one of the venues of the 1990 FIFA World Cup and held six matches. San Siro was the venue for the match between Duilio Loi vs. Carlos Ortiz for the Junior Welterweight title in 1960. The first and only top level rugby union match was a test match between Italy and New Zealand in November 2009, a crowd of 80,000 watched the event, a record for Italian rugby. Besides football, San Siro can be configured to hold other events. After this event, the singer to perform at San Siro was Bob Dylan on 24 June 1984San Siro Stadium – UEFA
25. Stelvio National Park – Stelvio National Park is a national park in the north-east of Italy, founded in 1935. The park is the largest in Italy and covers part of two regions, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Lombardia, in 24 municipalities, Stelvio National Park has borders with the Swiss National Park, the Parco naturale provinciale dellAdamello-Brenta and the Parco regionale dellAdamello. Together, these parks comprise 400,000 hectares of protected natural environment, the park includes an extensive territory of valleys and high mountains, ranging from 650 metres to 3,900 m in height. Pages by the Park Authority on Parks. it official page of park Parco nazionale dello Stelvio InformationStelvio National Park – View in the park
26. Torrazzo of Cremona – The Torrazzo is the bell tower of the Cathedral of Cremona, Lombardy, in northern Italy. However the Torrazzo is older than the Landshut tower and the Bruges tower, according to popular tradition, construction on the tower began in 754. The seven bells are tuned in the scale of A major, archaeological excavations made in the 1980s have discovered the presence of underlying structures which are supposed to be the remains of a more ancient churchyard, or even previous Roman buildings. In the Torrazzos fourth storey resides the largest astronomical clock in the world, the mechanism was built by Francesco and Giovan Battista Divizioli between 1583 and 1588. Galeati, G. Il Torrazzo di Cremona, Il Torrazzo ed il suo restauro. Loffi, F. Il Torrazzo di Cremona, ghidotti, P. Il Torrazzo di Cremona. Archeologia e storia di un monumento medievaleTorrazzo of Cremona – The Torrazzo.