Template talk:Paralympic Summer Games Host Cities
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|WikiProject Olympics / Paralympics||(Rated Template-class)|
1. Summer Olympics – The Summer Olympic Games or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is an international multi-sport event that is hosted by a different city every four years. The most recent Olympics were held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, the International Olympic Committee organizes the games and oversees the host citys preparations. In each Olympic event, gold medals are awarded for first place, silver medals are awarded for second place, and bronze medals are awarded for third, the Winter Olympic Games were created due to the success of the Summer Olympics. The Olympics have increased in scope from a 42-event competition with fewer than 250 male competitors from 14 nations in 1896 to 302 events with 10,768 competitors from 204 nations in 2012, eighteen countries have hosted the Summer Olympics. The United States has hosted four Summer Olympics, more than any other nation, four cities have hosted two Summer Olympics, Athens, Paris, Los Angeles, and Tokyo. Tokyo is the first city outside of the Western world to host the Summer Olympics multiple times, asia has hosted the Summer Olympics four times in Japan, South Korea, and China. The only Summer Olympics held in the Southern Hemisphere have been in Australia, the 2016 Games are the first Summer Olympics to be held in South America and the first to be held during the local winter season. Africa has yet to host a Summer Olympics, only five countries—Greece, Australia, France, Great Britain, and Switzerland—have been represented at every Summer Olympic Games. The only country to have won at least one medal at every Summer Olympic Games is Great Britain. The United States leads the medal table. Qualification rules for each of the Olympic sports are set by the International Sports Federations that governs that sports international competition, for individual sports, competitors typically qualify through attaining a certain place in a major international event or on the IFs ranking list. There is a rule that maximum three individual athletes may represent each nation per competition. Nations most often qualify teams for team sports through continental qualifying tournaments, each nation may be represented by no more than one team per competition a team is two people in some sports. The United States has hosted four Summer Olympic Games, more than any other nation, the United Kingdom hosted the 2012 Olympic Games, its third Summer Olympic Games, in its capital London, making London the first city to host the Summer Olympic Games three times. Australia, France, Germany, Greece, and Japan have all hosted the Summer Olympic Games twice. Other countries that have hosted the Summer Olympics are Belgium, Brazil, China, Canada, Finland, Italy, Mexico, Netherlands, South Korea, Spain, the Soviet Union, asia has hosted the Summer Olympics three times and will host again in 2020. In 2016, Rio de Janeiro hosted the first Summer Olympics in South America, three cities have hosted two Summer Olympic Games, Los Angeles, Paris, and Athens. Stockholm has hosted events at two Summer Olympic Games, having hosted the games in 1912 and the events at the 1956 Summer Olympics—which they are usually listed as jointly hostingSummer Olympics – The Olympic flame in London during the 2012 Summer Olympics.
2. Winter Olympics – The Winter Olympic Games is a major international sporting event that occurs once every four years. Unlike the Summer Olympics, the Winter Olympics feature sports practised on snow, the first Winter Olympics, the 1924 Winter Olympics, was held in Chamonix, France. The original five sports were bobsleigh, curling, ice hockey, Nordic skiing, the Games were held every four years from 1924 until 1936, after which they were interrupted by World War II. The Olympics resumed in 1948 and was held every four years. The Winter Games have evolved since its inception, others have been discontinued and later reintroduced, or have been permanently discontinued. Still others, such as speed skiing, bandy and skijoring, were demonstration sports, the rise of television as a global medium for communication enhanced the profile of the Games. It created a stream, via the sale of broadcast rights and advertising. This allowed outside interests, such as companies and corporate sponsors. The IOC has had to address several criticisms, internal scandals, nations have used the Winter Games to showcase the claimed superiority of their political systems. The Winter Olympics has been hosted on three continents by eleven different countries, the Games have been held in the United States four times, in France three times, and in Austria, Canada, Japan, Italy, Norway, and Switzerland twice. Also, the Games have been held in Germany, Yugoslavia, the IOC has selected Pyeongchang, South Korea, to host the 2018 Winter Olympics and Beijing, China, to host the 2022 Winter Olympics. Twelve countries – Austria, Canada, Finland, France, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States – have sent athletes to every Winter Olympic Games. Six of those – Austria, Canada, Finland, Norway, Sweden and the United States – have earned medals at every Winter Olympic Games, Norway leads in terms of number of gold medals and overall number of medals. Germany and Japan have been banned at times from competing in the Games, the Olympic Charter limits winter sports to those. Which are practised on snow or ice, since 1992 a number of new sports have been added to the Olympic programme, which include short track speed skating, snowboarding, freestyle and moguls skiing. The addition of events has broadened the appeal of the Winter Olympics beyond Europe. While European powers such as Norway and Germany still dominate the traditional Winter Olympic sports, countries such as South Korea, Australia, the results are more parity in the national medal tables, more interest in the Winter Olympics and higher global television ratings. Figure skating events were held at the 1908 and 1920 Summer Olympics. ^ Note 2, a mens ice hockey tournament was held at the 1920 Summer Olympics. ^ Note 3Winter Olympics – The Olympic flame in Sochi during the 2014 Winter Olympics.
3. Bids for the 2016 Summer Olympics – Seven cities submitted bids for 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics on September 13,2007, aiming to host the Games of the XXXI Olympiad. All of them were recognized by the International Olympic Committee on September 14,2007 and those cities were Chicago, Madrid, Rio de Janeiro and Tokyo, the decisions were made during a meeting in Athens, Greece. The remaining Applicant cities—Baku, Doha and Prague—were eliminated, the four Candidate cities were selected according to a detailed study of the Applicant Files received by the IOC Working Group on January 14,2008. The four cities submitted the Candidature Files to the IOC on February 11,2009 and they were analyzed by the IOC Evaluation Commission, which made site inspections in Chicago, Tokyo, Rio de Janeiro and Madrid. Under the leadership of Nawal El Moutawakel, the Evaluation Commission released its report on September 2,2009, with the presence of the heads of state from all four Candidate cities, the 121st IOC Session took place in Copenhagen, Denmark, on October 2,2009. Chicago begun the presentations at Bella Center, followed by Tokyo, Rio de Janeiro and Madrid, before the vote, the IOC Evaluation Commission presented its report to the Session. Chicago fell in the first round, followed by Tokyo, after the eligible IOC members have been asked to vote, Rio de Janeiro defeated Madrid in the final round by 66 votes over 32, winning the rights to host the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics. Brazil will be the first lusophone country and Rio de Janeiro the first city in South America to host the Summer Olympics, the announcement was made by Jacques Rogge, president of the IOC, in a widely broadcast ceremony. The lengthy and intensive bidding process, considered to be one of the tightest in history, was marked by several such as espionage, racism. Out of the six cities that failed to be awarded the 2016 Olympics, baku, Doha, Madrid and Tokyo were official Applicant Cities, with Madrid and Tokyo advancing to become Candidate Cities and with Tokyo eventually being selected. The process is governed by the Olympic Charter, as stated in Chapter 5, since 1999, the process has consisted of two phases. This information allows the IOC to analyze the cities hosting capacities, following a detailed study of the submitted questionnaires and ensuing reports, the IOC Executive Board selects the cities that are qualified to proceed to the next phase. The second phase is the true candidature stage, the applicant cities are required to submit a second questionnaire in the form of an extended, more detailed. The Evaluation Commission communicates the results of its inspections in a report sent to the IOC members up to one month before the electing IOC Session. The IOC Session in which a host city is elected takes place in a country that did not submit an application to stage the Olympics, the election is made by the assembled active IOC members, each possessing one vote. Members from countries that have a city taking part in the election cannot vote while the city is in the running, in the case of a tie for the lowest number of votes, a special runoff vote is carried out, with the winner proceeding to the next round. After each round, the bid is announced. The deadline to submit applications for the 2016 Summer Olympic Games was September 13,2007, the seven cities that submitted bids before that date also met the January 14,2008 deadline for submission of the first phase questionnaireBids for the 2016 Summer Olympics – A young girl adds her signature in support of Rio de Janeiro's candidacy to host the 2016 Olympic Games (January 2009)
4. Madrid bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics – The Madrid bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics was an unsuccessful bid, first recognized by the International Olympic Committee on September 14,2007. This was followed by a bidding process which finished with the election of Rio de Janeiro at the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen, Denmark. Along with Tokyo, Madrid earned the top scores during the Applicant phase, between May 4 and May 9,2009, the IOC Evaluation Commission, led by Nawal El Moutawakel, arrived in Madrid to assess the conditions of the city. The Commission attended technical presentations, participated in question-and-answer sessions about the Candidature File, Rio de Janeiro won the final round by a margin of 34 votes over Madrid in a three-round exhaustive ballot of the IOC. The Spanish Olympic Committee confirmed Madrid as its city to host the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics on May 30,2007. This is the second consecutive bid and its third failure. If successful, it would be the second Olympics hosted in Spain, the nomination was encouraged by statements of the president of the International Olympic Committee, Jacques Rogge, that European cities would still have a chance to host the 2016 Olympic Games. The International Olympic Committee launched the process for the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics on May 16,2007. On May 30,2007, the candidature was formalized by the Spanish Olympic Committee with claims to be radically new and more prepared than the citys last attempt to host the Olympics. The IOC announced that seven cities—Baku, Chicago, Doha, Madrid, Prague, Rio de Janeiro, the Madrid bid committee attended the 2016 Applicant Cities Seminar in Lausanne, Switzerland, on October 18,2007, where it learnt more about the bidding process. The responses were studied by the IOC Working Group and the IOC Executive Board, on June 4,2008, the IOC announced that Chicago, Tokyo, Rio de Janeiro, and Madrid were selected to the next bidding phase, during a meeting in Athens, Greece. This decision was based on a report by a special IOC Working Group of experts, between August 5 and August 26,2008, the bidding committees from the four candidate cities participated in the Olympic Games Observer Program, during the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, China. Madrid officials also followed the completion of the 2008 Summer Paralympics, the IOC announced that it had received the Candidature Files of all four candidate cities on February 12,2009. The Madrid 2016 Candidate File has three volumes covering 600 pages divided into 17 topics, with 671 guarantees and 80 images, according to the Madrid bid committee, the dossier was produced by more than 150 people, who invested more than 16,000 hours of work. The front cover includes the names of 350 of the 2,850 people who have been part of the formulation of the document. Madrid has a sports culture, hosting three football teams and two basketball teams, the most successful being Real Madrid C. F. which plays in Estadio Santiago Bernabéu. Madrid hosted the 1982 FIFA World Cup final, the cycling classic Vuelta a España final stages are held in Madrid as Paris serves for the Tour de France. Madrids bid enjoyed extremely high levels of support from its citizens, a recent poll put Madrids support levels at 92. 6%, and 25,000 volunteers had signed up to demonstrate their support for the citys candidacyMadrid bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics – Moncloa "Lighthouse" with supporting slogan for Madrid's bid for 2016 Olympics.
5. Tokyo bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics – The Tokyo bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics was an unsuccessful bid, first recognized by the International Olympic Committee on September 14,2007. This was followed by a bidding process which finished with the election of Rio de Janeiro at the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen, Denmark. Tokyo earned the top scores during the Applicant phase, after a study of the Applicant Files received by the IOC Working Group on January 14,2008. Between April 16 and April 19,2009, the IOC Evaluation Commission, led by Nawal El Moutawakel, the Commission attended technical presentations, participated in question-and-answer sessions about the Candidature File and made inspections in all the existing venues across the city. Tokyo was eliminated in the round of voting with only 20 votes in a three-round exhaustive ballot of the IOC. The Japanese Olympic Committee nominated Tokyo over Fukuoka as its city to host the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics on August 30,2006. This is the third failure, after two failed attempts for the 1988 and the 2008 Summer Olympics. Recent Olympic Games in Asia as the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, China, the Japanese Olympic Committee set a deadline of June 30,2006, for cities to submit bids. It decided on August 30,2006, that Tokyo would be the candidate for 2016. The other major candidate from Japan was the western city of Fukuoka on the island of Kyūshū. The landfill will be a forest island for use as the site of equestrian, canoeing and other sporting events, the mottos were Uniting Our Worlds in English, and Its Japan, so we can do it. As an Alpha+ global city, Tokyo is one of the worlds largest and most interconnected cities, in addition to the existing urban rail network, already the worlds most extensive, three ring roads are currently being built around the city to help reduce congestion problems. Tokyo has also been consistent in funding public transport, a strength compared to other bid cities, with over 124,000 hotel rooms nearby, ample accommodations is a highlighted strength of Tokyos bid. The public relations firm of Weber Shandwick Worldwide has been retained by the Tokyo 2016 Bid Committee to develop public relations campaigns and global support. Weber Shandwicks track record includes working on previous bids for the campaigns of Sydney in 2000, Turin in 2006, Beijing in 2008. The bid follows the success of the 2002 FIFA World Cup, in addition to Tokyos hosting of the 1964 Summer Olympics, Japan also has past Olympic experience as the host of the 1972 Winter Games in Sapporo and the 1998 Winter Games in Nagano. The Olympic park at the city center was to allow the Olympic experience to permeate the city without compromising Olympic operations, a new stadium was to be built to seat 100,000, and later pared back to 80,000 to leave a desired legacy building. The new Olympic Village was to contain five high-rise buildings, each representing one of the Olympic RingsTokyo bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics – Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building lit in Olympic colours
6. Chicago bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics – The Chicago bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics was an unsuccessful bid, first recognized by the International Olympic Committee on September 14,2007. This was followed by a bidding process which finished with the election of Rio de Janeiro at the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen, Denmark. In Chicagos bid, the games would have held from July 22 to August 7. The bid plan emphasized use of Chicago Park District parks to host the games, the bid included a plan for North Side, Downtown Loop and South Side celebration locations that would have had high-definition LED screens for unticketed visitors. The bid noted that there was a high concentration of event locations and training facilities close to each other. Thus, the vast majority of athletes would have close to their competitions. Chicago earned a score of 7.0 during the Applicant phase. Between April 4 and 7,2009, the IOC Evaluation Commission, led by Nawal El Moutawakel, the Commission attended technical presentations, participated in question-and-answer sessions about the Candidature File, and made inspections in all the existing venues across the city. This is the third failure, after two failed attempts for the 1952 and the 1956 Summer Olympics. Numerous Olympic Games in North America, including the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, hurt Chicagos bid. It would have been the ninth Olympics hosted in the United States, after the 1904,1932,1984 and 1996 Summer Olympics, initially, five American cities vied for the 2016 Olympics, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, and San Francisco. The USOCs chairman at the time, Peter Ueberroth, visited all potential host cities during April and he visited Chicago on May 10. On July 26,2006, the United States Olympic Committee narrowed its list of American applicant cities to three, Chicago, Los Angeles and San Francisco. San Francisco withdrew its application on November 13,2006 after the San Francisco 49ers pulled out of a deal for the construction of a new stadium that would be the centerpiece of the games. At about 21,00 UTC, Chicago was announced as the winner of the United States bid for the 2016 Olympic Games by Ueberroth, Chicago has had prior experience with Olympic bids. In 1901, the city was chosen by the IOC to stage the 1904 Summer Olympics. Chicago also bid for the 1952 and 1956 Summer Olympics, without success, Mayor of Chicago Richard M. Daley visited Beijing – host city of the 2008 Summer Olympics – on May 15,2006, where he collected information on hosting. The bidding process for the 2016 Olympic Games was officially launched on May 16,2007, in June 2007, Olympic bid committee Chairman and CEO, Patrick G. Ryan announced that David P. Bolger was appointed chief operating officer and Rick Ludwig as chief financial officerChicago bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics – Chicago Skyline from Lake Michigan
7. Doha bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics – Doha, the capital city of Qatar, bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics. It was one of two cities in the Arab World, along with Cairo, Egypt to mount a serious bid, Dohas bid was eliminated from consideration when it failed to make the Candidate city shortlist on June 4,2008. Had Doha been chosen to host the games, they were to be held between October 14 and October 30, the Paralympics were to be held between November 9 and November 21. Hassan Ali Bin Ali was named the Chairman of the Doha 2016 Olympic Bid Committee, the bid was officially announced October 25,2007 at a festival on the Doha corniche. It was only the second bid from the Arab World. More than 1,000 banners and billboards featuring children promoted the bid in Doha, uS$48 million was budgeted to secure the games. The centerpiece of the bid was the expansion of the Aspire Zone sports center, the Aspire Zone hosted the 2006 Asian Games. Doha is also planning a new stadium, although it is uncertain if it will still be constructed since the end of the bid. The Qatar government committed to full financial guarantees that will cover any cost overruns, with sport as a raison detre, Qatar has invested in multimillion-dollar projects to upgrade Dohas infrastructure to premium international standards. The bid had support from the Gulf Cooperation Council, solidifying regional support from the states of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia. Bid leader Bin Ali stated, Our aim is to support for the bid which will be a bid that the whole Arab world can be proud of. 86% of people in Doha City and region support the Olympic bid and 95% of residents were aware of the bid, the Qataris planned to utilize 70% pre-existing venues, most from the 2006 Asian Games. Six venues would be temporary and four will require new construction, hassan plans to leave legacy buildings with a new Olympic Village and Media Center. Also, much new construction as part of the Qatar long term development plan will result, the Olympic Village was to be a $USD1.94 billion 67-hectare development project designed for up to 18,000 athletes. The complex will form the shape of a dove, Aspire Zone is a 240ha precinct that houses an international standard sport stadium, medical facilities, education services and sport academy, mosque, sports club, retail areas and parklands. There are also residential and hotel facilities and it is located approximately 8 km from Doha’s Central Business District. Aspire Zone is represented with strong landmarks that will be iconic in their design, khalifa Stadium is well-tailored to host major sports events of international standard, particularly football and athletics. Khalifa Stadium was built in 1976 to seat 20,000, for the 2006 Asian Games, it was expanded to seat 50,000Doha bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics – Bids for the 2016 (2016) Summer Olympics and Paralympics
8. Prague bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics – Prague, the capital city of the Czech Republic, bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics. Pragues bid was considered a bid to warm up for future Olympic campaigns. Pragues bid came to an end on June 4,2008, after initial enthusiasm, Pragues bid became troubled, and the city considered canceling their bid. Nevertheless, the government went forward with its bid to become an applicant city on January 14,2008, if it had been chosen, Prague would have staged the Games between July 29 and August 14. The subsequent Paralympics were to be held between September 1 and 13, on March 22,2007, Prague confirmed its bid when the Prague Assembly voted 53-10-3 in support of launching an official bid. Tomas Petera was the head of the Praha Olympijska company and this was the third try by Prague and the Czech Republic to host the Olympic Games. Useful recent experience includes the recent hosting the 2004 Mens World Ice Hockey Championships, the Czech Republic has a strong sports legacy, which appeals to the IOC. They have attended every games except the Athens 1896 Games and the Los Angeles 1984 Games, the Czechs have been especially proficient in gymnastics, and for winter sports, ice hockey. The current decathlon world champion is Czech Roman Šebrle, who as tradition dictates, holds the title of Worlds Greatest Athlete and who was identified to be a potential face of the Games. Prague is known as one of the most beautiful cities in Europe, the bid book indicates around 38,000 hotel rooms are planned by 2016, but this amount is short of IOC expectations and is far behind competing bids. Prague allocated 45 million crowns to the Olympic movement for studies, advertisements, the bid budget of US$22 million allotted for the application and candidacy phase was roughly half that of other bids. The motto of the nomination is Olympic Games for the Czech Republic as it should take place in other cities across the country as well. The IOC has tended to prefer, however, more compact bids, the Czech Olympic Committee plans to develop 130 sport centres in 75 cities in the process of Olympic Games candidature. Three main clusters were organized with the Olympic park at the center, five venues are already built and ready,12 would need upgrades and nine permanent new venues would have been constructed with an additional seven venues being temporary for the Games only. Five circular childrens pools were to be built to represent the Olympic rings. As Prague is land-locked, yachting will be in Lipno, rowing and canoeing in Racice, one major stadium already in place is the modern Sazka Arena, which would host gymnastics. There are plans to rebuild the area around the huge and underutilized Strahov Stadium as an Olympic village, in response to presidential concerns over white elephant venues after the Games, officials stressed the Games would not bring dozens of new sporting facilities to Prague. Many existing facilities would be refurbished, most Olympic sites would be just temporary, the center of the bid was planned to use a new $348 million Olympic Stadium and the Olympic village to be financed with both private and public fundsPrague bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics – View of Prague
9. Baku bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics – Baku, the capital city of Azerbaijan, bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics. It was the first bid by the city to host the Olympic games, Baku was eliminated from the running at the announcement of the Candidate city shortlist on June 4,2008. If Baku had been chosen to host, the games would have held between July 15 and July 31,2016. The Paralympics would have held between August 10 and August 22. Azerbaijans capital, Baku, announced its plans to bid for the Olympics, in July 2007, Chingiz Huseynzade, chairman of Azerbaijans National Olympic Committee, told a press conference that a group of economists was working on this issue. Baku is Azerbaijans oil-rich capital city, on the shores of the Caspian Sea, to ensure quick turnaround, Sports Minister Azad Ragimov appointed the Caspian American Group to prepare the bid book with the assistance of the government. The bid was popular with residents, with 91. 9% of residents being in favor of the bid and this was the highest approval rating of any of the applicants, most of which were in the 70s-80s percent range. One issue that appeals to the IOC is the sports or Olympic legacy of a host nation, as Azerbaijan has been independent only a short time, naturally, it has a short Olympic history, sending teams since only 1996 and claiming only three gold medalists so far. Meanwhile, its border with Iran may have caused concerns for a security risk. However, Iran itself expressed support for the Baku Olympic bid, in addition, the South Caucasus is a region with two other frozen political conflicts, which may have negatively influenced support of the regional Games. As an oil rich nation, Azerbaijan has plenty of money to fund the games, the country produces 730,000 barrels of oil daily which would pay for Baku’s bid. A member of the bid team said, “oil money coming into the Azerbaijani economy in the next 20 years will be $200 billion, with full government backing and financial guarantees, revenue was estimated to be US $930 million. The application and candidacy phase were budgeted at US$27.8 million, low in comparison to the other bids, although wealthy, the citys infrastructure has deteriorated since the breakup of the Soviet Union. Currently, many of Baku’s downtown seaside esplanades are overshadowed by sprawling docks, freight containers, plans are to move port operations to “another part of Azerbaijan. The city’s airport will have to be expanded and an estimated 60 hotels in Baku, currently,23,000 various accommodations exist but 81,000 new rooms are planned. This goal was considered ambitious and may not be feasible. The Azeris are planning at least three more stations, one at the airport, and two at the Olympic Village and Olympic Stadium, to be located on the citys outskirts. Bakus most notable current venue is the Heydar Aliev Sports Complex, Baku revealed plans to build 15 new and 8 temporary structures in four clusters, including a US$254 million Olympic StadiumBaku bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics – View of Baku