1. Spanish missions in the Americas – During the Age of Discovery, the Christian Church inaugurated a major effort to spread Christianity in the New World by converting indigenous peoples. As such, the establishment of Christian missions went hand-in-hand with the efforts of European powers such as Spain, France. For these nations, the enterprise was based on the necessity to develop European commerce. According to Adriaan van Oss, Catholicism remains the principal colonial heritage of Spain in America, more than any set of economic relationships. The Catholic religion continues to permeate Spanish-American culture today, creating a cultural unity which transcends the political and national boundaries dividing the continent. Christian leaders and Christian doctrines have been accused of justifying and perpetrating violence against Native Americans found in the New World, according to Colin Calloway, the Spanish missions also produced massive population decline, food shortages, increased demands for labor, and violence. However, other scholars point out that the Catholic Church often defended the rights of Native Americans, for example, Jesuits devoted themselves to the interests of Native Americans. The Spanish missions in the Carolinas were part of a series of religious outposts that Spanish Catholics established to spread Christian doctrine among the local Native Americans, the principal coastal mission and fort in the area was Santa Elena, which survived until 1587. The Spanish chapter of Georgias earliest colonial history is dominated by the mission era. The early missions in present-day Georgia were established to serve the Guale and various Timucua peoples, later the missions served other peoples who had entered the region, including the Yamassee. These missions brought grain, cattle, and a homeland for the California Native Americans. They had no immunity to European diseases, with subsequent indigenous tribal population falls, overland routes were established from New Spain that resulted in the establishment of a mission and presidio - now San Francisco, and a pueblo - now Los Angeles. The clash of Spanish and native cultures during the Spanish Las Californias-New Spain and these aspects have received more research in recent decades. The missions gave Spain a valuable toehold in the land, and introduced European livestock, fruits, vegetables. Eventually, a network of settlements was established each of the installations was no more than a long days ride by horse or boat from another. As early as the voyages of Christopher Columbus, the Kingdom of Spain sought to establish missions to convert pagans to Catholicism in Nueva España, New Spain consisted of the Caribbean, Mexico, and portions of what is now the Southwestern United States. To facilitate colonization, the Catholic Church decided to award these lands to Spain, the missions represented the first major effort by Europeans to colonize the Pacific Coast region, and gave Spain a valuable toehold in the frontier land. The government of Mexico shut down the missions in the 1830s, in the end, the mission had mixed results in its objective to convert, educate, and civilize the indigenous population and transforming the natives into Spanish colonial citizensSpanish missions in the Americas – A plaque showing the locations of a third of the missions between 1565 and 1763
2. Spanish missions in California – The missions were part of a major effort by the Spanish Empire to extend colonization into the most northern and western parts of Spains North American claims. Following a long-term secular and religious policy of Spain in Latin America, Mexico achieved independence in 1821, taking Alta California along with it, but the missions maintained authority over native neophytes and control of vast land holdings until the 1830s. At the peak of its development in 1832, the mission system controlled an area equal to approximately one-sixth of Alta California. The Alta California government secularized the missions after the passage of the Mexican secularization act of 1833 and this divided the mission lands into land grants, which became many of the Ranchos of California. In the end, the missions had mixed results in their objectives, to convert, educate, today, the surviving mission buildings are the states oldest structures, and its most-visited historic monuments. Prior to 1754, grants of lands were made directly by the Spanish Crown. The missions were to be interconnected by a route which later became known as the Camino Real. The detailed planning and direction of the missions was to be carried out by Friar Junípero Serra, work on the coastal mission chain was concluded in 1823, completed after Serras death in 1784. Plans to build a mission in Santa Rosa in 1827 were canceled. The Santa Ysabel Asistencia had been founded in 1818 as a mother mission, in addition to the presidio and pueblo, the misión was one of the three major agencies employed by the Spanish sovereign to extend its borders and consolidate its colonial territories. Each frontier station was forced to be self-supporting, as existing means of supply were inadequate to maintain a colony of any size. California was months away from the nearest base in colonized Mexico, to sustain a mission, the padres required converted Native Americans, called neophytes, to cultivate crops and tend livestock in the volume needed to support a fair-sized establishment. The scarcity of imported materials, together with a lack of skilled laborers, compelled the missionaries to employ simple building materials, although the missions were considered temporary ventures by the Spanish hierarchy, the development of an individual settlement was not simply a matter of priestly whim. The padres blessed the site, and with the aid of their military escort fashioned temporary shelters out of tree limbs or driven stakes and it was these simple huts that ultimately gave way to the stone and adobe buildings that exist to the present. The first priority when beginning a settlement was the location and construction of the church, once the spot for the church had been selected, its position was marked and the remainder of the mission complex was laid out. The cuadrángulo was rarely a perfect square because the missionaries had no surveying instruments at their disposal and it was a doctrine established in 1531, which based the Spanish states right over the land and persons of the Indies on the Papal charge to evangelize them. It was employed wherever the indigenous populations were not already concentrated in native pueblos, the civilized and disciplined culture of the natives, developed over 8,000 year, was not considered. A total of 146 Friars Minor, mostly Spaniards by birth, were ordained as priests, sixty-seven missionaries died at their posts, while the remainder returned to Europe due to illness, or upon completing their ten-year service commitmentSpanish missions in California – A view of Mission San Juan Capistrano in. At left is the façade of the first adobe church with its added espadaña; behind the campanario, or "bell wall" is the "Sacred Garden." The Mission has earned a reputation as the "Loveliest of the Franciscan Ruins."
3. Spanish missions in Baja California – The missions gave Spain a valuable toehold in the frontier land, and introduced European livestock, fruits, vegetables, and industry into the region. Mexico secularized all missions in its territory in 1834 and the last of the departed in 1840. Some of the mission churches survive and are still in use, as early as the voyages of Christopher Columbus, the Kingdom of Spain sought to establish missions to convert pagans to Catholicism in Nueva España. New Spain consisted of the Caribbean, Mexico, and portions of what is now the Southwestern United States, to facilitate colonization, the Catholic Church awarded these lands to Spain. In addition to the presidio and pueblo, the misión was one of three major agencies employed by the Spanish crown to extend its borders and consolidate its colonial territories, asistencias were small-scale missions that regularly conducted Catholic religious services on days of obligation, but lacked a resident priest. Smaller sites called visitas also lacked a resident priest, and were attended only sporadically. Since 1493, the Crown of Spain had maintained missions throughout Nueva España, each frontier station was forced to be self-supporting, as existing means of supply were inadequate to maintain a colony of any size. Scarcity of imported materials and lack of skilled laborers compelled the Fathers to employ simple building materials, although the Spanish hierarchy considered the missions temporary ventures, individual settlement development was not based simply on priestly whim. The founding of a mission followed longstanding rules and procedures, the paperwork involved required months, sometimes years of correspondence, and demanded the attention of virtually every level of the bureaucracy. Once empowered to erect a mission in an area, the men assigned to it chose a specific site that featured a good water supply, proximity to a population of indigenous peoples. The padres, their military escort and often converted mainland indigenous people or mestizos initially fashioned defendable shelters, from which a base was established, construction of the iglesia constituted the focus of the settlement, and created the center of the community. The majority of mission sanctuaries were oriented on a roughly east-west axis to take the best advantage of the position for interior illumination. Indian peoples encountered by the Spanish missionaries in Baja California were the Kumeyaay, Cocopah, Pai Pai, Kiliwa, Cochimi, Monqui, Guaycura, and Pericu. The Indigenous peoples were housed often by gender, forcibly converted to Catholicism, recalcitrant indigenous peoples often ran away or revolted, and many missions maintained a precarious existence during the colonial era. Use of firearms, corporal punishment in the form of whippings and religious ritual and psychological punishments were all employed by the missionaries to maintain. At the time of first contact with the Spanish, the Native Americans living in Baja California may have numbered as many as 60,000, by 1762, their numbers had fallen to 21,000 and by 1800 to 5,900. The primary reason for the decline was recurrent epidemics of European diseases, primarily smallpox, measles, the spread of disease was facilitated by the missionarys practice of congregating the population near the mission. Endemic Syphilis resulted in higher mortality and a reduced birth rateSpanish missions in Baja California – Misión Santa Rosalía de Mulegé in Baja California Sur
4. Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos – The Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos are located in Santa Cruz department in eastern Bolivia. Six of these former missions collectively were designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1990, the interior region bordering Spanish and Portuguese territories in South America was largely unexplored at the end of the 17th century. Dispatched by the Spanish Crown, Jesuits explored and founded settlements in 76 years in the remote Chiquitania – then known as Chiquitos – on the frontier of Spanish America. They built churches in a unique and distinct style that combined elements of native, the indigenous inhabitants of the missions were taught European music as a means of conversion. The missions were self-sufficient, with thriving economies, and virtually autonomous from the Spanish crown, after the expulsion of the Jesuit order from Spanish territories in 1767, most Jesuit reductions in South America were abandoned and fell into ruins. The former Jesuit missions of Chiquitos are unique because these settlements, a large restoration project of the missionary churches began with the arrival of the former Swiss Jesuit and architect Hans Roth in 1972. Since 1990, these former Jesuit missions have experienced some measure of popularity, the six World Heritage Site settlements are located in the hot and semiarid lowlands of Santa Cruz Department of eastern Bolivia. They lie in an area near the Gran Chaco, east and northeast of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, the westernmost missions are San Xavier and Concepción, located in the province of Ñuflo de Chávez between the San Julián and Urugayito rivers. Santa Ana de Velasco, San Miguel de Velasco, and San Rafael de Velasco are located to the east, in José Miguel de Velasco province, San José de Chiquitos is located in Chiquitos province, about 200 kilometres south of San Rafael. Ñuflo de Chavés, a 16th-century Spanish conquistador and founder of Santa Cruz la Vieja, introduced the name Chiquitos and it referred to the small doors of the straw houses in which the indigenous population lived. Properly, “Chiquitos” refers only to either a department of Bolivia, or the former region of Upper Peru that once encompassed all of the Chiquitania and parts of Mojos. The current provincial division of Santa Cruz department does not follow the Jesuits’ concept of a missionary area, the Chiquitania lies within five modern provinces, Ángel Sandoval, Germán Busch, José Miguel de Velasco, Ñuflo de Chávez and Chiquitos province. In the 16th century, priests of different religious orders set out to evangelize the Americas, two of these missionary orders were the Franciscans and the Jesuits, both of which eventually arrived in the frontier town of Santa Cruz de la Sierra and then in the Chiquitania. The missionaries employed the strategy of gathering the often nomadic indigenous populations in larger communities called reductions in order to more effectively Christianize them. This policy sprang from the legal view of the “Indian” as a minor. The Jesuits established themselves in Lima in 1569 before moving east toward Paraguay, because they were not allowed to establish settlements on the frontier they built chapter houses, churches and schools in pre-existing settlements, such as La Paz, Potosí and La Plata. In 1587 the first Jesuits, Fr, diego Martínez, arrived in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, located just south of where the future mission of San José de Chiquitos would be established. In 1592 the settlement had to be moved 250 kilometres west because of conflicts with natives, the Jesuits did not start missions in the valleys northeast of the cordillera until the 17th centuryJesuit Missions of Chiquitos – Church in Concepción
5. Spanish missions in Florida – Augustine to the area around Tallahassee, southeastern Georgia, and some coastal settlements, such as Pensacola, Florida. A few short-lived missions were established in locations, including Mission Santa Elena in present-day South Carolina, around the Florida peninsula. The missions of what are now northern Florida and southeastern Georgia were divided into four provinces where the bulk of missionary effort took place. These provinces roughly corresponded to the areas where those dialects were spoken among the varying Native American peoples, thus, there were also ephemeral attempts to establish missions elsewhere, particularly further south into Florida. It ended in failure after six weeks with de Cancers death at the hands of the Tocobaga natives, the first Spanish missions to the Indians of Florida, starting with the foundation of St. Augustine in 1565, were attached to presidios. Between 1565 and 1567 ten presidios were established at major harbors from Port Royal Sound to Tampa Bay to prevent other European powers from establishing bases in the area, most of the presidios were unsustainable. By 1573 the only remaining presidios in Florida were St. Augustine and Santa Elena, the missions at the presidios were staffed by the Jesuits. Due to the hostility of the Indians, which resulted in the murder of several of the missionaries, franciscan friars entered into La Florida in 1573, but at first confined their activities to the immediate vicinity of St. Augustine. The Franciscans began taking their mission to the Guale and Timucua Indians along the Atlantic coast in 1587, starting in 1606 the Franciscans expanded their mission efforts westward across Timucua territory, and by 1633 had established missions in Apalachee Province. The network of missions took its heaviest blow with Carolina Governor James Moores raids into the area during Queen Annes War, most of the Spanish missions in the Apalachee Province were wiped out during the Apalachee massacre. The mission buildings of La Florida were built with posts set into the ground, the walls were palmetto thatch, wattle and daub or plank, or left open. The floors were clay, and scholars believe the roofs were thatched, the church buildings in the missions averaged some 20 m by 11 m. Other buildings situated within a palisade included a convento to house the missionaries, a barracks for the soldiers, the Spanish used the term province for the territory of a tribe or chiefdom. There was no fixed definition of province boundaries, as tribes and chiefdoms lost population and importance, the provinces associated with them would no longer appear in the records. Other provinces expanded to take in their territories, most of the people taken into the mission system were Timucua speakers. Three major groups that other languages were also taken into the mission system. The Guale Province was the territory the Guale, and covered what is now coastal Georgia, the Guale were among the first people to be taken into the mission system, in the 1580s. Later in the 17th century, Guale Province was sometimes referred to as extending southward, the Apalachee Province included the Apalachee people, who spoke a Muskogean language, and were brought into the mission system in the 1630sSpanish missions in Florida – A plaque showing the locations of a third of the missions between 1565 and 1763
6. Spanish missions in New Mexico – The Spanish Missions in New Mexico were a series of religious outposts in the Province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México — present day New Mexico. They attempted to Hispanicize the indigenous peoples, the affected included the rich cultures and tribes of, many of the 21 distinct Puebloan groups, the Tiwa, the Navajo, and the Apache. The missions also aimed to pacify resistance to the European invasion of the tribes Pre-Columbian homelands, the missions introduced European livestock, fruits, vegetables, and small-scale industry into the Southwest region. They also introduced European diseases that the people had no immunity against. Fray Marcos de Niza, sent by Coronado, first saw the now known as New Mexico in 1539. The first permanent settlement was Mission San Gabriel, founded in 1598 by Juan de Oñate near what is now known as the San Juan Pueblo, see also Isleta Pueblo Mission San Buenaventura de Cochiti - Completed in 1628, renovated in the 1960s. See also Cochiti Pueblo Mission San Esteban del Rey de Acoma - Established 1629 and completed in 1641, Mission San Felipe - Built on the site of a previous church Mission San Gregorio de Abó - Established in 1640 by Fray Francisco Acevedo. Ruins are now part of the Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument, Mission San Ildefonso - The original mission church was built in 1711, but was later destroyed. Mission San Isidro and Mission San Buenaventura de Humanas - the ruins are part of the Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument Mission San José de los Jémez - Established in 1621, now in ruins. Mission Nuestra Señora de Perpetuo Socorro, today known as the Mission San Miguel - Established in 1598 by Fray Alfonso Benavidez, San Miguel Mission Chapel is said to be the oldest church still in use in the United States. Mission San José de Laguna - built in 1699, see also Laguna Pueblo Mission San Lorenzo de Picurís—established circa 1620. Mission Santa Ana - Completed in 1750, Mission Santo Domingo - The original mission church was destroyed by flooding of the Rio Grande. San Francisco de Asis Mission - Ranchos de Taos San Miguel Mission - Santa Fe Mission La Purisima Concepcíón de Hawikuh - Established in 1628, Mission Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe de Zuni - Still in use. El Santuario de Chimayó - Site of an Easter pilgrimage by foot to this spot every year. Not a mission, founded c.1810 as a private chapel, San Francisco de Asis Mission Church - Church built between 1772 and 1816 and is located in the historic district of Ranchos de Taos. Santuario de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe - Founded c,1777, believed to be nations oldest shrine dedicated to Our Lady of GuadalupeSpanish missions in New Mexico – Quarai Mission church in 1940. Photo: George A. Grant.
7. Jesuit reduction – A Jesuit reduction was a type of settlement for indigenous people in South America created by the Jesuit Order during the 17th and 18th centuries. The strategy of the Spanish Empire was to gather native populations into centers called Indian reductions, in order to Christianize, tax, the Jesuit interpretation of this strategy was implemented primarily in an area that corresponds to modern-day Paraguay amongst the Tupi-Guarani peoples. Later reductions were extended into areas now part of Argentina, Brazil, to understand the impetus behind these Jesuit efforts, one must take into account the widespread Catholic belief about baptism, current at that time. It would be centuries before the Catholic church would reconsider its glum appraisal of the chances of salvation for those not baptized into the Church, from this came the heroic efforts of missionaries to the detriment of native cultures, which few today could countenance. Jesuit reductions were different from the reductions in other regions because the people were expected to convert to Christianity. Under the leadership of both the Jesuits and native caciques, the reductions achieved a degree of autonomy within the Spanish colonial empire. With the use of Indian labour, the reductions became economically successful, when their existence was threatened by the incursions of Bandeirante slave traders, Indian militia were created that fought effectively against the colonists. In the 16th century, priests of different religious orders set out to evangelize the Americas, legally, under colonial rule, Indians were classified as minors, in effect children, to be protected and guided to salvation by European missionaries. The Jesuit reductions originated in the seventeenth century when Bishop Lizarraga asked for missionaries for Paraguay. In 1609, acting under instructions from Phillip III, the Spanish governor of Asunción made a deal with the Jesuit Provincial of Paraguay. The Jesuits agreed to set up hamlets at strategic points along the Paraná river, the Jesuits were to enjoy a tax holiday for ten years which extended longer. This mission strategy continued for 150 years until the Jesuits were expelled in 1767, fundamentally the purpose, as far as the government was concerned, was to safeguard the frontier with the reductions where Indians were introduced to European culture. In 1609 three Jesuits began the first mission in San Ignacio Guazú, in the next 25 years,15 missions were founded in the province of Guayrá. But since some of these were within the Portuguese area they were subjected to frequent destructive raids by Bandeirantes of São Paulo to enslave the Indians. In 1631 most of the reductions moved west into Uruguay which was under Spanish jurisdiction, the missions also secured the Spanish Crowns permission, and some arms, to raise militias of Indians to defend the reductions against raids. The bandeirantes followed the reductions into Spanish territory and in 1641 the Indian militia stopped them at Mbororé, the militias could number as many as 4,000 troops and their cavalry was especially effective, wearing European-style uniforms and carrying bows and arrows as well as muskets. What came to be known as the War of the Reductions ended when a force of 3,000 combined Spanish and Portuguese troops crushed the revolt in 1756. The reductions came to be considered a threat by the authorities and were caught up in the growing attack on the Jesuits in Europe for unrelated reasonsJesuit reduction – The Jesuit reduction of São Miguel das Missões, in Brazil
8. Franciscan Missions in the Sierra Gorda – The Franciscan Missions of the Sierra Gorda in the Mexican state of Querétaro were declared a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in 2003. They are credited to Junípero Serra of the Franciscan Order, who also founded important missions in Alta California, the facades of these churches are important because of the “Mestizo Baroque” style, which shows significant indigenous influence by the Pame Indians who built them. The Sierra Gorda is a region centered on the northern third of the state of Querétaro and extending into the neighboring states of Guanajuato, Hidalgo. The region is on a branch of the Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range, all of the Sierra Gorda is marked by very rugged terrain, which includes canyons and steep mountains. Altitudes range from just 300 meters above sea level in the Río Santa María Canyon in Jalpan to 3,100 masl at the Cerro de la Pingüica in Pinal de Amoles. The micro-environments of the range from conifer forests, oak forests, mostly found on mountain peaks, banana. On the east side, there are deciduous forests, on the west side, bordering the Mexican Plateau, there are desert and semi desert conditions, with a variety of cactus and arid scrub brush. The wide variations of altitude and rainfall favor a wide variety of flora, at this time, the native peoples of the region were semi nomadic hunter gathers, such as the Pames, Ximpeces Guachichils and Jonaz, generally referred to together as the Chichimecas. In addition, there were groups of Otomis and Huasteca to be found. The Spanish dominated the far west and the far east of the Sierra Gorda and this is because the rugged terrain and fierce resistance, especially by the Jonaz. Efforts to dominate the region included evangelization efforts, many of which failed before the mid 18th century, during the 16th and 17th century, there were attempts to evangelize the Sierra Gorda of Querétaro by the Augustinians, Franciscans and Dominicans. However, almost all of these missions were never completed or were destroyed soon after they were built by the indigenous communities, the best known example is the Bucareli Mission is located in the community of Puerto de Tejamanil in the municipality of Pinal de Amoles. The mission was founded in 1797 by Franciscan Juan Guadalupe Soriano for evangelization of the local Jonaz people, the full name of the mission is the Purísima Concepción de Bucarelí. It was never finished with only part of the monastery, the mines, on 4 February, mass in honor of Francis of Assisi is performed here, in a small chapel with still remains, although there is no roof in any part of the complex. The mission was abandoned during the Mexican Revolution in 1914. In 1740, the government decided to exterminate indigenous resistance here to secure trade routes to Guanajuato. This was accomplished by José de Escandón, whose expedition culminated in the Battle of Media Luna, defeating the Jonaz, the military pacification of the area by José de Escandón in the 1740s allowed for the building of permanent missions in the heart of the Sierra Gorda. However, the five Franciscans missions accredited to Junípero Serra were built in Pame territory, the Spanish decided to burn original Pame villages and resettle the population around missions for better controlFranciscan Missions in the Sierra Gorda – Mission At Santiago de Jalpan
9. Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert – The missions are in an area of the Sonoran Desert, then called Pimería Alta de Sonora y Sinaloa, now divided between the Mexican state of Sonora and the U. S. state of Arizona. Jesuits in missions in Northwestern Mexico wrote reports that throw light on the peoples they evangelized. A1601 report, Relación de la Provincia de Nuestra Señora de Sinaloa was published in 1945, an important Jesuit report concerned the resistance in 1691 of the Tarahumara to evangelization, Historia de la tercera rebelión tarahumara. During Father Eusebio Kinos stay in the Pimería Alta, he founded over twenty missions in eight mission districts, on February 3,1768, King Carlos III ordered the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain and its overseas empire. Despite the order, many Jesuits remained in and around the present day Tucson, misión de Cuquiárachi founded in 1645, south of Fronteras, Sonora Mission Nuestra Señora de los Dolores, founded on March 13,1687. This was the first mission founded in the Pimería Alta by Father Kino, by 1744, the mission was abandoned. Nuestra Señora de los Remedios was founded in 1687 and was abandoned by 1730, San Ignacio de Cabórica was founded in 1687 and is located in San Ignacio, Sonora. Mission San Pedro y San Pablo del Tubutama was founded in 1687, in Tubutama, Santa Teresa de Atil was founded in 1687, in the small town of Atil, Sonora. Santa María Magdalena was founded in 1687, located in Magdalena de Kino, padre Kinos grave is located here. San José de Imuris was founded in 1687, in Imuris, Nuestra Señora del Pilar y Santiago de Cocóspera was founded in 1689. It is located in Cocóspera, Sonora, San Antonio Paduano del Oquitoa was founded in 1689. It is located in Oquitoa, Sonora, San Diego del Pitiquito was founded in 1689. It is located in Pitiquito, Sonora, San Luis Bacoancos was founded in 1691, but was soon abandoned after Apache attacks. Mission San Cayetano del Tumacacori was founded in 1691 at a native Sobaipuri settlement, the farming land around the mission was sold at auction in 1834 and the mission was abandoned by 1840. It is now a National Monument in Tumacácori National Historical Park in Southern Arizona, Mission Los Santos Ángeles de Guevavi was founded in 1691 and is the location of the first church built in southern Arizona. The church was established in a native settlement, but then was destroyed by fire. The church rebuilt in new locations twice, the final and largest one being built in 1751 and its ruins are part of Tumacácori National Historical Park. San Lázaro was founded in 1691, but was abandoned after Apache attacksSpanish missions in the Sonoran Desert – Mission San Xavier del Bac.
10. Spanish missions in Texas – The missions introduced European livestock, fruits, vegetables, and industry into the Texas area. In addition to the presidio and pueblo, the misión was one of the three major agencies employed by the Spanish crown to extend its borders and consolidate its colonial territories. In all, twenty-six missions were maintained for different lengths of time within the boundaries of the state of Texas. Since 1493, Spain had maintained missions throughout New Spain to facilitate colonization, following government policy, Franciscan missionaries sought to make life within mission communities closely resemble that of Spanish villages and Spanish culture. To become Spanish citizens and productive inhabitants, Native Americans learned vocational skills, as plows, farm implements, and gear for horses, oxen, and mules fell into disrepair, blacksmithing skills soon became indispensable. Weaving skills were needed to clothe the inhabitants. As buildings became more elaborate, mission occupants learned masonry and carpentry under the direction of craftsmen contracted by the missionaries, then their communities could be incorporated as such into ordinary colonial society. This transition from official status to ordinary Spanish society, when it occurred in an official manner, was called secularization. Although colonial law specified no precise time for transition to take effect. This had resulted too often in the abuse and even enslavement of the Indians, Spanish Texas was a part of New Spain. On its southern edge, Texas was bordered by the province of Coahuila, the boundary between the provinces was set at the line formed by the Medina and the Nueces Rivers,100 miles northeast of the Rio Grande. On the east, Texas bordered French Louisiana, although Spain claimed that the Red River formed the boundary between the two, France insisted that the border was the Sabine River,45 miles to the west. The first mission established within the boundaries of Spanish Texas was San Francisco de la Espada, in 1689, Spanish authorities found the remnants of a French settlement, Fort Saint Louis. During their expedition, the Spanish met representatives of the Caddo people, the Caddo expressed interest in learning about Christianity, and the following year Alonso De León led an expedition to establish a mission in East Texas. It was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in late May, in its first two years of existence, the mission faced much hardship, as floodwaters and then drought destroyed their crops. After an epidemic killed half of the population, the Hasinai became convinced that the missionaries had caused the deaths. Fearing an attack, on October 25,1693 the missionaries buried the bell, set the building ablaze. The mission was reestablished on July 3,1716, as Nuestro Padre San Francisco de los Tejas, in 1721, it was renamed Mission San Francisco de los NechesSpanish missions in Texas – Spanish missions within the boundaries of what is now the U.S. state of Texas
11. Franciscan missions to the Maya – The Franciscan Missions to the Maya were the attempts of the Franciscans to Christianize the indigenous peoples of the New World, specifically the Maya. They began to take place soon after the discovery of the New World made by Christopher Columbus in 1492, the goal of the missions was to spread the Christian faith to the people of the New World through word and example. Their attempts, however, resulted in rebellion, spreading Christianity to the newly discovered continent was a top priority, but only one piece of the Spanish colonization system. A goal was to change the agricultural or nomadic Indian into a model of the Spanish people, basically, the aim was for urbanization. The missions achieved this by “offering gifts and persuasion…and safety from enemies and this protection was also security for the Spanish military operation, since there would be theoretically less warring if the natives were pacified, thus working with another piece of the system. Essentially, this meant that there was no one to defy the goings-on of the Franciscans at this time. They were able to use whatever method they deemed necessary to spread their beliefs, the original method of instruction of the new faith to the Maya was very straightforward and simple. Word and example would be all they need to show these people, an example of how the Franciscans carried out this belief can be seen by the actions of Fray Martín de Valencia, one of the Twelve Apostles of Mexico. Upon arrival to his province, he kneeled before a group of assembled natives and began to speak publicly of his own sins, thus the ideal method of teaching was to avoid direct exercise of power. Another means of conversion was the education of the Mayan youth, according to Fray Diego de Landa in his book Relación de las cosas de Yucatán, this program was quite successful, and an “admirable thing to see. The early success through peaceful teaching and quiet example of the Franciscan missionaries, within the first few years it became apparent that verbal teaching would not be enough, as the Mayans remained overall unmoved of the lessons of Christianity. These moderate disciplines, however, soon turned into cases of brutality, certain Catholic officials spoke out against these crimes. Because of extreme cruelties inflicted upon the Mayan people of the provinces Cochua and Chetumal, Quintana Roo, an additional rebellion was executed by the Indians of Valladolid. During this rebellion, which place in 1546, many Spaniards were killed. Livestock from Spain was razed, and Spanish trees uprooted, the presence and activity of the Franciscans is believed to be the cause of this riot. In one day, seventeen Spaniards were killed, and some four hundred servants were killed or wounded. Described as martyrs, these men were picked off in twos or threes throughout the years of the work all through Mexico. In history there is no equal achievement, Spanish conquest of Petén Clendinnen, IngaFranciscan missions to the Maya – The chapel of Mission San Pedro y San Pablo del Tubutama