The Death of Adonis (Rubens)
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1. Israel Museum – The Israel Museum was founded in 1965 as Israels national museum. It is situated on a hill in the Givat Ram neighborhood of Jerusalem, near the Bible Lands Museum, the Knesset, the Israeli Supreme Court, and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. An urn-shaped building on the grounds of the museum, the Shrine of the Book, houses the Dead Sea Scrolls and it is one of the largest museums in the region. Jerusalem mayor Teddy Kollek was the spirit behind the establishment of the Israel Museum, one of the leading art. Since its establishment in 1965, the Museum has built up a collection of nearly 500,000 objects, James S. Snyder, former Deputy Director of the Museum of Modern Art in New York, was appointed director of the museum in 1997. From 1965, the museum was housed in a series of buildings designed by the Russian-born Israeli architect Alfred Mansfeld. A $100-million campaign to renovate the museum and double its space was completed in July 2010. The wings for archaeology, the arts, and Jewish art and life were completely rebuilt. The passageways that connect between the buildings and five new pavilions were designed by James Carpenter, the museum covers nearly 50,000 sq. meters and attracts 800,000 visitors a year, including 100,000 children who visit and attend classes in its Youth Wing. This narrative is supplemented by thematic groupings highlighting aspects of ancient Israeli archaeology that are unique to the history, among them Hebrew writing, glass. A special gallery at the entrance to the wing showcases new findings, the Shrine of the Book houses the Dead Sea Scrolls, the oldest biblical manuscripts in the world, as well as rare early medieval biblical manuscripts. The scrolls were discovered in 1947–56 in 11 caves in and around the Wadi Qumran, the building consists of a white dome over a building located two-thirds below the ground. The dome is reflected in a pool of water that surrounds it, across from the white dome is a black basalt wall. The interior of the shrine was designed to depict the environment in which the scrolls were found, there is also a permanent display on life in the Qumran, where the scrolls were written. The entire structure was designed to resemble a pot in which the scrolls were found, the shrine was designed by Armand Bartos and Frederick Kiesler, and was opened in 1965. As the fragility of the scrolls makes it impossible to display all on a continuous basis, after a scroll has been exhibited for 3–6 months, it is removed from its showcase and placed temporarily in a special storeroom, where it rests from exposure. The museum also holds other rare ancient manuscripts and displays the Aleppo Codex, originally constructed on the grounds of Jerusalem’s Holyland Hotel, the model, which includes a replica of Herods Temple, is now a permanent feature of the museums 20-acre campus. The Israel Museum holds a collection of paintings representing a wide range of periods, styles, subjectsIsrael Museum – The Israel Museum, Jerusalem
2. Jerusalem – Jerusalem is a city located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is considered a city in the three major Abrahamic religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, the part of Jerusalem called the City of David was settled in the 4th millennium BCE. In 1538, walls were built around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent, today those walls define the Old City, which has been traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Quarters. The Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, and is on the List of World Heritage in Danger, Modern Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old Citys boundaries. These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, the sobriquet of holy city was probably attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic times. The holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint which Christians adopted as their own authority, was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesuss crucifixion there, in Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Mecca and Medina. As a result, despite having an area of only 0, outside the Old City stands the Garden Tomb. Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the captured and later annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, one of Israels Basic Laws, the 1980 Jerusalem Law, refers to Jerusalem as the countrys undivided capital. All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset, the residences of the Prime Minister and President, the international community does not recognize Jerusalem as Israels capital, and the city hosts no foreign embassies. Jerusalem is also home to some non-governmental Israeli institutions of importance, such as the Hebrew University. In 2011, Jerusalem had a population of 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000, Muslims 281,000, a city called Rušalim in the Execration texts of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt is widely, but not universally, identified as Jerusalem. Jerusalem is called Urušalim in the Amarna letters of Abdi-Heba, the name Jerusalem is variously etymologized to mean foundation of the god Shalem, the god Shalem was thus the original tutelary deity of the Bronze Age city. The form Yerushalem or Yerushalayim first appears in the Bible, in the Book of Joshua, according to a Midrash, the name is a combination of Yhwh Yireh and the town Shalem. The earliest extra-biblical Hebrew writing of the word Jerusalem is dated to the sixth or seventh century BCE and was discovered in Khirbet Beit Lei near Beit Guvrin in 1961. The inscription states, I am Yahweh thy God, I will accept the cities of Judah and I will redeem Jerusalem, or as other scholars suggest, the mountains of Judah belong to him, to the God of JerusalemJerusalem – From upper left: Jerusalem skyline viewed from Givat ha'Arba, Mamilla, the Old City and the Dome of the Rock, a souq in the Old City, the Knesset, the Western Wall, the Tower of David and the Ottoman Old City walls
3. Adonis – Adonis, in Greek mythology, is a central figure in various mystery religions. There has been much scholarship over the centuries concerning the roles of Adonis, if any. Modern scholarship sometimes describes him as a renewed, ever-youthful vegetation god. His name is applied in modern times to handsome youths. Syrian Adonis is Gauas or Aos, akin to Egyptian Osiris, the Semitic Tammuz and Baal Hadad, the Etruscan Atunis and the Phrygian Attis, all of whom are deities of rebirth and vegetation. Circa the sixth century BC, the appearance of the cult of Adonis is reported in Jerusalem by the biblical Book of Ezekiel, the most detailed and literary version of the story of Adonis is a late one, in Book X of Ovids Metamorphoses. The central myth in its Greek telling, Smyrna, daughter of Theias, king of Assyria, Theias finds out and is determined to kill her, when the gods intervene and turn her into a myrrh tree. Nine months later the baby Adonis comes out of the tree, Aphrodite fell in love with the beautiful youth. Aphrodite sheltered Adonis as a baby and entrusted him to Persephone. Persephone was also taken by Adonis beauty and refused to him back to Aphrodite. The dispute between the two goddesses was settled by Zeus, Adonis was to spend one-third of every year with each goddess and he chose to spend two-thirds of the year with Aphrodite. Adonis died in Aphrodites arms, who came to him when she heard his groans, when he died she sprinkled the blood with nectar, from which sprang the short-lived anemone, which takes its name from the wind which so easily makes its petals fall. And so it is the blood of Adonis that each spring turns to red the torrential river, Afqa is the sacred source where the waters of the river emerge from a huge grotto in a cliff 200 metres high. It is there that the myth of Astarte and Adonis was born, adoniss birth is shrouded in confusion for those who require a single, authoritative version, for various peripheral stories circulated concerning Adonis parentage. The most widely accepted version is recounted in Ovids Metamorphoses, where Adonis is the son of Myrrha, Myrrha turned into a myrrh tree and Lucina helped the tree to give birth to Adonis. The patriarchal Hellenes sought a father for the god, and found him in Byblos and Cyprus, pseudo-Apollodorus, considered Adonis to be the son of Cinyras, of Paphos on Cyprus, and Metharme. According to pseudo-Apollodorus Bibliotheke, Hesiod, in a work that does not survive, made of him the son of Phoenix. In Cyprus, the cult of Adonis gradually superseded that of Cinyras, Hesiod made him the son of Phoenix, eponym of the Phoenicians, thus a figure of Phoenician origin, his association with Cyprus is not attested before the classical eraAdonis – Aphrodite and Adonis, Attic red-figure aryballos -shaped lekythos by Aison, ca. 410 BC, Louvre.
4. Venus (mythology) – Venus is the Roman goddess whose functions encompassed love, beauty, desire, sex, fertility, prosperity and victory. In Roman mythology, she was the mother of the Roman people through her son, Aeneas, Julius Caesar claimed her as his ancestor. Venus was central to religious festivals, and was revered in Roman religion under numerous cult titles. The Romans adapted the myths and iconography of her Greek counterpart Aphrodite for Roman art, in the later classical tradition of the West, Venus becomes one of the most widely referenced deities of Greco-Roman mythology as the embodiment of love and sexuality. It has connections to venerari and venia through a common root in an Indo-European *wenes- or *u̯enis. Their common Proto-Indo-European root is assumed as *wen- or *u̯en- to strive for, wish for, desire, Venus has been described as perhaps the most original creation of the Roman pantheon, and an ill-defined and assimilative native goddess, combined with a strange and exotic Aphrodite. The ambivalence of her persuasive functions has been perceived in the relationship of the root *venes- with Latin venenum, in the sense of a charm, in myth, Venus-Aphrodite was born of sea-foam. Roman theology presents Venus as the yielding, watery female principle, essential to the generation and her male counterparts in the Roman pantheon, Vulcan and Mars, are active and fiery. Venus absorbs and tempers the male essence, uniting the opposites of male and female in mutual affection and she is essentially assimilative and benign, and embraces several otherwise quite disparate functions. She can give military victory, sexual success, good fortune, in one context, she is a goddess of prostitutes, in another, she turns the hearts of men and women from sexual vice to virtue. Images of Venus have been found in murals, mosaics. Petronius, in his Satyricon, places an image of Venus among the Lares of the freedman Trimalchios lararium, prospective brides offered Venus a gift before the wedding, the nature of the gift, and its timing, are unknown. Some Roman sources say that girls who come of age offer their toys to Venus, it is unclear where the offering is made, in dice-games, a popular pastime among Romans of all classes, the luckiest, best possible roll was known as Venus. Venus signs were for the most part the same as Aphrodites, Venus statues, and her worshipers, wore myrtle crowns at her festivals. Likewise, Roman folk-etymology transformed the ancient, obscure goddess Murcia into Venus of the Myrtles, myrtle was thought a particularly potent aphrodisiac. The female pudendum, particularly the clitoris, was known as murtos, as goddess of love and sex, Venus played an essential role at Roman prenuptial rites and wedding nights, so myrtle and roses were used in bridal bouquets. Marriage itself was not a seduction but a condition, under Junos authority. Venus was also a patron of the ordinary, everyday wine drunk by most Roman men and women, in the rites to Bona Dea, a goddess of female chastity, Venus, myrtle and anything male were not only excluded, but unmentionableVenus (mythology) – Venus on seashell, from the Casa di Venus, Pompeii. Before 79 AD.
5. Cupid – In classical mythology, Cupid is the god of desire, erotic love, attraction and affection. He is often portrayed as the son of the love goddess Venus and he is also known in Latin as Amor. Although Eros is generally portrayed as a winged youth in Classical Greek art. During this time, his iconography acquired the bow and arrow that represent his source of power, a person, or even a deity, in myths, Cupid is a minor character who serves mostly to set the plot in motion. He is a character only in the tale of Cupid and Psyche. Although other extended stories are not told him, his tradition is rich in poetic themes and visual scenarios, such as Love conquers all. In art, Cupid often appears in multiples as the Amores, or amorini in the terminology of art history. Cupids are a frequent motif of both Roman art and later Western art of the classical tradition, in the 15th century, the iconography of Cupid starts to become indistinguishable from the putto. Cupid continued to be a figure in the Middle Ages. In the Renaissance, a renewed interest in classical philosophy endowed him with complex allegorical meanings, in contemporary popular culture, Cupid is shown drawing his bow to inspire romantic love, often as an icon of Valentines Day. The Romans reinterpreted myths and concepts pertaining to the Greek Eros for Cupid in their own literature and art, in the Greek tradition, Eros had a dual, contradictory genealogy. He was among the gods who came into existence asexually, after his generation. In Hesiods Theogony, only Chaos and Gaia are older, before the existence of gender dichotomy, Eros functioned by causing entities to separate from themselves that which they already contained. At the same time, the Eros who was pictured as a boy or slim youth was regarded as the child of a divine couple, in Latin literature, Cupid is usually treated as the son of Venus without reference to a father. Seneca says that Vulcan, as the husband of Venus, is the father of Cupid and this last Cupid was the equivalent of Anteros, Counter-Love, one of the Erotes, the gods who embody aspects of love. The multiple Cupids frolicking in art are the manifestation of these proliferating loves and desires. During the English Renaissance, Christopher Marlowe wrote of ten thousand Cupids, in Ben Jonsons wedding masque Hymenaei, in the later classical tradition, Cupid is most often regarded as the son of Venus and Mars, whose love affair represented an allegory of Love and War. The duality between the primordial and the sexually conceived Eros accommodated philosophical concepts of Heavenly and Earthly Love even in the Christian era, Cupid is winged, allegedly, because lovers are flighty and likely to change their minds, and boyish because love is irrationalCupid – Classical statue of Cupid with his bow
6. Heraclitus and Democritus (Rubens) – Heraclitus and Democritus is a 1603 painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens. It is now held in the National Sculpture Museum in Valladolid and it shows the ancient Greek philosophers Heraclitus and Democritus. Rubens produced the work as a commission for Francisco Gómez de Sandoval Rojas y Borja and it passed through several collections, ending up in that of the Syrian oil magnate Akram Ojjeh. After Ojjehs death, it was sold to the Spanish Ministry of Culture for 175,000,000 pesetas in December 1999 via Christies of LondonHeraclitus and Democritus (Rubens) – The painting
7. The Fall of Phaeton (Rubens) – The Fall of Phaeton is a painting by the Flemish master Peter Paul Rubens, featuring the ancient Greek myth of Phaeton, a recurring theme in visual arts. Rubens chose to depict the myth at the height of its action, the thunderbolts provide the light contrast to facilitate the display of horror on the faces of Phaeton, the horses and other figures while preserving the darkness of the event. The butterfly winged female figures represent the hours and seasons, who react in terror as the night, the great astrological circle that arches the heavens is also disrupted. The assemblage of bodies form an oval in the center, separating dark. The bodies are arranged so as to assist the viewer’s travel continually around that oval, Rubens painted The Fall of Phaeton in Rome and the painting was probably reworked later around 1606/1608. It has been housed in the National Gallery of Art since 5 January 1990, Rubens also painted other Greek mythological subjects, such as The Fall of Icarus, Perseus Freeing Andromeda, and The Judgement of ParisThe Fall of Phaeton (Rubens) – The Fall of Phaeton
8. Samson and Delilah (Rubens) – Samson and Delilah is a painting by the Flemish Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens which is currently on display in the National Gallery. It dates from about 1609 to 1610, two preliminary copies of the painting also exist today, an ink and wash drawing on paper, and an oil sketch on wood panel. The oil sketch is currently on display in the Cincinnati Art Museum, the painting depicts an episode from the Old Testament story of Samson and Delilah. Samson was a Hebrew hero known for fighting the Philistines, having fallen in love with Delilah, who has been bribed by the Philistines, Samson tells her the secret of his great strength, his uncut hair. Without his strength, Samson is captured by the Philistines, Rubens portrays the moment when, having fallen asleep on Delilahs lap, a young man cuts Samsons hair. Samson and Delilah are in a room, which is lit mostly by a candle held by an old woman to Delilahs left. Delilah is depicted with all of her clothes, but with her breasts exposed and her left hand is on top of Samsons right shoulder, as his left arm is draped over her legs. The man snipping Samsons hair is crossing his hands, which is a sign of betrayal, philistine soldiers can be seen in the right-hand background of the painting. The niche behind Delilah contains a statue of the Venus, the Goddess of love, notably, Cupids mouth is bound, rather than his eyes. This statue can be taken to represent the cause of Samsons fate, the old woman standing behind Delilah, providing further light for the scene, does not appear in the biblical narrative of Samson and Delilah. She is believed to be a procuress, and the adjacent profiles of her and Delilah may symbolise the old womans past, the painting was originally commissioned by Nicolaas II Rockox, Lord mayor of Antwerp, Belgium, for his Rockox House. In addition to being a patron, Rockox was a personal friend of Rubens. The painting was intended to be placed above a 7-foot mantleshelf. The painting was sold for charity when Rockox died in 1640. In 1700, a panel named Samson and Delilah was bought by Prince Johann Adams Andreas I and this painting was likely Rubens painting. The painting was sold in 1880 in Paris, where it was later found by Ludwig Burchard in 1929. Eventually, the painting sold at auction in 1980 at Christies, purchased by the National Gallery, there has been some doubt cast over the attribution of the painting to Rubens, led by the artist and scholar of Fayum portraits Euphronsyne Doxiades. The painting was attributed to the Dutch painter Gerard van HonthorstSamson and Delilah (Rubens) – Samson and Delilah
9. Honeysuckle Bower – The Honeysuckle Bower is a self-portrait of the Flemish Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens and his first wife Isabella Brant. They wed on 3 October 1609, in St. Michaels Abbey, Antwerp, the painting is a full-length double portrait of the couple seated in a bower of honeysuckle. They are surrounded by love and marriage symbolism, the honeysuckle, additionally, Rubens depicts himself as an aristocratic gentleman with his left hand on the hilt of his sword. Media related to Honeysuckle Bower by Peter Paul Rubens at Wikimedia Commons Web Gallery of ArtHoneysuckle Bower – The Honeysuckle Bower
10. Massacre of the Innocents (Rubens) – The first, measuring 142 x 182 cm, was painted after his return to his native Antwerp in 1608, following eight years spent in Italy. The first version painted by Rubens dates from around 1611–12, at the end of the seventeenth century, the painting became part of the Liechtenstein Collection in Vienna, Austria, along with another Rubens painting, Samson and Delilah. The Forchondt brothers sold both paintings to Hans-Adam I, Prince of Liechtenstein whom they knew through his father Karl Eusebius, Prince of Liechtenstein around 1700. The paintings were given the Liechtenstein family seal and are recorded in the collection until the 19th century, under that attribution it remained until it was sold to an Austrian family in 1920. It was subsequently loaned in 1923 to Stift Reichersberg, a monastery in northern Austria, in 2001, the painting was seen by George Gordon, an expert in Flemish and Dutch paintings at Sothebys in London. He was persuaded that it was indeed a Rubens by its characteristics and style to the Samson. The work was sold at auction at Sothebys, London on July 10,2002 for £49.5 million to Canadian businessman and art collector Kenneth Thomson, 2nd Baron Thomson of Fleet. These influences are seen in painting through the sheer drama and emotive dynamism of the scene. There is also evidence of the use of chiaroscuro and he also used ecorche figures - anatomical statues with the skin removed-to study how the body was made. At the time of Rubens first painting on the subject Antwerp had been involved in only a few years before- a conflict temporarily frozen by the truce of 1609. In one year alone over 8000 citizens had been killed by Calvinists, Antwerp however remained a Catholic stronghold and became a leading centre of Counter Reformation thought. Towards the end of his life, between 1636 and 1638, Rubens painted a version of the Massacre of the Innocents. This version was acquired by the Alte Pinakothek, Munich by 1706, a copy of this later version was made as an engraving in 1643 by Paulus Pontius. BBC News article on the auction ART4 2-DAY articleMassacre of the Innocents (Rubens) – Peter Paul Rubens. Massacre of the Innocents, 1611–12 (Art Gallery of Ontario), lost and later rediscovered.
11. Prometheus Bound (Rubens) – Prometheus Bound is an oil painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens. It shows the punishment of Prometheus, the painting was first started between 1611 and 1612, and was completed by 1618, with the eagle painted by the specialist animal painter Frans Snyders. For a long time Rubens kept it in his own personal collection and it is now in the collection of the Philadelphia Museum of Art, Pennsylvania. It is based on the Greek play, Prometheus Bound, katherine Crawford Luber, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Handbook of the Collections, p.174Prometheus Bound (Rubens) – Bibliography 
12. The Descent from the Cross (Rubens) – The Descent from the Cross is the central panel of a triptych painting by Peter Paul Rubens in 1612–1614. It is still in its place, the Cathedral of Our Lady, Antwerp, Belgium. The subject was one Rubens returned to again and again in his career and this particular work was commissioned on September 7,1611, by the Confraternity of the Arquebusiers, whose Patron Saint was St. Christopher. Although essentially Baroque, the oil on panel piece is rooted in the Venetian tradition, in its composition and use of light, the triptych recalls Caravaggios Roman period. One of Savior’s feet comes to rest on the shoulder of the Magdalene. Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus, placed midway on ladders so as to each other, form. The Virgin, standing at the foot of the tree, extends her arms towards her Son, Salome, kneeling. On the ground are seen the superscription and a basin where the crown of thorns. The crowd, always elated by the spectacle of torture, has departed from Golgotha as daylight fades, in 1794, Napoleon removed this painting and The Elevation of the Cross and sent them to the Louvre. After his defeat, they were returned to the cathedral in 1815, in addition to the original work for Antwerp, Rubens painted two other versions exploring the same theme. In Ouidas novel A Dog of Flanders the main characters Nello and it serves as the climax of the story, as they both sneak inside the Antwerp Cathedral on a freezing Christmas Eve to witness the beauty of the painting. The next day they are frozen to death in front of the triptych. Jaffé, M. Catalogo completo di Rubens, martin, John R. Rubens, The Antwerp Altarpieces - The Raising of the Cross and the Descent from the Cross - Norton Critical Studies in Art HistoryThe Descent from the Cross (Rubens) – The Descent from the Cross
13. St Sebastian (Rubens) – St Sebastian is a painting of c.1614 by Peter Paul Rubens, showing the Christian Saint Sebastian. It dates to the years of Rubens stay in Rome - its sinuous line and defined figures are thought to be the result of his studies of Michelangelo. It was bought by the Borghese directly from cardinal Neri Corsini in Brussels and it is now in the Borghese collection. In 1618, Rubens wrote the English Sir Dudley Carlton a letter describing a collection of his own paintings he had at his home he wished to trade and it is more than likely not that this is that paintingSt Sebastian (Rubens) – Paintings and drawings
14. Madonna of the Basket (Rubens) – The Madonna of the Basket or the Madonna della Cesta is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens, dated to around 1615. It is now held in the Galleria Palatina of the Palazzo Pitti in Florence, between 1799 and 1815 it was confiscated by the French and assigned to the Dijon Museum of Fine Arts. Marco Chiarini, Galleria palatina e Appartamenti Reali, Sillabe, Livorno 1998Madonna of the Basket (Rubens) – This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Italian. (January 2015) Click [show] for important translation instructions.
15. The Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt – The Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt is an oil painting on canvas by Peter Paul Rubens. It was commissioned in 1615 to decorate Schleißheim Palace, along three other works depicting lion, wolf, and boar hunts. The cycle of paintings were looted from the palace during the Napoleonic Wars, only the Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt was returned to Munich, at which time it was added to the collection that is now the Alte Pinakothek. Peter Paul Rubens created the oil painting entitled The Hippopotamus. The hunt takes place on the banks of the Nile, as indicated by a tree in the background. As hippopotami and crocodiles were considered dangerous nuisances, their destruction was a duty performed by noblemen, the enraged hippopotamus tramples the crocodile, as both are attacked by the hunters and hounds. The accurately-rendered physical appearances of the hippopotamus and crocodile contrasts with contemporary renderings and reflect the growing interest in empiricism. It has been suggested that Rubens may have traveled to Rome to view a temporarily-displayed dead hippopotamus preserved in brine prior to the painting of the picture, Rubens created the genre of the large hunting scene and his studio produced dozens for aristocratic patrons in the 1610s and 1620s. Rubens and his studio produced the four large canvases in Antwerp over the years 1615–16, the Wittelsbach collection formed the nucleus of Alte Pinakothek in Munich, the present location of the Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt and The Lion Hunt from the same cycle. The cycle of paintings were looted from the palace during the Napoleonic Wars, only the Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt was returned to Munich, at which time it was added to the collection that is now the Alte Pinakothek. The complexity of the grouping, representation of turbulent motion and violent action, high drama. In the notice of January 25,1847, Eugène Delacroix admired the crocodile as a masterpiece of execution, remarking, however, that its action could have been more interestingThe Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt – The Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt
16. The Wolf and Fox Hunt – The Wolf and Fox Hunt is a c.1616 painting by Peter Paul Rubens now held in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. It shows mounted and walking hunters chasing two wolves and three foxes and it marks the beginning of an intensive creative phase in which Rubens focuses on the theme of hunting. The painting on the right is called The Wolf and Fox Hunt and this is the first art by Ruben when he created a market for a new form of art. This is one of the paintings of very large hunting scenes painted on a canvas. The painting was trimmed from the top and the left side as it was too big. The wolves in the painting are his own creation and work and this painting by Rubens was considered to be a modern replacement for tapestries which was good as tapestries required a lot more time and money to be completedThe Wolf and Fox Hunt – External links 
17. The Garden of Eden with the Fall of Man – The Garden of Eden with the Fall of Man or The Earthly Paradise with the Fall of Adam and Eve is a 1617 painting by Peter Paul Rubens and Jan Brueghel the Elder. It is housed in the Mauritshuis, Netherlands, the painting depicts the moment just before the consumption of forbidden fruit and the fall of man. Adam and Eve are depicted beneath the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, on the opposite side the tree of life is depicted, also laden with fruits. The scene is a reference to Genesis 2, 8–14, a monkey biting an apple to the left symbolizes sin. The sanguine monkey next to Adam is the hotspur who cannot resist temptation, in Christian symbolism, several grapes in the foliage behind Adam and Eve represent Christs death on the cross, as wine represents his bloodThe Garden of Eden with the Fall of Man – The Garden of Eden with the Fall of Man
18. The Union of Earth and Water – The pair is crowned by the goddess Victoria and the union is heralded through a conch by the Triton below. The painting features a pyramidal composition, symmetry and the balance of forms and it was influenced by late Italian Renaissance, particularly by Venetian artists. A smaller copy of the made in the Rubens workshop was owned by the Russian businessman Vladimir Logvinenko. Following the abolition of a thirty per cent import duty on artworks in 2004, the painting is housed in the Rubens Hall of the Hermitage Museum, Russia. Previously it had been in the Chigi Collection in Rome from which it was acquired by the Hermitage Museum between 1798 and 1800The Union of Earth and Water – The Union of Earth and Water
19. The Conversion of Saint Paul (Rubens, Berlin) – The Conversion of Saint Paul is a 1620s painting by Peter Paul Rubens, now missing or lost. It showed the conversion of Paul the Apostle and it was produced for Władysław Vasa of Poland. It remained in France for over a century, until it was bought by G Harris in 1819 and it was bought from him in 1903 by the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin. The painting was moved to the Flakturm Friedrichshain in Berlin for safety with the rest of the collection around 1942 and was lost or destroyed some time between March and May 1945. Between 11 March and 2 May 1945 all but 434 paintings were evacuated from the tower to former salt mines in Thuringia, the tower was surrendered to the Red Army on 2 May and its museum guards sent home. They returned on 4 and 5 May, finding one of the floors broken, on 6 May another floor burned out, with heat and smoke preventing entry, and between 14 and 18 May 1945 the whole tower was destroyed by fire. Rubens, the life of Christ after the passion, Peter Paul Rubens et la France, 1600–1640The Conversion of Saint Paul (Rubens, Berlin) – This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2015)
20. The Fall of the Damned – The Fall of the Damned, conversely known as The Fall of the Rebel Angels is a monumental religious painting by Peter Paul Rubens. It features a jumble of the bodies of the damned, hurled into abyss by archangel Michael, david Freedberg assessed this painting manner as the most brilliant assemblages of lusciously naked flesh in Western art. In 1959 an art vandal threw an acid on the painting, according to him, he did not directly destroy the work, but the acid relieves one from the work of destruction. The sketch of The Fall of the Damned was made in black and red chalks and it is assumed to be the work of a studio assistant, while Rubens then went over the drawing with brush and oil colour. The dramatic chiaroscuro of the forms and clouds emphasizes the darkness into which these figures fallThe Fall of the Damned – The Fall of the Damned
21. Saint George and the Dragon (Rubens) – Saint George and the Dragon is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens, based upon the motif with the same name. It is housed in the Museo del Prado of Madrid and it was painted in Genoa while Rubens was in Italy to complete his artistic training. The princess presence on the left is included to represent the Church, media related to Saint George and the Dragon by Rubens at Wikimedia CommonsSaint George and the Dragon (Rubens) – Saint George and the Dragon
22. Perseus Freeing Andromeda (Rubens) – Perseus Freeing Andromeda is a painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens, executed in 1607. It is housed in the Gemäldegalerie of Berlin, Germany, the painting belonged the M. Pasquier collection in Rouen, which was auctioned in 1755 in Paris. In the 18th century it entered the collection of Frederick II of Prussia and, in 1830, the scene is similar to another Perseus Freeing Andromeda by Rubens now in the Hermitage Museum of St. Petersburg. It depicts the Greek mythology hero Perseus in the act of freeing Andromeda, Perseus, wearing helmet, cuirass and cloak, is sided by two puttoes, and one of them is helping him in removing the ropes that tie Andromeda to the rock. On the left, two puttoes are playing with Pegasus, Perseus winged horse, jaffé, M. Catalogo completo di RubensPerseus Freeing Andromeda (Rubens) – Perseus Freeing Andromeda
23. The Three Graces (Rubens, monochrome) – The Three Graces is a grisaille painting by Peter Paul Rubens, dating to 1620-1623. It is now held in the Galleria Palatina in Florence and it was acquired by Monsignor Francesco Airoldi, nuncio to Brussels, who offered it to cardinal Leopoldo de Medici, a great admirer of Rubens. The cardinals art collection passed to the Uffizi after his death - the grisaille was transferred to the Palatina in 1928The Three Graces (Rubens, monochrome) – External links 
24. Isabella Brant (drawing) – Isabella Brant, a portrait drawing, was executed in Antwerp around 1621 by Flemish artist and diplomat, Peter Paul Rubens. Brant was Rubens first wife and modelled for some of his portraits until her death in 1626. The portrait is drawn in black and red chalk with white heightening on brown wash paper and this drawing is noted for its immediacy and attractiveness and was the basis for three oil paintings. The first was painted in 1621 by Rubens pupil, Anthony van Dyck as a gift to his mentor and this portrait now hangs in the National Gallery of Art in Washington. The second, painted by Rubens between 1620 and 1625, is located in the Cleveland Museum of Art and the third painted by Rubens in 1625, is located in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. Following Rubens death, the drawing passed through five known collectors and was acquired by the British Museum in 1893. During re-mounting work in 1964, a sketch was discovered on the reverse side of the portrait. The sketch, also in red and black chalk is presumed to be a self-portrait of Rubens, the portrait of Isabella Brant was drawn by Rubens around 1621, when she was about 30 years old and had been married to Rubens for 12 years. Rubens employed the aux trois crayons technique, using red and black chalk, the head of the portrait was sketched in detail while the eyes had been retouched with pen and black ink. This drawing, which is the only one sketched of Isabella Brant in this medium, has been admired for centuries as a example of Rubens portrait drawing. Rubens intimate drawing was intended to capture the sweetness and vivacity of his first wife, the sitters head is shown with a slight downward tilt — facing slightly to the left and looking directly at the observer. She is shown wearing drop earrings and her hair and features are depicted with care, while her clothes are sketchily portrayed. Her mischievous smile is further enhanced by the dimples in her plump cheeks, the great detail and animation of the portrait suggests that Rubens had great affection for his wife. The drawing was used as a basis for three oil portraits, the 1621 painting of Brant outside the portico of the family home, was done by Rubens pupil, Anthony van Dyck as a parting gift to his mentor. The striking similarity between the portrait and drawing meant that van Dyck would have had access to the sketch for this work. The Cleveland portrait by Rubens, painted between 1620 and 1625, displays such as the pulled-back hair and the mocking smile. The Uffizi, portrait was produced close to Brants death in June 1626, although the pose is similar, the face exhibits puffiness as a result of her illness. In 1964, the drawing was re-mounted in preparation for its showing at the 1965 Masterpieces of the Print Room exhibition at the British MuseumIsabella Brant (drawing) – A portrait of Isabella Brant
25. Marie de' Medici cycle – The Marie de Medici Cycle is a series of twenty-four paintings by Peter Paul Rubens commissioned by Marie de Medici, widow of Henry IV of France, for the Luxembourg Palace in Paris. Rubens received the commission in the autumn of 1621, after negotiating the terms of the contract in early 1622, the project was to be completed within two years, coinciding with the marriage of Maries daughter, Henrietta Maria. Twenty-one of the paintings depict Maries own struggles and triumphs in life, the remaining three are portraits of herself and her parents. The paintings now hang in the Louvre in Paris, much speculation exists on the exact circumstances under which Marie de Medici decided to commission Rubens to paint such a grandiose project, conceived in truly heroic proportions. The immortalizing of her life, however, seems to be the most apparent reason for the Queens choice to commission a painter who was capable of executing such a demanding task. The contract stated that Rubens was to paint all the figures, Marie de Medici became the second wife to King Henry IV of France in a marriage by proxy on 5 October 1600 by the power invested in her uncle, Grand Duke Ferdinand of Tuscany. When Henry was assassinated in 1610, Louis XIII, his son, Louis mother, Marie, acted as his regent as commanded by the Frankish Salic law in case of an infant ruler. However, even after Louis came of age at thirteen in 1614, in 1617, Louis XIII finally decided to take governing matters in his own hands at the age of fifteen and the queen was exiled to Blois. Louis and his mother were not reconciled for over four years, upon her return, Marie focused on building and decorating the Luxembourg Palace, an enormous undertaking in which Peter Paul Rubens played a key role. Rubens, then court painter to the Duchy of Mantua under Vincenzo I Gonzaga, had first met Marie at her wedding in Florence in 1600. In 1621, Marie de Medici commissioned Rubens to paint two large series depicting the lives of herself and her husband, Henry IV, to adorn both wings of the first floor of the Luxembourg Palace. The cycle of paintings dedicated to the life of Henry IV was never completed, the fact that the Henry IV series was not realized can be attributed in part to Marie de Medici being permanently banned from France by her son in 1631. She escaped to Brussels, and later died in exile in 1642 in the house that the Peter Paul Rubenss family had occupied more than fifty years prior. While this cycle was one of Rubenss first great commissions, Marie de Medicis life proved a one to portray. Rubens had the task of creating twenty-one paintings about a woman whose life could be measured by her marriage to Henry IV, furthermore, unlike her husband, Maries life was neither graced with triumphant victories nor punctuated by vanquished foes. Rather, implications of political scandal in her life made any literal depiction of the far too controversial for Rubens to execute without incurring the disapproval from others in government. Rubens painted extravagant images of the Queen Mother surrounded by ancient gods, the ambiguity of the figures was essentially used to depict Marie in a positive light. Rubenss Medici commission was an inspiration for artists as well, particularly the French painters Jean-Antoine WatteauMarie de' Medici cycle – Maria de' Medici
26. Portrait of Susanna Lunden – Portrait of Susanna Lunden or Le Chapeau de Paille is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens. It is now in the National Gallery, London, the portraits subject is Susanna Lunden, elder sister of Rubens future second wife Helena Fourment. The portrait probably dates to the time of Susannas second marriage in 1622, to Arnold LundenPortrait of Susanna Lunden – External links 
27. The History of Constantine – An additional five designs were painted by Cortona in 1630 and woven in the atelier of Cardinal Francesco Barberini in Rome over the next decade. The series was commissioned in 1622 when Rubens was in Paris discussing the paintings he was designing for the Luxembourg Palace for Marie de Médicis. New evidence, such the fact that the designs were listed as the property of de la Planche upon his death, establishing a weak form of copyright, has muddied the issue. One theory is that Rubens only cited the king as the commissioner of the tapestries in the letter in order to increase their perceived importance because his payment was overdue. He repeated only one design from the Rubens set, the apparition of the cross, Cortona also designed several smaller tapestries such as portieres and a baldachin to furnish an entire room, and painted the ceiling of the salon where they were displayed. The dossal he designed, featuring a golden statue of Constantine, hung behind the throne of Urban VIII. The life of the first Christian monarch would have relevance for a king whose own father experienced such a notable conversion to Catholicism. While the subject matter could plausibly have been chosen by Louis XIII himself, it also may have been selected by Comans and de la Planche to appeal to him, Rubens drew on Cardinal Cesare Baronios Annales Ecclesiastici for inspiration and historical detail. Baronio based his writings on the accounts of Eusebius. Rubens designs proved popular and were woven several times by the Comans-La Planche workshop over the next decades. Cortonas tapestries were only woven once, the sole complete set remained with the Barberini collection in Rome until 1889. The tapestries were split up and passed through various hands before being reunited by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, the sketches remain widely scattered, many of them in private hands. Sketch, private collection,18.625 x 25.375 tapestry, the event occurs in a temple of Jupiter and Juno, who preside in the form of statuary. However, in the tapestry, Jupiter wears a more beneficent mien and holds his thunderbolt less threatening. In a dream, he learns that placing this emblem on his banner assures him of triumph over Maxentius, Rubens follows Eusebius quite closely, but replaces the flaming cross he described with the monogram in Lactantius chronicle. One soldier, looking at Constantine rather than the vision, points with the labarum, or military standard, to the next scene. Sketch, private collection,13.9 x 10.8 tapestry, Paris, Mobilier National This episode depicts the moments just before the Battle of Milvian Bridge and this has been emblazoned with Christs symbol, as he was instructed. The monogram of Rubens usual panel maker, Michiel Vrient, is impressed on the back of the panel, along with a branded A that indicates the panel was prepared about 1621-22The History of Constantine – The History of Constantine
28. The Conversion of Saint Bavo – The Conversion of Saint Bavo is a 1623-1624 altarpiece by Peter Paul Rubens. It was commissioned as the altarpiece for Sint-Baafskathedraal in Ghent by bishop Antoon Triest. It is still sited in the cathedral, an oil sketch for it is now in the National Gallery, London. 72, Arcade, Brussel,1972 Gent, duizend jaar kunst en cultuur, Bijlokemuseum, Gent,1975The Conversion of Saint Bavo – Bibliography 
29. Adoration of the Magi (Rubens, Antwerp) – For other treatments of this subject by the same artist, see Adoration of the Magi. The Adoration of the Magi is a 1624 oil on canvas painting by Peter Paul Rubens and it was commissioned by Matthæus Yrsselius, abbot of St. Michaels Abbey, Antwerp, as an altarpiece, and paid for in two instalments of 750 guilders each in 1624 and 1626. The Virgin Mary is thought to have been modelled on Rubens first wife Isabella Brant, the painting is now in the Royal Museum of Fine Arts Antwerp. The painting is an important story arc in the comic book album De Raap van Rubens in the Belgian comic book series Suske en Wiske, the characters visit it in the Royal Museum of Fine Arts in Antwerp. Later the man in the red cloak on the painting comes alive, in order to find out why the man does this Lambik travels back in time, to the era of Peter Paul RubensAdoration of the Magi (Rubens, Antwerp) – References 
30. The Reconciliation of Esau and Jacob – The Reconciliation of Esau and Jacob is a 1624 painting by Peter Paul Rubens. Originally in the Spanish royal collection, it was sent to Germany by Maria Anna of Neuburg to her brother Johann Wilhelm and it is now in the Staatsgalerie Schleissheim near Munich. It shows the story of meeting between Jacob and Esau. It was the model for a painting by Abraham Willemsen and this painting was featured in Willem van Haechts Gallery of Cornelis van der Geest with Joseph and Potiphars wife, 1630sThe Reconciliation of Esau and Jacob – A study for the work (National Galleries of Scotland)
31. Assumption of the Virgin Mary (Rubens) – In Rubens depiction of the Assumption of Mary, a choir of angels lifts her in a spiraling motion toward a burst of divine light. Around her tomb are gathered the 12 apostles — some with their arms raised in awe, the women in the painting are thought to be Mary Magdalene and the Virgin Marys two sisters. A kneeling woman holds a flower, referring to the lilies that miraculously filled the empty coffin, the Antwerp Cathedral of Our Lady opened a competition for an Assumption altar in 1611. Rubens submitted models to the clergy on February 16,1611, in September 1626,15 years later, he completed the piece. There is a studio version, with some differences, in the National Gallery of Art, Washington. Another version hangs on the side altar of the castle church St. Peter and Paul in Kirchheim in Schwaben. Marian art in the Catholic Church Assumption of the Virgin Mary in art National Gallery of Art page about the paintingAssumption of the Virgin Mary (Rubens) – Assumption of the Virgin
32. Consequences of War – Consequences of War, also known as Horror of war, was executed between 1638-1639 by Peter Paul Rubens in oil paint on canvas. It was painted for Ferdinando II de Medici, although commissioned by an Italian, art historians characterize both the work and the artist as Flemish Baroque. It serves as a commentary on a European continent ravaged by the Thirty Years War, Mars, Mars is the central figure in the composition. The Roman god of war charges with shield and sword as well as breastplate, the figure’s skin and cape are dominated by the color red to further emphasize his identity as the Roman god. Book and Drawing, Underneath Mars’s feet lie a book and a drawing and these represent the manner in which the arts and letters are forgotten and destroyed in the chaos and violence of war. Temple of Janus, To the far left of the painting, in Ancient Rome, the Temple of Janus would be closed to indicate times of peace while an open door denoted war. This phenomenon is referenced in Fasti by Ovid, Venus, The Roman goddess of love endeavors to restrain Mars and keep the peace. Her arm is looped ineffectually around his in a physical gesture and her expression, meanwhile, plaintively entreaties Mars to stop his charge. Venus is depicted in typical Rubensian fashion with characteristic rolls of exposed flesh The goddess is accompanied by Amors, Fury Alekto, Alekto drags Mars on to his destructive purpose with a torch held high. Alekto was the Greek and Roman incarnation of anger and she appears in both Virgil’s Aeneid and Dante’s Inferno. Alekto translates from the Greek to “the implacable or unceasing anger. ”Pestilence and Famine, in addition, they deliberately refer to the apocalypse. Harmony, Rubens depicts Harmony as a holding a lute. However the chaos has pushed her to the ground and broken her lute, the damage to the lute represents the discord of war. Mother, Beside Harmony a mother clutches a child. This, Rubens writes, shows how “War corrupts and disrupts and destroys everything” including “procreation and charity. ”Architect, An architect and his instruments have similarly fallen to the ground, showing how in times of war destruction and not creation is the norm. Arrows, Arrows lie on the ground near Venus and the Amors, when bound together they represent Concord but in their present state show its absence. Next to them lie the olive branch and caduceus, the symbols of peace and they too are depicted cast upon the ground to signify their absence in Europe. Woman in black, The figure to Venus’s left represents Europe and her cross-topped globe represents the Christian world and is carried by the small angel to her immediate leftConsequences of War – Consequences of War
33. The Judgement of Paris (Rubens) – The large versions of 1636 and 1638 are among the best known. These both show Rubens version of idealised beauty, with the goddesses Venus, Minerva and Juno on one side. This version follows the story as narrated in Lucians Judgement of the Goddesses and it shows the award of the golden apple, though alterations show Rubens first painted an earlier point in the story, when the goddesses are ordered to undress by Mercury. It was bought for the National Gallery in London in 1844, painted in 1638 or 1639, this version is now in the Prado and was completed shortly before his death while he was ill with gout. It was commissioned by Philip IV of Spains brother Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria, in 1788 Charles III of Spain decided it was immodest and ordered it to be burned, but he died before that order could be carried outThe Judgement of Paris (Rubens) – The Judgement of Paris
34. Palazzi di Genova – Palazzi di Genova is a 1622 book written and illustrated by Peter Paul Rubens, depicting and describing the palaces of Genoa, Italy in 72 plates. A second volume with 67 further plates was added the same year, the illustrations of the second part are usually considered not to be by Rubens though. It is the only book Rubens published himself, the first volume contained plans, facades and additional views of 12 of the palaces of Genoa, the second book contained a further 19 palaces and 4 churches. Included are many of the Palazzi dei Rolli and they were seen by Rubens during his trips to Italy. Rubens was an admirer of the architecture of Italy, as evidenced in his own house, the Genoese style, developed by architects like Galeazzo Alessi, became very popular, and their distribution in Northern Europe was at least partially due to the book by Rubens. Examples of this include the Hôtel de Ville, Lyon, rubenss Palazzi di Genova during the 17th Century in Europe, Questions and Problems. The 1924 German edition from archive. orgPalazzi di Genova – Plate 57 of the first volume of Palazzi di Genova, 1622
35. Maria Pypelinckx – Maria Pypelinckx was a writer from the Southern Netherlands, best known today as the mother of the painter Peter Paul Rubens. Pypelinckx was born in Antwerp as the daughter of Hendrik Pypelinckx, a dealer from Hasselt. Little is known of her life, but she married the lawyer Jan Rubens in 1561 in Antwerp who had just resettled there in 1558 after a long trip to Italy. They lived in a house on the Meir, Rubens was a magistrate in Antwerp during the period of upheaval, and survived the beeldenstorm. He became known for his Calvinist sympathies and the family was forced to flee in 1568, Maria had already borne four children by 1567 but it is unknown how many children accompanied them on their flight. They settled in Cologne, but always intended to return when the troubles settled and her husband William the Silent was constantly travelling to muster support for his cause. Anna had already had three children in Brussels before the couple fled Alvas troops and they found sanctuary in Dillenburg, where Anna had given birth to her fourth child, Maurice, Prince of Orange. By then her husband had left her to prepare for the Battle of Heiligerlee, Anna came to Cologne to attempt to secure her own income in order to gain some autonomy. She had felt herself a prisoner in the stronghold of the Nassaus in Dillenburg, while in Cologne, she became pregnant again after a visit from her husband and Countess Emilia of Nassau was born on 10 April 1569. She and Rubens both had vested interests in the Southern Netherlands that they were attempting to salvage and perhaps they were living in close proximity and they had an affair and she became pregnant by Rubens. In March 1571 Rubens was arrested by members of the Nassau family and taken to Dillenburg, Maria promptly moved to Siegen and began to write letters of support to her husband, who thought at the time he might be put to death. She also wrote to members of the Nassau family, including Annas brother-in-law Johann VI. Maria Pypelinckx remained true to her husband and continued to bear him children, most notably Philip on 27 April 1574 and Peter Paul on 28 June 1577. By 1575 it was clear though they were not divorced, William the Silent had plans to neglect his wife. He had managed to get five professors of the new University of Leiden to annul his marriage to Anna of Saxony who was sent in secret to Dresden where she was locked up in a windowless room. After her death, Maria wrote to William and they were granted permission to move to Cologne, in 1583 they were asked to leave Cologne due to Calvinist sympathies, but again through letters, Maria was able to gain permission to stay. By that time she had taken on boarders to help in the finances, on 1 March 1587 her husband Jan Rubens was buried in the St. Peters church in Cologne. She had a gravestone installed in which she complimented his qualities as a scholar and she returned to Antwerp the same yearMaria Pypelinckx – Portrait of a woman formerly called Maria Pypelinckx, by Rubens
36. Isabella Brant – Isabella Brant was a Flemish artists model who was the first wife of painter Peter Paul Rubens. She was the daughter of Jan Brant, an important city official in Antwerp and her aunt Mary was married to Phillipe I Rubens, brother of her future husband. Isabella Brant married the brother of her uncle Peter Paul on 3 October 1609 in St. Michaels Abbey and they had three children, Clara, Nicolaas, Lord of Rameyen and Albert. She was 34 years old when she died of the plague, several paintings of Brant and one important drawing of her by Rubens survive, in addition to a portrait of her by Rubens disciple and assistant, Anthony van Dyck. In 1977, Brant appeared on a stamp of Anguilla. Liedtke, Walter A. Flemish paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, new York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Media related to Isabella Brant at Wikimedia CommonsIsabella Brant – Portrait of Isabella Brant by Rubens, c. 1620-1625 (Cleveland Museum of Art)
37. Otto van Veen – He is known for running a large studio in Antwerp, producing several emblem books, and for being, from 1594 or 1595 until 1598, Peter Paul Rubenss teacher. His role as a classically educated humanist artist, reflected in the Latin name by which he is known, Octavius Vaenius, was influential on the young Rubens. Van Veen was born in Leiden around 1556, where his father had been Burgomaster and he probably was a pupil of Isaac Claesz van Swanenburg until October 1572, when the Catholic family moved to Antwerp, and then to Liège. He studied for a time under Dominicus Lampsonius and Jean Ramey and he stayed there for about five years, perhaps studying with Federico Zuccari. Carel van Mander relates that van Veen then worked at the courts of Rudolf II in Prague and William V of Bavaria in Munich, before returning to the Low Countries. In Brussels, he was painter to the governor of the Southern Netherlands, Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma until 1592. After becoming a master in the Guild of St. Luke in 1593, van Veen took numerous commissions for decorations, including altarpieces for the Antwerp cathedral. He also organized his studio and workshop, which included Rubens, the artist later served as dean in two prominent organizations in the city, the Guild of St. Luke in 1602, and the Romanists in 1606. In the seventeenth century, van Veen often worked for the Archdukes Albert and Isabella, later paintings include a series of twelve paintings depicting the battles of the Romans and the Batavians, based on engravings he had already published of the subject, for the Dutch States General. He had two brothers who were painters, Gijsbert van Veen was an engraver and Pieter was an amateur. His daughter Gertruid was also a painter, increasingly, van Veen was active in producing Emblem books, including Quinti Horatii Flacci emblemata, Amorum emblemata, and Amoris divini emblemata. In all these works, van Veens skills as an artist, the Amorum emblemata, for example, pictures 124 putti, or little cupids, enacting the mottoes and quotations from lyricists, philosophers, and ancient writers on the powers of Love. Some of these emblems are as relevant today as they would have to a seventeenth-century audience, a few examples of these mottoes read, A Wished Warre, The woundes that lovers give are willingly receaved. He goes on to quote Cicero and Seneca on this theme, another example familiar to us today as the story of The Tortoise and the Hare, is titled Perseverance winneth, The hare and the tortes layd a wager of their speed. Shows us a cupid and tortoise outpacing the hare and exemplifying the idea that the love which is steady, Emblem Project Utrecht -3 editions of emblem books by Otto van Veen Amorum Emblemata on Internet Archive. Vita D. Thomae Aquinatis a manuscript by Otto van Veen Otto van Veen on Artcyclopedia Belkin, Kristin Lohse, bertini, Giuseppe, Otto van Veen, Cosimo Masi and the Art Market in Antwerp at the End of the Sixteenth Century. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, Otto van Veens Batavians defeating the Roman Van de Velde, Carl, Veen, entry at the Netherlands Institute for Art History Veen, Otto van. Emblemes of Love, with verses in Latin, English, media related to Otto van Veen at Wikimedia CommonsOtto van Veen – Title print of three volume book Schouburg, by Arnold Houbraken. Houbraken considered Van Veen to be the most impressive artist and scholar of his day and put his portrait (lower left) on his title print.
38. Frans Snyders – Frans Snyders or Frans Snijders was a Flemish painter of animals, hunting scenes, market scenes and still lifes. He was one of the earliest specialist animaliers and he is credited with initiating a wide variety of new still-life and he was a regular collaborator with leading Antwerp painters such as Peter Paul Rubens, Anthony van Dyck and Jacob Jordaens. Snyders was born in Antwerp as the son of Jan Snijders, according to legend the famous 16th century painter Frans Floris squandered his fortune in the inn. His brother Michiel also became a painter but no works of him are known, Snyders was recorded as a student of Pieter Brueghel the Younger in 1593, and subsequently trained with Hendrick van Balen, who was the first master of Anthony van Dyck. Snyders became a master of the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke in 1602 and he travelled to Italy in 1608-9 where he first resided in Rome. The artist subsequently traveled from Rome to Milan, Jan Brueghel the Elder had introduced him there by letter to the famous art collector Cardinal Borromeo. Brueghel asked Snyders to paint a copy after a portrait by Titian in the Borromeo collection and this is regarded as evidence that Snyders was a skilled figure painter before he turned his attention to still life painting. Snyders had returned to Antwerp in the spring of 1609, in 1611 he married Margaretha, the sister of Cornelis de Vos and Paul de Vos, two leading painters in Antwerp. His collaboration with Rubens started in the 1610s, Snyders had many patrons including the Ghent Bishop Antonius Triest who commissioned four paintings of market scenes around 1615. He was a friend of van Dyck who painted Snyders and his more than once. Snyders was commercially successful and was able to purchase a house on the high-end Keizerstraat in Antwerp, in 1628 he became the dean of the Guild of Saint Luke. In the period 1636-1638 he was one of the Antwerp artists who assisted Rubens in a commission for decorations for the hunting pavilion Torre de la Parada of Philip IV of Spain. The two artists worked together on decorations for the Royal Alcazar of Madrid and the royal Buen Retiro Palace in Madrid. Snyders painted about 60 hunting paintings and animal pieces after designs by Rubens, in 1639 Rubens and Snyders received a follow-up commission for an additional 18 paintings for the hunting pavilion. After Peter Paul Rubens death Snyders acted as one of the appraisers of the inventory of Rubens collection, in the years 1641 and 1642 Snyders traveled with other artists to the Dutch Republic. In 1646 Snyders was probably in Breda working on a commission, Snyders became a widower in 1647. He died himself on 19 August 1657 in Antwerp and he died childless and bequeathed his fortune to his sister, a beguine. His pupils are believed to have included Nicasius Bernaerts, Peter van Boucle, Juriaen Jacobsze, Jan Roos, Jan Fyt was a student, and then assistant of Snyders from 1629Frans Snyders – A greyhound catching a young wild boar
39. Jan Brueghel the Elder – Jan Brueghel the Elder was a Flemish painter and draughtsman. He was the son of the eminent Flemish Renaissance painter Pieter Brueghel the Elder, a close friend of, and regular collaborator with, Rubens, the two artists were the leading Flemish painters in the first three decades of the 17th century. He was an important innovator who created new types of such as flower garland paintings, paradise landscapes. He further created genre paintings that were imitations, pastiches and reworkings of his fathers works and he was court painter of the Archduke and Duchess Albrecht and Isabella, the governors of the Southern Netherlands. The artist was nicknamed Velvet Brueghel, Flower Brueghel, and Paradise Brueghel, the first is believed to have been given him because of his mastery in the rendering of fabrics. The second nickname is a reference to his specialization in flower still lifes and these paintings have now been reattributed to Jan Brueghel the Elder. Jan Brueghel the Elder was born in Brussels as the son of Pieter Brueghel the Elder and his mother was the daughter of prominent Flemish Renaissance artist Pieter Coecke van Aelst and Mayken Verhulst. His father died about a year after Jans birth in 1569, Mayken Verhulst was an artist in her own right. The early Flemish biographer Karel van Mander wrote in his Schilder-boeck published in 1604 that Mayken was the first art teacher of her two grandsons and she taught them drawing and watercolor painting of miniatures. Jan and his brother may also have trained with local artists in Brussels who were active as tapestry designers, Jan and his brother Pieter were then sent to Antwerp to study oil painting. According to Karel van Mander he studied under Peter Goetkint, an important dealer with a collection of paintings in his shop. Goetkint died on 15 July 1583 not very long after Jan had started his training and it is possible that Jan continued his studies in this shop, which was taken over by Goetkints widow as no other master is recorded. It was common for Flemish painters of that time to travel to Italy to complete their studies, Jan Brueghel left for Italy, first traveling to Cologne where his sister Marie and her family lived. He later visited Frankenthal, an important cultural centre where a number of Flemish landscape artists were active and he then went to Naples after probably spending time in Venice. In Naples he produced after June 1590 a number of drawings and he worked for Don Francesco Caracciolo, a prominent nobleman and priest and founder of the Clerics Regular Minor. Jan produced small-scale decorative work for Don Francesco, Brueghel left Naples for Rome where he resided from 1592 to 1594. Paul Bril was a landscape specialist from Antwerp who had moved to Rome at the end of the 16th century, together with his brother Mathijs Bril, he created atmospheric landscapes for many Roman residences. Brueghel took inspiration from Brils lively drawings and small-scale landscapes of the mid-1590s, during his time in Rome Jan Brueghel became acquainted with Hans Rottenhammer, a German painter of small highly finished cabinet paintings on copperJan Brueghel the Elder – Family of Jan Breughel the Elder, c. 1612-13, by Peter Paul Rubens, depicts Brueghel, his wife Catharina van Mariënburg and their eldest surviving children: Elisabeth (b. 1609) and Pieter (b. 1608).
40. Jacob Jordaens – Jacob Jordaens was a Flemish painter, draughtsman and tapestry designer known for his history paintings, genre scenes and portraits. After Peter Paul Rubens and Anthony van Dyck, he was the leading Flemish Baroque painter of his day, unlike those contemporaries he never travelled abroad to study Italian painting, and his career is marked by an indifference to their intellectual and courtly aspirations. In fact, except for a few trips to locations in the Low Countries. As well as being a painter, he was a prominent designer of tapestries. Jordaens main artistic influences, besides Rubens and the Brueghel family, were northern Italian painters such as Jacopo Bassano, Paolo Veronese, and Caravaggio. Jacob Jordaens was born on 19 May 1593, the first of eleven children, to the wealthy linen merchant Jacob Jordaens Sr. little is known about Jordaens early education. It can be assumed that he received the advantages of the education provided for children of his social class. This assumption is supported by his handwriting, his competence in French. Like Rubens, he studied under Adam van Noort, who was his only teacher, during this time Jordaens lived in Van Noorts house in the Everdijstraat and became very close to the rest of the family. After eight years of training with Van Noort, he enrolled in the Guild of St. Luke as a waterschilder and this medium was often used for preparing tapestry cartoons in the seventeenth century. Although examples of his earliest watercolour works are no longer extant, in the same year as his entry into the guild,1616, he married his teachers eldest daughter, Anna Catharina van Noort, with whom he had three children. In 1618, Jordaens bought a house in Hoogstraat and he would then later buy the adjoining house to expand his household and workspace in 1639, mimicking Rubens house built two decades earlier. He lived and worked here until his death in 1678, Jordaens never made the traditional trip to Italy to study classical and Renaissance art. Despite this, he made efforts to study prints or works of Italian masters available in northern Europe. For example, Jordaens is known to have studied Titian, Veronese, Caravaggio and his commissions frequently came from wealthy local Flemish patrons and clergy, although later in his career he worked for courts and governments across Europe. Besides a large output of oil paintings he was a prolific tapestry designer. Jordaens importance can also be seen by his number of pupils, among them were his cousin and his son Jacob. Like Rubens and other artists at that time, Jordaens studio relied on his assistants, not many of these pupils went on to fame themselves, however a position in Jordaens studio was highly desirable for young artists from across EuropeJacob Jordaens – Self-Portrait with Parents, Brothers, and Sisters (c. 1615). Oil on canvas. The Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia
41. Flemish Baroque painting – Flemish Baroque painting refers to the art produced in the Southern Netherlands during Spanish control in the 16th and 17th centuries. Antwerp, home to the prominent artists Peter Paul Rubens, Anthony van Dyck, Rubens, in particular, had a strong influence on seventeenth-century visual culture. By the seventeenth century, however, Antwerp was the city for innovative artistic production. Brussels was important as the location of the court, attracting David Teniers the Younger later in the century, between 1585 and the early 17th century they made many new altarpieces to replace those destroyed during the iconoclastic outbreaks of 1566. Also during this time Frans Francken the Younger and Jan Brueghel the Elder became important for their small cabinet paintings, often depicting mythological and history subjects. Following his return to Antwerp he set up an important studio, training such as Anthony van Dyck. Most artists active in the city during the first half of the 17th century were influenced by Rubens. Flemish art is notable for the amount of collaboration that took place between independent masters, which was partly related to the local tendency to specialize in a particular area. Frans Snyders, for example, was a painter and Jan Brueghel the Elder was admired for his landscapes. Both artists worked with Rubens, who often painted the figures. In Antwerp, however, this new genre also developed into a specifically Catholic type of painting, history painting, which includes biblical, mythological and historical subjects, was considered by seventeenth-century theoreticians as the most noble art. Abraham Janssens was an important history painter in Antwerp between 1600 and 1620, although after 1609 Rubens was the leading figure, both Van Dyck and Jacob Jordaens were active painting monumental history scenes. Following Rubenss death, Jordaens became the most important Flemish painter, during the second half of the century, history painters combined a local influence from Rubens with knowledge of classicism and Italian Baroque qualities. Artists in the vein include Erasmus Quellinus the Younger, Jan van den Hoecke, Pieter van Lint, Cornelis Schut, later in the century, many painters turned to Anthony van Dyck as a major influence. Among them were Pieter Thijs, Lucas Franchoys the Younger, and artists who were inspired by Late Baroque theatricality such as Theodoor Boeyermans. Additionally, a Flemish variant of Caravaggism was expressed by Theodoor Rombouts, Rubens is closely associated with the development of the Baroque altarpiece. He also exerted an influence on Baroque portraiture through his student Anthony van Dyck. Van Dyck became court painter for Charles I of England and was influential on subsequent English portraiture, other successful portraitists include Cornelis de Vos and Jacob JordaensFlemish Baroque painting – Peter Paul Rubens, The Raising of the Cross, c. 1610–1611
42. Rubenesque – Sir Peter Paul Rubens was a Flemish/Netherlandish draughtsman and painter. He is widely considered as the most notable artist of Flemish Baroque art school, the catalogue of his works by Michael Jaffé lists 1,403 pieces, excluding numerous copies made in his workshop. His commissioned works were mostly history paintings, which included religious and mythological subjects and he painted portraits, especially of friends, and self-portraits, and in later life painted several landscapes. Rubens designed tapestries and prints, as well as his own house and he also oversaw the ephemeral decorations of the royal entry into Antwerp by the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand in 1635. His drawings are mostly extremely forceful but not overly detailed and he also made great use of oil sketches as preparatory studies. For altarpieces he painted on slate to reduce reflection problems. Rubens was born in the city of Siegen to Jan Rubens and he was named in honour of Saint-Peter and Paul, because he was born on their solemnety. His father, a Calvinist, and mother fled Antwerp for Cologne in 1568, after increased religious turmoil and persecution of Protestants during the rule of the Spanish Netherlands by the Duke of Alba. Jan Rubens became the adviser of Anna of Saxony, the second wife of William I of Orange. Following Jan Rubens imprisonment for the affair, Peter Paul Rubens was born in 1577, the family returned to Cologne the next year. In 1589, two years after his fathers death, Rubens moved with his mother Maria Pypelincks to Antwerp, religion figured prominently in much of his work and Rubens later became one of the leading voices of the Catholic Counter-Reformation style of painting. In Antwerp, Rubens received a Renaissance humanist education, studying Latin, by fourteen he began his artistic apprenticeship with Tobias Verhaeght. Subsequently, he studied under two of the leading painters of the time, the late Mannerist artists Adam van Noort. Much of his earliest training involved copying earlier works, such as woodcuts by Hans Holbein the Younger. Rubens completed his education in 1598, at time he entered the Guild of St. Luke as an independent master. In 1600 Rubens travelled to Italy and he stopped first in Venice, where he saw paintings by Titian, Veronese, and Tintoretto, before settling in Mantua at the court of Duke Vincenzo I Gonzaga. The colouring and compositions of Veronese and Tintoretto had an effect on Rubenss painting. With financial support from the Duke, Rubens travelled to Rome by way of Florence in 1601, there, he studied classical Greek and Roman art and copied works of the Italian mastersRubenesque – Self-portrait, 1623, Royal Collection
43. Poussinists and Rubenists – In 1671 an argument broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris about whether drawing or color was more important in painting. On one side stood the Poussinists who were a group of French artists, named after the painter Nicolas Poussin, on the other side were the Rubenists, named after Peter Paul Rubens, who prioritize color. There was a strong nationalistic flavour to the debate as Poussin was French but Rubens was Flemish, by that time the French Rococo was in full swing. The Poussinists believed in the Platonic idea of the existence in the mind of objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by the selection, using reason. For the Poussinists, therefore, color was a decorative addition to form and drawing. Their leader was Charles Lebrun, Director of the Academy, and their heroes were Raphael, the Carracci and their touchstones were the forms of classical art. They were opposed by the Rubenists who believed that colour, not drawing, was superior as it was true to nature. Their models were the works of Rubens who had prioritised the accurate depiction of nature over the imitation of classical art, the Rubenists argued that the aim of painting was to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of nature. Drawing, according to the Rubenists, although based on reason, to a certain extent, the debate was simply about whether it was acceptable to paint purely in order to give pleasure to the viewer without the nobler purposes typical of a history painting. Watteaus acceptance was, however, perhaps not everything that he could have hoped for, charles-Antoine Coypel, the son of its then director, tellingly said, The charming paintings of this gracious painter would be a bad guide for whoever wished to paint the Acts of the Apostles. Watteau is considered the greatest of the Rubenist artists, other important Rubenists include François Boucher and Jean-Honoré Fragonard. Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin benefited from the new found interest in still-life and genre painting, the debate and the overlapping development of the Rococo in eighteenth century France have been seen as a form of revival. Jean-Baptiste Dubos observed that what was comprehended through the mind paled compared to what was apprehended through the senses, quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns Poussinistes vs. RubenistesPoussinists and Rubenists – Poussin's Et in Arcadia ego (Les Bergers d’Arcadie), late 1630s.
44. Rubenshuis – The Rubenshuis is the former home and studio of Peter Paul Rubens in Antwerp. A year after marrying Isabella Brant in 1609, Rubens began construction on an Italian-style villa on the then-Vaartstraat, at the time located at the banks of the canal Herentalse Vaart. Rubens designed the building himself, based on studies of Italian Renaissance palace architecture that formed the basis of his Palazzi di Genova. The layout included his home, studio, a monumental portico, the courtyard opens into a Baroque garden that he also planned. In the adjacent studio he and his students executed many of the works for which Rubens is famous and he had established a well-organised workshop that met the demands of his active studio, including large commissions from England, France, Spain and Bavaria and other locations. He relied on students and collaborators for much of the actual work, Rubens himself, however, guaranteed the quality and often finished paintings with his own hand. In a separate private studio he made drawings, portraits and small paintings without the assistance of his students, Rubens spent most of his lifetime in this palace. After his death, his wife Helena Fourment rented the building to William Cavendish, after the Cavendishes left in 1660, the house was sold. The city bought the house in 1937, and after a restoration the Rubenshuis was opened to the public in 1946. Dozens of paintings and artworks by Rubens and his contemporaries were installed in the rooms, paintings include his early Adam and Eve and a self portrait made when he was about fifty. The Rubenianum, a dedicated to the study of Rubens, is in a building at the rear of the garden. Rockox House Official Website of The Rubens House 360°-panorama van de RubenshuisRubenshuis – The interior courtyard