1. NATO – The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949. The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party, three NATO members are permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and are officially nuclear-weapon states. NATOs headquarters are located in Haren, Brussels, Belgium, while the headquarters of Allied Command Operations is near Mons. NATO is an Alliance that consists of 28 independent member countries across North America and Europe, an additional 22 countries participate in NATOs Partnership for Peace program, with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programmes. The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global total, Members defence spending is supposed to amount to 2% of GDP. The course of the Cold War led to a rivalry with nations of the Warsaw Pact, politically, the organization sought better relations with former Warsaw Pact countries, several of which joined the alliance in 1999 and 2004. N. The Treaty of Brussels, signed on 17 March 1948 by Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, the treaty and the Soviet Berlin Blockade led to the creation of the Western European Unions Defence Organization in September 1948. However, participation of the United States was thought necessary both to counter the power of the USSR and to prevent the revival of nationalist militarism. He got a hearing, especially considering American anxiety over Italy. In 1948 European leaders met with U. S. defense, military and diplomatic officials at the Pentagon, marshalls orders, exploring a framework for a new and unprecedented association. Talks for a new military alliance resulted in the North Atlantic Treaty and it included the five Treaty of Brussels states plus the United States, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark and Iceland. The first NATO Secretary General, Lord Ismay, stated in 1949 that the goal was to keep the Russians out, the Americans in. Popular support for the Treaty was not unanimous, and some Icelanders participated in a pro-neutrality, the creation of NATO can be seen as the primary institutional consequence of a school of thought called Atlanticism which stressed the importance of trans-Atlantic cooperation. The members agreed that an attack against any one of them in Europe or North America would be considered an attack against them all. The treaty does not require members to respond with military action against an aggressor, although obliged to respond, they maintain the freedom to choose the method by which they do so. This differs from Article IV of the Treaty of Brussels, which states that the response will be military in nature. It is nonetheless assumed that NATO members will aid the attacked member militarily, the treaty was later clarified to include both the members territory and their vessels, forces or aircraft above the Tropic of Cancer, including some Overseas departments of France. The creation of NATO brought about some standardization of allied military terminology, procedures, and technology, the roughly 1300 Standardization Agreements codified many of the common practices that NATO has achievedNATO – The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in Washington, D.C., on 4 April 1949 and was ratified by the United States that August.
2. North Atlantic Treaty – The North Atlantic Treaty, signed in Washington, D. C. on 4 April 1949, is the treaty establishing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The treaty was signed in Washington on 4 April 1949 by a committee which was chaired by US diplomat Theodore Achilles and it was never shown to anyone except Jack. I wish I had kept it, but when I left the Department in 1950, I dutifully left it in the safe and I have never been able to trace it in the archives. It drew heavily on the Rio Treaty, and a bit of the Brussels Treaty, which had not yet been signed, but of which we were being kept heavily supplied with drafts. The eventual North Atlantic Treaty had the form, and a good bit of the language of my first draft. The treaty was created with an attack by the Soviet Union against Western Europe in mind. Rather, it was invoked for the first time in 2001 in response to the 11 September 2001 attacks against the World Trade Center, the following twelve nations signed the treaty and thus became the founding members of NATO. The following leaders signed the agreement as plenipotentiaries of their countries in Washington D. C, belgium – Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Paul-Henri Spaak and Ambassador Baron Robert Silvercruys Canada – Secretary of State for External Affairs Lester B. Pearson and Ambassador H. H. An Article 4 meeting was also convoked by Latvia, Lithuania, long-range artillery could be used across the border. The US said that Turkey has a right to action against the PKK. A news report also disclosed prior to the 28 July meeting that Turkey had violated Iraqi airspace in its pursuit of the PKK, the key section of the treaty is Article 5. Its commitment clause defines the casus foederis and it commits each member state to consider an armed attack against one member state, in Europe or North America, to be an armed attack against them all. It has been invoked only once in NATO history, by the United States after the September 11 attacks in 2001, the invocation was confirmed on 4 October 2001, when NATO determined that the attacks were indeed eligible under the terms of the North Atlantic Treaty. Active Endeavour began on 4 October 2001, in April 2012, Turkish PM Erdogan considered invoking Article 5 of the NATO treaty to protect Turkish national security in a dispute over the Syrian Civil War. The alliance responded quickly and a spokesperson said the alliance was monitoring the situation closely and will continue to do so and takes it very seriously protecting its members. ”On April 17. On April 29, the Syrian foreign ministry wrote that it had received Erdogans message, on 5 August, Erdoğan stated that The tomb of Suleyman Shah and the land surrounding it is our territory. We cannot ignore any unfavorable act against that monument, as it would be an attack on our territory, everyone knows his duty, and will continue to do what is necessary. We have no intention to interfere militarily, the recording has been reported as being probably recorded at Davutoğlus office at the Foreign Ministry on 13 MarchNorth Atlantic Treaty – North Atlantic Treaty authentication page
3. Enlargement of NATO – Enlargement of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization is the process of including new member states in NATO. NATO is an alliance of twenty-six European and two North American countries that constitutes a system of collective defense. The process of joining the alliance is governed by Article 10 of the North Atlantic Treaty, which allows only for the invitation of other European States, countries wishing to join have to meet certain requirements and complete a multi-step process involving political dialogue and military integration. The accession process is overseen by the North Atlantic Council, NATOs governing body, after its formation in 1949 with twelve founding members, NATO grew by including Greece and Turkey in 1952 and West Germany in 1955, and then later Spain in 1982. After the Cold War ended, and Germany reunited in 1990, in 1999, Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic joined the organization, amid much debate within the organization and Russian opposition. Another expansion came with the accession of seven Central and Eastern European countries, Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and these nations were first invited to start talks of membership during the 2002 Prague summit, and joined NATO shortly before the 2004 Istanbul summit. The most recent new members, Albania and Croatia, joined on 1 April 2009, in 2011, NATO officially recognized four aspiring members, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Macedonia, and Montenegro. Macedonia has been prevented from joining the alliance by Greece, one effect of the Macedonian naming dispute, the incorporation of countries formerly in the Eastern Bloc has been a cause of increased tension between NATO countries and Russia. NATO has added new members six times since its founding in 1949 to include twenty-eight members. Twelve countries were part of the founding of NATO, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The early years of the Cold War saw a stark divide between Capitalist ideologies, backed by NATO, and Communist satellite states of the Soviet Union and this divide encouraged the anti-Communist governments of Greece and Turkey to join NATO in 1952. Greece would suspend its membership in 1974, over the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, the Bonn–Paris conventions ended the allies occupation of West Germany, and were ratified in part on the basis that West Germany join NATO, which it did in 1955. Though initially isolationist, Spain under Francisco Franco was heavily anti-Communist, after its transition to democracy, Spain came under pressure to normalize its European relations, including joining NATO, which it did in 1982. A referendum in 1986 confirmed popular support for this, the first post-Cold War expansion of NATO came with German reunification on 3 October 1990, when the former East Germany became part of the Federal Republic of Germany and the alliance. This had been agreed in the Two Plus Four Treaty earlier in the year, other authors, such as Mark Kramer, have also highlighted that in 1990 neither side imagined that countries still technically in the Warsaw Pact or the Soviet Union could one day join NATO. In subsequent years, wider forums for regional cooperation between NATO and its neighbors were set up, including the North Atlantic Cooperation Council. Hungarys interest in joining was confirmed by a November 1997 referendum that returned 85.3 percent in favor of membership, russias actions in the First Chechen War were also a motivating factor for several countries that had memories of similar Soviet offensives. Russia was particularly upset with the addition of the three Baltic states, the first countries that were part of the Soviet Union to join NATOEnlargement of NATO – Negotiations in London and Paris in 1954 ended the allied occupation of West Germany and allowed for its rearmament as a NATO member.
4. North Atlantic Council – The North Atlantic Council is the principal political decision-making body of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, consisting of Permanent Representatives from its member countries. It was established by Article 9 of the North Atlantic Treaty, the North Atlantic Treaty gave the NAC the power to set up subsidiary bodies for various policy functions, including a defense committee to implement other parts of the treaty. Since 1952, the NAC has been in permanent session, the NAC can be held at the Permanent Representative Level, or can be composed of member states Ministers of State, Defense, or Heads of Government. The NAC has the same regardless of the formation it meets under. The NAC meets twice a week, every Tuesday, for an informal lunch discussion, usually, meetings occur amongst the Permanent Representatives who are the senior permanent member of each delegation and is generally a senior civil servant or an experienced ambassador. The list of Permanent Representatives may be found on the NATO website, the 28 members of NATO have diplomatic missions to the organization through embassies in Belgium. The meetings of the NAC are chaired by the Secretary General and, there is no voting or decision by majority. Each nation represented at the NAC table or on any of its subordinate committees retains complete sovereignty and responsibility for its own decisionsNorth Atlantic Council
5. Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe – Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe is the headquarters of the North Atlantic Treaty Organizations Allied Command Operations. Since 1967 it has been located at Casteau, north of the Belgian city of Mons, from 1951 to 2003, SHAPE was the headquarters of Allied Command Europe, ACE. Since 2003 it has been the headquarters of Allied Command Operations, SHAPE retained its traditional name with reference to Europe for legal reasons although the geographical scope of its activities was extended in 2003. At that time, NATOs command in Lisbon, historically part of the Atlantic command, was reassigned to ACO, an integrated military structure for NATO was first established after the Korean War raised questions over the strength of Europes defences against a Soviet attack. The first choice for commander in Europe was American General of the Army Dwight D, on December 19,1950, the North Atlantic Council announced the appointment of General Eisenhower as the first SACEUR. British Field Marshal Sir Bernard L, montgomery moved over from the predecessor Western Union Defence Organization to become the first Deputy SACEUR, who would serve until 1958. In establishing the command, the first NATO planners drew extensively on WUDO plans, General Eisenhower arrived in Paris on January 1,1951, and quickly set to work with a small group of planners to devise a structure for the new European command. The Planning Group worked in the Hotel Astoria in central Paris while construction of a permanent facility began at Rocquencourt, just west of the city, devising command arrangements in the Central Region, which contained the bulk of NATO’s forces, proved to be much more complicated. Drawing upon his World War II experience, General Eisenhower decided to retain overall control himself, instead there would be three separate C-in-Cs. In December 1950 it was announced that the forces initially to come under General Eisenhowers command were to be the U. S, on April 2,1951, General Eisenhower signed the activation order for Allied Command Europe and its headquarters at SHAPE. Headquarters, Allied Forces Central Europe was activated in Fontainebleau, France in 1953, on the same day, ACEs subordinate headquarters in Northern and Central Europe were activated, with the Southern Region following in June. By 1954 ACEs forces consisted of Allied Forces Northern Europe, at Oslo, Allied Forces Central Europe, Allied Forces Southern Europe, hodes, United States Army Allied Forces Southern Europe – Admiral R. P. M. Two 1952 central region exercises involved air-ground combined forces, equinox was a major air-ground exercise involving French-American tactical air units and a French airborne infantry unit under the command of Général dArmée Alphonse Juin, French Army. They maneuvered east of the Rhine River in the British Zone under the command of Lt. General Sir Richard Nelson Gale. Finally, Rosebud involved ground maneuvers by the U. S, seventh Army in the American Zone of Occupation of Allied-occupied Germany. The initial plans saw the defence of Western Europe from a Soviet invasion resting heavily on nuclear weapons, the conventional forces would attempt to hold this line while the allied strategic air forces defeated the Soviets and their allies by destroying their economy and infrastructure. What this strategy meant for the battle in the central region was described for publicity purposes in January 1954 by then-Supreme Allied Commander Europe General Alfred Gruenther as. An air-ground shield which, although still not strong enough, would force an enemy to concentrate prior to attack, in doing so, the concentrating force would be extremely vulnerable to losses from atomic weapon attacksSupreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe – The greater coat of arms of SHAPE, featuring the flags of the member states as supporters
6. Allied Air Command – The Allied Air Command is the central command of all NATO air forces and the Commander Allied Air Command is the prime air advisor to the Alliance. When directed by the Supreme Allied Commander Europe, it provides the core of the responsible for the conduct of air operations. The command is based at the Ramstein Air Base in Germany, during the early 1990s, following the relaxation of the tensions between East and West, a major reorganization of the NATO command and control structure was undertaken. This change in structure was marked by a ceremony at Ramstein on 1 July 1993, as a result, Denmark joined the six nations, which staffed the headquarters since its inception, Belgium, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States. On 3 March 2000, AIRNORTHWEST and AIRCENT were amalgamated, the new command was named AIRNORTH and also took over the air responsibilities of the former HQ BALTAP, and HQ NORTH. HQ AIRNORTH now included also personnel from Norway, Hungary, Poland, with the accession to NATO of seven new members in March 2004, the Baltic States Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania as well as Slovakia became a part of AIRNORTH. On 1 July 2004, AIRNORTH was renamed Component Command-Air Ramstein, the Commander of AIRCOM is currently a United States Air Force General who also serves in the U. S. national appointment of Commander United States Air Forces in Europe - Air Forces Africa. He is the designated Commander Allied Air Command for all air missions ask tasked by SACEUR, AIRCOM has a multinational staff, which may include liaison elements from other NATO headquarters and national commands as specified in agreements. The Deputy Air Commander is ordinarily a French or a British 3-star, one of its previously subordinate activities was Combined Air Operations Centre Finderup, in Denmark. There are also over 50 Control and Reporting Centres and Points, Baltic Region Training Events are held designed to offer training opportunities for enhancing interoperability, building capabilities and continuing the integration of Estonia, Latvia and LithuaniaAllied Air Command – Coat of arms
7. Allied Land Command – Allied Land Command is the standing headquarters for NATO land forces which may be assigned as necessary. The Commander LANDCOM is the land warfare advisor to the Alliance. When directed by the Supreme Allied Commander Europe, it provides the core of the responsible for the conduct of land operations. The command is based at Şirinyer, İzmir in Turkey, NATO has had a headquarters at Izmir for decades. Initially the organization there was Allied Land Forces South-Eastern Europe, responsible to Allied Forces Southern Europe at Naples. Under this command, with its headquarters in Izmir assisted by the subordinate Thessaloniki Advanced Command Post, were to be most of the Greek and Turkish armies in case of war. LANDSOUTHEAST was commanded by a United States Army lieutenant general, Lieutenant General Willard G. Wyman Lieutenant General Paul W. Kendall Lieutenant General George Windle Read, Jr. Lieutenant General Paul D. Harkins In 1966 the first major change occurred when French military personnel were withdrawn from LANDSOUTHEAST, on 30 December 1977, SHAPE and Turkish military authorities announced another change in the command structure of LANDSOUTHEAST, to be effective 1 July 1978. The command billet was to be filled by a Turkish Army four star general with a U. S. Major General as his deputy. General Sam S. Walker took command in 1977, and On 30 June 1978, General Walker handed over the command to General tr, Vecihi Akın, General Akın held command until 30 August 1979. Construction of a new facility in Sirinyer, Izmir was completed in March 1994. In July 1994, two German Army officers were assigned to the command for the first time, the headquarters garrison at Sirinyer was named General Vecihi Akin Garrison in March 1996, after the first Turkish LANDSOUTHEAST Commander. Turkish Land Forces General Hüseyin Kıvrıkoğlu commanded LANDSOUTHEAST from c. 1993-1996, after the end of the Cold War, for a period the NATO command in Izmir became Joint Command Southeast. Between 11 August 2004 and 1 June 2013 the headquarters of NATOs Allied Air Component Command in the south and it is responsible for providing a deployable land command for a joint operation. LANDCOM will also carry out the planning, conduct and direction of land operations. What this means is that if a single corps land operation is underway, if multiple corps are being directed, LANDCOM will direct them for either JFC Brunssum or Naples. On October 23,2014, Lt. Gen. Nicholson has assumed command of NATOs Allied Land Command and he succeeds Lt. Gen. Frederick Ben Hodges. Romania is leading the process of creating Multinational Division South-East, which will be established in Bucharest, Romania, the division in Bucharest will be subordinate to the NATO Force Integration Unit also to be established thereAllied Land Command – Coat of arms
8. Allied Maritime Command – Allied Maritime Command is the central command of all NATO maritime forces and the Commander MARCOM is the prime maritime advisor to the Alliance. When directed by the Supreme Allied Commander Europe, it provides the core of the responsible for the conduct of maritime operations. The command is based at the Northwood Headquarters in northwest London, the Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleet, gained a NATO responsibility as Commander-in-Chief Eastern Atlantic Area, as part of SACLANT, when the NATO military command structure was established in 1953. CINCEASTLANT headquarters was established at the Northwood Headquarters in northwest London, Commander-in-Chief Eastern Atlantic was redesignated as Commander, Allied Maritime Component Command Northwood around 2004. The command, which was renamed Allied Maritime Command Northwood in 2010, at the 2010 NATO Summit in Lisbon it was decided to create a leaner and more effective command structure. It is responsible for planning and conducting all NATO maritime operations, MARCOM leads four standing NATO maritime groups, two frigate groups and two mine countermeasures groups. The Standing NATO Maritime Groups are a multinational, integrated maritime force made up of vessels from allied countries, the ships and any aircraft aboard are available to NATO to support Alliance tasking. These groups provide NATO with a continuous maritime capability, the command is also responsible for additional naval assets as they support NATO missions. Current groups are, Standing NATO Maritime Group 1, Standing NATO Maritime Group 2, Standing NATO Mine Countermeasures Group 1, current operations include, Operation Active Endeavour and Operation Ocean Shield Official websiteAllied Maritime Command – NATO key headquarters
9. Allied Command Transformation – Allied Command Transformation is a NATO military command, which was formed in 2003 after North Atlantic Treaty Organisation restructuring. Since France rejoined the NATO Military Command Structure in mid-2009, a significant change took place where the Supreme Allied Commander Transformation is now a French officer, the first French Officer to serve as SACT was French Air Force General, Stephane Abrial. Allied Command Transformation was preceded by Allied Command Atlantic established in 1952 under the command of Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic, with its headquarters at Norfolk. Following the end of the Cold War, the Command was reduced, with many of its subordinate headquarters spread across the Atlantic area losing their NATO status, however, the basic structure remained in place until the Prague Summit in the Czech Republic in 2002. This led to ACLANT being decommissioned effective 19 June 2003, US Navy became the last SACLANT on 2 October 2002. He served as ACLANT commander until 19 Jun 2003 and he then served as Supreme Allied Commander, Transformation, until 1 Aug 2005. Admiral Sir Mark Stanhope RN, the Deputy Supreme Allied Commander, thus NATO’s military command structure was reorganized. One strategic command, Allied Command Transformation, was focused on transforming NATO, while the strategic command focused on NATO’s operations. Initial reports about a NATO transformation command began to appear in July 2002, ACT was formally established on June 19,2003. A suite of Baseline for Rapid Iterative Transformational Experimentation software was designed in response to the Maritime Situational Awareness request, since Allied Command Atlantic became Allied Command Transformation, commanders have included non-naval officers. Gen. Lance L. Smith USAF commanded ACT from 10 Nov 2005 until 9 Nov 2007 and he was succeeded by Gen. James N. Mattis USMC, who served from 9 Nov 2007 -08 Sep 2009. A significant change was the assumption of command by a French officer, after France rejoined the NATO Command Structure in mid-2009, General Stéphane Abrial, former chief of the French Air Force assumed command in 2009. French Air Force General Jean-Paul Paloméros replaced fellow Frenchman General Stéphane Abrial at the end of September 2012, on 30 Sep 2015 French Air Force General Denis Mercier succeeded General Paloméros. The Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Transformation position is filled by General Mirco Zuliani of the Italian Air Force. He succeeded General Mieczysław Bieniek of the Polish Land Forces, who had himself succeeded Admiral Luciano Zappata, for several years, in a carryover from SACLANT, the Deputys position was filled by a Royal Navy admiral. Stanhopes succession by Zappata meant an end to this practice, a large number of conferences and seminars have been organised by the command in fulfilment of its conceptual development mission. These have included CD&E, a national Chiefs of Transformation conference, an examination of the Global Commons, Law of Armed Conflict, the commands headquarters is located in Norfolk, Virginia, in the United States. This division probably serves as NATOs linkpoint to the annual U. S. -led Coalition Warrior Interoperability Demonstration, reflecting NATO as a whole, ACT has a presence on both sides of the AtlanticAllied Command Transformation
10. NATO Parliamentary Assembly – Founded in 1955, the NATO Parliamentary Assembly serves as the consultative interparliamentary organisation for the North Atlantic Alliance. Its current President is Paolo Alli from Italy and its current Secretary General is David Hobbs from the United Kingdom, he has been in this position since January 2008. These measures included the Secretary General providing a response to all Assembly recommendations and resolutions adopted in its Plenary Sessions. In response to the fall of the Berlin wall at the end of the 1980s and those ties, in turn, greatly facilitated the dialogue that NATO itself embarked upon with the regions governments. Bringing together legislators from all the states of the Atlantic Alliance. At the same time, it facilitates parliamentary awareness and understanding of key security issues and contributes to a transparency of NATO policies. Crucially, it helps maintain and strengthen the relationship, which underpins the Atlantic Alliance. It played the role with respect to the ratification process leading to the accession of Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia in March 2004. The NATO PA consists of 257 delegates from the 28 NATO member countries, delegates to the Assembly are nominated by their parliaments according to their national procedures, on the basis of party representation in the parliaments. The Assembly therefore represents a spectrum of political opinion. The Assembly’s governing body is the Standing Committee, which is composed of the Head of each delegation, the President, the Vice-Presidents, the Treasurer. The headquarters of the Assembly’s 28-strong International Secretariat is located in central Brussels, the Assembly is directly funded by member parliaments and governments, and is financially and administratively separate from NATO itself. Each country’s contribution is based on the NATO Civil Budget formula, the five Committees are, Civil Dimension of Security, Defence and Security, Economics and Security, Political, Science and Technology. They are charged with examining all major issues in their fields. The Committees and Sub-Committees produce reports, which are discussed in draft form at the Assembly’s Spring Session, the reports are then revised and up-dated for discussion, amendment and adoption at the Assembly’s Annual Session in the Autumn. The NATO Secretary General responds in writing to the Assemblys recommendations, NATO-PA Delegations also undertake visits to NATO mission areas such as Afghanistan and the Balkans. The NATO-Russia Parliamentary Committee was discontinued in April 2014 following Russias military intervention in Ukraine, the Rose-Roth Programme of partnership and co-operation is designed to extend assistance to countries undergoing transition through difficult political and economic reforms. The program was designed to support Central and Eastern European countries but has subsequently focused mainly on the BalkansNATO Parliamentary Assembly – The Parliamentary Assembly meeting in London prior to the start of the 2014 Newport summit
11. Secretary General of NATO – The Secretary General of NATO is an international diplomat who serves as the chief civil servant of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. However, the Secretary General does not have any command role. Together with the Chairman of the NATO Military Committee and the Supreme Allied Commander the Secretary General is one of the foremost officials of NATO, the current Secretary General is Jens Stoltenberg, the former Prime Minister of Norway, who took office on 1 October 2014. Article 9 of the North Atlantic Treaty requires NATO members to establish a Council, accordingly, the North Atlantic Council was formed. Initially the Council consisted of NATO members foreign ministers and met annually, in May 1950, the desire for closer coordination on a day-to-day basis led to the appointment of Council deputies, permanently based in London and overseeing the workings of the organization. Deputies were given full decision-making authority within the North Atlantic Council, the Chairman of the deputies was given responsibility for directing the organization and its work, including all of its civilian agencies. The Council deputies met for the first time on July 25,1950, and selected Charles Spofford, several important organisational changes quickly followed the establishment of Council deputies, most notably the establishment of a unified military command under a single Supreme Allied Commander. This unification and the challenges facing NATO led to rapid growth in the institutions of the organisation and in 1951, NATO was reorganized to streamline. As the authority of the increased, and the size of the organization grew, NATO established the Temporary Council Committee. This group established an official secretariat in Paris to command NATOs bureaucracy, after the Lisbon Conference, the NATO states began looking for a person who could fill the role of Secretary General. The position was first offered to Oliver Franks, the British Ambassador to the United States, unlike later Secretaries General who served as Chairman of the North Atlantic Council, Ismay was made the Vice Chairman of the Council, with Spofford continuing to serve as chairman. Ismay was selected because of his rank in the war. As both a soldier and a diplomat, he was considered qualified for the position. Several months later, after Spofford retired from the NATO, the structure of the North Atlantic Council was changed slightly, Ismay served as Secretary General until retiring in May,1957. After Ismay, Paul-Henri Spaak, a diplomat and former Prime Minister of Belgium was selected as the second Secretary General. Unlike Ismay, Spaak had no experience, so his appointment represented a deemphasis of the strictly military side of the Atlantic Alliance. When confirming Spaaks appointment in December 1956 during a session of the NATO foreign ministers, the NATO Secretary General chairs several of the senior decision-making bodies of NATO. In addition to the North Atlantic Council, he chairs the Defence Planning Committee, in a second role, the Secretary General leads the staff of NATOSecretary General of NATO – Incumbent Jens Stoltenberg since 1 October 2014
12. Chairman of the NATO Military Committee – The Chairman of the NATO Military Committee is the head of the NATO Military Committee, which advises the North Atlantic Council on military policy and strategy. The Chairman is one of the foremost officials of NATO, next to the Secretary General, the current Chairman of the NATO Military Committee is Petr Pavel, former Chief of the General Staff of the Army of the Czech Republic, who took office on June 26,2015. The Military Committee was directly subordinate to the Defence Committee, iceland, which had no military forces, was represented by a civilian. Each member state in turn held the Chair of the Military Committee for one year, the principal military member of each NATO countrys delegation is the Military Representative, a senior officer from each countrys armed forces, supported by the International Military Staff. Its principal role is to provide direction and advice on military policy, like the Council, from time to time the Military Committee also meets at a higher level, namely at the level of Chiefs of Defence, the most senior military officer in each nations armed forces. Until 2008 the Military Committee excluded France, due to that countrys 1966 decision to itself from NATOs integrated military structure. Until France rejoined NATO, it was not represented on the Defence Planning Committee, such was the case in the lead up to Operation Iraqi Freedom. The operational work of the Committee is supported by the International Military Staff, the Chairman of the Military Committee chairs all meetings and acts in an international capacity. In his absence, the Deputy Chairman of the Military Committee takes the chair, the current Chairman is Czech General Petr Pavel. Since the formation of NATO, its Military Chairmen have been, Douglas S. Bland, The Military Committee of the North Atlantic Alliance, A Study of Structure and Strategy, New York, Praeger,1991Chairman of the NATO Military Committee – Incumbent General Petr Pavel since 26 June 2015
13. Member states of NATO – NATO is an international alliance that consists of 28 member states from North America and Europe. It was established at the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949, of the 28 member countries, two are located in North America and 25 are European countries while Turkey is in Eurasia. All members have militaries, except for Iceland which does not have a typical army, three of NATOs members are nuclear weapons states, France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. NATO has 12 original founding member states, and from February 181952 to May 6,1955, it added 3 more member nations. After the end of the Cold War, NATO added 12 more member nations from March 12,1999 to April 1,2009, NATO has added new members six times since its founding in 1949, and since 2009 NATO has had 28 members. Twelve countries were part of the founding of NATO, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In 1952, Greece and Turkey became members of the Alliance, joined later by West Germany, in 1990, with the reunification of Germany, NATO grew to include the former country of East Germany. In 1997, three former Warsaw Pact countries, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Poland, were invited to join NATO. After this fourth enlargement in 1999, the Vilnius group of The Baltics and seven East European countries formed in May 2000 to cooperate, seven of these countries joined in the fifth enlargement in 2004. Albania and Croatia joined in the enlargement in 2009. Due to the 2016–17 Turkish purges and Turkeys turn to some have speculated that Turkey could be expelled from NATOMember states of NATO – Current NATO members highlighted in blue
14. Albanian Armed Forces – The Albanian Armed Forces are the military of Albania and were formed after the declaration of independence in 1912. Today, it consists of, the General Staff, the Albanian Land Force, Albanian Air Force, the President of Albania is the Commander-in-Chief of the nations military. In times of peace, the Presidents powers as Commander-in-Chief are executed through the Prime Minister, on 4 December 1912, the Albanian Prime Minister, Ismail Qemali and his government, formed the Albanian National Army. Its first Chief in Command was Lieutenant Colonel Ali Shefqet Shkupi By 1923, at that time, Albania did not have a navy. In 1927, the Albanian Armed Forces numbered approximately 8.000 and these troops were organized into three groups, based in Tirana, Shkodër to the north and Berat to the south. Each group was organized into three battalions of 500, a guards battalion of 350 was organized in Tirana. Four frontier battalions of mountaineers were held on reserve, as well as tanks, additionally, a cadet school, a machine-gun school, and a bombing school were housed in the capital. In 1927 alone, the Albanian military ordered 20,000 rifles,40 mountain guns,120 machine guns, the Royal Albanian Army was the army of King Zogu from 1928 until 1939. Its commander-in-chief was himself, its commander General Xhemal Aranitasi, its Chief of Staff was General Gustav von Myrdacz, the army was mainly financed by Italy. On 7 April 1939, Italian troops invaded the country, after the Second World War, Albania became a Soviet-aligned country. The ranks and the structure of the Albanian Armed Forces were organized based on the Soviet concepts, like all other branches of the state, the military was subjugated to Communist Party control. All high-ranking military officers and most of the lower and middle ranks were members of the Communist Party—and had loyalties to it, the system was re-enforced by the establishment of Party cells within the military and extensive communist political education alongside soldiers’ military training, by the political commissars. In 1991 the rank system was reestablished under President Ramiz Alia, initially the communist purge concentrated on the military personnel graduated by the Western Military Academies, extended later on to the officers graduated in Soviet Union. As the communist regime collapsed in Albania during 1990, there was a fear that the armed forces might intervene to halt the collapse of communism by force. In the event, the armed forces stood by as the regime of which they had been a part disintegrated, during the 1980s, Albania had reduced the number of infantry brigades from eight to four. It had shifted to fully manned units from its reliance on the mobilisation of reserve soldiers to flesh out a larger number of units manned at a lower level. Each brigade had three battalions and one lightly equipped artillery battalion. Armoured forces consisted of one tank brigade, artillery forces were increased from one to three regiments during the 1980s, and six battalions of coastal artillery were maintained at strategic points along the Adriatic Sea littoralAlbanian Armed Forces – An Albanian T-59 tank during the Albania-Yugoslav border incident in May 1999.
15. Belgian Armed Forces – The Belgian Armed Forces is the national military of Belgium. The Belgian Armed Forces was established after Belgium became independent in October 1830, since that time Belgian armed forces have fought in World War I, World War II, the Cold War, Kosovo, Somalia and Afghanistan. The ParaCommando Brigade intervened several times in Central-Africa, for maintaining public order, the Armed Forces comprise four branches, the Land Component, the Air Component, the Marine Component and the Medical Component. It is currently active in Lebanon, Afghanistan, the Gulf of Aden, the need for a regular army was however soon acknowledged. The basis for recruitment was one of conscription under which exemptions could be purchased by obtaining substitutes. In practice this meant that only about a quarter of each years eligible intake actually served, as part of the national policy of even-handed neutrality, the 19th century Belgian Army was deployed as an essentially defensive force in fortifications facing the Dutch, German and French borders. Mobilisation plans simply required reservists to report to their depots, without arrangements being made in advance for deployment in a direction or against a particular enemy. Recruitment difficulties caused the army to remain below its intended strength of 20,000 men, the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 required full mobilisation for nearly a year, a process which showed up serious training and structural weaknesses. The presence of Belgian forces in strength along the borders did however ensure that the combat at no time spilled over into Belgian territory. In Belgium conscripts were selected through the drawing of ballots, and this system favored the well-off and had been discarded elsewhere as inefficient and unpatriotic. For those conscripted the terms of service required eight years in the regular army, various categories of volunteer enjoyed such privileges as being able to specify their branch of service, bounties and higher pay. The Papal Army based in Rome included from 1860 a battalion-sized unit known as the Tirailleurs Franco-Belges, recruited amongst volunteers from both countries, this became the Pontifical Zouaves in 1861 and fought as an allied force on the French side in 1871 during the Franco-Prussian War. In 1864 a Corps Expeditionnaire Belge was raised for service in Mexico, originally intended to serve as the Guard of the Belgian-born Empress Charlotte this 1,500 strong force was largely drawn from volunteers seconded from the Belgian Army. Known popularly as the Belgian Legion, it saw service in Mexico as part of the Imperial forces. From 1885 the Force Publique was established as the garrison and police force in the Belgian Congo. Initially led by a variety of European mercenaries, this force was subsequently officered by Belgian regulars after 1908. From December 1904 a small detachment of Belgian troops was based in China as the Guard of the Belgian Legation in Peking. Reforms undertaken in the years of the 20th century included the abolition in 1909 of the system of drawing lots for the selection of the annual intake of conscriptsBelgian Armed Forces – Soldiers of the Corps Expeditionnaire Belge during the Franco-Mexican War.
16. Bulgarian Armed Forces – The Bulgarian Army represents the Armed Forces of the Republic of Bulgaria. The Commander-in-Chief is the President of Bulgaria, the Ministry of Defence is in charge of political leadership while overall military command remains in the hands of the Defence Staff, headed by the Chief of the Defence. There are three branches, named literally the Land Forces, the Air Forces and the Naval Forces. Throughout history, the Army has played a role in defending the countrys sovereignty. During the Cold War the Peoples Republic of Bulgaria maintained one of the largest militaries in the Warsaw Pact, since the Fall of Communism, the political leadership decided to pursue a pro-NATO policy, thus reducing military personnel and weaponry. Bulgaria joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization on 29 March 2004, the patron saint of the Bulgarian Army is St. George. The Armed Forces Day or St. Georges Day is a holiday in Bulgaria. The modern Bulgarian military dates back to 1878, on 22 July 1878 a total of 12 battalions of opalchentsi who participated in the Liberation war, formed the Bulgarian armed forces. According to the Tarnovo Constitution, all men between 21 and 40 years of age were eligible for military service, in 1883 the military was reorganized in four infantry brigades and one cavalry brigade. The Serbo-Bulgarian War was the first armed conflict after Bulgarias liberation and it was a result of the unification with Eastern Rumelia, which happened on 6 September 1885. The unification was not completely recognized, however, and one of the countries that refused to recognize the act was the Kingdom of Serbia, the Austro-Hungarian Empire had been expanding its influence in the Balkans and was particularly opposed. Serbia also feared this would diminish its dominance in the region, in addition, Serbian ruler Milan Obrenović IV was annoyed that Serbian opposition leaders like Nikola Pašić, who had escaped persecution after the Timok Rebellion, had found asylum in Bulgaria. Lured by Austria-Hungarys promises of territorial gains from Bulgaria, Milan IV declared war on Bulgaria on 14 November 1885, Military strategy relied largely on surprise, as Bulgaria had moved most of its troops near the border with the Ottoman Empire, in the southeast. As it happened, the Ottomans did not intervene and the Serbian armys advance was stopped after the Battle of Slivnitsa, the main body of the Bulgarian army traveled from the Ottoman border in the southeast to the Serbian border in the northwest to defend the capital, Sofia. After the defensive battles at Slivnitsa and Vidin, Bulgaria began an offensive that took the city of Pirot, at this point the Austro-Hungarian Empire stepped in, threatening to join the war on Serbias side if Bulgarian troops did not retreat. Fighting lasted for only 14 days, from 14-28 November, a peace treaty was signed in Bucharest on 19 February 1886. No territorial changes were made to either country, but Bulgarian unification was recognized by the Great Powers, however, the relationship of trust and friendship between Serbia and Bulgaria, built during their long common fight against Ottoman rule, suffered irreparable damage. Instability in the Balkan region in the early 1900s quickly became a precondition for a new war, Bulgaria, which had secured Ottoman recognition of its independence in April 1909 and enjoyed the friendship of Russia, also looked to districts of Ottoman Thrace and Macedonia for expansionBulgarian Armed Forces – Bulgarian militiamen from the region of Macedonia, ca. 1900
17. Canadian Armed Forces – This unified institution consists of sea, land, and air elements referred to as the Royal Canadian Navy, Canadian Army, and Royal Canadian Air Force. Under the National Defence Act, the Canadian Armed Forces are an entity separate and distinct from the Department of National Defence, the Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Armed Forces is the reigning Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, who is represented by the Governor General of Canada. The Canadian Armed Forces is led by the Chief of the Defence Staff, during the Cold War, a principal focus of Canadian defence policy was contributing to the security of Europe in the face of the Soviet military threat. Toward that end, Canadian ground and air forces were based in Europe from the early 1950s until the early 1990s, Canadian defence policy today is based on the Canada First Defence Strategy, introduced in 2008. Based on that strategy, the Canadian military is oriented and being equipped to carry out six core missions within Canada, in North America and globally. Prior to Confederation in 1867, residents of the colonies in what is now Canada served as members of French and British forces. Thereafter, the Royal Canadian Navy was formed, and, with the advent of military aviation and these forces were organised under the Department of Militia and Defence, and split into the Permanent and Non-Permanent Active Militias—frequently shortened to simply The Militia. By 1923, the department was merged into the Department of National Defence, the first overseas deployment of Canadian military forces occurred during the Second Boer War, when several units were raised to serve under British command. Similarly, when the United Kingdom entered into conflict with Germany in the First World War, the Canadian Crown-in-Council then decided to send its forces into the Second World War, as well as the Korean War. Since 1947, Canadian military units have participated in more than 200 operations worldwide, Canada maintained an aircraft carrier from 1957 to 1970 during the Cold War, which never saw combat but participated in patrols during the Cuban Missile Crisis. At the end of the Second World War, Canada possessed the fourth-largest air force and fifth-largest naval surface fleet in the world, conscription for overseas service was introduced only near the end of the war, and only 2,400 conscripts actually made it into battle. Originally, Canada was thought to have had the third-largest navy in the world and its roots, however, lie in colonial militia groups that served alongside garrisons of the French and British armies and navies, a structure that remained in place until the early 20th century. After the 1980s, the use of the Canadian Armed Forces name gave way to Canadian Forces, land Forces during this period also deployed in support of peacekeeping operations within United Nations sanctioned conflicts. The nature of the Canadian Forces has continued to evolve and they have been deployed in Afghanistan until 2011, under the NATO-led United Nations International Security Assistance Force, at the request of the Government of Afghanistan. The Armed Forces are today funded by approximately $20, the number of primary reserve personnel is expected to go up to 30,000 by 2020, and the number of active to at least 70,000. In addition,5000 rangers and 19,000 supplementary personnel will be serving, if this happens the total strength would be around 124,000. These individuals serve on numerous CF bases located in all regions of the country, and are governed by the Queens Regulations and Orders, the 2006 renewal and re-equipment effort has resulted in the acquisition of specific equipment to support the mission in Afghanistan. It has also encompassed initiatives to renew certain so-called core capabilities, in addition, new systems have also been acquired for the Armed ForcesCanadian Armed Forces – Canadian troops of the Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry Highlanders welcomed by liberated crowds in Leeuwarden, Netherlands, 16 April 1945.
18. Republic of Croatia Armed Forces – The total number of active military personnel in the Croatian Armed Forces stands at 14,506 and 6,000 reserves working in various service branches of the armed forces. In May 2016, Armed Forces had 16,019 members, of the 14,506 active military personnel,3,183 were officers,5,389 non-commissioned officers,5,393 soldiers,520 military specialists,337 civil servants and 1,176 other employees. Total available male manpower aged 16–49 number 1,035,712, male citizens are now no longer subject to compulsory military service since January 1,2008. However, the last generation of 2007 servicemen was also absolved of compulsory service by an act from then Minister of Defence Berislav Rončević. For example,1995 Croatian defense budget stood at 12.4 billion Croatian Kuna or just over 12% of GDP, a long term modernization plan, 2015-2024 has been published outlining overall goals and is available for download at the Ministry of Defence of Croatia website. At the moment the Croatian Air Force will keep 12 MiG-21bis fighter aircraft, the Dr. Franjo Tuđman Military Academy acts as a school of higher learning responsible for training and educating future generations of military personnel. The academy consists of schools including Ban Josip Jelačić, Blago Zadro, Katarina Zrinska, the Officers Academy. The academy has 300 full-time staff and is the military academy in Croatia. Each year also 100-120 foreign nationals attend the academy, the Commander-in-Chief of all Croatian armed forces in peace and war is the President of the Republic. The Commander-in-Chief prescribes the organization of the Croatian Armed Forces at the proposal of the Chief of General Staff, the Armed Forces consist of peacetime and wartime components. The wartime component of the Armed Forces includes all other reservists, the General Staff is part of the Ministry of Defense in charge of commanding, training and use of the Armed Forces. It also has a number of units under its command, including the Special Operations Battalion, Honor Guard Battalion. In peace, the Commander-in-Chief exercises his command through the Minister of Defence, in war and in cases where the Minister of Defence is not fulfilling his orders, the Commander-in-Chief exercises his command directly through the General Staff Commander. The Croatian Parliament exercises democratic control over the Armed Forces by adopting defence strategy, defence budget, the command staff is composed of the members who served in the special units, guards brigades and reconnaissance units of the Croatian Armed Forces. Colonel Perica Turalija is the current commanding officer of the command, also, this means that members of all three branches of the Croatian armed forces can apply for selection. Other special operations units are the Military Intelligence Battalion and Special Military Police Company, the duties of an Honour Guard are performed by the Počasno zaštitna bojna, located at Zagreb in the Tuškanac military base. A $3-Billion modernization plan was proposed by the then Prime Minister Ivica Racan of the SDP led Government in 2003, with planned modernization starting in 2006 and ending in 2015. However it has been delayed in part due to the subsequent economic recession, a New Plan under the current Prime Minister Zoran Milanović should define exactly how and what the Croatian armed forces should look like by 2023Republic of Croatia Armed Forces – Petar Zrinski Military Academy Emblem
19. Army of the Czech Republic – The Army of the Czech Republic comprise the Czech Land Forces, the Czech Air Force and support units. From the late 1940s to 1989, the extensive Czechoslovak Peoples Army formed one of the pillars of the Warsaw Pact military alliance, as defined by the Czech Law No. 219/1999 Coll. the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic are the forces of the Czech Republic. They consist of the Army of the Czech Republic, the Military Office of President of the Republic, the Czechoslovak Armed Forces were originally formed on 30 June 1918 when 6. On the other side of the conflict, a number of Czechoslovak units and formations served with the Polish Army, the French Army, the Royal Air Force, the British Army, four Czech and Slovak-manned RAF squadrons were transferred to Czechoslovak control in late 1945. From 1954 until 1990, the Army was known as the Czechoslovak Peoples Army. Of the approximately 201,000 personnel on duty in the ČSLA in 1987, about 145,000, or about 72 percent. About 100,000 of these were conscripts, there were two military districts, Western and Eastern. In the Eastern Military District, there were two divisions, the 13th and 14th, with a supervisory headquarters at Trenčín in the Slovak part of the country. 58 assault rifle or the Uk vz.59 machine gun were of Czechoslovak design, the Army of the Czech Republic was formed after the Czechoslovak Armed Forces split after the 1 January 1993 dissolution of Czechoslovakia. Czech forces stood at 90,000 in 1993 and they were reduced to around 65,000 in 11 combat brigades and the Air Force in 1997, to 63,601 in 1999, and to 35,000 in 2005. At the same time, the forces were modernized and reoriented towards a defensive posture, in 2004, the army transformed itself into a fully professional organization and compulsory military service was abolished. The Army maintains an active reserve, the Czech Republic is a member of the United Nations and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. At the 1999 Washington summit, the Czech Republic joined NATO, the unit is stationed in the outskirts of the city of Olomouc, in place of the canceled 156th Rescue Battalion. Active Reserve is a part of the otherwise professional Army of the Czech Republic and this service was created to allow the participation of citizens with a positive attitude to the military. A volunteer needs either to have completed the military service or to attend 8 week training. Then the reservists have to serve up to three weeks a year and can be called up to two weeks during a non-military crisis. They are not intended to serve abroad, the Reserve presents itself on events like BAHNA, a military showArmy of the Czech Republic – Croatian Army Master Sgt.(right) discusses patrol routes with a Czech Army Sgt. (left) in Germany to prepare for Afghanistan, 2012
20. Danish Defence – The Danish Defence is the unified armed forces of the Kingdom of Denmark, charged with the defence of Denmark and its constituent, self-governing nations Greenland and the Faroe Islands. Denmark also has a concept of total defence, during World War II, the armed forces were disbanded by the Germans during Operation Safari. After the war, the different branches were reorganized, and collected under Danish Defence, was in order for greater communication between the branches. The purpose and task of the forces of Denmark is defined in Law no.122 of February 27,2001. It defines three purposes and six tasks, since 1988, Danish defence budgets and security policy have been set by multi-year agreements supported by a wide parliamentary majority including government and opposition parties. The latest Defence agreement was signed June 10,2004, from now about 60% support structure and 40% combat operational capability, it is to be 40% support structure and 60% combat operational capability, i. e. more combat soldiers and fewer paper-soldiers. The standard mandatory conscription is modified, generally this means fewer conscripts, less service time for them and only those who choose so, will continue into the reaction force system. This list lists the complete expenditures for the Danish Ministry of Defence, the Danish Defence Force, counting all branches and all departments, itself has an income equal to about 1–5% of its expenditures, depending on the year. They are not deducted in this listing, approximately 95% of the budget goes directly to running the Danish military including the Home guard. Because Denmark has a small and highly specialized military industry, the vast majority of the Danish Defences equipment is imported from NATO, frømandskorpset, Amphibious attack and infiltration unit. Slædepatruljen Sirius, Arctic dog sled unit patrolling the border of Greenland. Current deployment of Danish forces, since 10-03-2016, A Challenger CL-604 MMA for maritime patrol in the Baltic Sea as part of NATO Allied Maritime Command,35 soldiers in Kosovo participating in NATOs Kosovo Force, guarding the French Camp Marechal De Lattre de Tassigny. 84 people in Afghanistan as part of Resolute Support Mission, HDMS Absalon patrolling the Aegean Sea for human trafficking. 20 people in Bamako and Gao, as part of MINUSMA,13 people in Juba, as part of UNMISS. 11 people in Israel, as part of UNTSO,2 people in South Korea, as part of UNCMAC. 12 men on the Sirus Patrol of Eastern Greenland, a Challenger CL-604 MMA to fly patrol over Greenland. Rota between HDMS Tulugaq, HDMS Knud Rasmussen, HDMS Triton and HDMS Thetis to enact sovereignty patrol in the seas of Greenland, a Challenger CL-604 MMA to do maritime environmental monitoring missions in the North Sea. 149 people at Al Asad Airbase in Iraq to train the military as part of Operation Inherent ResolveDanish Defence – Danish Army and Navy personnel at combined/joint exercise DANEX/ DRO '07
21. Estonia Defence Forces – The Estonian Defence Forces is the name of the unified armed forces of the Republic of Estonia. The Estonian military is a force consisting of Land Forces, Navy, Air Force. A few days later Estonia was invaded by the forces of Bolshevist Russia. The small, poorly armed Estonian military, also known as the Peoples Force, was pushed back by the Red Army into the vicinity of the capital city of Estonia - Tallinn. A mere 34 kilometers separated Tallinn and the front line, partly due to the timely arrival of a shipment of arms brought by a British naval squadron the Bolsheviks were stopped. In January 1919, the Estonian armed forces launched a counteroffensive, the Ground Forces were supported by the Royal Navy as well as Finnish, Swedish and Danish volunteers. By the end of February 1919, the Red Army had been expelled from all of the territory of Estonia, on 2 February 1920, the Peace Treaty of Tartu was signed by the Republic of Estonia and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. After winning the Estonian Liberation War against Soviet Russia and German Freikorps volunteers, according to this treaty Estonia was to be occupied by the Soviet Union. The Estonian government was forced to give their assent to an agreement which allowed the USSR to establish military bases, on 12 June 1940, the order for a total military blockade of Estonia was given to the Soviet Baltic Fleet. Given the overwhelming Soviet force, in order to avoid bloodshed, the military occupation of Estonia was complete by 21 June 1940. The armed forces of Estonia were disarmed in July 1940 by the Red Army according to Soviet orders, only the Estonian Independent Signal Battalion stationed in Tallinn at Raua Street, in front of the Tallinn School No.21 continued to resist. As the Red Army brought in additional reinforcements supported by armoured fighting vehicles, there was one dead, several wounded on the Estonian side and about 10 killed and more wounded on the Soviet side. Military resistance ended with negotiations and the Signal Battalion surrendered and was disarmed, the Eesti Kaitsevägi was restored on 3 September 1991 by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Estonia. Since 1991, the forces of Estonia have re-opened and restored more than 30 old and new units. In peacetime the Estonian Defence Forces and the national defence organisations, in wartime all these components are commanded by the commander-in-chief of the defence forces. The chief of the forces and the commander-in-chief of the defence forces are appointed and released from office by the Riigikogu on the proposal of the President of the Republic of Estonia. Starting from 5 December 2011 the Chief of the Defence is Lieutenant-General Riho Terras, the Kaitseväe Peastaap is the headquarters of the military of Estonia and the working body of the Kaitseväe Juhataja of the defence forces. The General Staff is a joint staff engaged with operational leadership, training, Operational leadership is implemented by the Operational Staff, which plans and controls operations and ensures defence readiness and mobilisationEstonia Defence Forces
22. French Armed Forces – The French Armed Forces encompass the French Army, the French Navy, the French Air Force, the French National Guard and the National Gendarmerie of France. The President of the Republic heads the armed forces, with the title chef des armées, the President is the supreme authority for military matters and is the sole official who can order a nuclear strike. France maintains the tenth largest defence budget in the world and the second largest armed forces in size in the EU, France also maintains the third largest nuclear deterrent behind only Russia and the United States. The Gallo-Roman conflict predominated from 60 BC to 50 BC, with the Romans emerging victorious in the conquest of Gaul by Julius Caesar, after the decline of the Roman Empire, a Germanic tribe known as the Franks took control of Gaul by defeating competing tribes. The land of Francia, from which France gets its name, had points of expansion under kings Clovis I. In the Middle Ages, rivalries with England and the Holy Roman Empire prompted major conflicts such as the Norman Conquest and the Hundred Years War. The Wars of Religion crippled France in the late 16th century, in parallel, France developed its first colonial empire in Asia, Africa, and in the Americas. Resurgent French armies secured victories in dynastic conflicts against the Spanish, Polish, at the same time, France was fending off attacks on its colonies. As the 18th century advanced, global competition with Great Britain led to the Seven Years War, internal political upheaval eventually led to 23 years of nearly continuous conflict in the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. The rest of the 19th century witnessed the growth of the Second French colonial empire as well as French interventions in Belgium, Spain, other major wars were fought against Russia in the Crimea, Austria in Italy, and Prussia within France itself. Following defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, Franco-German rivalry erupted again in the First World War, France and its allies were victorious this time. The Allies, including the government in exiles Free French Forces and later a liberated French nation, as a result, France secured an occupation zone in Germany and a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council. The imperative of avoiding a third Franco-German conflict on the scale of those of two world wars paved the way for European integration starting in the 1950s. France became a power and since the 1990s its military action is most often seen in cooperation with NATO. Today, French military doctrine is based on the concepts of independence, nuclear deterrence. France is a member of NATO, and has worked actively with its allies to adapt NATO—internally. In December 1995, France announced that it would increase its participation in NATOs military wing, including the Military Committee, France remains a firm supporter of the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe and other cooperative efforts. Paris hosted the May 1997 NATO-Russia Summit which sought the signing of the Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation, France has undertaken a major restructuring to develop a professional military that will be smaller, more rapidly deployable, and better tailored for operations outside of mainland FranceFrench Armed Forces – Free French Foreign Legionnaires at the Battle of Bir Hakeim (1942).
23. Bundeswehr – The Bundeswehr is the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities. The States of Germany are not allowed to maintain armed forces of their own, the Bundeswehr is divided into a military part and a civil part with the armed forces administration. The military part of the defense force consists of the Heer, Marine, Luftwaffe, Streitkräftebasis, Zentraler Sanitätsdienst. In addition the Bundeswehr has approximately 27,600 reserve personnel. 2%, the Bundeswehr are in the process of integrating smaller NATO members Brigades into divisions of the German army. The Bundeswehr is to play a role as anchor army for smaller NATO states. 2 of 3 Royal Netherlands Army Brigades are now under German Command, in 2014 the 11th Airmobile Brigade, was integrated into the German Division of fast forces. Also the Dutch 43rd Mechanized Brigade, will be integrated into the 1st Panzer Division of the German army, with the integration starting at the beginning of 2016, and the unit becoming operational at the end of 2019. The Dutch-German military cooperation are seen as an example for setting up a European defense union, also the Czech Republics 4th Rapid Deployment Brigade, and Romania’s 81st Mechanized Brigade, will be integrated into Germany’s 10 Armoured Division and Rapid Response Forces Division. The name Bundeswehr was first proposed by the former Wehrmacht general and Liberal politician Hasso von Manteuffel, the Iron Cross is its official emblem. It is a symbol that has an association with the military of Germany. The Schwarzes Kreuz is derived from the black cross insignia of the medieval Teutonic knights, when the Bundeswehr was established in 1955, its founding principles were based on developing a completely new military force for the defence of West Germany. In this respect the Bundeswehr did not consider itself to be a successor to either the Reichswehr of the Weimar Republic or Hitlers Wehrmacht, neither does it adhere to the traditions of any former German military organization. One of the most visible traditions of the modern Bundeswehr is the Großer Zapfenstreich, the FRG reinstated this formal military ceremony in 1952, three years before the foundation of the Bundeswehr. Today it is performed by a band with 4 fanfare trumpeters and timpani. The Zapfenstreich is only performed during national celebrations or solemn public commemorations and it can honour distinguished persons present such as the German federal president or provide the conclusion to large military exercises. Another important tradition in the modern German armed forces is the Gelöbnis, there are two kinds of oath, for conscripts/recruits it is a pledge but its a solemn vow for full-time personnel. The pledge is made annually on 20 July, the date on which a group of Wehrmacht officers attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler in 1944, recruits from the Bundeswehrs Wachbataillon make their vow at the Bendlerblock in Berlin. This was the headquarters of the resistance but also where the officers were executed following its failureBundeswehr – Großer Zapfenstreich
24. Hellenic Armed Forces – The Hellenic Armed Forces are combined military forces of Greece. They consist of the Hellenic National Defense General Staff, the Hellenic Army, the Hellenic Navy, the civilian authority for the Greek military is the Ministry of National Defense. Greece currently has universal compulsory military service for males, under which all men above 18 years of age serve for 9 months, women may serve in the Greek military, but cannot be conscripted. According to NATO, in 2008, Greece spent 2.8 percent of G. D. P. on its military, or about €6.9 billion, or around $9.3 billion. Greece is the largest importer of weapons in Europe and its military spending is the highest in the European Union. Greece is an EU and NATO member country and participates in peacekeeping operations such as ISAF in Afghanistan, EUFOR in Bosnia and Chad, the basic components of the Hellenic Army are Arms and Corps, the first responsible for combat missions and the latter for logistical support. It is organized in Commands, formations, and units with the basic being brigade, division and its main mission is to guarantee the territorial integrity and independence of the state. Hellenic Navy possesses a powerful fleet, consisted of strike units, Hellenic Air Force incorporates a modern air fleet, the congruent structure, as well as a modern system of air control, which cooperates with a widespread net of anti aircraft defense. The structure of its forces includes the General Staff of Air Force, the Command Post of Regular Army, the Air Support Command, the Air Training Command and a number of units and servicesHellenic Armed Forces – Hellenic Armed Forces Eλληνικές Ένοπλες Δυνάμεις
25. Hungarian Defence Force – Hungarian Defence Forces is the national defence force of Hungary. The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The Ministry of Defence jointly with Chief of staff administers the armed forces, including the Hungarian Ground Force, since 2007, the Hungarian Armed Forces is under a unified command structure. The Ministry of Defence maintains the political and civil control over the army, a subordinate Joint Forces Command is coordinating and commanding the HDF corps. In 2016, the forces had 31.080 personnel on active duty. In 2017, military spending will be $1.21 billion, about 0. 94% of the countrys GDP, in 2012, the government adopted a resolution in which it pledged to increase defence spending to 1. 4% of GDP by 2022. Military service is voluntary, though conscription may occur in wartime, in a significant move for modernization, Hungary decided in 2001 to buy 14 JAS39 Gripen fighter aircraft for about 800 million EUR. Hungarian National Cyber Security Center is re-organized in 2016 in order to more efficient through cyber security. Hungary sent 300 strong logistics unit to Iraq in order to help the US occupation with armed transport convoys, one soldier was killed in action because of a roadside bomb in Iraq. During the 18th and 19th century, Hungarian Hussars rose to international fame, in 1848–49 HDF achieved incredible successes against better-trained and equipped Austrian forces, despite the obvious advantage in numbers on the Austrian side. In 1872, the Ludovica Military Academy officially began training cadets, by 1873 HDF already had over 2,800 officers and 158,000 men organized into eighty-six battalions and fifty-eight squadrons. During World War I out of the eight million men mobilized by Austro Hungarian Empire, during the 1930s and early 1940s, Hungary was preoccupied with the regaining the vast territories and huge amount of population lost in the Trianon peace treaty at Versailles in 1920. Conscription was introduced on a basis in 1939. The peacetime strength of the Royal Hungarian Army grew to 80,000 men organized into seven corps commands, during World War II the Hungarian Second Army was near to total devastation on banks of the Don River in December 1942 in Battle for Stalingrad. As of 2016 Global Peace Index shows, Hungary is one of the worlds most peaceful countries, since 2007, the Hungarian Defence Force has been under a unified command structure. The Ministry of Defence maintains the political and civil control over the army, the military leadership is exercised by the Defence Staff of the Ministry of Defence. A subordinate Joint Force Command coordinates and commands the HDF corps, the Home Defence Pyrotechnician and Warship Battalion of the Hungarian Defence Forces based in Újpest Port, on the River Danube, Budapest. In the 2000s, the army bought new minesweepers, restored or retired the old ones, on national holidays warships come along the River Danube in BudapestHungarian Defence Force – Operator of Hungarian Army's 34th ’László Bercsényi’ Special Operations Battalion (KMZ) about to storm the unit's own Killing House
26. Military of Iceland – Icelands defences consist of the Icelandic Coast Guard, which patrols Icelandic waters and airspace, and other services such as the National Commissioners National Security and Special Forces Units. The Coast Guard consists of three ships and four aircraft and armed with small arms, naval artillery, and Air Defence weaponry, the Coast Guard also maintains the Iceland Air Defence System, formerly part of the disestablished Defence Agency, which conducts ground surveillance of Icelands air space. Units subordinated to the National Commissioner also take part in Icelands defences, additionally there is a Crisis Response Unit, operated by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, which is a small peacekeeping force that has been deployed internationally, since 2008. This unit also has an unarmed component, furthermore, there is a treaty with the United States regarding the defense of Iceland, the former maintained a military base known as Naval Air Station Keflavik before it was disestablished in 2006. There are also agreements about military and other security operations with Norway, Denmark, Iceland holds the annual NATO exercises entitled Northern Viking. The most recent exercises were held in 2011, as well as the EOD exercise Northern Challenge, in 1997 Iceland hosted its first Partnership for Peace exercise, Cooperative Safeguard, which is the only multilateral PfP exercise so far in which Russia has participated. Another major PfP exercise was hosted in 2000, Iceland has also contributed ICRU peacekeepers to SFOR, KFOR and ISAF. The government of Iceland contributes financially to NATOs international overhead costs and recently has taken an active role in NATO deliberations. Iceland hosted the NATO Foreign Ministers Meeting in Reykjavík in June 1987 and these armies were divided into units according to the quality of the warriors and by birth. At the end of this period the number of chieftains had diminished and their power had grown and this resulted in a long and bloody civil war known as Age of the Sturlungs. A typical battle involved fewer than 1000 men, amphibious operations were an important part of warfare in Iceland in this period, especially in the Westfjords, but large naval engagements were rare. The largest such engagement, known as Flóabardagi, involved a few ships in Húnaflói. In 1855, the Icelandic Army was re-established by Andreas August von Kohl, in 1856, the king provided 180 rixdollars to buy guns, and a further 200 rixdollars the following year. The sheriff became the Captain of the new army, which known as Herfylkingin. In 1860 von Kohl died, and Pétur Bjarnasen took over command, nine years later Bjarnasen died without appointing a successor, and the army fell into disarray. In 1918, Iceland regained sovereignty as a kingdom under the Danish king. Iceland established a Coast Guard shortly afterwards, but it was impossible to establish a standing army. The government hoped that a permanent neutrality would shield the country from invasion, but at the onset of Second World War, the government was concerned about a possible invasion, and decided to expand the Icelandic National Police and its reserves into a military unitMilitary of Iceland – Icelandic Flagship ICGV Þór, 27.10.2011, Reykjavík
27. Italian Armed Forces – The Italian Armed Forces encompass the Italian Army, the Italian Navy and the Italian Air Force. A fourth branch of the forces, known as the Carabinieri. These five forces have military status and are all organized along military lines, the President of the Italian Republic heads the armed forces as the President of the High Council of Defence established by article 87 of the Constitution of Italy. According to article 78, the Parliament has the authority to declare a state of war, the ground force of Italy, the Regio Esercito dates back to the unification of Italy in the 1850s and 1860s. During the Cold War the Army prepared itself to defend against a Warsaw Pact invasion from the east, since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, it has seen extensive peacekeeping service in Lebanon, Afghanistan, and Iraq. On 29 July 2004 it became a professional all-volunteer force when conscription was finally ended, the navy of Italy was created in 1861, following the proclamation of the formation of the Kingdom of Italy, as the Regia Marina. The new navys baptism of fire came during the Third Italian War of Independence against the Austrian Empire, during the First World War, it spent its major efforts in the Adriatic Sea, fighting the Austro-Hungarian Navy. In the Second World War, it engaged the Royal Navy in a struggle for the control of the Mediterranean Sea. After the war, the new Marina Militare, being a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, has part in many coalition peacekeeping operations. The Guardia Costiera is a component of the navy, the air force of Italy was founded as an independent service arm on 28 March 1923, by King Vittorio Emanuele III as the Regia Aeronautica. During the 1930s, it was involved in its first military operations in Ethiopia in 1935, eventually, Italy entered World War II alongside Germany. After the armistice of 8 September 1943, Italy was divided two sides, and the same fate befell the Regia Aeronautica. The Air Force was split into the Italian Co-Belligerent Air Force in the south aligned with the Allies, when Italy was made a republic by referendum, the air force was given its current name Aeronautica Militare. The Arma dei Carabinieri is the gendarmerie and military police of Italy, the corps was instituted in 1814 by King Victor Emmanuel I of Savoy with the aim of providing the Kingdom of Sardinia with a police corps, it is therefore older than Italy itself. The new force was divided into divisions on the scale of one division for each province of Italy, the Italian unification saw the number of divisions increased, and in 1861 the Carabinieri were appointed the First Force of the new national military organization. In recent years Carabinieri units have been dispatched on peacekeeping missions, including Kosovo, Afghanistan, Italy did take part in the 1982 Multinational Force in Lebanon along with US, French and British troops. As part of Operation Enduring Freedom, Italy contributed to the operation in Afghanistan. Italian forces have contributed to ISAF, the NATO force in Afghanistan, Italian forces also command a multinational engineer task force and have deployed a platoon of Carabinieri military policeItalian Armed Forces – Alpini of the 4th Alpini Parachutist Regiment in Afghanistan in 2007.
28. Latvian National Armed Forces – The Latvian National Armed Forces are the armed forces of the Republic of Latvia. The National Armed Forces consists of Land Forces, Naval Forces, Air Force, National Guard, Latvia has switched to a professional army, the last draft was in 2005. From January 1,2007, the Latvian army is fully contract-based, the mission of the National Armed Forces is to defend the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the nation and to defend its population against foreign or domestic armed aggression. Ensure modernization and enhancement of professional training, The Latvian armed forces were first formed after the new state was created after World War I. At the end of the Latvian War of Independence, the Latvian Army consisted of 69,232 men, after the Soviet occupation of Latvia in June 1940 the annihilation of the Latvian army began. The army was renamed the People’s Army and in September–November 1940- the Red Army’s 24th Territorial Rifle Corps, the corps comprised the 181st and 183rd Rifle Divisions. In September the corps contained 24,416 men but in more than 800 officers. The arrests of soldiers continued in the following months, in June 1940, the entire Territorial Corps was sent to Litene camp. Before leaving the camp, Latvians drafted in 1939 were demobilised, on June 10, the corps senior officers were sent to Russia where they were arrested and most of them shot. On June 14 at least 430 officers were arrested and sent to Gulag camps, simultaneously, many soldiers and officers deserted and when the corps crossed the Latvian border only about 3,000 Latvian soldiers remained. There are 4,763 active duty personnel in the NAF, there are 971 soldiers in the Latvian Land Forces,552 in the Latvian Naval Forces,251 in the Latvian Air Force with the balance in the other commands. There are 10,642 voluntary national guardsmen with 1,284 officers and 1,945 non-commissioned officers in the Latvian National Guard, there are 1,288 civil employees serving in the NAF. Along with providing for defence, the NAF will also react immediately to threats to other allies. Latvia cooperates with Estonia and Lithuania in the joint infantry battalion BALTBAT, currently, NATO is involved in the patrolling and protection of the Latvian air space as the Latvian military does not have the means to do so. For this goal a rotating force of four NATO fighters, which comes from different nations, after joining the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Latvia has undertaken obligations to strengthen common defence within the scope of its capabilities. For this purpose, every NATO member state delegates its military formations — fast response, after joining NATO, the foundation of the Latvian defence system has shifted from total territorial defence to collective defence. Latvia has acquired small but highly professional troop units that have fully integrated into NATO structures. NAF soldiers have participated in operations since 1996Latvian National Armed Forces – A Latvian soldier during a training exercise
29. Lithuanian Armed Forces – The Lithuanian Armed Forces consist of 20565 active personnel. Conscription was ended in September 2008 but was reintroduced in 2015 because of concerns about the environment in light of Russias military intervention in Ukraine. Lithuanias defence system is based on the concept of total and unconditional defence mandated by Lithuanias National Security Strategy, the goal of Lithuanias defence policy is to prepare their society for general defence and to integrate Lithuania into Western security and defence structures. The defence ministry is responsible for combat forces, search and rescue, a special security department handles VIP protection and communications security. Directly subordinated to the Chief of Defence are the Special Operations Forces, the Reserve Forces are under command of the Lithuanian National Defence Volunteer Forces. The core of the Lithuanian Land Force structure is the Iron Wolf Mechanised Infantry Brigade consisting of three mechanized infantry battalions and artillery battalion, the Lithuanian Land forces are undertaking a major modernization. New weapons and heavier armour are going to be acquired, in 2007 the Land forces bought the German Heckler & Koch G36 rifle to replace the older Swedish Ak-4 as main weapon. There are plans to buy new Infantry fighting vehicles, the volunteers have already successfully participated in international operations in the Balkans, Afghanistan and Iraq. The NDVF consists of six territorial units, the Lithuanian Air Force is an integral part of the Lithuanian Armed Forces. The LAF is formed from professional military servicemen and non-military personnel, units are located at various bases across Lithuania, Kaunas, Karmėlava, Nemirseta, Šiauliai, Radviliškis. The initial formation of the LAF was the 2nd transport squadron with the transfer of 20 An-2 aircraft from civilian to military use and these were joined by four L-39C Albatros aircraft purchased from Kazakhstan as part of the intended 16 to be used by the 1st fighter squadron. Mil Mi-8 helicopters were modernised by LAF, in 20082 medium-range radars were acquired for the Air Forces Airspace Surveillance and Control Command. Air space is patrolled by jet fighters from other NATO members, the European Unions External border is patrolled by Aviation Unit of the Lithuanian State Border Guard Service which received new helicopters EC-120, EC-135 and EC-145. The Navy has over 600 personnel, the flotilla is the core component of the Navy, and consists of the Mine Countermeasures Squadron, the Patrol Ships Squadron, and the Harbour Boats Group. The current Commander in Chief of the Lithuanian Navy is Rear Admiral Kęstutis Macijauskas, the Naval base and Headquarters are located in the city of Klaipėda. The Navy uses patrol ships for coastal surveillance, the four newly acquired Flyvefisken class patrol vessels replaced the older Storm class patrol boats and Grisha class corvettes. SOF is formed from the Special Operations Unit, SOF are responsible for the following tasks, special reconnaissance, direct actions, and military support. It is also in charge of tasks, e. g. protection of VIP in peacetimeLithuanian Armed Forces – Flag and insignia of the Lithuanian Armed Forces
30. Luxembourg Army – The Luxembourg Army is the national military of Luxembourg. The army has been a force since 1967. It has a current strength of approximately 450 professional soldiers—340 enlisted recruits and 100 civilians—with a total budget of $369 million, the army is under civilian control, with the Grand Duke as Commander-in-Chief. The Minister for Defence, currently Etienne Schneider, oversees army operations, the professional head of the army is the Chief of Defence, who answers to the minister. Luxembourg troops have deployed to Afghanistan, to support ISAF. The army has also participated in relief missions such as setting up refugee camps for Kurds. The law fixed the militias strength at 3,000 men, until 1840, Luxembourg’s militiamen served in units of the Royal Netherlands Army. Enlisted men served for five years, the first year consisted of active service, in 1839, William I became a party to the Treaty of London by which the Grand-Duchy lost its western, francophone territories to the Belgian province of Luxembourg. Due to the population having been halved, with the loss of 160,000 inhabitants. In 1846, the cavalry and artillery units were disbanded and the Luxembourg contingent was separated from that of Limburg, the Luxembourg contingent now consisted of two light infantry battalions, one in Echternach and the second in Diekirch, two reserve companies, and a depot company. In 1866, the Austro-Prussian war resulted in the dissolution of the German Confederation, Luxembourg was declared neutral in perpetuity by the 1867 Treaty of London, and in accordance its fortress was demolished in the following years. In 1867, the Prussian garrison left the fortress, and the two battalions of Luxembourgish light infantry entered the city of Luxembourg that September. A new military organization was established in 1867, consisting of two battalions, known as the Corps des Chasseurs Luxembourgeois, having a strength of 1,568 officers. In 1868, the contingent came to consist of one infantry battalion of four companies. On 16 February 1881, the infantry battalion was disbanded with the abolition of the militia-based system. On 16 February 1881, the Corps des Gendarmes et Volontaires was established and it was composed of two companies, a company of gendarmes and one of volunteers. In 1939, a corps of volunteers was established and attached to the company of volunteers. This contingent was named the Luxembourg Battery, initially, it was under Belgian officersLuxembourg Army – Cap Badge of the Luxembourg Army
31. Military of Montenegro – The Military of Montenegro consists of an army, navy and air force. There has been no conscription in Montenegro, the military is a professional standing army. The military currently maintains a force of 1,950 active duty members, Montenegro is a member of NATOs Partnership for Peace program and is an official candidate for full membership in the alliance. Montenegro applied for a Membership Action Plan on 5 November 2008, in 2015, it was reported that international support for Montenegros NATO membership was growing. In December 2015, North Atlantic Council, invited Montenegro to join NATO as 29th member, Montenegro participates in peace operations under the NATO and UN auspices as military troops and observers. Minister of Defense said that 85 soldiers are trained for international missions, Montenegrin soldiers are trained by the German Bundeswehr. Montenegro sent 45 troops and medical personnel to the ISAF mission in Afghanistan, Montenegro also participates in UN peacekeeping missions in Liberia, UNMIL, Cyprus, UNFICYP as military observers and Somalia, EU-NAVFOR. Each kapetanija formed its reserve battalion, there were 42 battalions in total. Since 1881, regular military exercises were conducted, supreme Commander of the Montenegrin army was the monarch, Prince / King Nikola I. Operational command, organization and financial support of the Montenegrin army was entrusted to the Ministry of Defence, General Staff of the Montenegrin army was part of the Ministry of Defence. In 1882 first 14 Montenegrins were sent to schools abroad, particularly in Italy. In 1886,10 of them completed their education and they become first trained officers in Montenegrin warrior history and these Montenegrin officers held courses in Podgorica, Nikšić and Cetinje. In September 1895, the first permanent Infantry NCO school in Podgorica was opened, at the end of 1896, artillery officer school in Cetinje was established - the first Montenegrin officer school. In 1906 Montenegrin army received the first systematized regulations, and the Law on Organization of the Army was adopted in 1910, Infantry and artillery, were established, followed by two specialized branches, and additional branches. In 1913 the Montenegrin gendarmerie become a special Military Police unit, since the establishment of the internal Montenegrin telecommunications system in 1869, vital for the flow of military-defense information, it was under the jurisdiction of Ministry of the military. Divisions were composed of 2-3 Infantry Brigade, each divisional command had three artillery batteries. On the eve of the First Balkan War Kingdom of Montenegro lined up 55,000 soldiers, all Montenegrins between 18 and 62 years were conscripts. Recruitment was done three times a year, and the recruits are in peacetime had to have at least 25 years, the Military of Montenegro before 1918, was much larger than todays militaryMilitary of Montenegro – Kotor class Frigate
32. Armed forces of the Netherlands – The Armed forces of the Netherlands consist of the Army, Navy, and Air Force. The service branches consist of, Koninklijke Landmacht, Royal Netherlands Army, Koninklijke Marine, Royal Netherlands Navy and Korps Mariniers, Marine Corps. Koninklijke Luchtmacht, Royal Netherlands Air Force, in addition, within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, there are small local conscript forces on the islands of Aruba and Curaçao. These operate under the auspices of the Royal Netherlands Navy and Marines, the military ranks of the Dutch armed forces have similarities with British and U. S. military ranks. The highest-ranking officer in the Dutch military is the Chief of the Netherlands Defence Staff, the Dutch armed forces exist by declaration in the constitution of the Netherlands. Interestingly, this means that the role and responsibility of the Dutch military in international stability, the same article of the constitution determines that supreme command of the Dutch military resides with the Government of the Netherlands. This has been the case since the constitution was changed in 1983, before then, in addition, a second major change in military affairs was made in 2003. Before then, all citizens of the Netherlands were tasked with the defense of the kingdom, in keeping with the move to a professional military, this article was dropped. The Netherlands military is currently a professional military. Conscription in the Netherlands was suspended in 1996 with the exception of Aruba, all military branches and specialties, except for the submarine service and the Marine Corps, are open to female recruits. The Dutch military is part of the NATO militaries and therefore conforms to the structure of a NATO military and it also uses conforming rank structures. All Dutch military personnel, officers and enlisted personnel, are required to take an oath of allegiance and this oath is recorded in the law on General Military Personnel Regulations in Article 126a. Unlike many military organizations, Dutch military members are allowed to form, there are four of these unions, Algemene Federatie van Militair Personeel, which was recognized by the Dutch government in 1966. The AFMP is a member of the Dutch Federation of Trade Unions, the ACOM is a member of the Dutch Christian National Trade Union. Gezamenlijke Officieren Verenigingen en Middelbaar en Hoger Burgerpersoneel bij Defensie, which was recognized by the Dutch government in 2004, the GOV/MHB is a member of the Dutch confederation of groups of middle and senior staffmembers. All unions represent both current and retired military personnel and/or civilian personnel, the Netherlands deployed further troops and helicopters to Afghanistan in 2006 as part of a new security operation in the south of the country. Dutch ground and air forces totalled almost 2,000 personnel during 2006, taking part in combat operations alongside British, the Netherlands announced in December 2007 that it would begin withdrawing its troops from Afghanistan, which were mainly in Uruzgan Province, in July 2010. I do not have assurances that other countries will be ready to replace Netherlands troops, to the NATO secretary general, who has confirmed itArmed forces of the Netherlands – Military of Netherlands
33. Norwegian Armed Forces – The Norwegian Armed Forces is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Norway. It consists of four branches, the Norwegian Army, the Royal Norwegian Navy, which includes the Coast Guard, the Royal Norwegian Air Force, the armed forces number 23,000 personnel, including civilian employees, and have a full-mobilisation combat strength of 83,000. The armed forces are subordinate to the Ministry of Defence, led by Ine Marie Eriksen Søreide, the formal commander-in-chief is King Harald V, however, the de facto commander-in-chief is Chief of Defence Haakon Bruun-Hanssen. His staff is located at Akershus Fortress in Oslo, while the Norwegian Joint Headquarters, the main naval base is Haakonsvern in Bergen, the main army camps are in Bardu, Målselv and Rena, and the main air station is Ørland. An organised military was first assembled in Norway in the 9th century and was focused around naval warfare. The army was created in 1628 as part of Denmark–Norway, followed by two centuries of regular wars, a Norwegian military was established in 1814, but the military did not see combat until the German occupation of Norway in 1940. Norway abandoned its position as a country in 1949 to become a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. The Cold War saw a large build-up of air stations and military bases, since the 2000s, the military has transformed from a focus on defence from an invasion to a mobile force for international missions. Among European NATO members, the expenditure of US$7.2 billion is the highest per capita. The Chief of Defence heads the armed forces, and is the military adviser to the Minister of Defence. It is headed by a general or admiral. DEFSTNOR assigns priorities, manages resources, provides force generation and support activities, each of the four branches of defence is headed by a two-star general/admiral who are subordinate to DEFSTNOR. National Joint Headquarters located at Reitan, close to Bodø has operational control of Norwegian armed forces worldwide 24/7 and it is headed by the Supreme Commander Norwegian Forces - a three-star general or admiral. Norwegian Defence Logistics Organisation at Kolsås outside Oslo is responsible for engineering, procurement, investment, supply, information and it is also responsible for maintenance, repair and storage of material. Norway employs a form of mandatory military service for men and women. While 63,841 men and women were called in for the examination of persons liable for service in 2012,9265 were conscripted. In 2015 conscription was extended to women making Norway the first NATO member, there is a right of conscientious objection. The press statements read, that serves as a means to “fight climate change”Norwegian Armed Forces – Norwegian soldier during a field exercise
34. Polish Armed Forces – Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland are the national armed forces of the Republic of Poland. The name has been used since the early 19th century, from 2002 until 2014, Polish military forces were part of the Coalition Forces that participated in the ISAF mission in Afghanistan led by NATO. Polands contribution to ISAF was the countrys largest, since its entrance into NATO, Polish forces also took part in the Iraq War. From 2003 to 2008, Polish military forces commanded the Multinational Division located in the South-Central Zone of Iraq, the division was made up of troops from 23 nations and totaled as many as 8,500 soldiers. It is regarded as one of the most professional military in Europe, the List of Polish wars chronicles Polish military involvements since the year 972. The present armed forces trace their roots to the early 20th century, large numbers of Poles also served in the armies of the partitioning powers, Russian Empire, Austria-Hungary and Germany. However, these powers took care to spread Polish soldiers all over their armies, during World War I, the Polish Legions were set up in Galicia, the southern part of Poland under Austrian occupation. They were both disbanded after the Central Powers failed to provide guarantees of Polish independence after the war. General Józef Haller, the commander of the Second Brigade of the Polish Legion, switched sides in late 1917, and via Murmansk took part of his troops to France and it was joined by several thousand Polish volunteers from the United States. It fought on the French front in 1917 and 1918, the Polish Army was recreated in 1918 from elements of the three separate Russian, Austro-Hungarian, and Prussian armies, and armed with equipment left following World War I. The force expanded during the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1922 to nearly 800,000 men, the Polish Armed Forces in the West comprised army, navy, and air force units, and were loyal to the Polish government-in-exile. Army formations and units included the Polish Army in France, the Polish I Corps in the West, the Polish II Corps, and the rump Command in the Middle East that was briefly designated the III Corps. The Polish Air Force fought in the Battle of France as one squadron, several small units detached to French squadrons. These vessels included the cruisers ORP Dragon and Conrad, seven destroyers, what later became the communist LWP was formed during the Second World War as the Polish 1st Tadeusz Kościuszko Infantry Division, also unofficially known as the Berling Army. The majority of officers were Polish, the first Polish force formed in the USSR, the Anders Army, had by that time moved to Iran. Polish forces soon grew beyond the 1st Division into two major commands—the First Polish Army and the Polish Second Army, the Polish First Army participated in the Vistula–Oder Offensive and the Battle of Kolberg before participating in its final offensive with the Battle of Berlin. The Polish Second Army served under command of the Soviet 1st Ukrainian Front in 1945, in the east these two armies were supported at times by Polish air units, part of the Air Force of the Polish Army. The communist-aligned Polish military formation was the Peoples Army of Poland, formed in the Soviet Union and it became the core of the armed forces of post-war PolandPolish Armed Forces – Uhlans of Army of Congress Poland during the November Uprising, 1831
35. Portuguese Armed Forces – The Portuguese Armed Forces are the military of Portugal. They include the General Staff of the Armed Forces, the unified bodies. The President of the Republic is the head of the Portuguese military, the management of the Armed Forces and the execution of the national defense policy is however done by the government via its Minister of National Defense. Portugal was ranked the 5th most peaceful country in the World in the Global Peace Index 2016, the Portuguese Armed Forces have been thus focused in non military public service activities and in external military operations. Military units and other bodies are stationed throughout all the Portuguese territory, including Continental Portugal, Madeira, the national defense also assures the fulfillment of the international military agreements of the State, accordingly with the national interest. The Portuguese Armed Forces are responsible for the defense, which is the military component of the national defense. The Portuguese Armed Forces are an essential pillar of the defense and are the structure of the State that has as its main mission the military defense of the Republic. They obey to the competent bodies of sovereignty, accordingly with the Constitution, the system of forces defines the set of capacities that should exist for the fulfillment of the missions of the Armed Forces. It encompasses the set of systems of forces of all branches of the Armed Forces, the system of forces includes two components, Operational component - includes the set of assets and forces to be employed operationally. It is the part of the system of forces, including mainly deployable elements as frigates, infantry battalions. The operational component includes also some non-deployable operational command bodies, fix component - is the set of commands, units, establishments, bodies and services that are essential to the organization and general support of the Armed Forces and their branches. It is the part of the system of forces, including only non-deployable elements as naval bases, regiments. The LDN is regularly updated, with the present version being the Law 21-A/2006, the Strategic Concept of National Defense is the component of the national defense policy which defines the States priorities in terms of defense, accordingly with the national interest. The present version of the CEDN was approved by the Council of Ministers through its Resolution 19/2013, the Organic Basic Law of the Organization of the Armed Forces defines the organization of the Armed Forces. The present version of the LOBOFA is the Organic Law 1-A/2009 and it is elaborated by the Council of Chiefs of Staff, approved by the Minister of National Defense and confirmed by the Superior Council of National Defense. The present CEM in force is the CEM2014, the present version of the LPM is the Organic Law 7/2015. The national deployed forces are units or teams deployed by the Portuguese Armed Forces in foreign missions, mostly in the scope of NATO, since the early beginning, the Kingdom had naval and ground forces. The Portuguese Navy exists as a permanent force since 1317, however non-permanent naval forces existed already before, the Portuguese ground forces were established as a standing army in 1570, however they had existed since the 12th century, as the non-permanent hostePortuguese Armed Forces – Portuguese military standard with Fuzileiros honor guard
36. Romanian Armed Forces – The Land Forces, Air Force and Naval Forces of Romania are collectively known as the Romanian Armed Forces. The current Commander-in-chief is General Nicolae Ionel Ciuca who is managed by the Minister of National Defence while the president is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces during wartime. 84,000 men and women comprise the Armed Forces,15,000 of them being military personnel. Out of the 90,000 military and civilian personnel,60,000 are the troops while 30,000 comprise the active territorial reserves. As of 2010, the Land Forces have a strength of 43,000, the Air Force 9,700, the Naval Forces 7,150. As per the 2011 White Paper, these forces are to be gradually decreased over the 2011–2014 period to reach a total of about 65,000 active troops and active reserves. Total defence spending currently accounts for 1. 33% of total national GDP, the Land Forces have overhauled their equipment in recent years, and are today a modern army with multiple NATO capabilities. They are participating in a mission in Afghanistan, together with the other NATO countries. The Land Forces are at present planning on replacing the TAB APC vehicles with new armored personnel carriers produced in conjunction with the Germany company Rheinmetall. The Air Force currently operates modernized Soviet MiG-21 LanceR fighters, which are due to be replaced by modernized ex-Portuguese F-16 fighters starting with 2016. In the first stage a first squadron of 12 fighter aircraft will be acquired, the Air Force has also received 7 new C-27J Spartan tactical airlift aircraft, in order to replace the bulk of the old transport force. Two modernized ex-Royal Navy Type 22 frigates were acquired by the Naval Forces in 2004, three domestically-produced IAR330 Puma NAVAL helicopters were also ordered by the Naval Forces, and were commissioned in late 2008. As a consequence, extensive preparations were made to abolish conscription by 2007, the new armed forces include 90,000 men and women, of whom about 75,000 are military personnel. 60,000 of the 90,000 are active forces,30,000 comprise the territorial forces, the Romanian Military will essentially undergo a three-stage restructuring. As of 2007, the first short-term stage has been completed,2015 marks the end of the second stage when the armed forces will reach a superior compatibility with NATO forces. In 2025, the stage is to be completed. The stages aim at modernising the structure of the forces, reducing the personnel as well as acquiring newer. Romanian troops participated in the occupation of Iraq, reaching a peak of 730 soldiers before being drawn down to 350 soldiersRomanian Armed Forces – Romanian soldiers on patrol in Afghanistan
37. Slovak Armed Forces – The Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic number 15,996 uniformed personnel and 3,761 civilians. Slovakia joined NATO on 29 March 2004, from 2006 the army transformed into a fully professional organization and compulsory military service was abolished. Ground forces - are made up of two mechanized infantry brigades and a Combat Support Brigade. Air and air defence forces - comprising one wing of fighters, one wing of utility helicopters, air defence systems SA-6 Gainful -5 batteries SA-10 Grumble -1 battery SA-18 Grouse -72 pcs The 5th Special Forces Regiment is Slovakias counter-terrorism and special operations unit. The unit is attached to the armed forces general staff. Slovakia has 169 military personnel deployed in Cyprus for UNFICYP United Nations led peace support operations, Slovakia committed to increase the number of its troops in Afghanistan to around 45 men by the end of 2016. Slovakia has 41 troops deployed in Bosnia and Herzegovina for EUFOR Althea, Slovak troops were withdrawn from Kosovo because the Slovak Armed Forces set its priority to focus mainly on an Afghanistan NATO led mission. Since the independence of Slovakia in 1993, there have been 59 uniformed personnel deaths in the line of service to the United Nations, official homepage of the Ministry of Defence Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic Picture gallery Slovak military photosSlovak Armed Forces – Armed Forces of Slovak Republic coat-of-arms
38. Slovenian Armed Forces – The Slovenian Armed Forces or Slovenian Army are the armed forces of Slovenia. Since 2003, it is organized as a professional standing army. The military history of Slovenia spans less than a hundred years, rudolf Maister, a Slovene major of the former Austro-Hungarian Army, occupied the town of Maribor in November 1918 and claimed it to the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. After a short fight with German Austrian provisional units, the current border was established and it was of negligible importance prior to 1990, with antiquated weapons and few members. The Slovenian Armed Forces were formally established in 1993 as a reorganization of the Slovenia Territorial Defence, after 1993, the Slovenian Armed Forces had relied on mandatory military service, with conscripts receiving 6–7 months of training. In 2003, the Slovenian Government abolished conscription and as of July 2004, currently there are approximately 7,300 active troops and approximately 1,500 in reserve, reduced from 55,000 personnel during conscription. A major reorganization of the Slovenian Armed Forces is currently underway with a making them more effective. More than half of all commands have been disbanded which has made commanding the subordinated units easier and faster, soldiers are to be located nearer to their homes in order to minimize travel costs. Reorganization also transformed 72nd Brigade from a unit to a combat unit. Both brigades were added elements, such as Air Defense, Artillery, Intelligence. The operational units now consist of Special Operations Unit, Naval Division, as part of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Slovenia was never a member of the Warsaw Pact. Today, the foreign policy priority of NATO membership drives Slovenias defense reorganization, active in the SFOR deployment in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia is also a charter member of Partnership for Peace and a regular participant in PfP exercises. Slovenia formally joined NATO in March 2004, implementation of interoperability objectives as determined by the Planning and Review Process and the Individual Partnership Program as part of Slovenias PfP participation proceeds. Slovenias elite units already train with and are integrated into international units including NATO members—for example as part of SFOR and its elite mountain troops will be assigned to the Multinational Land Force peacekeeping battalion with Italy, Hungary, and Croatia. Slovenian soldiers are a part of international forces serving in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq, Chad and they have also served in Cyprus and the Golan Heights as a part of UNFICYP and UNDOF respectively. Slovenia hosts Multinational Centre of Excellence for Mountain Warfare, one of NATO Centres of Excellence, located in Bohinjska Bela and it is responsible for training individuals and units for operation in the mountains and other terrains difficult to pass. The Slovenian Armed Forces are organized as single-branch armed forces with the army as their primary component, the airports official name is Cerklje ob Krki Airbase. The others that are partially military are, Ljubljana Airbase shares the airport with Ljubljana International Airport, one helicopter Bell 412 is stationed there for mountain rescueSlovenian Armed Forces – Flag of the Army
39. Spanish Armed Forces – The Spanish Armed Forces are the military forces of the Kingdom of Spain. The Spanish Armed Forces are a military force charged with defending the Kingdoms integrity and sovereignty. They consist of the Army, Navy and Air Force, the King is the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, with the title Capitán General de las Fuerzas Armadas. The current Chief of the Defence Staff is General Fernando Alejandre Martínez, the Spanish Armed Forces are active members of NATO, the Eurocorps, the European Union Battlegroups, and also provide peace keeping troops to the United Nations. During the 15th and 16th century, Spain evolved into Europes foremost power with the voyages of Christopher Columbus leading to Spain acquiring vast lands in the Americas. During the reign of Charles V and Philip II, Spain reached the peak of its power with the Spanish Empire spanning 19.4 million square km of the earths surface, a total of 13%. By the mid 17th century this power had weakened by the Thirty Years War along with financial problems. Thanks to these reforms, Spain performed well in the French Revolutionary Wars, the war of Jenkins Ear, the war of Austrian Succession and several other engagements. Following the war, the Spanish military was in condition and political instability resulted in the loss of most of Spains former colonies, except Cuba, Puerto Rico. These too would be lost later in the Spanish–American War, the Spanish armed forces are a professional force with a strength in 2012 of 123,300 active personnel and 16,400 reserve personnel. The country also has the 80,000 strong Civil Guard which comes under the control of the Ministry of Defence in times of a national emergency, the Spanish defence budget is 5.71 billion euros a 1% increase for 2015. The increase comes because of security concerns in the country, the Spanish army consists of 15 active brigades and 6 military regions. Modern infantry have diverse capabilities and this is reflected in the roles assigned to them. There are four operational roles that infantry battalions can fulfil, air assault, armoured infantry, mechanised infantry, the Spanish army has the latest technology at its disposal to preserve the territorial integrity of the Kingdom of Spain. The current flagship of the Spanish Navy is the assault ship Juan Carlos 1 which is also used as an aircraft carrier. In addition, the fleet consists of,2 amphibious transport docks,11 frigates,3 submarines,6 mine countermeasure vessels,23 patrol vessels, the total displacement of the Spanish Navy is approximately 220,000 tonnes. As of 2012, the Armada has a strength of 20,800 personnel, the Infanteria de Marina are the marine infantry of the Spanish Navy, the oldest in the world. It has a strength of 5,000 troops divided into base defense forces, one of the three base defense battalions is stationed with each of the Navy headquartersSpanish Armed Forces – Tri-service badge
40. Turkish Armed Forces – The Turkish Armed Forces are the military forces of the Republic of Turkey. They consist of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force, in wartime, they are subordinate to the Army and Navy. The President of Turkey is the overall head. The current Chief of the General staff is General Hulusi Akar, the Chief of the General Staff is the Commander of the Armed Forces. In wartime, he acts as the Commander in Chief on behalf of the President of Turkey, furthermore, the General Staff coordinates the military relations of the TAF with NATO member states and other friendly nations. The modern history of the army began with its formation after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, the Turkish military perceived itself as the guardian of Kemalist ideology, the official state ideology, especially of the secular aspects of Kemalism. After becoming a member of NATO on 18 February 1952, Turkey initiated a comprehensive program for its armed forces. The Turkish Army sent troops to fight in Korea, where they played pivotal roles at some points, towards the end of the 1980s, a second restructuring process was initiated. The Turkish Armed Forces participate in European Union battlegroups under the control of the European Council, the TAF also contributes operational staff to the Eurocorps multinational army corps initiative of the EU and NATO. The Turkish Armed Forces collectively rank as the second largest standing military force in NATO, Armed Forces, with an estimated strength in 2015 of 639,551 military, civilian and paramilitary personnel. Turkey is one of five NATO member states which are part of the sharing policy of the alliance, together with Belgium, Germany, Italy. After the end of World War I, many Ottoman military personnel escaped from Rumelia to Anatolia in order to part in the national movement. Turkey won the War of Independence in 1922, Turkey remained neutral until the final stages of World War II. In the initial stage of World War II, Turkey signed a treaty of assistance with Great Britain. But after the fall of France, the Turkish government tried to maintain a distance with both the Allies and the Axis. After the German-Soviet War broke out, the Turkish government sent a delegation of observers under Lieutenant General Ali Fuat Erden to the German Eastern Front. Turkey participated in the Korean War as a state of the United Nations and sent the Turkish Brigade to South Korea. On 18 February 1952, Turkey became a member of NATO, the Korean government donated a war memorial for the Turkish soldiers who fought and died in KoreaTurkish Armed Forces – Selimiye Barracks (1828) in Istanbul is the headquarters of the First Army of the Turkish Land Forces.
41. British Armed Forces – They also promote Britains wider interests, support international peacekeeping efforts, and provide humanitarian aid. Repeatedly emerging victorious from conflicts has allowed Britain to establish itself as one of the leading military. The Commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces is the British monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, the UK Parliament approves the continued existence of the armed forces by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years, as required by the Bill of Rights 1689. The armed forces are managed by the Defence Council of the Ministry of Defence, with the Acts of Union 1707, the armed forces of England and Scotland were merged into the armed forces of the Kingdom of Great Britain. Britain feared that Russian expansionism in the region would eventually threaten the Empire in India and this ultimately led to British involvement in the Crimean War against the Russian Empire. The beginning of the twentieth century served to reduce tensions between Britain and the Russian Empire, partly due to the emergence of a unified German Empire. Allied victory resulted in the defeat of the Central Powers, the end of the German Empire, the Treaty of Versailles, once again tensions accumulated in European relations, and following Germanys invasion of Poland in September 1939, the Second World War began. The conflict was the most widespread in British history, with British Empire and Commonwealth troops fighting in campaigns from Europe and North Africa, to the Middle East, approximately 390,000 British Empire and Commonwealth troops lost their lives. Allied victory resulted in the defeat of the Axis powers and the establishment of the United Nations, reflecting Britains new role in the world and the escalation of the Cold War, the country became a founding member of the NATO military alliance in 1949. By the mid-1970s, the forces had reconfigured to focus on the responsibilities allocated to them by NATO. While NATO obligations took increased prominence, Britain nonetheless found itself engaged in a number of low-intensity conflicts, however the Dhofar Rebellion and The Troubles emerged as the primary operational concerns of the armed forces. Perhaps the most important conflict during the Cold War, at least in the context of British defence policy, was the Falklands War. Since the end of the Cold War, an international role for the armed forces has been pursued, with re-structuring to deliver a greater focus on expeditionary warfare. In addition to the campaign, the British Army has trained and supplied allies on the ground. Figures released by the Ministry of Defence on 31 March 2016 show that 7,185 British Armed Forces personnel have lost their lives in medal earning theatres since the end of the Second World War. As Sovereign and head of state, Queen Elizabeth II is Head of the Armed Forces, the Queen, however, remains the ultimate authority of the military, with officers and personnel swearing allegiance to the monarch. It has been claimed that this includes the power to prevent unconstitutional use of the armed forces, responsibility for the management of the forces is delegated to a number of committees, the Defence Council, Chiefs of Staff Committee, Defence Management Board and three single-service boards. The Defence Council, composed of representatives of the servicesBritish Armed Forces – The Vulcan Bomber was the backbone of the United Kingdom’s airborne nuclear deterrent during much of the Cold War.
42. United States Armed Forces – The United States Armed Forces are the federal armed forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, from the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War. Even so, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force and it played an important role in the American Civil War, where leading generals on both sides were picked from members of the United States military. Not until the outbreak of World War II did a standing army become officially established. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold Wars onset, the U. S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. It draws its personnel from a pool of paid volunteers. As of 2016, the United States spends about $580.3 billion annually to fund its military forces, put together, the United States constitutes roughly 40 percent of the worlds military expenditures. For the period 2010–14, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute found that the United States was the worlds largest exporter of major arms, the United States was also the worlds eighth largest importer of major weapons for the same period. The history of the U. S. military dates to 1775 and these forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. All three services trace their origins to the founding of the Continental Army, the Continental Navy, the United States President is the U. S. militarys commander-in-chief. Rising tensions at various times with Britain and France and the ensuing Quasi-War and War of 1812 quickened the development of the U. S. Navy, the reserve branches formed a military strategic reserve during the Cold War, to be called into service in case of war. Time magazines Mark Thompson has suggested that with the War on Terror, Command over the armed forces is established in the United States Constitution. The sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief, the Constitution also allows for the creation of executive Departments headed principal officers whose opinion the President can require. This allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act, the Defense Department is headed by the Secretary of Defense, who is a civilian and member of the Cabinet. The Defense Secretary is second in the chain of command, just below the President. Together, the President and the Secretary of Defense comprise the National Command Authority, to coordinate military strategy with political affairs, the President has a National Security Council headed by the National Security Advisor. The collective body has only power to the PresidentUnited States Armed Forces – The U.S. Joint Service Color Guard on parade at Fort Myer, Virginia in October 2001.
43. Foreign relations of NATO – NATO maintains foreign relations with many non-member countries across the globe. NATO runs a number of programs which provide a framework for the partnerships between itself and these nations, typically based on that countrys location. These include the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council and the Partnership for Peace, five EU member states, all who have declared their non-alignment with military alliances, are not NATO members, Austria, Finland, Ireland, Malta, and Sweden. Switzerland, which is surrounded by the EU, has maintained their neutrality by staying out of the bloc. All these countries, however, have joined the Partnership for Peace programme, armenia has maintained positive relations with NATO members and has signed up for the Partnership for Peace programme and the Individual Partnership Action Plan. According to a NATO diplomatic source in August 2009 some key officials at NATO headquarters in Brussels were pushing hard for engaging Azerbaijan on the membership question. Turkey, Romania, Italy, Poland, the United Kingdom, while President Ilham Aliyev has generally supported non-belligerency since his rise to power in 2003, Azerbaijan has hosted NATO military exercises and high-profile meetings in 2009. The unresolved conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh would present a major roadblock to membership, Azerbaijan made its policy of not being aligned with a geopolitical/military structure official when it became a full member of the Non-Aligned Movement in 2011. Cyprus is the only EU member state that is neither a NATO member state nor a member of the PfP program, turkey, a full member of NATO, is likely to veto any attempt by Cyprus to engage with NATO until the dispute is resolved. The winner of Cyprus presidential election in February 2013, Nicos Anastasiades, has stated that he intends to apply for membership in the PfP program soon after taking over. Finland participates in nearly all sub-areas of the Partnership for Peace programme, however, a 2005 poll indicated that the public was strongly against NATO membership. The possibility of Finlands membership in NATO was one of the most important issues debated in relation to the Finnish presidential election of 2006, the main opposition candidate in the 2006 election, Sauli Niinistö of the National Coalition Party, supported Finland joining a more European NATO. Fellow right-winger Henrik Lax of the Swedish Peoples Party likewise supported the concept, on the other side, president Tarja Halonen of the Social Democratic Party opposed changing the status quo, as did most other candidates in the election. Her victory and re-election to the post of president has put the issue of a NATO membership for Finland on hold for at least the duration of her term. Currently no political party explicitly supports NATO membership, another ex-president, Mauno Koivisto, opposes the idea, arguing that NATO membership would ruin Finlands relations with Russia. As such, Finland participated in the 2015 NATO-led Arctic Challenge Exercise, irish government policy for the deployment of troops to NATO-led missions requires that the missions be mandated by the United Nations, cabinet-backed and approved by Dáil Éireann. This is known as Irelands triple lock, public opinion in Ireland continues to favour a policy of neutrality in armed conflicts, and currently no major political party fully supports ascension into NATO. There has been, and continues to be, a number of politicians who support Ireland joining NATO, mainly within the centre-right Fine Gael party and it is widely understood that a referendum would have to be held before any changes could be made to neutrality or to joining NATOForeign relations of NATO – Moldovan soldiers participate in Exercise Peace Shield 2011 in Bulboaca with US and NATO experts
44. Atlantic Treaty Association – The Atlantic Treaty Association is an umbrella organization which acts as a network facilitator in the Euro-Atlantic and beyond. ATA is, however, an independent organization separate from NATO, ATA was created on 18 June 1954. Since the end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact, in 1992 the ATA Constitution was amended to accommodate associate members and observers from non-NATO countries. Following the ascension of the new NATO countries in 1999 and 2004, ATA membership expanded considerably, and naturally its security focus has shifted south and eastward. The Atlantic Treaty Association seeks, through discussion and political channels, to support the values set forth in the North Atlantic Treaty, Freedom, Liberty, Peace, Security, and the Rule of law. As such, ATA acts as a forum for debate in which member associations can realize common interests, the youth branch of the ATA, the Youth Atlantic Treaty Association was created in 1996. ATA is fully dedicated to engaging the youth of the Euro-Atlantic through close cooperation with its youth division, the Atlantic Treaty Association firmly believes in the strength of the transatlantic relationship – one which is fundamental to the stability of the international system in the 21st century. As such, ATA remains instrumental in bridging values from both sides of the Atlantic in its effort to underpin the broader goals of the NATO Alliance, ATA is composed of three main bodies, the Assembly, the Bureau, and the Council. The Assembly is the top decision-making body of the ATA and is composed of delegates from Member, with the exception of Observer Members, each delegate has one vote and resolutions are passed by a simple majority. The Bureau includes the president, vice presidents, secretary general, treasurer, YATA president, Members of the Bureau assist in carrying out the decisions of the Council and the Assembly and aid in policy matters. The Council comprises Bureau members plus up to three delegates from each of the ATA Member, Associate Member and Observer Member associations, ATA allows the Council to take action on its behalf, with the recommendation of the Bureau and the approval of the Assembly. The Council holds two meetings a year, once at NATO Headquarters and once in a host country, lamers MdB 2015- Fabrizio Luciolli Official website for ATA Official website for YATAAtlantic Treaty Association – Presidents 
45. Mediterranean Dialogue – The Mediterranean Dialogue, first launched in 1994, is a forum of cooperation between NATO and seven countries of the Mediterranean. Its stated aim is to good relations and better mutual understanding and confidence throughout the region, promoting regional security and stability and explaining NATOs policies. The Dialogue reflects NATOs view that security in Europe is tied to the security and stability in the Mediterranean and it also reinforces and complements the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europes Mediterranean Initiative. The Mediterranean Dialogue initially started with five countries but has added two more over time, the ICP covers many areas of common interest, such as the fight against terrorism and joint military exercises in the Mediterranean Sea. More ICP agreements were signed with Egypt and Jordan, and NATO expects further agreements to be signed with additional Mediterranean Dialogue member states in the future, istanbul Cooperation Initiative North Atlantic Council Partnership for Peace Union for the Mediterranean Mediterranean Dialogue websiteMediterranean Dialogue – NATO member states
46. Partnership for Peace – The Partnership for Peace is a North Atlantic Treaty Organization program aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union,22 states are members. On April 26,1995 Malta became a member of PfP, on March 20,2008 Malta decided to reactivate their PfP membership, this was accepted by NATO at the summit in Bucharest on April 3,2008. During the NATO summit in Riga on November 29,2006, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Serbia were invited to join PfP, Cyprus is the only European Union member state that is neither a NATO member state nor a member of the PfP program. Turkey, a member of NATO, is likely to veto any attempt by Cyprus to engage with NATO until the dispute is resolved. Christofias successor, Nicos Anastasiades, has publicly supported PfP membership for Cyprus, kosovo has described PfP membership as a strategic objective of the government. Kosovo submitted an application to join the PfP program in July 2012, however, four NATO member states, Greece, Romania, Spain and Slovakia, do not recognize Kosovos independence and have threatened to block their participation in the program. To be eligible to join, the Kosovan Armed Forces must be establishedPartnership for Peace – European NATO members (1994)