1. List of urban areas by population – This is a list of contiguous urban areas of the world ordered according to population as of 2014/2015. The figures here have been taken from Demographia's "World Urban Areas" study. Demographia defines an urban area as a continuously built up land mass of urban development, within a labor market, for administrative boundaries. Except in Australia, the authorities use a urban density definition of 400 persons per square kilometer. Demographia uses maps, satellite photographs to estimate continuous urbanization. Demographia also uses small population data, where available, to match population estimates to urbanized land area. National authority data are presented in Australia, Canada, France, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. Census of India urban agglomerations are not used in some cases because the geographical size of constituent units often includes rural areas. Sources for population estimates and area definitions are coded by letter in the Table below, respectively. A: National census authority data agglomeration data. B: Demographia land area estimate based upon map or satellite photograph analysis. C: Demographia population estimate from lower order jurisdictions, including reduction for rural areas. D: Population estimate based upon the United Nations agglomeration estimate. E: Demographia population estimate from national census authority data. F: Other Demographia population estimate, such as from unofficial local reports.List of urban areas by population – Population tables of world cities
2. Japan – Japan is an island nation in East Asia. It is often called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago of 6,852 islands. Largest are Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions. The population of million is the world's tenth largest. Japanese people make up 98.5% of Japan's total population. Approximately million people live in the core city of Tokyo, the capital of Japan. Archaeological research indicates that Japan was inhabited early as the Upper Paleolithic period. The first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st AD. Influence from other regions, mainly China, followed from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive military shoguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Since adopting its revised constitution in 1947, Japan has maintained a constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet. Japan is considered a great power. The country has the world's fourth-largest economy by purchasing power parity.Japan – The Golden Hall and five-storey pagoda of Hōryū-ji, among the oldest wooden buildings in the world, National Treasures, and a UNESCO World Heritage Site
3. Tokyo – Tokyo, officially Tokyo Metropolis, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, is both the capital and most populous city of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world. It is the seat of the Emperor of the Japanese government. Tokyo includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Formerly known as Edo, it has been the facto seat of government since 1603 when Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters. Tokyo Metropolis was formed from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. The metropolitan government also administers 39 municipalities in the western part of the two outlying island chains. The population of the special wards is with the total population of the prefecture exceeding 13 million. The prefecture is part with upwards of 37.8 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy. The city hosts 51 of the highest number of any city in the world. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development IndexEdit. The city is also home to various television networks like Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo fourth in the Global Cities Index. In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world.Tokyo – Clockwise from top: Nishi-Shinjuku, Rainbow Bridge, National Diet Building, Shibuya, Tokyo Skytree
4. Yokohama – Yokohama is the second largest city in Japan by population and most populous municipality of Japan. It is the city of Kanagawa Prefecture. It lies on Tokyo Bay, south of Tokyo, in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshu. It is a commercial hub of the Greater Tokyo Area. Yokohama's population of million makes it Japan's largest city after the Special Wards of Tokyo. The Port of Yokohama was officially opened on June 1859. Yokohama quickly became the base of foreign trade in Japan. The foreign trade and commercial district, was surrounded by a moat, foreign residents enjoying extraterritorial status both within and outside the compound. To protect British diplomatic interests in Yokohama a military garrison was established in 1862. With the growth in trade increasing numbers of Chinese also came to settle in the city. Recreational sports introduced by foreign residents in Yokohama included European style horse racing in 1862, cricket in 1863 and rugby union in 1866. After the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the port was developed for the main trading partner being Great Britain. In 1887, Samuel Cocking, built the city's first power plant. At first for his own use, this coal-burning plant became the basis for the Yokohama Cooperative Electric Light Company. The city was officially incorporated on April 1889.Yokohama – Landing of Commodore Perry, officers, and men of the squadron to meet the Imperial commissioners at Yokohama 14 July 1853. Lithograph by Sarony & Co., 1855, after Wilhelm Heine
6. Indonesia – Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country located mainly in Southeast Asia with some territories in Oceania. Situated between the Indian and Pacific oceans, it is the world's largest country, with more than thousand islands. The world's most populous island of Java contains more than half of the country's population. Indonesia's form of government includes president. Indonesia has 34 provinces, of which five have Special Administrative status. Its capital and most populous city is Jakarta. The country shares land borders with the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the world's second highest level of biodiversity. The country has natural resources like natural gas, tin, copper and gold. Agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao, rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are Japan, the surrounding countries of Singapore, Malaysia and Australia. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries CE, Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Indonesia also take a part to support Africa and Asian nations to oppose against any colonialism or neocolonialism.Indonesia – A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur, c. 800 CE. Indonesian outrigger boats may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
7. Jakarta – Jakarta /dʒəˈkɑːrtə/, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and most populous city of the Republic of Indonesia. The official metropolitan area, known as Jabodetabek, is the second largest in the world, yet the metropolis' suburbs still continue beyond it. Established in the fourth century as Sunda Kelapa, the city became an important trading port for the Kingdom of Sunda. As Batavia, it became the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies. After the country's declaration of independence in 1945, the city—then called Djakarta—retained its status as capital of Indonesia. Jakarta is listed as Network research. Based on the global monitor in 2014, economic growth in Jakarta ranked 34th among the world's 200 largest cities. Jakarta has grown more rapidly than Bangkok. Its current name derives from the word Jayakarta. The name was used after the Sultanate of Banten seized the port from Hindu Sunda kingdom circa 1527. The European spelling named Jayakarta as Jacatra. The origins of this word can be traced to the Old Javanese and ultimately to the Sanskrit language. "Jayakarta" translates as "complete victory". It can also translates as "victorious city". In 1619 the VOC captured the port city.Jakarta – (From top, left to right): Jakarta Old Town, Hotel Indonesia Roundabout, Jakarta Skyline, Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Monumen Nasional, Merdeka Palace, Istiqlal Mosque
8. Jabodetabek – Jabodetabek is an official and administrative definition of the urban area or megacity surrounding the Indonesia capital city, Jakarta. Also included were the Kota independent municipalities of Bogor, Depok, Bekasi, Tangerang and South Tangerang. The name of the region is taken from the first two letters of each city's name: Jabotabek from Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang and Bekasi. The share of Jabodetabek to national population was increased from 6.1 % in 1961 to 11.26 % in 2010. The region is the center of government, culture, economy of Indonesia. It has pulled many people throughout of Indonesia to come, work. Its economical power makes the country's premier center for finance, manufacture and commerce. The region was established in 1976 to the needs to sustain the growing population of capital city. Indonesia's government established Jabotabek Cooperation Body of the joint secretariat of Government of DKI Jakarta and West Java province. The generic term Greater Jakarta refers to the urban region surrounding Jakarta, it is not specific to administrative designations. On the contrary, dependent on context, it may refer to the built-up area around Jakarta. The population is steadily increasing due to migration from other parts of Indonesia. The proportion of core population to the total population of metropolitan area also declined significantly. In 2010, the population of Jakarta only 35.5 % to the total population of Jabodetabek area, decline to 43.2 % in 2000. However, there has been relative shifting to other cities in Jabodetabek area.Jabodetabek – Jabodetabek on left in blue and magenta; Greater Bandung on right, Jakarta and 4 kotas in blue, 3 suburban regencies in magenta, green diagonals mark sprawl areas outside Jabodetabek: Serang and Karawang Regencies
9. India – India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, Bhutan to the northeast; and Myanmar and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia. Its capital is New Delhi; other metropolises include Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad. In 2016, the Indian economy was the world's sixth-largest by nominal GDP and third-largest by purchasing parity. Following economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, inadequate public healthcare. It has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories. It is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu. The latter term stems from the Sanskrit Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River.India – Flag
10. Delhi – Delhi, officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi, is a city and a union territory of India. It is bordered on three sides and by Uttar Pradesh to the east. It is the most expansive city in India—about 1,484 square kilometres. Urban expansion in Delhi has caused it to grow beyond the NCT to incorporate towns in neighbouring states. At its largest extent, there is a population of about million residents as of 2014. According to data released by Oxford Economics, Delhi NCR urban agglomeration has replaced Mumbai Metropolitan Region urban agglomeration as the economic capital of India. However the comparison of the figures specific to the Metropolis of Delhi and Metropolis of Mumbai was not provided by this institution. Delhi has been continuously inhabited since the 6th BCE. Through most of its history, Delhi has served as a capital of various empires. Its urban region have been given the special status of National Capital Region under the Constitution of India's 69th Amendment Act of 1991. New Delhi is the capital of the NCT of Delhi. There are a number of legends associated with the origin of the name Delhi. One of them is named it after himself. The coins in circulation in the region under the Tomaras were called dehliwal. He later named the fort dehali.Delhi – From top clockwise: Lotus temple, Humayun's Tomb, Connaught Place, Akshardham temple and India Gate.
11. Philippines – The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. The Philippines has a population of approximately million. It is the seventh-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013, approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants. They were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Chinese, Malay, Indian, Islamic states occurred. Then, various nations were established under the rule of Datus, Rajahs, Sultans or Lakans. The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. In 1565, the Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established. The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years.Philippines – King Philip II of Spain.
12. Manila – Manila, officially City of Manila, is the capital of the Philippines. It is home to many landmarks, some of which date back to the 16th century. In 2012, World Cities Research Network listed Manila as a global city. The city proper is home to 1,780,148 people in 2015, forming the historic core of the capital region of the Philippines. Manila is also the most densely populated city proper with 41,515 people per square kilometer. The term "Manila" is commonly used to refer to either the city proper. Manila is located on one of the finest harbors in the country. The city has six congressional districts for the lower house of the Philippine Congress. Manila was once ruled by the Kingdom of Tondo before it briefly became a province of the Majapahit Empire. Maynilà became a vassal state of Brunei, established to overpower Tondo. In 1571, conquistadors founded present-day Manila in what is now the Intramuros district. Spanish missionaries soon Christianized the city, built some of the oldest churches in the country, including San Agustin Church. The conquistadors renamed Nuevo Reino de Castilla. Because of its central location on Pacific trade routes, Manila received the moniker "Pearl of the Orient". Spanish rule of the Philippine archipelago lasted until 1898.Manila
13. Metro Manila – Plus Metro Manila and Pampanga, sum to 30.7 million residents as of the newly counted census of 2015. The region is the center of culture, economy, government of the Philippines. NCR is one of the 12 defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines according to the National Economic and Development Authority. Designated as a global city, NCR exerts a significant impact on commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, entertainment, both locally and internationally. It is the home to all the embassies in the Philippines, thereby making it an important center for international diplomacy in the country. Its economical power makes the country's premier center for finance and commerce. NCR accounts for 37.2 % of the domestic product of the Philippines. A historical province known as Manila encompasses the pre-Hispanic kingdoms of Tondo and Maynila. It became the capital of the colonial Philippines, with Manila serving as the center of colonial power. In 1898, it included the City of 23 other municipalities. Mariquina also served from 1898-1899 just as when the sovereignty of the Philippines was transferred to the United States. Most of it was incorporated to the newly created province of Rizal in 1901. Since the colonial period, Manila was considered as one of the original global cities. Pasig serves as its provincial capital. In 1939, President Quezon established Quezon City with a goal to replace Manila as the city of the country.Metro Manila
14. South Korea – South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea, is a sovereign state in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. The earliest Korean pottery dates with three kingdoms flourishing in the 1st century BC. Its vibrant culture left 19 UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritages of Humanity, the third largest in the world, along with 12 World Heritage Sites. Annexed by Imperial Japan in 1910 due to its central location, Korea was divided after its surrender in 1945. A Korean invasion led to the Korean War. A long legacy of focus in innovation made it successful. It is the only G20 nation trading freely with China, the US and EU simultaneously. It is rated highly in peaceful tolerance and inclusion of minorities. South Korea is East Asia's most developed country in the Human Development Index. The name Korea derives from Goryeo, the first Korean dynasty visited by Persian merchants, who called it "Korea". The name Goryeo originally referred to the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo, which referred to itself, was widely referred to, since the 5th century. The modern spelling, "Korea", first appeared in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel. After Goryeo was replaced in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted. The new name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country to Daehan Jeguk.South Korea – Flag
15. Seoul – It is home to over half of all South Koreans along with 678,102 international residents. It continued under the Joseon Dynasty. The Seoul Capital Area contains five UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Changdeok Palace, Hwaseong Fortress, Jongmyo Shrine, the Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty. Seoul is surrounded by the tallest being Mt. Bukhan, the world's most visited national park per square foot. In 2015, it was rated Asia's most livable city globally by Arcadis. In 2014, the city's GDP per capita of $39,786 was comparable to that of France and Finland. Seoul ranked first in technology readiness by PwC's Cities of Opportunity report. It is served by the Seoul Subway, providing 4G LTE, WiFi and DMB inside subway cars. Seoul is connected to Incheon International Airport, rated the world's best airport nine years in a row by Airports Council International. Its Lotte Cinema houses the world's largest screen. Seoul's COEX Mall is the world's largest underground mall. Seoul hosted the 1986 Asian Games, 1988 Summer Olympics, 2002 FIFA World Cup, the 2010 G-20 Seoul summit. A UNESCO City of Design, Seoul was named the 2010 World Design Capital. The city has been known by the names Wirye-seong, Hanju, Namgyeong, Hanseong, Hanyang, Gyeongseong. In reality, the ancient name of Seoul, Hanseong, originally had the meaning of "big" or "vast".Seoul – Sights in Seoul (clockwise from top): Gwanghwamun Gate at Gyeongbokgung Palace; statue of Admiral Yi Sun-sin; statue at the War Memorial of Korea; food storage jars at Gyeonbokgung Palace; Jongmyo Shrine; Myeongdong Cathedral; statue of King Sejong the Great; and (center) N Seoul Tower.
16. Incheon – Incheon, officially the Incheon Metropolitan City, is a city located in northwestern South Korea, bordering Seoul and Gyeonggi to the east. Inhabited since the New Stone Age, it was home to just 4,700 people when it became an international port in 1883. About 3 million people live in the city, making it Korea's third most populous city after Seoul and Busan. Incheon is part of the Seoul Capital Area, along with Seoul Gyeonggi Province, forming the world's second largest metropolitan area by population. In 2003, the city was designated as Korea's first economic zone. As an international city, it has held international conferences, such as the Incheon Global Fair & Festival in 2009. The 17th Asian Games Incheon 2014 was also held on September 19, 2014. It has established itself as a major hub in northeast Asia with the world-renowned Incheon International Airport and Incheon Port. The city is also home to an international organization addressing environmental issues. The area underwent several name changes with successive dynasties. In Goryeo era, it was called Gyeongwon or Inju. The current name was first established in 1413. Later, Incheon County became Incheon Metropolitan Prefecture. Old Incheon consisted of today's southern Incheon and northern part of Siheung City. The centre was Gwangyo-dong, where the prefecture office and the local academy were located.Incheon
17. Seoul Capital Area – The Seoul Capital Area is the metropolitan area of Seoul located in the north-west of South Korea. It contains three different administrative districts; Incheon, Seoul and Gyeonggi-do. The Seoul Capital Area is ranked as the fourth largest metropolitan area in the world. Its area is about 11,704 km2. It forms residential center of South Korea. The largest city is Seoul, with a population of approximately million people, followed by Incheon, with 3 million inhabitants. The Capital Area occupies a plain in the Han River valley. It contains some of the most fertile land on the Korean peninsula, although little of it is now used for agriculture. One of the country's larger expanses of level arable land, covers much of the area of the cities of Gimpo and Bucheon. The Capital Area has been home to a Korean capital for around 2,000 years. Relatively gentle landscape have given it a central role in the country's affairs. The first capital to be constructed in the region was that of one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. The country's first capital was named Wiryeseong. This is believed to have been constructed near the modern-day boundary of Seoul and Gwangju City. However, Baekje surrendered the Han River valley to Goguryeo in the 5th century.Seoul Capital Area – Seoul Capital Area 수도권
18. China – China, officially the People's Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia. With a population of over billion, it is the world's most populous country. The state is governed based in the capital of Beijing. The country's urban areas include Shanghai, Guangzhou, Beijing, Chongqing, Shenzhen, Tianjin and Hong Kong. China has been characterized as a potential superpower. Mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The third and sixth longest in the world, respectively, run from the Tibetan Plateau to the densely populated eastern seaboard. China's coastline along the Pacific Ocean is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East China, South China seas. China emerged in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties. Since 221 BC, when the Qin Dynasty first conquered several states to form a Chinese empire, the state has expanded, reformed numerous times. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China has become one of the world's fastest-growing major economies. As of 2014, it is largest by purchasing power parity. China is also second-largest importer of goods. China has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget.China – Yinxu, ruins of an ancient palace dating from the Shang Dynasty (14th century BCE)
19. Shanghai – Shanghai, often abbreviated as Hu or Shen, is the most populous city proper in the world. It is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of the People's Republic of China, with a population of more than 24 million as of 2014. It is a global financial centre and transport hub, with the world's busiest container port. The municipality borders the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the north, south and west, is bounded to the east by the East China Sea. The city was one of five treaty ports forced open to foreign trade following the British victory over China in the First Opium War. The subsequent 1842 Treaty of Nanking and 1844 Treaty of Whampoa allowed the establishment of the Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession. However, with the Communist Party takeover of the mainland in 1949, trade was limited to other socialist countries, the city's global influence declined. The two Chinese characters in the city's name are 上 and 海, together meaning "Upon-the-Sea". This character appears on all motor vehicle license plates issued in the municipality today. Sports newspapers in Shanghai often use Shen such as Shen Bao. Huating was another early name for Shanghai. During the mid-Tang dynasty, Huating County was established at the county-level administration within modern-day Shanghai. Today, Huating appears as the name of a four-star hotel in the city. The city also has various nicknames in English, including "Pearl of the Orient" and "Paris of the East". During the Warring States period, Shanghai was part of the fief of Lord Chunshen of Chu, one of the Four Lords of the Warring States.Shanghai – Clockwise from top: A view of the Pudong skyline, Yu Garden, China Pavilion along with the Expo Axis, neon signs on Nanjing Road, and The Bund
20. Karachi – Karachi is the largest and most populous city in Pakistan and 5th largest metropolitan city in the world. Karachi is the capital of Sindh province. Ranked as a beta city, the city is Pakistan's premier industrial and financial centre. Karachi is also Pakistan's most city. By the time of the Partition of British India, the city was the largest in Sindh with an estimated population of 400,000. Immediately following independence of Pakistan, the city's population increased dramatically from India. The city experienced economic growth following independence, attracting migrants from throughout Pakistan and South Asia. Karachi is now Pakistan's premier financial centre. The city has a formal economy estimated to be worth $ billion as of 2014. Karachi generates approximately 20 % of Pakistan's GDP. Approximately 30 % of industrial output is from Karachi, while Karachi's ports handle approximately 95 % of Pakistan's foreign trade. Approximately 90% of the multinational corporations operating in Pakistan are headquartered in Karachi. Up to 70% of Karachi's workforce is employed in the informal economy, typically not included in GDP calculations. Karachi is one of socially liberal cities. It is also the ethnically, religiously diverse city in Pakistan.Karachi – Clockwise from top: Karachi Skyline, KPT HQ, PRC Towers & PNSC, Karachi Market, Manora Lighthouse, Nagan Interchange and MA Jinnah Tomb.
21. Beijing – Beijing is the capital of the People's Republic of China and the world's third most populous city proper. It is also one of the world's most populous capital cities. The city, located in northern China, is governed under the national government with rural districts. Beijing is the second largest Chinese city by urban population after Shanghai and is the nation's political, cultural, educational centre. The city's history dates back three millennia. Beijing was the largest city in the world by population for much of the second millennium A.D. Siheyuans, the city's traditional housing style, hutongs, the narrow alleys between siheyuans, are common in urban Beijing and are also major tourist attractions. Beijing's Zhongguancun area is also known as China's center of entrepreneurship. Expats live primarily in the east, in urban districts such as Dongcheng and Chaoyang, or in suburban districts such as Shunyi. Over the past 3,000 years, the city of Beijing has had numerous other names. The name Beijing, which means "Northern Capital", was applied to the city in 1403 during the Ming Dynasty to distinguish the city from Nanjing. The English spelling is based on the pinyin romanisation of the two characters as they are pronounced in Standard Mandarin. Those dialects preserve the Middle Chinese pronunciation of 京 as kjaeng, prior to a phonetic shift in the northern dialects to the modern pronunciation. The Chinese abbreviation for Beijing is 京, which appears on license plates in the city. The official Latin alphabet abbreviation for Beijing is "BJ".Beijing – Clockwise from top: Beijing CBD skyline, Tiananmen, Temple of Heaven, National Center for the Performing Arts, and Beijing National Stadium
22. United States – Forty-eight of the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The territories are scattered about the Caribbean Sea. Nine time zones are covered. The geography, wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At with over 324 million people, the United States is the world's fourth-largest country by total area and the third-most populous. It is home to the world's largest immigrant population. Urbanization leads to growing megaregions. Paleo-Indians migrated to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between the colonies in the aftermath of the Seven Years' War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, adopted in 1781, were felt to have provided federal powers. The first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led in the country.United States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
23. New York City – The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. The five boroughs -- Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, Staten Island -- were consolidated into a single city in 1898. New York served as the capital of the United States until 1790. It has been the country's largest city since 1790. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, environmental sustainability. Several sources have ranked the most photographed city in the world. The names of many of the city's bridges, parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real market is among the most expensive in the world. Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 469 stations in operation. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the geologic foundation for much of New York City today. On, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. He named it "Nouvelle Angoulême". He returned to Spain in August.New York City – Clockwise, from top: Midtown Manhattan, Times Square, the Unisphere in Queens, the Brooklyn Bridge, Lower Manhattan with One World Trade Center, Central Park, the headquarters of the United Nations, and the Statue of Liberty
24. Guangzhou – Guangzhou, traditionally romanised as Canton, is the capital and largest city of Guangdong Province in southeastern China. Guangzhou is,;; is one of China's five National Central Cities. Guangzhou is identified as a Beta+ Global city. This has led to it being dubbed the "Capital of the Third World". Guangzhou was long the only Chinese port permitted for most foreign traders. The city proper fell to the British and was opened by the First Opium War. It lost trade to other ports such as Hong Kong and Shanghai, but continued to serve as a major entrepôt. In modern commerce, Guangzhou is best known for the oldest, highest-level, largest-scale and most complete fair in China. For 2013 -- 2015, Forbes ranked Guangzhou on the Chinese mainland. Guǎngzhōu is the romanisation of the Chinese 廣州, simplified in mainland China to 广州 in the 1950s. This name originally referred to the Imperial Chinese Guang Prefecture. In common with many other Chinese cities, including Hangzhou, Suzhou, Fuzhou, the seat of the prefecture's government eventually took on its name. It became the municipality's formal designation on 15 February 1921. It is sometimes abbreviated as GZ. Before the establishment of the prefecture, the town was known as a name still borne in the hinterlands.Guangzhou – From top: Tianhe CBD, the Canton Tower & Chigang Pagoda, Haizhu Bridge, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall, Statue of Five Goats, Zhenhai Tower in Yuexiu Park, and Sacred Heart Cathedral.
25. Foshan – Foshan, formerly romanized as Fatshan, is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong Province in southeastern China. The entire prefecture has an urban population around 7.2 million. It forms part of the western side of the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, which includes Guangzhou to Shenzhen to the east. Foshan is regarded as the home of the Cantonese forms of Chinese opera, kung fu, dragon boat racing. Fóshān is the romanization of the city's Chinese name 佛山, based on its Mandarin pronunciation. The Postal Map spelling Fatshan derives from the same name's local pronunciation. Other romanizations include Fat-shan and Fat-shun. The town grew up around the monastery founded nearby but, destroyed in 1391. The town's nicknames include the "Hometown of "Lingnan Dragon Boat Racing". Foshan remained a minor settlement for most of China's history. It grew up around a Tang-era Buddhist monastery, destroyed in 1391. It was connected by rail in the early 20th century. The Ancestral Temple was converted into the Foshan Municipal Museum in the Chinese Civil War in 1949. Foshan remained primarily focused on ceramic and production until the 1950s, when it became an urbanizing political center. In 1954, it was made the seat of the prefectural government.Foshan – Clockwise from top right: Zumiao of Foshan, Qingyun Tower in Shunfengshan Park, Statue of Guanyin on top of Xiqiaoshan, & Downtown Foshan in Chancheng District
26. Brazil – Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 km. It covers 47.3 % of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats. This environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection. Brazil was inhabited by tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Independence was achieved with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic following a military coup d'état. An military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a federal republic. The federation is composed of the union of the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. Brazil's economy is the world's ninth-largest by nominal GDP and seventh-largest by GDP as of 2015.Brazil – Megaliths in the Solstice Archaeological Park, in Amapá, erected between 500 and 2000 years ago, probably to carry out astronomical observations.
27. Mexico City – Mexico City, officially City of Mexico, is the capital and most populous city of Mexico. As an "alpha" global city, Mexico City is one of the most important financial centers in the Americas. It is located at an altitude of 2,240 metres. The city consists of sixteen municipalities. The 2009 estimated population for the city proper was approximately million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometres. The city was responsible for generating the metropolitan area accounted for about 22 % of total national GDP. Mexico's capital is both one of two founded by Amerindians, the other being Quito. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, as of 1585 it was officially known as Ciudad de México. Mexico City served as the political, financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire. After independence from Spain was achieved, the federal district was created in 1824. Ever since, the left-wing Party of the Democratic Revolution has controlled both of them. No run-Tenochtitlan was founded in 1325. Between 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength, eventually dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco and in the Valley of Mexico. When the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of the Pacific Ocean. Cortés put Moctezuma under arrest, hoping to rule through him.Mexico City – From above Torre Latinoamericana, Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, Anillo Periférico, World Trade Center Mexico City, Angel of Independence, Chapultepec Castle, St. Regis Hotel Tower and Torre Mayor, Skyline of Paseo de la Reforma and Palacio de Bellas Artes.
28. Valley of Mexico – Surrounded by volcanoes, the Valley of Mexico was a centre for several pre-Columbian civilizations, including Teotihuacan, the Toltec, the Aztec. The phrase Basin of Mexico are both used at times to refer to the Valley of Mexico. The Basin of Mexico became a well known site that epitomized the scene of Classic Mesoamerican cultural development as well. The Valley of Mexico is located in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The valley contains most of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, well as parts of the State of Mexico, Hidalgo, Tlaxcala and Puebla. The largest and most-studied is the area which contains Mexico City. This section of the valley in particular is colloquially referred to as the "Valley of Mexico". The valley is surrounded by mountains and volcanoes that reach elevations of over 5,000 meters. Within this vulnerable watershed all the native fishes were extinct by the end of the 20th century. Hydrologically, the valley has three features. The first feature is the lakebeds of five now-extinct lakes, which are located in largest of the four sub-basins. The other two features are the mountainsides that collect the precipitation that eventually flows to the lake area. These last two are found in all four of the sub-basins of the valley. The Valley drains through a series of artificial canals to the Tula River, eventually the Pánuco River and the Gulf of Mexico. The valley is considered an earthquake prone zone.Valley of Mexico – A 19th century painting of the Valley of Mexico.
29. Mumbai – Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the ninth most populous agglomeration in the world, with an estimated city population of 18.4 million. Mumbai has a deep natural harbour. In 2009, Mumbai was named an world city. It has the highest GDP of any city in South, West, or Central Asia. Mumbai has the highest number of millionaires among all cities in India. The seven islands that came to constitute Mumbai were home to communities of fishing colonies. During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along with construction of major railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by educational development. During the 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon India's independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State. Following the Samyukta Maharashtra movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital. Mumbai is the financial, commercial and capital of India. It is also the Department of Atomic Energy.Mumbai – Clockwise from top: Cuffe Parade skyline, Taj Mahal Palace Hotel, Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, Bandra–Worli Sea Link, and the Gateway of India.
30. Osaka – Osaka is a designated city in the Kansai region of Japan. Historically a city, Osaka has also been known as the "nation's kitchen" and served as a center for the rice trade during the Edo period. It is believed that what is today the Uehonmachi area consisted with an inland sea in the east. During the Yayoi period, permanent habitation on the plains grew as farming became popular. By the Kofun period, Osaka developed into a port connecting the region to the western part of Japan. In 645, Emperor Kōtoku built his Naniwa Nagara-Toyosaki Palace in what is now Osaka, making the capital of Japan. Although the capital was moved in 655, Naniwa remained a vital connection, by land and sea, between Yamato, Korea, China. Naniwa remained so until 745, when the Imperial Court moved back to Heijō-kyō. In 1496, Jōdo Shinshū Buddhists established their headquarters in the heavily fortified Ishiyama Hongan-ji, located directly on the site of the old Naniwa Imperial Palace. Toyotomi Hideyoshi constructed Osaka Castle in its place in 1583. Osaka was long considered Japan's economic center, with a large percentage of the population belonging to the merchant class. Its popular culture was closely related to ukiyo-e depictions of life in Edo. By 1780 Osaka had cultivated a vibrant arts culture, as typified by its famous Kabuki and Bunraku theaters. Approximately one-quarter of the city was razed before shogunal officials put down the rebellion, after which Ōshio killed himself. Osaka residents were stereotyped from at least the 18th century.Osaka – Night view from Umeda Sky Building Dōtonbori and Tsūtenkaku Shitennō-ji, Sumiyoshi taisha and Osaka Castle
31. Kobe – Kobe is the sixth-largest city in Japan and is the capital city of Hyōgo Prefecture. With a population around million, the city is part of the Keihanshin metropolitan area along with Osaka and Kyoto. The earliest written records regarding the region come from the Nihon Shoki, which describes the founding of the Ikuta Shrine by Empress Jingū in AD 201. Kobe did not exist until its founding in 1889. Its name comes from an archaic title for supporters of the city's Ikuta Shrine. Kobe became one of Japan's 17 designated cities in 1956. While the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake diminished much of Kobe's prominence as a port city, it remains Japan's fourth busiest port. Media related at Wikimedia Commons Tools found in western Kobe demonstrate the area was populated at least from the Jōmon period. The city was briefly the capital of Japan in 1180, when Taira no Kiyomori moved his grandson Emperor Antoku in present-day Hyōgo-ku. The Emperor returned after about five months. The Minamoto prevailed, pushing the Taira further. As the port grew during the Kamakura period, it became an important hub with China and other countries. In the 13th century, the city came to be known by the name Hyōgo Port. During this time, Hyōgo Port, along with northern Osaka, composed the province of Settsu. It was not until the abolition of the establishment of the current prefecture system that the area became politically distinct.Kobe – From top left: Port of Kobe, Akashi Kaikyō Bridge, Kitano-chō, Kobe Chinatown, night view from Kikuseidai of Mt. Maya, Kobe Port Tower
32. Kyoto – Kyoto is a city located in the central part of the island of Honshu, Japan. It has a close to 1.5 million. Kyoto is also known as the thousand-year capital. In Japanese, the city has been called no Miyako. In the 11th century, the city was renamed Kyoto, after the Chinese word for city, jingdu. Obsolete spellings for the city's name include Kioto, Miaco and Meaco. Another term commonly used to refer to the city in the pre-modern period was Keishi, meaning "metropolis" or "capital". His last choice for the site was the village of Uda, in the Kadono district of Yamashiro Province. The city did not really recover until the mid-16th century. Battles between samurai factions came to involve the court nobility and religious factions as well. Nobles' mansions were transformed into fortresses, deep trenches dug for defense and as firebreaks, numerous buildings burned. The city has not seen widespread destruction since. Hideyoshi also built earthwork walls called odoi encircling the city. Teramachi Street in central Kyoto is a Buddhist quarter where Hideyoshi gathered temples in the city. Throughout the Edo period, the economy of the city flourished as one of three major cities in the others being Osaka and Edo.Kyoto – From top left: Tō-ji, Gion Matsuri in modern Kyoto, Fushimi Inari-taisha, Kyoto Imperial Palace, Kiyomizu-dera, Kinkaku-ji, Ponto-chō and Maiko, Ginkaku-ji, Cityscape from Higashiyama and Kyoto Tower
33. Keihanshin – The entire region has a population of 19,341,976 over an area of 13,033 km2. It is the urban region in Japan, containing approximately 15 % of Japan's population. MasterCard Worldwide has an instrumental role in driving the global economy. If Keihanshin was a country, it would be the 16th-largest economy in the world, with a GDP of nearly $ billion in 2012. As of 2010, the population for this region was 16,342,641. The Urban Employment Area is a metropolitan definition developed at the Faculty of Economics of the University of Tokyo. This definition is comparable to the Metropolitan Statistical Area concept used to describe metropolitan areas in the United States. The basic building blocks are municipalities. The area is the set of municipalities that contain a densely inhabited district with a population of 10,000 or more. The Urban Employment Area is called Metropolitan Employment Area, when its area has 50,000 DID population or more. Otherwise, the area is called Micropolitan Employment Area. A DID is a group of enumeration districts inhabited at densities of 4,000 or more persons per km ². Outlying areas are those municipalities where 10 % or more of the employed population work in another outlying area. An outlying area is assigned to the core area where it has the highest commuter ratio. This definition assigns a Metropolitan Employment Area to the following cities of the Keihanshin region: Wakayama.Keihanshin – Kyoto
34. Russia – Russia, also officially known as the Russian Federation, is a federal state in Eurasia. The western part of the country is much more populated and urbanised than the East, about 77 % of the population live in European Russia. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara. Extending across much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. It is governed as a semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks by purchasing power parity in 2015. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from a medieval state populated mostly by the East Slavs. In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted by modern historiography. The name Rus itself comes from a group of Varangians who founded the state of Rus.Russia – Kievan Rus' in the 11th century
35. Moscow – Moscow has the status of a Russian federal city. Moscow is a major cultural, scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, well as the largest city entirely on the European continent. Moscow is the northernmost and coldest megacity and metropolis on Earth. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it the world's most populated inland city. The city is well known for its architecture, particularly its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its brightly colored domes. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are also one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament also sit in the city. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. In old Russian the word "Сорок" also meant a church administrative district, which consisted of about forty churches. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" for male or "москвичка" for female, rendered in English as Muscovite. The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: majjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa. The Russian form of the name is reconstructed as * Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns.Moscow – Left to right, top to bottom: Moscow State University, Spasskaya Clocktower, Cathedral of Christ the Saviour; Bolshoi Theatre, Moscow International Business Center; Red Square
36. Bangladesh – Bangladesh, officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a sovereign state in South Asia. It forms the largest and eastern portion the ethno-linguistic region of Bengal. With a population of million, it is the fifth-most populous in the populous Muslim-majority country. The official Bengali language is the seventh-most spoken language in the world, which Bangladesh shares with the neighboring Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura and Assam. The Meghna, form the fertile Bengal delta -- the largest delta in the world. Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, ranking alongside South Korea and Monaco. The capital Dhaka and the port city of Chittagong are the most prominent urban centers. Greater Bengal was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Gangaridai. The people of the delta developed their own language, architecture. Early Asian literature described the region as a seafaring power. It was an important entrepot of the historic Silk Road. Bengal was absorbed into the Muslim world and ruled by sultans for four centuries, including under the Delhi Sultanate and the Bengal Sultanate. This was followed by the administration of the Mughal Empire. Islamic Bengal was a melting pot, a regional power and a key player in medieval world trade. British colonial conquest took place in the late 18th century.Bangladesh – Mahasthangarh is the oldest archaeological site in Bangladesh. It dates back to 700 BCE and was the ancient capital of the Pundra Kingdom
37. Dhaka – Dhaka is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh. It is one of the world's most populated cities, with a population of million people in the Greater Dhaka Area. Located in division, it lies along the east bank of the Buriganga River in the heart of the Bengal delta. The city is a microcosm of the entire country, with diverse ethnic communities. Its name was romanised as Dacca until the current spelling was adopted in 1983. It is the largest city in the Bengal region. It is also a major city among the OIC states. The old city of Dhaka was the Mughal capital of Bengal. The city's name was Jahangir Nagar in the 17th century. It was the hub of the worldwide muslin and silk trade. The city hosted two important caravansaries of the subcontinent: the Bara Katra and Choto Katra, located on the riverfront of the Buriganga. The Mughals decorated the city out gardens, tombs, mosques, palaces and forts. Dhaka became known in Bengal. It was also described as the Venice of the East. The old city was home to various Eurasian merchant groups.Dhaka – 1. National Parliament 2. Motijheel financial district 3. Rose Garden 4. Khan Mohammad Mridha Mosque 5. Ramna 6. Supreme Court of Bangladesh 7. RAJUK Bhaban 8. Dhaka City Center
38. Egypt – It is the world's only contiguous Afrasian nation. Egypt has among the longest histories of emerging as one of the world's first nation states in the tenth millennium BC. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt experienced some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised central government. One of the earliest centres of Christianity, Egypt remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. Egypt is a member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Miṣr is modern official name of Egypt, while Maṣr is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew מִצְרַיִם. The oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian KURmi-iṣ-ru miṣru, meaning "border" or "frontier". There is evidence of rock carvings in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BC, a culture of fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture. Climate changes or overgrazing around 8000 BC began forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed more centralised society. By about 6000 BC, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt.Egypt – The Giza Necropolis is the oldest of the ancient Wonders and the only one still in existence.
39. Greater CairoGreater Cairo – Cairo by night
40. Los Angeles – Situated in Southern California, Los Angeles is known for its mediterranean climate, as a major center of the American entertainment industry. Los Angeles lies in a coastal basin surrounded by mountains reaching up to and over 10,000 feet. The city was officially founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood. The city experienced rapid growth with the discovery of oil. Los Angeles is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the United States. The city's inhabitants are referred to as Angelenos. It has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index. The men's event was watched by over million people worldwide. The Los Angeles coastal area was first settled by the Tongva and Chumash Native American tribes thousands of years ago. A Gabrielino settlement in the area was called meaning "poison place". Missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. The Queen of the Angels is an honorific of the Virgin Mary.Los Angeles
41. Thailand – Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand, formerly known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. With a total area of approximately 513,000 km2, Thailand is the world's 51st-largest country. It is the 20th-most-populous country in the world, with around million people. Largest city is Bangkok. Most populous city is Bangkok. Its maritime boundaries include Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. The Thai economy is the world's 20th largest by nominal GDP and the 27th largest by GDP at PPP. It became a major exporter in the 1990s. Manufacturing, tourism are leading sectors of the economy. It is considered a middle power around the world. The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens. By outsiders prior to 1949, it was usually known by the exonym Siam. The Siam has been identified with the Sanskrit Śyāma. A-hom seem to be variants of the same word. The Śyâma is possibly not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion.Thailand – The ruins of Wat Chaiwatthanaram at Ayutthaya.
42. Bangkok – Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or simply Krung Thep. There are 581 high-rise buildings in the city, ranking number 5 in the world. The city now exerts a significant impact among economy, education, media and modern society. The Asian boom in the 1990s led many multinational corporations to locate their regional headquarters in Bangkok. The city is now a regional force in business. It has emerged as a regional centre for the arts, entertainment. The city is well known for cultural landmarks, well as its notorious red-light districts. Bangkok is among the world's top tourist destinations. Bangkok's rapid growth amidst little urban regulation has resulted in inadequate infrastructure systems. Limited roads, despite an extensive network, together with private car usage, have resulted in chronic and crippling traffic congestion. This in turn caused severe air pollution in the 1990s. The city has since turned to public transport in an attempt to solve this major problem. Five rapid transit lines are now with planned by the national government and the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. Because of its strategic location near the mouth of the river, the town gradually increased in importance.Bangkok – Clockwise from top: Wat Benchamabophit (Marble Temple), Giant Swing, Wat Arun, Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall, view over Lumpini Park area at night, and Wat Phra Kaeo
43. Kolkata – Kolkata /koʊlˈkɑːtɑː/ is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. In 2008 its domestic product was estimated to be US$104 billion, the third highest among Indian cities, behind Mumbai and Delhi. In the 17th century, the three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled by the Nawab of Bengal under Mughal suzerainty. After the Nawab granted a trading licence in 1690, the area was developed by the Company into an increasingly fortified trading post. The East India Company retook it the following year. In 1793 the East India company assumed full sovereignty of the region. Calcutta was the centre for the Indian movement; it remains a hotbed of contemporary state politics. Following Indian independence in 1947, Kolkata, once the centre of modern Indian education, science, politics, suffered several decades of economic stagnation. Many people from Kolkata -- among several Nobel laureates -- have contributed to the arts, the sciences, other areas. Kolkata culture features idiosyncrasies that include freestyle intellectual exchanges. Though home to major cricketing franchises, Kolkata differs from other Indian cities by giving importance to association football and other sports. There are several explanations about the etymology of this name: The Kolikata is thought to be a variation of Kalikkhetrô, meaning "Field of Kali". Similarly, it can be a variation of'Kalikshetra'. Alternatively, the name may have been derived from "flat area". The name may have its origin in the words khal meaning "canal", followed by kaṭa, which may mean "dug".Kolkata – Clockwise from top: Victoria Memorial, St. Paul's Cathedral, central business district, Howrah Bridge, city tram line, Vidyasagar Bridge
44. Argentina – Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a federal republic in the southern half of South America. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the largest Spanish-speaking one. The country is subdivided into one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the South Sandwich Islands. The earliest human presence in the area of modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century. Argentina rose as the state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The country thereafter enjoyed relative stability, with massive waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest developed nation in the world by the 20th century. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America. Argentina is a member of the G-15 and G-20 major economies. It is the country of "very high". Of its stability, market size and growing high-tech sector, Argentina is classified as a high-income economy. The 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents.Argentina – The Cave of the Hands in Santa Cruz province, with indigenous artwork dating from 13,000–9,000 years ago
45. Greater Buenos Aires – Greater Buenos Aires is the urban agglomeration comprising the autonomous city of Buenos Aires and the adjacent 24 partidos over the Province of Buenos Aires. Thus, it does not constitute a administrative unit. The conurbation spreads south, north of Buenos Aires city. To the east, the River Plate serves as a natural boundary. The National Institute of Statistics and Censuses has defined Greater Buenos Aires. There are three main groups within the Buenos Aires' Conurbation. The first two groups comprise the "conurbation proper". The third group of six partidos is in process of becoming fully integrated with the rest. "The social map of Greater Buenos Aires as empirical evidence of urban models". Journal of Latin American Geography. Pp. 67 -- 78, DOI 10.1353 / lag.2012.0012 Keeling, D.. Buenos Aires: Global Dreams, Local Crisis. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.Greater Buenos Aires – Satellite image of Greater Buenos Aires at night
46. Iran – Iran, also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. Comprising a area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 18th-largest in the world. With million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 17th-most-populous country. It is the only country with both an Indian Ocean coastline. Its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, make it of great geostrategic importance. Tehran is largest city, as well as its leading economic center. Iran is heir to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning in 3200 -- 2800 BC. The area was first unified by the Iranian Medes in 625 BC, who became the dominant political power in the region. The empire reemerged shortly after as the Parthian Empire. Under the Sassanid Dynasty, Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world for the next four centuries. Beginning in 633 AD, Rashidun Arabs conquered Iran and largely displaced the indigenous faiths of Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism by Sunni Islam. Iran became a major contributor to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential scientists, scholars, thinkers. Through the late 19th centuries, a series of conflicts with Russia led to significant territorial losses and the erosion of sovereignty. Popular unrest culminated in the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906, which established a constitutional monarchy and the Majles. Following a d'état instigated by the U.K. and the U.S. in 1953, Iran gradually became closely aligned with the West but grew increasingly autocratic.Iran – Cave painting in Doushe cave, Lorestan, Iran, 8th millennium BC
47. Turkey – Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, parliamentary republic with a diverse cultural heritage. The Aegean Sea is to the south. The Sea of Marmara, the Dardanelles, which together form the Turkish Straits, divide Thrace and Anatolia; they also separate Europe and Asia. Turkey's location between Europe and Asia has retained its strategic importance throughout history. Turkey has been inhabited by various ancient Anatolian civilisations, as well as Assyrians, Greeks, Thracians, Phrygians, Urartians and Armenians. After Alexander the Great's conquest, the area was a process which continued under the Roman Empire and its transition into the Byzantine Empire. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia in 1243 when it disintegrated into small Turkish beyliks. The empire reached the peak of its power in the 16th century, especially during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. Suspended by Sultan Abdülhamid II in 1878, parliament were restored with the Young Turk Revolution on 24 July 1908. Austria-Hungary formally annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina on 6 October 1908. During the war, the Ottoman government committed ethnic genocide against its Armenian, Assyrian and Pontic Greek citizens. Following the war, the conglomeration of peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was divided into several new states. Turkey's official language is a Turkic language spoken natively by 84.5 % of the population. According to polls, between 78.1% and 81.3% of the country's citizens identify themselves as ethnic Turks. Ethnic groups include legally recognised and unrecognised minorities.Turkey – Some henges at Göbekli Tepe were erected as far back as 12,000 BC, predating those of Stonehenge, England by almost ten millennia.
48. Istanbul – Istanbul, historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosphorus strait between the Sea of the Black Sea. Its historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives on the Asian side. The city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, both hosting a population of around million residents. Istanbul is ranks as the world's 7th-largest city proper and the largest European city. Founded under the name of Byzantion around 660 BCE, the city developed to become one of the most significant in history. Overlooked during the interwar period, the city has since regained much of its prominence. Arts, music, cultural festivals were established at the end of the 20th century and continue to be hosted by the city today. Infrastructure improvements have produced a complex network. Considered a global city, Istanbul has one of the fastest-growing metropolitan economies in the world. It hosts media outlets and accounts for more than a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. Hoping to capitalize on its rapid expansion, Istanbul has bid for the Summer Olympics five times in twenty years. The known name of the city is Byzantium, the name given to it at its foundation by Megarean colonists around 660 BCE. The name is thought to be derived from Byzas. Greek tradition refers to a legendary king of that name as the leader of the Greek colonists.Istanbul – Clockwise from top: View of Golden Horn between Galata and Seraglio Point including the historic areas; Maiden's Tower; a nostalgic tram on İstiklal Avenue; Levent business district with Dolmabahçe Palace; Ortaköy Mosque in front of the Bosphorus Bridge; and Hagia Sophia.
49. Lagos – Lagos /ˈleɪɡɒs/ is a city in the Nigerian state of Lagos. The city, with its adjoining conurbation, is the largest in Nigeria, well as on the African continent. It is one of the fastest growing cities in the world and also one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. Due to rapid urbanization, the city expanded to the west of the lagoon to include areas in the present Lagos Mainland, Ajeromi-Ifelodun and Surulere. Lagos, the capital of Nigeria since its amalgamation in 1914, went on to become the capital of Lagos State, after its creation. However, the capital was later moved to Ikeja in 1976, while the federal capital also moved to Abuja in 1991. This conurbation houses about 85 % of the state's total population. The exact population of Metropolitan Lagos is disputed; In the 2006 federal census data, the conurbation had a population of about million people. Lagos was originally inhabited in the 15th century, who called it "Oko". Under the leadership of the Oloye Olofin, the Awori moved to the larger Lagos Island. Eko is still the native name for Lagos. Lagos, which means "lakes", was a name given to the settlement by the Portuguese. The present-day Lagos state has a high percentage of Awori, who migrated along the Ogun river. Throughout history, it was home to a number of warring ethnic groups who had settled in the area. Portuguese explorer Rui de Sequeira visited the area in 1472, naming the area around the city Lago de Curamo.Lagos – Clockwise from top: Victoria Island skyline from the Gulf of Guinea, Lekki-Ikoyi Link Bridge, Apapa Port, National Arts Theatre, Iganmu, The Ikeja City Mall, and The Lagos Island CBD.
50. Shenzhen – Shenzhen is a major city in Guangdong Province, China. The city holds sub-provincial administrative status, with powers slightly less than a province. Shenzhen was a town of 30,000 people on the route of the Kowloon -- Canton Railway. That changed in 1979 when Shenzhen was promoted in 1980 designated China's first Special Economic Zone. According to the report for 2015, Shenzhen had transformed to a city with population of 10,778,900 and a metropolitan area population of over 18 million. Shenzhen was one of the fastest-growing cities in the world during the 2000s. Shenzhen's boom slowed down to less than one percent per year by 2013 as the manufacturing boom ebbed in favor of other industries. Shenzhen is a financial center in southern China. The city is home to the Shenzhen Stock Exchange well as the headquarters of numerous high-tech companies. Shenzhen ranks 19th in the 2016 edition of the Global Financial Centres Index published by Qatar Financial Centre Authority. It also has one of the busiest container ports in the world. Human habitation in Shenzhen dates back to ancient times. The earliest archaeological remains far unearthed are shards from a site at Xiantouling on Dapeng Bay, dating back to 5000 BC. From the Han dynasty onwards, the area around Shenzhen was a center of the monopoly, thus meriting special Imperial protection. Salt pans are commemorated in the name of Yantian District.Shenzhen – Shenzhen 深圳市
51. Rio de Janeiro – Rio de Janeiro, or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas. The metropolis is anchor to sixth-most populous in the Americas. Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Brazil's populous state. Founded by the Portuguese, the city was initially the seat of the Captaincy of a domain of the Portuguese Empire. Later, in 1763, it became the capital of the State of Brazil, a state of the Portuguese Empire. Rio stayed the capital of the pluricontinental Lusitanian monarchy until 1822, when the War of Brazilian Independence began. This is one of the few instances in history that the capital of a colonising country officially shifted to a city in one of its colonies. Estimated at about R$343 billion. The Maracanã Stadium held the finals of the XV Pan American Games. Allegedly the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci participated as observer at the invitation of King Manuel I in the same expedition. The region of Rio was inhabited by the Tupi, Puri, Botocudo and Maxakalí peoples. Consequently, Villegagnon built Fort Coligny on the island when attempting to establish the France Antarctique colony. Rio de Janeiro was the name of Guanabara Bay. Until early in the 18th century, the city was invaded by several, mostly French, buccaneers, such as Jean-François Duclerc and René Duguay-Trouin. On 27 the colonial administration in Portuguese America was moved to Rio de Janeiro.Rio de Janeiro – From the top, left to right: Christ the Redeemer, Botafogo's cove, Rio Downtown, Rio–Niterói bridge, Maracanã Stadium, and panoramic view of Barra da Tijuca from Pedra da Gávea
52. Democratic Republic of the Congo – The Democratic Republic of the Congo, also known as DR Congo, DRC, DROC, Congo-Kinshasa, or simply the Congo is a country located in Central Africa. From 1908 to 1960 it was called the Belgian Congo. It is the second-largest country in Africa by area, eleventh largest in the world. The Congolese Civil Wars, which began in 1996, devastated the country. These wars ultimately resulted in the deaths of 5.4 million people. Besides the capital, the other major cities, Lubumbashi and Mbuji-Mayi, are both mining communities. DR Congo's largest export is raw minerals, with China accepting in 2012. According to the Human Development Index, DR Congo has a low level of human development, ranking 176 out of 187 countries. The country's name was restored by former president Laurent-Désiré Kabila following the fall of longtime dictator Mobutu Sese Seko in 1997. Their propagation was accelerated to Iron Age techniques. The people living in southwest were mostly San Bushmen and hunter-gatherer groups, whose technology involved only minimal use of metal technologies. The development of metal tools during this period revolutionized agriculture and animal husbandry. This led in the east and southeast. The 10th century marked the final expansion of the Bantu in West-Central Africa. Rising populations soon made possible intricate local, foreign commercial networks that traded mostly in salt, iron and copper.Democratic Republic of the Congo – Village attacked by Arab-Swahili slavers near Nyangwe, end of 19th century
53. Kinshasa – Kinshasa is the capital and the largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is on the Congo River. Once a site of fishing villages, Kinshasa is now an urban area with a 2014 population of over million. The city of Kinshasa is also one of the DRC's 26 provinces. Kinshasa is Africa's urban area after Cairo and Lagos. Kinshasa hosted the 14th Francophonie Summit in October 2012. Residents of Kinshasa are known as Kinois or Kinshasans. The city was founded by Henry Morton Stanley in 1881. The post flourished as the first navigable port on the Congo River below Leopoldville. The completion in 1898, provided an alternative route around the rapids and sparked the rapid development of Léopoldville. In 1914, a pipeline was installed so that crude oil could be transported to the upriver steamers in Leopoldville. By 1923, the city was elevated to capital of the Belgian Congo, replacing the town of Boma in the Congo estuary. Nicknamed "Léo" or "Leopold", became a commercial centre and grew rapidly during the colonial period. In 1966, Léopoldville was renamed Kinshasa, for a village named Kinchassa that once stood near today Kinshasa. The city grew rapidly under Mobutu, drawing people across the country who came in search of their fortunes or to escape ethnic strife elsewhere.Kinshasa – City Centre
54. Tianjin – It is governed as one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of the PRC and is thus under direct administration of the central government. Tianjin borders Hebei Province and Beijing Municipality, bounded to the east by the Bohai Gulf portion of the Yellow Sea. Part of the Bohai Economic Rim, it is the largest coastal city in northern China. In terms of urban population, Tianjin is the fourth largest in China, after Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou. In terms of administrative area population, Tianjin ranks fifth in Mainland China. The walled city of Tianjin was built in 1404. As a port since 1860, Tianjin has been a major gateway to the nation's capital. During the Boxer Rebellion the city was the seat of the Tianjin Provisional Government. In the period of late Qing dynasty and the Republic of China, Tianjin became one of the largest cities in China. At that time, numerous western-style buildings and mansions were constructed in concessions, many of which are well-preserved today. Tianjin is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese characters 天津, which mean "Heavenly Ford" or "Ford of Heaven". The origin of the name is obscure. A third is that it derives from a placename noted in the River Record of the History of Jin. Before this time, it was open sea. The opening of the Grand Canal during the Sui dynasty prompted the development of Tianjin into a trading center.Tianjin – Clockwise from top: Jinwan Square, Tianjin Financial Center and Hai River, Xikai Church, Panorama of downtown Tianjin, Tianjin Railroad Station, Tianjin Eye
55. France – France, officially the French Republic, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country consisting of territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. Overseas France include several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France has a total population of 66.7 million. It is a semi-presidential republic with the capital in the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse and Bordeaux. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. France emerged as a major European power with its victory in the Hundred Years' War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would be the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europe's dominant political, military power under Louis XIV. In the 19th century Napoleon established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies typically retained close economic and military connections with France.France – One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – Dordogne, approximately 18,000 BC
56. Paris – Paris is the capital and the most populous city of France. It has a population in 2013 of 2,229,621 within the administrative limits. The agglomeration has grown well beyond the city's administrative limits. The Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris has a population of 6.945 million persons. Paris was founded by a Celtic people called the Parisii, who gave the city its name. It retains that position still today. The city is also a major rail, highway, air-transport hub, served by the two international airports Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily. It is the second busiest system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Paris is surrounded by three orbital roads: the Périphérique, the A86 motorway, the Francilienne motorway. Most of France's major universities and écoles are located in Paris, as are France's major newspapers, including Le Monde, Le Figaro, Libération. The rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris. The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros.Paris – In the 1860s Paris streets and monuments were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, making it literally "The City of Light."
57. Peru – Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. Ideas of political autonomy gained its independence, formally proclaimed in 1821. Three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence. Subsequently, the country has undergone changes in government to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of internal conflict as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Peru is a democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is a poverty level around 25.8 percent. Its economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing. The Peruvian population, estimated at million in 2015, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as cuisine, literature, music. When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans. Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilasco de la Vega, a conquistador. The Spanish Crown gave legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru.Peru – Sculpted Chavin head embedded in one of the walls of the temple of Chavín de Huantar
58. Lima – Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro as Ciudad de los Reyes. It became most important city in the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru. Around one-third of the national population lives in the metropolitan area. Lima is home to one of the oldest higher-learning institutions in the New World. The National University of San Marcos, founded during the Spanish colonial regime, is the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas. In October 2013 Lima was chosen to host the 2019 Pan American Games. It also hosted Change Conference and the Miss Universe 1982 pageant. In October 2015 Lima hosted the 2015 Annual Meetings of the International Monetary Fund. According to Spanish articles the Lima area was once called Itchyma, after its original inhabitants. Modern scholars speculate that the word "Lima" originated as the Spanish pronunciation of the native Limaq. Linguistic evidence seems to support this theory as spoken Spanish consistently rejects stop consonants in word-final position.Lima – Collage of Lima
59. Chengdu – As of 2014 the administrative area houses 14,427,500 inhabitants, with an urban population of 10,152,632. The surrounding Chengdu Plain is also known as the "Country of Heaven" and the "Land of Abundance". Its prehistoric settlers included the Sanxingdui culture. It was the capital of Liu Bei's Shu during the Three Kingdoms Era, well as several local kingdoms during the Middle Ages. After the fall of Nanjing to the Japanese in 1937, Chengdu briefly served as the capital of China. It is now one of the most important economic, financial, commercial, cultural, transportation, communication centers in Western China. Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport is one of the 30 busiest airports in the world, Chengdu Railway Station is one of the six biggest in China. Chengdu also hosts many international companies and more than 12 consulates. More than 260 Fortune 500 companies have established branches in Chengdu. In 2006, China Daily named it China's 4th-most-livable city. The name Chengdu is attested in sources going back to shortly after its founding. The present spelling is based on pinyin romanization; its Postal Map romanization was "Chengtu". Its former status as the seat of the Chengdu Prefecture prompted the Protestant missionaries' romanization Ching-too Foo. Although the official name of the city has remained constant, the surrounding area has sometimes taken other names, including Yizhou. The logo adopted in 2011 is inspired from the Jinsha Ruins.Chengdu – Clockwise from top: Anshun Bridge, Jinli, Chengdu Panda Base, and Sichuan University.
60. United Kingdom – The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the UK is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants. Together, this makes it the fourth most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch—since 6 February 1952—is Queen Elizabeth II. Other major urban areas in the UK include the regions of Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow and Liverpool. The UK consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the United Kingdom have changed over time. Wales was annexed in 1542. In 1922, five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories.United Kingdom – Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.
61. Greater London Built-up Area – It is the largest urban area in 2011. Outside the administrative boundary it includes a few densely populated outliers connected to it by ribbon development. It is therefore much smaller than the wider metropolitan area of London. The built-up area of London continues beyond the administrative boundary in some places, while stopping short of it in others. All of both areas is drained ultimately by the River Thames. At the time of the 2011 Census, the Office for National Statistics defined the Greater London Urban Area as being made up of the following components:. The following areas lay outside the Greater London Built-up Area although they lay inside Greater London. All of these areas had populations of less than a thousand except New Addington and Harefield which had populations of 6,573 respectively. However, outlying areas such as Biggin Hill in Bromley are omitted. List of urban areas in the United Kingdom London beltGreater London Built-up Area – A labelled map of the Greater London Built-up Area
62. Nagoya – It is the largest city in the Chūbu region of Japan. Nagoya is the fourth most populous urban area. Nagoya is located on central Honshu. Nagoya is one of Japan's major ports along with those of Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe, Yokohama, Chiba, Kitakyushu. Nagoya is also the center of Japan's metropolitan region, known as the Chūkyō Metropolitan Area. As of 2015, million people lived in the city, part of Chūkyō Metropolitan Area's 9.10 million people. The city's name was historically written as 那古野 or 名護屋. One possible origin is the nagoyaka, meaning ` peaceful'. The Chūkyō is also used to refer to Nagoya. Notable examples of the use of the Chūkyō include the Chūkyō Industrial Area, Chūkyō Metropolitan Area, Chūkyō Television Broadcasting, Chukyo University and the Chukyo Racecourse. His protégés Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu were powerful warlords based in the Nagoya area who gradually succeeded in unifying Japan. In 1610, Tokugawa Ieyasu moved the capital of Owari Province from Kiyosu, about seven kilometers away, to a more strategic location in present-day Nagoya. During this period Nagoya Castle was built partly from materials taken from Kiyosu Castle. During the construction, the entire town around Kiyosu Castle, consisting of around 60,000 people, moved to the newly planned town around Nagoya Castle. A town developed around the temple to support travelers.Nagoya – The Great Atsuta Shrine, which dates back to c. 100 CE and houses the holy sword Kusanagi, one of the imperial regalia of Japan
63. Lahore – Lahore is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab. It is the 32nd most populous urban city in the world. The city is located near the border with India. Lahore is one of Pakistan's wealthiest cities with an estimated GDP of $58.14 billion as of 2014. Lahore is the largest Punjabi city in the world. The city was once under the rule of the Hindu Shahis, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Lodis, Marathas and the Delhi Sultanate. Lahore reached the height of its splendour under the Mughal Empire, serving for a number of years. The city then became capital of the Sikh Empire, before becoming the capital of the Punjab under British rule. Following the Partition of British India, Lahore became the capital of Pakistan's Punjab province. Lahore is one of Pakistan's most cosmopolitan cities. It exerts a cultural influence over Pakistan. Lahore remains the foremost centre of Pakistan's literary scene. The city is also a major centre of education in Pakistan, with some of Pakistan's leading universities based in the city. Lahore is home to Pakistan's film industry Lollywood, is a major centre of Qawwali music. The Badshahi and Wazir Khan mosques.Lahore – Clockwise from left: Lahore Fort, Minar e Pakistan, Wapda House Quaid-e-Azam Library and Badshahi Mosque
64. Chennai – Chennai is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Located off the Bay of Bengal, it is one of the biggest cultural, economic and educational centres in South India. According to the 2011 Indian census, it is fourth-most populous urban agglomeration in India. The city together with the adjoining regions constitute the Chennai Metropolitan Area, the urban area by population in the world. Chennai is the 47th most visited city in the world. The Quality of Living Survey rated Chennai in India. Chennai attracts 45 percent of health tourists visiting 30 to 40 percent of domestic health tourists. As such, it is termed "India's capital". Tourism publisher Lonely Planet named Chennai as one of the top ten cities in the world to visit in 2015. In 2015 Chennai was named the "hottest" city by the BBC, citing the mixture of both traditional values. National Geographic ranked Chennai's food as second best in the world; it was the Indian city to feature in the list. Chennai was also named the ninth-best city in the world by Lonely Planet. In January 2015 the Chennai Metropolitan Area was ranked with the third-highest GDP per capita. Chennai has been selected as one of the 100 Indian cities to be developed under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission. The name Madras originated even before the British presence was established in India.Chennai – Clockwise from top right: Chennai Central, Marina Beach, Madras High Court, TIDEL Park, Ripon Building, San Thome Basilica, Kapaleeshwarar Temple, Classical dance Bharata Natyam and Valluvar Kottam.
65. Bangalore – Bangalore /bæŋɡəˈlɔːr/, officially known as Bengaluru, is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Its elevation is the highest among the major cities of India. It was captured by the British after victory in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, who returned administrative control of the city to the Maharaja of Mysore. Following India's independence in 1947, Bangalore became the capital of Mysore State, remained capital when the new Indian state of Karnataka was formed in 1956. The two urban settlements of Bangalore – city and cantonment – which had developed as independent entities merged into a single urban centre in 1949. The existing Kannada name, Bengalūru, was declared the official name of the city in 2006. Bangalore is sometimes referred to as the "Silicon Valley of India" because of its role as the nation's leading information technology exporter. Indian technological organisations ISRO, Infosys, Wipro and HAL are headquartered in the city. A demographically diverse city, Bangalore is the second fastest-growing major metropolis in India. Numerous state-owned aerospace and defence organisations, such as Bharat Electronics, Hindustan Aeronautics and National Aerospace Laboratories are located in the city. The city also houses the Kannada film industry. With a gross domestic product of $83 billion, Bangalore is ranked fourth in India by overall GDP contribution, after only Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata. The name "Bangalore" represents an anglicised version of the Kannada language name, "Bengalūru" ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು. The earliest reference to the name "Bengalūru" was found in a ninth-century Western Ganga Dynasty stone inscription on a "vīra gallu". In this inscription found in Begur, "Bengalūrū" is referred to as a place in which a battle was fought in 890 CE.Bangalore – Clockwise from top: UB City, Infosys, Glass house at Lal Bagh, Vidhana Soudha, Shiva statue, Bagmane Tech Park ii
66. Chicago – Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third-most populous city in the United States. Chicago has the third-largest metropolitan product in the United States -- about $630.3 billion according to 2014 -- 2016 estimates. The city has one with no single industry employing more than 14 % of the workforce. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, novels, film, theater, music, particularly jazz, blues, soul, gospel and house music. Chicago also has professional teams in each of the major professional leagues. The city has the best-known being the Windy City. The name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the American word shikaakwa, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum, from the Miami-Illinois language. The known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the wild garlic, called "chicagoua", grew abundantly in the area. The first known permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s. He is commonly known as the "Founder of Chicago". In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, later rebuilt. The Ottawa, Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis. The Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land in 1833.Chicago – Clockwise from top: Downtown Chicago, the Chicago Theatre, the 'L', Navy Pier, Millennium Park, the Field Museum, and the Willis Tower.
67. Colombia – Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the south with Ecuador and Peru. It shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Haiti. It is a constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples including the Muisca, the Tairona. The Spanish initiated a period of conquest and colonization ultimately creating the Viceroyalty of New Granada, with its capital at Bogotá. By 1830 the "Gran Colombia" Federation was dissolved. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada. Panama seceded in 1903. Since the 1960s the country has suffered from an asymmetric armed conflict, which escalated in the 1990s but then decreased from 2005 onward. Colombia thereby possesses a rich cultural heritage. The urban centres are mostly located in the highlands of the Andes mountains. Colombian territory also encompasses Amazon rainforest, both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines. Ecologically, it is the most densely biodiverse of these per square kilometer. Colombia has a diversified economy with macroeconomic stability and favorable growth prospects in the long run.Colombia – San Agustín Archaeological Park
68. Vietnam – Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. With an estimated million inhabitants as of 2014, it is the eighth-most-populous Asian country. Vietnam is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, Malaysia across the South China Sea to the southeast. Its capital city has been Hanoi since the reunification of North and South Vietnam in 1975. Vietnam was part of Imperial China for over a millennium, from 111 BC to AD 939. An Vietnamese state was formed following a Vietnamese victory in the Battle of Bạch Đằng River. Following a Japanese occupation in the 1940s, the Vietnamese fought French rule in the First Indochina War, eventually expelling the French in 1954. Thereafter, Vietnam was divided politically into South Vietnam. Conflict between the two sides intensified in what is known as the Vietnam War. The war ended with a North Vietnamese victory in 1975. Vietnam remained politically isolated. In 1986, the government initiated a series of political reforms which began Vietnam's path into the world economy. By 2000, it had established diplomatic relations with all nations. Its successful economic reforms resulted in its joining the World Trade Organization in 2007. It is also a historical member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie.Vietnam – A Đông Sơn bronze drum, c.800 BC.
69. Ho Chi Minh City – Ho Chi Minh City, formerly named and still also referred to as Saigon, is the largest city in Vietnam. It was once known by the Vietnamese in the 17th century. Under the name Saigon, it was the capital of the French colony of Cochinchina and later of the independent republic of South Vietnam 1955–75. On 2 Saigon was officially renamed Ho Chi Minh City after revolutionary leader Hồ Chí Minh. The city's population is expected to grow to 13.9 million by 2025. Ho Chi Minh City has gone during its history reflecting settlement by different ethnic, political groups. Control of the area passed to the Vietnamese, who gave the official name of Gia Định. Immediately after the communist takeover of South Vietnam in 1975, a provisional government renamed the city after the North Vietnamese leader. Even today, however, the informal name of Sài Gòn/Saigon remains in daily speech both domestically and internationally, especially among the Vietnamese diaspora. In particular, Sài Gòn is still commonly used to refer to District 1. Other proposed etymologies draw parallels from Tai-Ngon, a translation of the Khmer Prey Nokor. Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh, abbreviated Tp. HCM, is translated as abbreviated HCMV. The name commemorates Hồ Chí Minh, the first leader of Vietnam. This name, though not his given name, was one he favored throughout his later years.Ho Chi Minh City – Sài Gòn may refer to the kapok (bông gòn) trees that are common around the city.
70. Hyderabad – Hyderabad is the capital of the southern Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh. In 1724, Mughal viceroy Asif Jah I created his own dynasty, known as the Nizams of Hyderabad. The Nizam's dominions remained so for 150 years, with the city serving as its capital. Since 1956, Rashtrapati Nilayam in the city has been the office of the President of India. Relics of Qutb Shahi and Nizam rule remain visible today, with the Charminar—commissioned by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah—coming to symbolise Hyderabad. Golconda fort is another major landmark. The influence of Mughlai culture is also evident in the region's distinctive cuisine, which includes Hyderabadi haleem. The Qutb Shahis and Nizams established Hyderabad as a cultural hub, attracting men of letters from different parts of the world. While Hyderabad is losing its cultural pre-eminence, it is today, due to the country's second-largest producer of motion pictures. It continues to be known as the City of Pearls. Many including Laad Bazaar, Begum Bazaar and Sultan Bazaar, have remained open for centuries. With an output of US$ billion, Hyderabad is the fifth-largest contributor to India's overall gross domestic product. According to the author of Oxford Concise Dictionary of World Place Names, Hyderabad means "Haydar's city" or "lion city", from haydar and ābād. It was named to honour the Caliph Ali Ibn Abi Talib, also known as Haydar because of his lion-like valour in battles. A scholar of Islamic architecture, says the city was originally called Baghnagar.Hyderabad – Clockwise from top left: Charminar, modern skyline, Hussain Sagar, Golconda Fort, Chowmahalla Palace and Birla Mandir
71. Dongguan – Dongguan is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong province, China. Dongguan's administration is considered especially progressive in seeking foreign direct investment. Dongguan ranks behind only Shenzhen, Shanghai and Suzhou with $65.54 billion in shipments. It is home to one of the world's largest, though largely empty, shopping malls the New South China Mall. The majority of the population speak Mandarin due to migrants from other parts of the country. Although the earliest traces of human habitation in the area stretch back 5,000 years, Dongguan's emergence as a true city is a recent phenomenon. At the outset of the First Opium War, large quantities of seized opium were destroyed in Humen, a town that now belongs to Dongguan. Several of the major battles of the war were fought in this area. During the Second World War, the city served against the Japanese occupation. Dongguan was upgraded to prefecture city status three years later. During this period the city changed its focus from an agricultural town with an average annual growth of up to 18 %. Geographically, the city is mostly hilly to the flat in the west, with 115.98 kilometres of shoreline. It is positioned in the middle of a hub for both land and sea transport. Of Dongguan's total area, 27 % is water, 13 % arable land, while 35 % of its land area has been fully developed. At the 2010 Census the population had expanded to 8,220,237.Dongguan – From top left, clockwise: Guanyin mountain, Humen Bridge, Keyuan, Dongguan Avenue
72. South Africa – South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world with close to 53 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation. It is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. It is the only country that borders both the Indian Ocean. The remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of Asian, multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures, religions. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, among the highest number of any country in the world. Regular elections have been held for almost a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. The National Party imposed apartheid in 1948, institutionalising racial segregation. Since 1994, all linguistic groups have had political representation in the country's democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is often referred to as the "Rainbow Nation" to describe the country's newly multicultural diversity in the wake of segregationist apartheid ideology. The World Bank classifies a newly industrialised country. Its economy is the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa.South Africa – Mapungubwe Hill, the site of the former capital of the Kingdom of Mapungubwe
73. Greater Johannesburg – The Greater Johannesburg Metropolitan Area is the area surrounding the city of Johannesburg, South Africa. It includes the areas of the East Rand and West Rand. It is often referred after a low mountain range that runs through the area. As of 2005, it consists of local government units, including Ekurhuleni, the West Rand District Municipality, City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality. The municipal city's land area listed as 1,645 km2. It is in terms of physical size. In the past 30 years, there has been considerable growth to the north, as Johannesburg has expanded. Sandton, created in 1969, is where much of the new business growth has taken place. The urban area is often described with the focal point being the Johannesburg CBD. The new code is 010. The East Rand and Soweto campuses of the former Vista University are incorporated into the University of Johannesburg. OR Tambo International Airport, which serves Johannesburg, is located on the East Rand. Residents from both the East and West Rand often work in Johannesburg. Existing transport axes have also created strong functional links between Johannesburg and its hinterland. The second-largest in the metro area, straddles the border between Johannesburg and Ekurhuleni.Greater Johannesburg – Map of the Greater Johannesburg area
74. Wuhan – Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, China, is the most populous city in Central China. It lies at the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han rivers. Because of its key role in domestic transportation, Wuhan was sometimes referred to by foreign sources. Holding sub-provincial status, Wuhan is recognized as the political, economic, financial, cultural, transportation center of central China. The city of Wuhan, first termed as such in 1927, has a population of 10,607,700 people as of 2015. At the 2010 census, its built-up area made of 8 out of 10 urban districts was home to inhabitants. With a 3,500-year-long history, Wuhan is one of civilized metropolitan cities in China. During the Han dynasty, Hanyang became a fairly busy port. Around that time, walls were built to protect Hanyang and Wuchang. The latter event marks the foundation of Wuhan. In AD 223, the Yellow Crane Tower was constructed on the Wuchang side of the Yangtze River. The city has long been renowned for intellectual studies. In the 19th century, railroads were extended on a north -- south axis through the city, making Wuhan an important transshipment point between rail and river traffic. Also during this period foreign powers extracted mercantile concessions, with the riverfront of Hankou being divided up into foreign-controlled merchant districts. These districts contained trading firm offices, docking facilities.Wuhan – From top: Wuhan and the Yangtze River, Yellow Crane Tower, Wuhan Custom House, and Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge
75. Taiwan – Taiwan, officially the Republic of China, is a state in East Asia. Neighbors include the People's Republic of China to the west, the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the one with the largest economy. The island of Taiwan was mainly inhabited before the 17th century, when Dutch and Spanish colonies opened the island to Han Chinese immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed by the last dynasty of China. The Qing ceded Taiwan after the Sino-Japanese War. While Taiwan was under Japanese rule, the Republic of China was established after the fall of the Qing dynasty. Following the Japanese surrender to the Allies in 1945, the ROC took control of Taiwan. In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of industrialization, creating a stable industrial economy. In early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship dominated by the Kuomintang to a multi-party democracy with universal suffrage. Its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy. It is ranked highly in terms of freedom of the press, health care, public education, human development. The ROC continued to represent China at the United Nations until 1971, when the PRC assumed China's seat, causing the ROC to lose its UN membership. The PRC refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognizes the ROC. Although Taiwan is fully self-governing, most international organizations either allow it to participate only as a non-state actor.Taiwan – A young Tsou man
76. Taipei – Sitting at the northern tip of the state, Taipei City is an enclave of the municipality of New Taipei City. It is about 25 southwest of the northern port Keelung. Since 1949, Taipei has been the capital of the ROC after losing the mainland to the Communists in the Chinese Civil War. The name "Taipei" can refer either to the whole metropolitan area or the city proper. Taipei is the political, economic, educational, cultural center of Taiwan, one of the major hubs of the Chinese-speaking world. Considered to be a global city, Taipei is part of a industrial area. Railways, high-speed rail, bus lines connect Taipei with all parts of the island. The city is served by two airports – Taipei Songshan and Taiwan Taoyuan. Its natural features such as hot springs are also well known to international visitors. As the capital city, "Taipei" is sometimes used as a synecdoche for Taiwan. Prior to the significant influx of Han Chinese immigrants, the region of Taipei Basin was mainly inhabited by the Ketagalan plains aborigines. The number of Han immigrants gradually increased in the early 18th century under Qing Dynasty rule after the government began permitting development in the area. In 1875, the northern part of the island was incorporated into the new Taipeh Prefecture. The Qing dynasty of China made Taipei the temporary capital of Fujian-Taiwan Province in 1886 when Taiwan was separated from Fujian Province. Taipeh was formally made the provincial capital in 1894.Taipei – Clockwise from top: Taipei skyline, Grand Hotel, Far Eastern Plaza, National Palace Museum, Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Jiantan Station
77. Taoyuan, Taiwan – Taoyuan, is a special municipality in northwestern Taiwan, neighboring New Taipei, Hsinchu County, Yilan County. Taoyuan District is the seat of that which, along with Zhongli District, forms a large metropolitan area. Taoyuan developed from a city of Taipei metropolitan area to be the fourth-largest metropolitan area, fifth-largest populated city in Taiwan. Since commuting to the Taipei metropolitan area is easy, Taoyuan has seen the fastest growth of all cities in Taiwan. "Taoyuan" means "peach garden," since the area used to have peach blossom trees. The city is home to tech company headquarters. Taipei Taoyuan International Airport, which serves the capital, the rest of northern Taiwan, is located in this city. The city of Taoyuan has been elevated from the original Taoyuan County. At the same time, the county-controlled city of Taoyuan was also promoted to Taoyuan District within the new municipality. In ancient times, the Taoyuan plateau was the home of the Taiwanese plains aborigines. In prehistory, the Ketagalan people settled in Nankan. In the early years of Dutch colonization, Spanish colonization, Zheng He of the Ming Dynasty, there were industrial activities. During the Qing era, a number of people from Guangdong province began to immigrate into present-day Taoyuan to develop and farm the land. They planted peach trees, which, when fully bloomed in spring, were so beautiful that the people named the Toahong. Under Japanese rule, a local administrative office, Toshien Chō, was established in the area.Taoyuan, Taiwan – Taoyuan Station during Japanese occupation Era.
78. Hangzhou – Hangzhou, formerly romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang Province in east China. It sits at the head of Hangzhou Bay, which separates Shanghai and Ningbo. The city's West Lake is its best-known attraction. Hangzhou forms the core of the Hangzhou metropolitan area, the fourth-largest in China. During the 2010 Chinese census, the metropolitan area held million people over an area of 34,585 km2. Hangzhou prefecture had a registered population of 9,018,000 in 2015. In September 2015, Hangzhou was awarded the 2022 Asian Games. It will be the Chinese city to play host to the Asian Games after Beijing 1990 and Guangzhou 2010. An emerging technology hub and home to the e-commerce giant Alibaba, also hosted the eleventh G-20 summit in 2016. The neolithic culture of Hemudu is known to have inhabited Yuyao, 100 km south-east of Hangzhou, as far back as seven thousand years ago. It was during this time that rice was first cultivated in southeast China. Excavations have established that the jade-carving Liangzhu culture inhabited the area around five thousand years ago. The first of Hangzhou's present neighborhoods to appear in written records was Yuhang, which probably preserves an old Baiyue name. Hangzhou was made the seat of the zhou of Hang in AD 589, entitling it to a wall, constructed two years later. Hangzhou was at the southern end of China's Grand Canal which extends to Beijing.Hangzhou – Top: View of the "Three Ponds Mirroring the Moon" at West Lake, Middle left: Liuhe Pagoda, Middle upper right: Su Causeway at West Lake, Middle lower right: Hu Xueyan Residence Garden, Bottom: Huxin Pavilion on West Lake
79. Hong Kong – Macau lies across the delta to the west, the Chinese province of Guangdong borders the territory to the north. Hong Kong was later occupied during World War II until British control resumed in 1945. Under the principle of "two systems", Hong Kong maintains a separate political and economic system from China. Except in military defence and foreign affairs, Hong Kong maintains its independent executive, legislative and judiciary powers. In addition, Hong Kong develops relations directly with international organisations in a broad range of "appropriate fields". The Hong Kong dollar, is the world's 13th most traded currency. However, while Hong Kong has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it suffers from the most severe inequality among developed economies. It has the world's longest life expectancy. Over 90% of the population makes use of well-developed public transportation. Seasonal pollution with origins from neighbouring industrial areas of Mainland China, which adopts loose emissions standards, has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates. Hong Kong was officially recorded in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking to encompass the entirety of the island. Before 1842, the name referred to the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between local fishermen. Accurate romanisation systems for Cantonese were available and in use at the time. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export before Hong Kong developed Victoria Harbour.Hong Kong – The Cenotaph in Hong Kong commemorates those who died in service in WWI and WWII.
80. Chongqing – Chongqing, formerly transliterated as Chungking, is a major city in Southwest China and one of the Five national central cities in China. Administratively, it is the only such municipality in inland China. The municipality was created on 14 March 1997, succeeding the sub-provincial administration, part of Sichuan Province. Chongqing's population as of 2015 is just over million with an urban population of 18.38 million. The official abbreviation of Yu, was approved by the State Council on 18 April 1997. This abbreviation is derived from the old name of a part of the Jialing River that feeds into the Yangtze River. Chongqing was also a Sichuan municipality during the Republic of China administration, serving as its wartime capital during the Second Sino-Japanese War. Chongqing serves as the economic centre of the upstream Yangtze basin. Tradition associates Chongqing with the State of Ba. The Ba people supposedly established Chongqing during the Spring and Autumn period after moving under pressure from Chu. This new capital was first named Jiangzhou. In 316 BC, however, the state of Ba was conquered by the State of Qin. Jiangzhou subsequently remained during the Qin Dynasty, the successor of the Qin State, under the control of Han Dynasty emperors. The city centre where the old town stood is also called Yuzhong. In his honour, Yu Prefecture was therefore renamed Chongqing subprefecture marking the occasion of his enthronement.Chongqing – Clockwise from top: Jiefangbei CBD Skyline, The Temple of the White Emperor, E'gongyan Bridge, Qutang Gorge, and the Great Hall of the People.
81. Ahmedabad – Ahmedabad is the largest city and former capital of Gujarat, a state in India. It is the administrative headquarters of the Ahmedabad district and the seat of the Gujarat High Court. Ahmedabad is located from the Gandhinagar, its twin city. Ahmedabad has emerged as an important economic and industrial hub in India. It is the second largest producer of cotton in India, its stock exchange is the country's second oldest. Cricket is a popular sport in Ahmedabad, which houses the 54,000-seat Sardar Patel Stadium. The effects of liberalisation of the Indian economy have energised the city's economy towards tertiary sector activities like commerce, communication and construction. Ahmedabad's increasing population has resulted in an increase in the construction and housing industries resulting in recent development of skyscrapers. In 2010, it was ranked third in Forbes's list of fastest growing cities of the decade. In 2012, The Times of India chose Ahmedabad as the best city to live in in India. The area around Ahmedabad has been inhabited since the 11th century, when it was known as Ashaval. Solanki rule lasted until the 13th century, when Gujarat came under the control of the Vaghela dynasty of Dholka. Gujarat subsequently came under the control of the Delhi Sultanate in the 14th century. According to other sources, he named it after himself. Ahmed Shah I laid the foundation of the city on 26 February 1411 at Manek Burj.Ahmedabad – Clockwise from topː Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalay at Sabarmati Ashram, Ahmedabad Railway Station, CEPT University, Kankaria Lake and the Kirti Stambh at Hutheesing Temple
82. Malaysia – Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy located in Southeast Asia. Peninsular Malaysia shares maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, Indonesia. East Malaysia shares a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. The city is Kuala Lumpur, while Putrajaya is the seat of the federal government. With a population of over million, Malaysia is the 44th most populous country. Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia. Located in the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries on earth, with large numbers of endemic species. Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms present in the area which, from the 18th century, became subject to the British Empire. The British territories were known as the Straits Settlements, whose establishment was followed by the Malay kingdoms becoming British protectorates. The territories on Peninsular Malaysia were first unified as the Malayan Union in 1946. Malaya achieved independence on 31 August 1957. Malaya united on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia. Less in 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation. The country is multi-cultural, which plays a large role in politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with large minorities of Malaysian Chinese, indigenous peoples.Malaysia – "Malaysia" used as a label for the Malay Archipelago on a 1914 map from a United States atlas
83. Kuala Lumpur – Kuala Lumpur, officially the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, is the national capital of Malaysia as well as its largest city. The city covers an area of 243 km2 and has an estimated population of 1.7 million as of 2015. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million people as of 2013. It is among the fastest growing metropolitan regions in South-East Asia, in terms of population and economy. Kuala Lumpur is the seat of the Parliament of Malaysia. The city was once home to the executive and judicial branches of the federal government, but they were moved to Putrajaya in early 1999. Some sections of the judiciary still remain in the capital city of Kuala Lumpur. The official residence of the Malaysian King, the Istana Negara, is also situated in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur is one of three Federal Territories of Malaysia, enclaved within the state of Selangor, on the central west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur means "muddy confluence"; kuala is the point where two rivers join together or an estuary, lumpur means "mud". Another suggestion is that it was initially a Cantonese word lam-pa meaning'flooded jungle' or'decayed jungle'. There is however no firm contemporary evidence for these suggestions other than anecdotes. It is also possible that the name is a corrupted form of an earlier but now unidentifiable forgotten name. It is unknown who founded or named the settlement called Kuala Lumpur. The miners landed at Kuala Lumpur and continued their journey on foot to Ampang where the first mine was opened.Kuala Lumpur – Clockwise from top left: Petronas Twin Towers, Petaling Street, Masjid Jamek and Gombak / Klang river confluence, National Monument, National Mosque, skyline of KL. Centre: KL Tower