1. NATO – The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party. NATO's headquarters are located in Haren, Brussels, Belgium, where the Supreme Allied Commander also resides. Belgium is one of the 28 member states across North America and Europe, the newest of which, Albania and Croatia, joined in April 2009. An additional 22 countries participate with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programmes. The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global total. Members' spending is supposed to amount to 2 % of GDP. The course of the Cold War led with nations of the Warsaw Pact, which formed in 1955. Politically, the organization sought better relations with former Warsaw Pact countries, several of which joined the alliance in 2004. The Soviet Berlin Blockade led to the creation of the Western European Union's Defence Organization in September 1948. However, participation of the United States was thought necessary both to prevent the revival of nationalist militarism. He got a receptive hearing, especially considering American anxiety over Italy. Talks for a military alliance resulted in the North Atlantic Treaty, signed in Washington, D.C. on 4 April 1949. It included the five Treaty of Brussels states plus the United States, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark and Iceland. Some Icelanders participated in a pro-neutrality, anti-membership riot in March 1949. The creation of NATO can be seen as the institutional consequence of a school of thought called Atlanticism which stressed the importance of trans-Atlantic cooperation.NATO – The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in Washington, D.C., on 4 April 1949 and was ratified by the United States that August.
2. North Atlantic Treaty – The North Atlantic Treaty, signed in Washington, D.C. on 4 April 1949, is the treaty establishing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The treaty was signed in Washington on 4 April 1949 by a committee, chaired by US diplomat Theodore Achilles. It was never shown to anyone except Jack. The following twelve nations thus became the founding members of NATO. An Article 4 meeting was also convoked by Latvia, Lithuania, Poland to the extraterritorial 2014 Crimean crisis. The US said that Turkey "has a right to take action" against a Kurdish insurrectionary group that has sought since 1984 autonomy from Turkey. A report also disclosed prior to the 28 July meeting that Turkey had violated Iraqi airspace in its pursuit of the PKK. The key section of the treaty is Article 5. Its clause defines the casus foederis. It has been invoked once in NATO history: by the United States after the September 11 attacks in 2001. The invocation was confirmed on 4 October 2001, when NATO determined that the attacks were indeed eligible under the terms of the North Atlantic Treaty. Active Endeavour began on 4 October 2001. On April 17, Turkey said it would raise the issue quietly in the NATO ministerial meeting. On April 29, the foreign ministry wrote that it had received Erdogan's message, which he had repeated a few days before, loud and clear. On 5 Erdoğan stated that "The tomb of Suleyman Shah and the land surrounding it is our territory.North Atlantic Treaty – North Atlantic Treaty authentication page
4. Enlargement of NATO – Enlargement of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization is the process of including new member states in NATO. NATO is two North American countries that constitutes a system of collective defense. Countries wishing to join have to complete a multi-step process involving political dialogue and military integration. The process is overseen by the North Atlantic Council, NATO's governing body. After Germany reunited in 1990, there was a debate in NATO about continued expansion eastward. In 1999, the Czech Republic joined the organization, amid much debate within the organization and Russian opposition. Another expansion came with the accession of seven Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. These nations joined NATO shortly before the 2004 Istanbul summit. Albania and Croatia, joined on 1 April 2009, prior to the 2009 Strasbourg -- Kehl summit. In 2011, NATO officially recognized four aspiring members: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Montenegro. The incorporation of countries formerly in the Eastern Bloc has been a cause of increased tension between Russia. NATO has added new members in 1949 to include twenty-eight members. The early years of the Cold War saw Communist satellite states of the Soviet Union. This divide encouraged the anti-Communist governments of Greece and Turkey to join NATO in 1952. Greece rejoined in 1980 with Turkey's cooperation.Enlargement of NATO – Negotiations in London and Paris in 1954 ended the allied occupation of West Germany and allowed for its rearmament as a NATO member.
5. North Atlantic Council – The North Atlantic Council is the principal political decision-making body of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, consisting of Permanent Representatives from its member countries. Since 1952, the NAC has been in permanent session. The NAC can be composed of member states' Ministers of State, Defense, or Heads of Government. The NAC has the same powers regardless of the formation it meets under. The NAC meets twice a week: every Tuesday, for an informal discussion; and every Wednesday for a decision-taking session. The list of Permanent Representatives may be found on the NATO website. The 28 members of NATO have diplomatic missions through embassies in Belgium. There is no decision by majority. Each nation represented on any of its subordinate committees retains complete sovereignty and responsibility for its own decisions. North Atlantic Council at NATONorth Atlantic Council
6. Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe – Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe is the headquarters of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's Allied Command Operations. From 1951 to 2003, SHAPE was the headquarters of Allied Command Europe, ACE. Since 2003 it has been the headquarters of Allied Command Operations, controlling all NATO operations worldwide. SHAPE retained its traditional name with reference to Europe for legal reasons although the geographical scope of its activities was extended in 2003. At that time, NATO's command in Lisbon, historically part of the Atlantic command, was reassigned to ACO. European Command. An integrated military structure for NATO was first established after the Korean War raised questions over the strength of Europe's defences against a Soviet attack. On December 19, 1950, the North Atlantic Council announced the appointment of General Eisenhower as the first SACEUR. British Field Marshal Sir Bernard L. Montgomery moved over from the predecessor Western Union Defence Organization to become the first Deputy SACEUR, who would serve until 1958. In establishing the command, the first NATO planners drew extensively on WUDO plans and personnel. Devising command arrangements in the Central Region, which contained the bulk of NATO’s forces, proved to be much more complicated. Drawing upon his World War II experience, General Eisenhower decided to retain overall control himself and did not appoint a C-in-C for the Central Region. Instead there would be three separate C-in-C's. In December 1950 it was announced that the forces initially to come under General Eisenhower's command were to be the U.S.Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe – The greater coat of arms of SHAPE, featuring the flags of the member states as supporters
7. Allied Command Transformation – Allied Command Transformation is a NATO military command, formed in 2003 after North Atlantic Treaty Organisation restructuring. Since France rejoined the NATO Military Command Structure in mid-2009, a significant change took place where the Supreme Allied Commander Transformation is now a French officer. The first French Officer to serve as SACT was Stephane Abrial. However, the basic structure remained in place until the Prague Summit in the Czech Republic in 2002. A new Allied Command Transformation being established as its successor. Admiral Edmund P. Giambastiani Jr. US Navy became the last SACLANT on 2 October 2002. He served until 19 Jun 2003. He then served until 1 Aug 2005. Thus NATO's military structure was reorganized. Allied Command Transformation, was focused on transforming NATO, while the other strategic command focused on NATO's operations, Allied Command Operations. Initial reports about a NATO command began to appear in July 2002. ACT was formally established on June 2003. A suite of "Baseline for Rapid Iterative Transformational Experimentation" software was designed to the Maritime Situational Awareness request. Since Allied Command Atlantic became Allied Command Transformation, commanders have included non-naval officers.Allied Command Transformation
8. NATO Parliamentary Assembly – Founded in 1955, the NATO Parliamentary Assembly serves as the consultative interparliamentary organisation for the North Atlantic Alliance. Its current President is Mike Turner from the United States. Its current Secretary General is David Hobbs from the United Kingdom, he has been in this position since January 2008. These measures included the Secretary General providing a response to all Assembly recommendations and resolutions adopted in its Plenary Sessions. Those ties, in turn, greatly facilitated the dialogue that NATO itself embarked upon with the region's governments. At the same time, it facilitates parliamentary awareness and understanding of key security issues and contributes to a greater transparency of NATO policies. Crucially, it helps maintain and strengthen the transatlantic relationship, which underpins the Atlantic Alliance. The NATO PA consists of 257 delegates from the 28 NATO member countries. Delegates to the Assembly are nominated by their parliaments according to their national procedures, on the basis of party representation in the parliaments. The Assembly therefore represents a broad spectrum of political opinion. The headquarters of the Assembly’s 28-strong International Secretariat is located in central Brussels. The Assembly is directly funded by member parliaments and governments, is financially and administratively separate from NATO itself. Each country’s contribution is based on the NATO Civil Budget formula. The five Committees are: Civil Dimension of Security; Defence and Security; Economics and Security; Political; Science and Technology. They are charged with examining all major contemporary issues in their fields.NATO Parliamentary Assembly – The Parliamentary Assembly meeting in London prior to the start of the 2014 Newport summit
9. Secretary General of NATO – The Secretary General of NATO is an international diplomat who serves as the chief official of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The Secretary General is responsible for coordinating the workings of the alliance, leads NATO's staff. The current Secretary General is the former Prime Minister of Norway, who took office on 1 October 2014. Article 9 of the North Atlantic Treaty requires NATO members to "establish a Council, on which each of them shall be represented." Accordingly, the North Atlantic Council was formed. Initially the Council met annually. Their work was supplemented by occasional meetings of the NATO foreign ministers. The Chairman of the deputies was given responsibility "for directing its work," including all of its civilian agencies. The Council deputies selected Charles Spofford, the United States deputy, as their chairman. Important organisational changes quickly followed the establishment of Council deputies, most notably the establishment of a unified military command under a single Supreme Allied Commander. As the authority of the deputies increased, the size of the organization grew, NATO established the Temporary Council Committee, chaired by W. Averell Harriman. This group established an official secretariat in Paris to command NATO's bureaucracy. After the Lisbon Conference, the NATO states began looking for a person who could fill the role of Secretary General. He declined. Ismay was selected because of his high rank in the war, his role "at the side... in the highest Allied Councils."Secretary General of NATO – Incumbent Jens Stoltenberg since 1 October 2014
10. Chairman of the NATO Military Committee – The Chairman of the NATO Military Committee's authority stems from the NATO Military Committee, to which he is responsible in the performance of his duties. Each nation was represented by its chief of staff or a deputy. Iceland, which had no military forces, was represented by a civilian. Each member state in turn held the Chair of the Military Committee for one year. Its principal role is to provide advice on military strategy. Until 2008 the Military Committee excluded France, due to that country's 1966 decision to remove itself from NATO's integrated military structure, which it rejoined in 1995. Until France rejoined NATO, this led to conflicts between NATO members. Such was the case in the lead up to Operation Iraqi Freedom. The operational work of the Committee is supported by the International Military Staff. The Chairman of the Military Committee chairs all meetings and acts in an international capacity. In his absence, the Deputy Chairman of the Military Committee takes the chair. The current Chairman is Czech General Petr Pavel.Chairman of the NATO Military Committee – Incumbent General Petr Pavel since 26 June 2015
11. Member states of NATO – NATO is an international alliance that consists of 28 member states from North America and Europe. It was established on 4 April 1949. Of the 28 member countries, 25 are European countries while Turkey is in Eurasia. All members have militaries, for Iceland which does not have a typical army. Three of NATO's members are nuclear states: France, the United Kingdom, the United States. After the end of the Cold War, NATO added 12 more member nations from 12 March 1999 to 1 April 2009. Since 2009 NATO has had 28 members. In 1952, Greece and Turkey became members of the Alliance, joined later by West Germany and Spain. With the reunification of Germany, NATO grew to include the former country of East Germany. In 1997, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Poland, were invited to join NATO. Seven of these countries joined in 2004. Albania and Croatia joined in 2009.Member states of NATO – Current NATO members highlighted in blue
12. Albanian Armed Forces – The Albanian Armed Forces were formed after the declaration of independence in 1912. It consists of: the General Staff, the Albanian Land Force, the Albanian Air Force and the Albanian Naval Force. The President of Albania is the Commander-in-Chief of the country's armed forces. In times of peace, the President's powers as Commander-in-Chief are executed through the Defence Minister. According to the Albanian Constitution, the Albanian Armed Forces are charged to: the territorial integrity of the country. Always be present in areas incurring menace. Assist the population in case of natural and industrial disasters and non military nature. Protect the constitutional order as it is determined by law. Participate in international operations in composition of multinational forces. On 4 Albanian Prime Minister Ismail Qemali and his government formed the Albanian National Army. Its first Chief in Command was Lieutenant Colonel Ali Shefqet Shkupi By 1923, the Albanian Armed Forces fielded 10,691 active troops, including military police forces. At that time, Albania did not yet have a navy. By 1927, the Albanian Armed Forces numbered approximately 8,000. These troops were organized based in Tirana, Shkodër, Berat. Each group was organized into three battalions of 500.Albanian Armed Forces – An Albanian T-59 tank during the Albania-Yugoslav border incident in May 1999.
13. Belgian Armed Forces – The Belgian Armed Forces is the national military of Belgium. The Belgian Armed Forces was established after Belgium became independent in October 1830. Since that time armed forces have fought in World War I, World War II, the Cold War, Kosovo, Somalia and Afghanistan. The ParaCommando Brigade intervened several times for maintaining public order and evacuation of Belgian citizens. The Armed Forces comprise four branches: the Land Component, the Air Component, the Medical Component. It is currently active in Lebanon, the Gulf of Aden and conducting anti-ISIS operations in Iraq. The need for a regular army was however soon acknowledged. The basis for recruitment was one of selective conscription under which exemptions could be purchased by obtaining substitutes. In practice this meant that about a quarter of each year's eligible intake actually served, with the burden falling on the poorer classes. Recruitment difficulties caused the army to remain below its intended strength of 20,000 men, although new legislation in 1868 tightened the basis for conscription. The Franco-Prussian War of 1870 required full mobilisation for a process which showed up serious training and structural weaknesses. The presence of Belgian forces in strength along the country's borders did however ensure that the combat at no time spilled over into Belgian territory. Individuals could escape service by paying for substitutes. This system had been discarded elsewhere as inefficient and unpatriotic. For those conscripted the terms of service required eight years in the regular army, followed by five years as a reservist.Belgian Armed Forces – Soldiers of the Corps Expeditionnaire Belge during the Franco-Mexican War.
14. Bulgarian Armed Forces – The Bulgarian Army represents the Armed Forces of the Republic of Bulgaria. The Commander-in-Chief is the President of Bulgaria. The term "Bulgarian Army" encompasses them all together. Throughout history, the Army has played a major role in defending the country's sovereignty. During the Cold War the People's Republic of Bulgaria maintained one of the largest militaries in the Warsaw Pact, numbering an estimated 152,000 troops in 1988. Since the Fall of Communism, the political leadership decided thus reducing military personnel and weaponry. Bulgaria currently maintains a total 776 deployed troops in three countries. The saint of the Bulgarian Army is St. George. St. George's Day is an official holiday in Bulgaria. The Bulgarian military dates back to 1878. On July 1878 a total of 12 battalions of opalchentsi who participated in the Liberation war, formed the Bulgarian armed forces. According to the Tarnovo Constitution, all men between 40 years of age were eligible for military service. In 1883 the military was reorganized in one cavalry brigade. The Serbo-Bulgarian War was the armed conflict after Bulgaria's liberation. It was a result of the unification with Eastern Rumelia, which happened on 6 September 1885.Bulgarian Armed Forces – Bulgarian militiamen from the region of Macedonia, ca. 1900
15. Canadian Armed Forces – Air elements referred to as the Royal Canadian Navy, Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Air Force. The Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Armed Forces is Queen Elizabeth II, represented by the Governor General of Canada. The Canadian Armed Forces is led by the Chief of the Defence Staff, assisted by the Armed Forces Council. During the Cold War, a principal focus of Canadian policy was contributing to the security of Europe in the face of the Soviet military threat. Toward that end, Canadian air forces were based in Europe from the early 1950s until the early 1990s. Today is based on the Canada First Defence Strategy, introduced in 2008. Based on that strategy, the Canadian military is oriented and being equipped to carry out six core missions within Canada, in North America and globally. Thereafter, the Royal Canadian Navy was formed, with the advent of the Royal Canadian Air Force. These forces were organised under the Department of Militia and Defence, -- frequently shortened to simply The Militia. The overseas deployment of Canadian military forces occurred during the Second Boer War, when several units were raised to serve under British command. Similarly, when the United Kingdom entered with Germany in the First World War, Canadian troops were called to participate in European theatres. The Canadian Crown-in-Council then decided to send its forces into the Second World War, well as the Korean War. Since 1947, military units have participated in more than 200 operations worldwide, completed 72 international operations. Canada maintained an aircraft carrier during the Cold War, which never saw combat but participated in patrols during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Only 2,400 conscripts actually made it into battle.Canadian Armed Forces – Canadian troops of the Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry Highlanders welcomed by liberated crowds in Leeuwarden, Netherlands, 16 April 1945.
16. Republic of Croatia Armed Forces – In May 2016, Armed Forces had 16,019 members, of which 14,506 were 1,513 civil servants. Of the 14,506 military personnel, 3,183 were officers, 5,389 non-commissioned officers, 5,393 soldiers, 520 military specialists, 337 civil servants and 1,176 other employees. Total available male manpower aged 16–49 number 1,035,712, of which 771,323 are technically fit for military service. Male citizens are now no longer subject to compulsory military service since January 2008. However, the last generation of 2007 servicemen was also absolved of compulsory service from then Minister of Defence Berislav Rončević. For example, 1995 Croatian budget stood at 12.4 billion Croatian Kuna or just over 12 % of GDP, also the highest defense expenditure ever. 2015-2024 has been published outlining overall goals and is available for download at the Ministry of Defence of Croatia website. The Dr. Franjo Tuđman Military Academy acts as a school of higher educating future generations of military personnel. The academy consists for non commissioned officers. The academy is the only military academy in Croatia. 100-120 foreign nationals attend the academy. The Commander-in-Chief of all armed forces in peace and war is the President of the Republic. The Commander-in-Chief prescribes the organization of the Croatian Armed Forces at the proposal of the Chief of General Staff, with consent of the Minister of Defence. The Armed Forces consist of wartime components. The wartime component of the Armed Forces includes all other reservists.Republic of Croatia Armed Forces – Petar Zrinski Military Academy Emblem
17. Army of the Czech Republic – The Army of the Czech Republic comprise the Czech Land Forces, the Czech Air Force and support units. From the late 1940s to 1989, the Czechoslovak People's Army formed one of the pillars of the Warsaw Pact military alliance. As defined by the Czech Law No. 219/1999 Coll. the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic are the military forces of the Czech Republic. They consist of the Army of the Czech Republic, the Castle Guard. Four Czech and Slovak-manned RAF squadrons were transferred to Czechoslovak control in late 1945. Until 1990 the Army was known as the Czechoslovak People's Army. About 100,000 of these were conscripts." There were two military districts, Eastern. The Army of the Czech Republic was formed after the 1 January 1993 dissolution of Czechoslovakia. Czech forces stood in 1993. They were reduced in 2005. At the same time, the forces were reoriented towards a defensive posture. In 2004, the army transformed itself into compulsory military service was abolished. The Army maintains an active reserve.Army of the Czech Republic – Croatian Army Master Sgt.(right) discusses patrol routes with a Czech Army Sgt. (left) in Germany to prepare for Afghanistan, 2012
18. Danish Defence – Denmark also has a concept of "total defence". During World War II, the armed forces were disbanded during Operation Safari. After the war, collected under Danish Defence, was in order for greater communication between them. It defines six tasks. Since 1988, Danish defence budgets and policy have been set by multi-year agreements supported by a wide parliamentary majority including government and opposition parties. The latest agreement was signed June 10, 2004, calls for a significant re-construction of the entire military. The mandatory conscription is modified. Generally this means less service time for them and only those who choose so, will continue into the reaction force system. This list lists the complete expenditures for the Danish Ministry of Defence. The Danish Defence Force, counting all all departments, itself has an income equal to about 1 -- 5 % of its expenditures, depending on the year. They are not deducted in this listing. Approximately 95% of the budget goes directly to running the Danish military including the Home guard. Because Denmark has a small and highly specialized industry, the vast majority of the Danish Defence's equipment is imported from NATO and the Nordic countries. Frømandskorpset: Amphibious attack and infiltration unit. Slædepatruljen Sirius: Arctic dog sled unit patrolling the eastern border of Greenland.Danish Defence – Danish Army and Navy personnel at combined/joint exercise DANEX/ DRO '07
19. Estonia Defence Forces – The Estonian Defence Forces is the name of the unified armed forces of the Republic of Estonia. The Estonian military is a force consisting of Land Forces, Navy, Air Force and a paramilitary organization Defence League. A few days later Estonia was invaded by the military forces of Bolshevist Russia, marking the beginning of the Estonian War of Independence. A mere 34 kilometers separated Tallinn and the front line. Partly due to the timely arrival of a shipment of arms brought by a British naval squadron the Bolsheviks were stopped. In January 1919, the armed forces launched a counteroffensive, the May Offensive, under Commander-in-Chief Johan Laidoner. The Ground Forces were supported by the Royal Navy well as Finnish, Swedish and Danish volunteers. By the end of February 1919, the Red Army had been expelled from all of the territory of Estonia. On 2 the Peace Treaty of Tartu was signed by the Republic of Estonia and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. After winning the Estonian Liberation War against Soviet Russia and German Freikorps volunteers, Estonia maintained its independence for twenty-two years. According to this treaty Estonia was to be occupied by the Soviet Union. On 12 the order for a total military blockade of Estonia was given to the Soviet Baltic Fleet. The military occupation of Estonia was complete by 21 June 1940. The armed forces of Estonia were disarmed in July 1940 according to Soviet orders. Only the Estonian Independent Signal Battalion stationed in Tallinn in front of the Tallinn School No. 21 continued to resist.Estonia Defence Forces
20. French Armed Forces – The President of the Republic heads the armed forces, with the title "des armées". The President is the sole official who can order a nuclear strike. France maintains the tenth largest budget in the world and the largest army in size in the EU. France also maintains the third largest nuclear deterrent behind the United States. The Gallo-Roman conflict predominated from 60 BC with the Romans emerging victorious in the conquest of Gaul by Julius Caesar. After the decline of the Roman Empire, a Germanic tribe known as the Franks took control of Gaul by defeating competing tribes. The "land of Francia," from which France gets its name, had high points of expansion under kings Clovis I and Charlemagne. In the Middle Ages, rivalries with the Holy Roman Empire prompted major conflicts such as the Norman Conquest and the Hundred Years' War. In parallel, France developed its first empire in Asia, Africa, in the Americas. French armies secured victories in dynastic conflicts against the Spanish, Polish, Austrian crowns. At the same time, France was fending off attacks on its colonies. As the 18th century advanced, global competition with Great Britain led to the Seven Years' War, where France lost its North American holdings. Internal political upheaval eventually led in the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. The rest of the 19th century witnessed the growth of the Second French colonial empire as well as French interventions in Belgium, Spain, Mexico. Major wars were fought against Russia in the Crimea, Austria in Italy, Prussia within France itself.French Armed Forces – Free French Foreign Legionnaires at the Battle of Bir Hakeim (1942).
21. Bundeswehr – The Bundeswehr is the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities. The Bundeswehr is divided with the armed forces administration. The military part of the federal force consists of the Heer, Marine, Luftwaffe, Streitkräftebasis, the Zentraler Sanitätsdienst branches. In addition the Bundeswehr has approximately 40,000 reserve personnel. The Bundeswehr was first proposed by the former Wehrmacht general and Liberal politician Hasso von Manteuffel. The Iron Cross is its official emblem. It is a symbol that has a long association with the military of Germany. When the Bundeswehr was established in 1955, its founding principles were based on developing a completely new military force for the defence of West Germany. In this respect the Bundeswehr did not consider itself to be a successor to Hitler's Wehrmacht. Neither does it adhere to the traditions of any former military organization. The FRG reinstated this formal military ceremony before the foundation of the Bundeswehr. The Zapfenstreich is only performed during solemn public commemorations. It can provide the conclusion to large military exercises. There are two kinds of oath: it's a solemn vow for full-time personnel. The pledge is made annually on 20 July, the date on which a group of Wehrmacht officers attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler in 1944.Bundeswehr – Großer Zapfenstreich
22. Hellenic Armed Forces – The Hellenic Armed Forces are combined military forces of Greece. They consist of the Hellenic National Defense General Staff, the Hellenic Army, the Hellenic Air Force. The civilian authority for the Greek military is the Ministry of National Defense. Greece currently has universal military service for males, under which all men above 18 years of age serve for 9 months. Women can not be conscripted. According in 2008, Greece spent 2.8 percent of G.D.P. on its military, or about $6.9 billion, or around $9.3 billion. Its military spending is the highest in the European Union. The basic components of the Hellenic Army are Arms and Corps, the latter for logistical support. It is organized with the basic being brigade, division and corps. Its main mission is to guarantee the territorial independence of the state. Hellenic Navy possesses a powerful fleet, consisted of strike units and support vessels in order to conduct naval operations that ensure the protection of Hellenic territories.Hellenic Armed Forces – Hellenic Armed Forces Eλληνικές Ένοπλες Δυνάμεις
23. Hungarian Defence Force – Hungarian Defence Forces is the national defence force of Hungary. The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the nation's armed forces. The Ministry of Defence jointly with Chief of staff administers the armed forces, including the Hungarian Air Force. Since 2007, the Hungarian Armed Forces is under a unified structure. The Ministry of Defence maintains the civil control over the army. A subordinate Joint Forces Command is commanding the HDF corps. In 2016, the armed forces had 31.080 personnel on active duty, the operative reserve brought the total number of troops to fifty thousand. In 2017, military spending will be about 0.94 % of the country's GDP, well below the NATO target of 2 %. In 2012, the government adopted a resolution in which it pledged to increase defence spending by 2022. Military service is voluntary, though conscription may occur in wartime. In a significant move for modernization, Hungary decided in 2001 to buy JAS 39 Gripen fighter aircraft for about 800 million EUR. Hungarian National Cyber Security Center is re-organized in 2016 in order to become more efficient through security. One soldier was killed in action because of a roadside bomb in Iraq. During the 19th century, Hungarian Hussars rose to international fame and served as a model for light cavalry in many European countries. In 1848–49 HDF achieved incredible successes against better-trained and equipped Austrian forces, despite the obvious advantage in numbers on the Austrian side.Hungarian Defence Force – Operator of Hungarian Army's 34th ’László Bercsényi’ Special Operations Battalion (KMZ) about to storm the unit's own Killing House
24. Military of Iceland – The Coast Guard armed with small arms, naval artillery, Air Defence weaponry. The Coast Guard also maintains formerly part of the disestablished Defence Agency, which conducts ground surveillance of Iceland's air space. Units subordinated to the National Commissioner also take part in Iceland's defences. This unit also has an unarmed component. There are also agreements about other security operations with Norway, Denmark and other NATO countries. Iceland holds the annual NATO exercises entitled Northern Viking. The most recent exercises were held in 2011, well as the EOD exercise "Northern Challenge". In 1997 Iceland hosted its first Partnership for exercise, "Cooperative Safeguard", the only multilateral PfP exercise so far in which Russia has participated. Another major PfP exercise was hosted in 2000. Iceland has also contributed ICRU peacekeepers to SFOR, KFOR and ISAF. The government of Iceland recently has taken a more active role in NATO deliberations and planning. Iceland hosted the NATO Foreign Ministers' Meeting in June 1987. These armies were divided according to the quality of the warriors and by birth. At the end of this period their power had grown, to the detriment of their followers. This resulted in a bloody civil war known as Age of the Sturlungs.Military of Iceland – Icelandic Flagship ICGV Þór, 27.10.2011, Reykjavík
25. Italian Armed Forces – The Italian Armed Forces encompass the Italian Army, the Italian Navy and the Italian Air Force. According to article 78, the Parliament has the authority to vest the necessary powers in the Government. The force of Italy, the Regio Esercito dates back to the unification of Italy in the 1850s and 1860s. During the Cold War the army prepared itself to defend from the east. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, it has seen extensive peacekeeping service in Lebanon, Afghanistan, Iraq. On July 2004 it became a professional all-volunteer force when conscription was finally ended. The navy of Italy was created in 1861, as the Regia Marina. The new navy's baptism of fire came against the Austrian Empire. During the First World War, it spent its major efforts in the Adriatic Sea, fighting the Austro-Hungarian Navy. In the Second World War, it engaged the Royal Navy for the control of the Mediterranean Sea. After the war, the new Marina Militare, being a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, has taken part in many peacekeeping operations. The Guardia Costiera is a component of the navy. The force of Italy was founded as an independent service arm on 28 March 1923, by King Vittorio Emanuele III as the Regia Aeronautica. During the 1930s, it was involved in Ethiopia in 1935, later in the Spanish Civil War between 1936 and 1939. Eventually, Italy entered World War II alongside Germany.Italian Armed Forces – Alpini of the 4th Alpini Parachutist Regiment in Afghanistan in 2007.
26. Latvian National Armed Forces – The Latvian National Armed Forces are the armed forces of the Republic of Latvia. The National Armed Forces consists of Land Forces, Naval Forces, Air Force, others. Latvia has switched to a professional army, the last draft was in 2005. From January 2007, the Latvian army is fully contract-based. Ensure modernization and enhancement of professional combat training; The Latvian armed forces were first formed after the new state was created after World War I. At the end of the Latvian War of Independence, the Latvian Army consisted of 69,232 men. After the occupation of Latvia in June 1940 the annihilation of the Latvian army began. In September -- November 1940 - the Red Army's 24th Territorial Rifle Corps. The corps comprised 183rd Rifle Divisions. Soldiers were discharged. The arresting of soldiers continued in the following months. In June 1940, the entire Territorial Corps was sent to Litene camp. Before leaving the camp, Latvians drafted in 1939 were replaced by about 4000 Russian soldiers from the area around Moscow. On June 10, the corps' senior officers were sent to Russia where most of them shot. On June 14 at least 430 officers were sent to Gulag camps.Latvian National Armed Forces – A Latvian soldier during a training exercise
27. Lithuanian Armed Forces – The Lithuanian Armed Forces consist of 20 565 active personnel. Conscription was reintroduced in 2015 because of concerns about the geopolitical environment in light of Russia's military intervention in Ukraine. Lithuania's system is based on the concept of "total and unconditional defence" mandated by Lithuania's National Security Strategy. The goal of Lithuania's policy is to prepare their society for general defence and to integrate Lithuania into Western security and defence structures. The ministry is responsible for combat forces, search and rescue, intelligence operations. A special department handles VIP protection and communications security. Directly subordinated to the Chief of Defence are the Special Operations Forces and Military Police. The Reserve Forces are under command of the Lithuanian National Defence Volunteer Forces. The core of the Lithuanian Land Force structure is the Iron Wolf Mechanised Infantry Brigade consisting of artillery battalion. The Lithuanian Land forces are undertaking a major modernization. Heavier armour are going to be acquired. In 2007 the Land forces bought the German Heckler & Koch G36 rifle to replace the older Swedish Ak-4 as main weapon. There are plans to buy new Infantry fighting vehicles. The volunteers have already successfully participated in international operations in the Balkans, Iraq. The NDVF consists of six territorial units.Lithuanian Armed Forces – Flag and insignia of the Lithuanian Armed Forces
28. Luxembourg Army – The Luxembourg Army is the national military of Luxembourg. Luxembourg has no navy, as the country is landlocked. It has no force either, although it does have aircraft. The Luxembourg Army was integrated into the Force Publique, which included the Police. The Gendarmerie was merged into the Grand Ducal Police in 2000. The army has been an all-volunteer force since 1967. The army is under civilian control. The Commander-in-Chief is the Grand Duke. The professional head of the army is the Chief of Defence, currently Romain Mancinelli. He answers in the civilian government, currently Etienne Schneider. The Chief of Defence are the only generals, with colonels as Deputy Chief of Defence and head of the Military Training Centre. The Luxembourg army is integrated under Belgian command. Luxembourg troops have also deployed to Afghanistan to support ISAF. Luxembourg financially supported international peacekeeping missions in Rwanda and, more recently, in Albania. The army has also participated in humanitarian relief missions such as providing emergency supplies to Albania.Luxembourg Army – Cap Badge of the Luxembourg Army
29. Armed forces of the Netherlands – The Armed forces of the Netherlands consist of the Army, Navy, Air Force. The service branches consist of: Koninklijke Landmacht, Royal Netherlands Army. Koninklijke Marine, Royal Netherlands Navy and Korps Mariniers, Marine Corps. Koninklijke Luchtmacht, Royal Netherlands Air Force. Koninklijke Marechaussee, Royal Military Constabulary. Within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, there are small local conscript forces on the islands of Aruba and Curaçao. These operate under the auspices of the Royal Netherlands Navy and Marines. The military ranks of the armed forces have similarities with British and U.S. military ranks. The highest-ranking officer in the Dutch military is the Chief of the Netherlands Defence Staff, usually a four-star officer. The armed forces exist by declaration in the constitution of the Netherlands. Interestingly, this means that the responsibility of the Dutch military in international stability and peacekeeping is constitutionally determined. The same article of the constitution determines that supreme command of the Dutch military resides with the Government of the Netherlands. In addition, a major change in military affairs was made in 2003. Before then, all citizens of the Netherlands were tasked with the defense of the kingdom. In keeping to a professional military, this article was dropped.Armed forces of the Netherlands – Military of Netherlands
30. Norwegian Armed Forces – The Norwegian Armed Forces is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Norway. The armed forces number have a full-mobilisation combat strength of 83,000. The armed forces are subordinate to the Ministry of Defence, led by Ine Marie Eriksen Søreide. The formal commander-in-chief is King Harald V; however, the facto commander-in-chief is Chief of Defence Haakon Bruun-Hanssen. His staff is located at Akershus Fortress in Oslo, while the Norwegian Joint Headquarters, responsible for commanding operations, is located in Bodø. The naval base is Haakonsvern in Bergen, the main army camps are in Bardu, Målselv and Rena, the main air station is Ørland. An organised military was early focused around naval warfare. The army was created as part of Denmark -- Norway, followed by two centuries of regular wars. The military did not see combat until the German occupation of Norway in 1940. Norway abandoned its position as a neutral country in 1949 to become a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. The Cold War saw military bases, especially in Northern Norway. Since the 2000s, the military has transformed from a focus on defence to a mobile force for international missions. Among European NATO members, the military expenditure of US$ billion is the highest per capita. The Chief of Defence is the principal military adviser to the Minister of Defence. It is headed by admiral.Norwegian Armed Forces – Norwegian soldier during a field exercise
31. Polish Armed Forces – Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland are the national armed forces of Poland. The name can also be applied to earlier periods. Until 2014 Polish military forces were part of the Coalition Forces that participated in the ISAF mission in Afghanistan led by NATO. Poland's contribution to ISAF was the country's largest, since its entrance into NATO. Polish forces also took part in the Iraq War. From 2003 to 2008, military forces commanded the Multinational Division located in the South-Central Zone of Iraq. This zone was covered an area of over 65,632 km ². The division totaled as many as 8,500 soldiers. The List of Polish wars chronicles military involvements since the year 972. Large numbers of Poles also served in the armies of the partitioning powers, Russia, Austria-Hungary and Germany. However, these powers took care to spread Polish soldiers all as a rule did not form predominantly Polish units. During World War I, the Polish Legions were set up in Galicia, the southern part of Poland under Austrian occupation. They were both disbanded after the Central Powers failed to provide guarantees of Polish independence after the war. It was joined by several thousand Polish volunteers from the United States. It fought valiantly on the French front in 1918.Polish Armed Forces – Uhlans of Army of Congress Poland during the November Uprising, 1831
32. Portuguese Armed Forces – The Portuguese Armed Forces are the military of Portugal. The president of the Portuguese Republic is the head of the military, with the title of "Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces". The execution of the national defense policy is however done by the government via its Minister of National Defense. Military other bodies are stationed throughout all the Portuguese territory, including Continental Portugal, Madeira and the Azores. The national defense also assures the fulfillment of the military agreements of the State, accordingly with the national interest. The Portuguese Armed Forces are responsible for the military defense, the military component of the national defense. The system of forces defines the set of capacities that should exist for the fulfillment of the missions of the armed forces. It encompasses the set of systems of forces of all branches of the Armed Forces. The system of forces includes two components: component - includes the set of assets and forces to be employed operationally. It is the dynamic part of the system including mainly deployable elements, but also some non-deployable operational command bodies. Examples of elements of this component are infantry battalions and flying squadrons. It is the static part including only non-deployable elements. Examples of elements of this component are naval bases, air bases. The LDN is regularly updated, with the present version being the Law 21-A/2006. The present version of the CEDN was approved through its Resolution 19/2013.Portuguese Armed Forces – Portuguese military standard with Fuzileiros honor guard
33. Romanian Armed Forces – The Land Forces, Air Force and Naval Forces of Romania are collectively known as the Romanian Armed Forces. Women currently comprise the Armed Forces, 75,000 of them being military personnel and the other 15,000 civilians. Out of civilian personnel, 60,000 are the active troops while 30,000 comprise the active territorial reserves. As of 2010, the Land Forces have a reported strength of 43,000, the Air Force 9,700, Joint Forces 13,500. Total spending currently accounts for 1.33 % of total national GDP, which represents approximately 1.78 billion euros. The Land Forces are today a modern army with multiple NATO capabilities. They are participating in a peacekeeping mission in Afghanistan, together with the other NATO countries. The Air Force currently operates Soviet MiG-21 LanceR fighters, which are due to be replaced by modernized ex-Portuguese F-16 fighters by 2016. In the first stage a second squadron of another 12 aircraft will follow by 2020. The Air Force has also received 7 C-27J Spartan tactical airlift aircraft, in order to replace the bulk of the old transport force. Three domestically-produced IAR 330 Puma NAVAL helicopters were commissioned in late 2008. Romania joined NATO in 2004. As a consequence, extensive preparations were made to create a professional army in place of a conscripted one. The armed forces include 90,000 men and women, of whom about 75,000 are military personnel. 60,000 of the 90,000 are active forces; 30,000 comprise the territorial forces.Romanian Armed Forces – Romanian soldiers on patrol in Afghanistan
34. Slovak Armed Forces – The Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic number 15,996 uniformed personnel and 3,761 civilians. Slovakia joined March 2004. From 2006 the army transformed into compulsory military service was abolished. Ground forces - are made up of a Combat Support Brigade. Air and air defence forces - comprising one wing of fighters, one wing of utility helicopters, one SAM brigade. The unit works for the Operational Reconnaissance Bureau. Slovakia has military personnel deployed in Cyprus for UNFICYP United Nations led peace support operations. Slovakia committed to increase the number of its troops in Afghanistan by the end of 2016. Slovakia has 41 troops deployed for EUFOR Althea. Slovak troops were withdrawn from Kosovo because the Slovak Armed Forces set its priority to focus mainly on an Afghanistan NATO led mission. Since the independence of Slovakia in 1993, there have been 59 personnel deaths in the line of service to the United Nations and NATO. Official homepage of the Ministry of Defence Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic Picture gallery Slovak military photosSlovak Armed Forces – Armed Forces of Slovak Republic coat-of-arms
35. Slovenian Armed Forces – The Slovenian Armed Forces or Slovenian Army are the armed forces of Slovenia. Since 2003, it is organized as a fully professional army. The military history of Slovenia spans less than a hundred years. It was of negligible importance prior to 1990, with few members. The Slovenian Armed Forces were formally established as a reorganization of the Slovenia Territorial Defence. After 1993, the Slovenian Armed Forces had relied with conscripts receiving 6 -- 7 months of training. Currently there are approximately 1,500 in reserve, reduced from 55,000 personnel during conscription. A major reorganization of the Slovenian Armed Forces is currently underway with a goal making them cheaper. More than half of all commands have been disbanded which has made commanding the subordinated units faster. Soldiers are to be located nearer to their homes in order to minimize travel costs. Reorganization also thus equaled it with the 1st Brigade. Both brigades were added support elements, such as Artillery, Intelligence, etc.. The operational units now consist of Special Operations Unit, Naval Division, an Aviation Regiment and three brigades, the 1st, Logistics Brigade. As part of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Slovenia was never a member of the Warsaw Pact. The foreign policy priority of NATO membership drives Slovenia's defense reorganization.Slovenian Armed Forces – Flag of the Army
36. Spanish Armed Forces – The Spanish Armed Forces are the military forces of the Kingdom of Spain. The Spanish Armed Forces are a military force charged with defending the Kingdom's integrity and sovereignty. They consist of the Army, Air Force. The Armed Forces also provide peace keeping troops to the United Nations. The 30 Years War along with financial problems, well as a lack of reforms, weakened Spain's power by the mid 17th century. The occupation of a great part of Spain by the French during the Napoleonic Wars resulted in the so-called war of Spanish independence. Which was characterised due to the wars devastation on Spain's economy. The armed forces are a professional force with a strength in 2012 of 123,300 active personnel and 16,400 reserve personnel. The country also has the 80,000 strong Civil Guard which falls in times of a national emergency. The Spanish budget is 5.71 billion euros a 1 % increase for 2015. The increase comes due to security concerns in the country. The Spanish army consists of 6 military regions. They are headed by the head of state, the king of Spain. This is reflected in the varied roles assigned to them. There are four operational roles that infantry battalions can fulfil: air assault, armoured infantry, light role infantry.Spanish Armed Forces – Tri-service badge
37. Turkish Armed Forces – The Turkish Armed Forces are the military forces of the Republic of Turkey. They consist of the Army, the Air Force. In wartime, they are subordinate to the Army and Navy. The President of Turkey is the military's overall head. The current Chief of the General staff is General Hulusi Akar. The Chief of the General Staff is the Commander of the Armed Forces. Furthermore, the General Staff coordinates the military relations of the TAF with other friendly nations. After becoming February 1952, Turkey initiated a comprehensive modernization program for its armed forces. The Turkish Army sent troops to fight in Korea, where they played pivotal roles at some points. Towards the end of the 1980s, a second process was initiated. The Turkish Armed Forces participate under the control of the European Council, namely the Italian-Romanian-Turkish Battlegroup. The TAF also contributes operational staff to the Eurocorps multinational army initiative of the EU and NATO. The Turkish Armed Forces collectively rank as the second largest standing military force in NATO, after the U.S. Armed Forces, with an estimated strength in 2015 of 639,551 military, civilian and paramilitary personnel. After the end of World War I, Ottoman military personnel escaped from Rumelia to Anatolia in order to take part in the national movement.Turkish Armed Forces – Selimiye Barracks (1828) in Istanbul is the headquarters of the First Army of the Turkish Land Forces.
38. British Armed Forces – The commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces is the British monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, to whom members of the forces swear allegiance. The armed forces are managed by the Defence Council of the Ministry of Defence, headed by the Secretary of State for Defence. With the Acts of Union 1707, the armed forces of England and Scotland were merged into the armed forces of the Kingdom of Great Britain. Britain feared that Russian expansionism in the region would eventually threaten the Empire in India. This ultimately led to British involvement in the Crimean War against the Russian Empire. The beginning of the twentieth century served to reduce tensions between the Russian Empire, partly due to the emergence of a German Empire. Again following Germany's invasion of Poland in September 1939, the Second World War began. Approximately 390,000 British Empire and Commonwealth troops lost their lives. Allied victory resulted in the defeat of the Axis powers and the establishment of the United Nations. By the mid-1970s, the Armed Forces had reconfigured to focus on the responsibilities allocated to them by NATO. While NATO obligations took increased prominence, Britain nonetheless found itself engaged in a number of low-intensity conflicts, including a spate of insurgencies against colonial occupation. However The Troubles emerged as the operational concerns of the Armed Forces. Perhaps the most important conflict during the Cold War, at least in the context of British defence policy, was the Falklands War. As head of state, Queen Elizabeth II is Head of their Commander-in-Chief. The Queen, however, remains the ultimate authority of the military, with officers and personnel swearing allegiance to the monarch.British Armed Forces – The Vulcan Bomber was the backbone of the United Kingdom’s airborne nuclear deterrent during much of the Cold War.
39. United States Armed Forces – The United States Armed Forces are the federal armed forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Coast Guard. From the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of national identity was forged in the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War. So, the Founders were suspicious of a military force. It played an important role in the American Civil War, where leading generals on both sides were picked from members of the United States military. Not until the outbreak of World War II did a large standing army become officially established. The U.S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. As of 2016, the United States spends about $ billion annually to fund Overseas Contingency Operations. Put together, the United States constitutes roughly 40 percent of the world's military expenditures. The United States was also the world's eighth largest importer of major weapons for the same period. The history of the U.S. military dates to 1775, even before the Declaration of Independence marked the establishment of the United States. These forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. All three services trace their origins to the founding of the Continental Marines, respectively. The United States President is the U.S. military's commander-in-chief.United States Armed Forces – The U.S. Joint Service Color Guard on parade at Fort Myer, Virginia in October 2001.
40. Foreign relations of NATO – NATO maintains foreign relations with many non-member countries across the globe. NATO runs a number of programs which provide a framework for these non-member nations, typically based on that country's location. These include the Partnership for Peace. All who have declared their non-alignment with military alliances, are not NATO members: Austria, Finland, Ireland, Malta, Sweden. Switzerland, surrounded by the EU, has also maintained their neutrality by staying out of the bloc. "Turkey, Romania, Italy, Poland, the Baltic states" are among the members backing a fast track for Azerbaijan's NATO membership. While President Ilham Aliyev has generally supported non-belligerency to power in 2003, Azerbaijan has hosted NATO military exercises and high-profile meetings in 2009. The unresolved conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh would present a major roadblock to membership. Azerbaijan made its policy of not being aligned with a geopolitical/military official when it became a full member of the Non-Aligned Movement in 2011. Cyprus is the only EU state, neither a NATO member state nor a member of the PfP program. A full member of NATO, is likely to veto any attempt by Cyprus to engage with NATO until the dispute is resolved. Finland has provided peacekeeping forces to both the Afghanistan and Kosovo missions. However, a 2005 poll indicated that the public was strongly against NATO membership. The possibility of Finland's membership in NATO was one of the most important issues debated to the Finnish presidential election of 2006. Sauli Niinistö of the National Coalition Party, supported Finland joining a "more European" NATO.Foreign relations of NATO – Moldovan soldiers participate in Exercise Peace Shield 2011 in Bulboaca with US and NATO experts
41. Atlantic Treaty Association – The Atlantic Treaty Association is an umbrella organization which acts as a network facilitator in the Euro-Atlantic and beyond. The ATA is, however, an independent organization separate from NATO. Following the ascension of the new NATO countries in 1999 and 2004, naturally its security focus has shifted eastward. The branch of the ATA, the Youth Atlantic Treaty Association was created in 1996. The ATA is now fully dedicated to engaging the youth of the Euro-Atlantic through close cooperation with its division.Atlantic Treaty Association – Presidents 
43. Mediterranean Dialogue – The Mediterranean Dialogue, first launched in 1994, is a forum of cooperation between NATO and seven countries of the Mediterranean. The Dialogue reflects NATO's view that security in Europe is tied to the stability in the Mediterranean. It also complements the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe's Mediterranean Initiative. The Mediterranean Dialogue initially has added two more over time. Libya has yet to respond. The ICP covers joint military exercises in the Mediterranean Sea. NATO expects further agreements to be signed with additional Mediterranean Dialogue member states in the future. Istanbul Cooperation Initiative North Atlantic Council Partnership for Peace Union for the Mediterranean Mediterranean Dialogue websiteMediterranean Dialogue – NATO member states
45. Partnership for Peace – On April 1995 Malta became a member of PfP; it left on October 27, 1996 in order to maintain its neutrality. On March 2008 Malta decided to reactivate their PfP membership; this was accepted by NATO at the summit in Bucharest on April 3, 2008. Cyprus is the only European Union state, neither a NATO member state nor a member of the PfP program. A full member of NATO, is likely to veto any attempt by Cyprus to engage with NATO until the dispute is resolved. No headway has occurred since. Kosovo has described PfP membership as a strategic objective of the government. Kosovo submitted an application to join the PfP program in July 2012. However, Greece, Romania, Spain and Slovakia, do not recognize Kosovo's independence and have threatened to block their participation in the program. To be eligible to join, the Kosovan Armed Forces must be established.Partnership for Peace – European NATO members (1994)