The Peasants Returning From The Fields
It has long been a pendant to Odysseus on the island of the Phaecians.
It has long been a pendant to Odysseus on the island of the Phaecians.
1. Florence – Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the Metropolitan City of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with 383,083 inhabitants, Florence was a centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of the time. It is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance, and has called the Athens of the Middle Ages. A turbulent political history includes periods of rule by the powerful Medici family, from 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the recently established Kingdom of Italy. The Historic Centre of Florence attracts 13 million tourists each year and it was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1982. The city is noted for its culture, Renaissance art and architecture, the city also contains numerous museums and art galleries, such as the Uffizi Gallery and the Palazzo Pitti, and still exerts an influence in the fields of art, culture and politics. Due to Florences artistic and architectural heritage, it has been ranked by Forbes as one of the most beautiful cities in the world, in 2008, the city had the 17th highest average income in Italy. Florence originated as a Roman city, and later, after a period as a flourishing trading and banking medieval commune. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, it was politically, economically, and culturally one of the most important cities in Europe, the language spoken in the city during the 14th century was, and still is, accepted as the Italian language. Starting from the late Middle Ages, Florentine money—in the form of the gold florin—financed the development of all over Europe, from Britain to Bruges, to Lyon. Florentine bankers financed the English kings during the Hundred Years War and they similarly financed the papacy, including the construction of their provisional capital of Avignon and, after their return to Rome, the reconstruction and Renaissance embellishment of Rome. Florence was home to the Medici, one of European historys most important noble families, Lorenzo de Medici was considered a political and cultural mastermind of Italy in the late 15th century. Two members of the family were popes in the early 16th century, Leo X, catherine de Medici married king Henry II of France and, after his death in 1559, reigned as regent in France. Marie de Medici married Henry IV of France and gave birth to the future king Louis XIII, the Medici reigned as Grand Dukes of Tuscany, starting with Cosimo I de Medici in 1569 and ending with the death of Gian Gastone de Medici in 1737. The Etruscans initially formed in 200 BC the small settlement of Fiesole and it was built in the style of an army camp with the main streets, the cardo and the decumanus, intersecting at the present Piazza della Repubblica. Situated along the Via Cassia, the route between Rome and the north, and within the fertile valley of the Arno, the settlement quickly became an important commercial centre. Peace returned under Lombard rule in the 6th century, Florence was conquered by Charlemagne in 774 and became part of the Duchy of Tuscany, with Lucca as capital. The population began to again and commerce prosperedFlorence – A collage of Florence showing the Galleria degli Uffizi (top left), followed by the Palazzo Pitti, a sunset view of the city and the Fountain of Neptune in the Piazza della Signoria
2. Virgin and Child (Rubens) – The Virgin and Child is a painting by Rubens, commissioned in 1604 and completed between 1608 and 1621. It was seized by France in 1803 and is now in the Musée des Beaux-Arts Tours and it was commissioned by Anne Antheunis, widow of Alexander I Goubau, grand almoner of Antwerp, shortly after her husbands death. She intended is as an ex voto for their joint funeral monument, then in Italy, Rubens only began the work on his return to Flanders in 1608, including a posthumous portrait of Alexandre-Jean and one of Anne from life. It was complete by 1621, the date of Annes deathVirgin and Child (Rubens) – External links 
3. Portrait of Marchesa Brigida Spinola-Doria – The Portrait of Marchesa Brigida Spinola-Doria is an oil painting by Peter Paul Rubens, dating to 1606. It is now in the National Gallery of Art in Washington and it was commissioned by Marquess Giacomo Massimiliano Doria, of Genoa, and shows his wife shortly after their wedding in 1605, she came from the equally prominent Spinola family. He died in 1613 and she remarried another Doria and it has been cut several times on each side, removing the garden shown in the background and the lower part of the figure. The overall dimensions of the painting are now 152 by 98 centimetres after the original was reduced in size during the 19th century. Rubens completed a pen and brown ink study for the painting, details removed include the bottom of the Marchesas floor-length wedding gown as the painting has been cut just below her knees and the architecture that formed the backdrop. Writing in The Burlington Magazine in 1951, Christopher Norris indicated the sketch portrayed an older than the 22-year-old Marchesa. In the painting the Marchesa is placed in an opulent setting to convey luxury, adorned with jewels, she wears a satin and lace dress with a broad ruff round her neck. Light is used to emphasise the draping of her wedding gown. It subsequently became the property of Marchessa Brigida Spinola-Dorias second husband, probably in 1625 and it remained in the family until given to relatives of Rati Opizzone. By 1848 it was held in Paris by Simon Horsín-Déon, four years later, in 1854, the portrait was in London and sold several times before being purchased by the Samuel H. Kress foundation in 1957 who donated it to the National Gallery of Art in 1961. First exhibited in 1952 at the Minneapolis Institute of Art when it was likely in the ownership of the Duveen Brothers, since 1961 it has regularly been featured in exhibitionsPortrait of Marchesa Brigida Spinola-Doria – Description 
4. Samson and Delilah (Rubens) – Samson and Delilah is a painting by the Flemish Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens which is currently on display in the National Gallery. It dates from about 1609 to 1610, two preliminary copies of the painting also exist today, an ink and wash drawing on paper, and an oil sketch on wood panel. The oil sketch is currently on display in the Cincinnati Art Museum, the painting depicts an episode from the Old Testament story of Samson and Delilah. Samson was a Hebrew hero known for fighting the Philistines, having fallen in love with Delilah, who has been bribed by the Philistines, Samson tells her the secret of his great strength, his uncut hair. Without his strength, Samson is captured by the Philistines, Rubens portrays the moment when, having fallen asleep on Delilahs lap, a young man cuts Samsons hair. Samson and Delilah are in a room, which is lit mostly by a candle held by an old woman to Delilahs left. Delilah is depicted with all of her clothes, but with her breasts exposed and her left hand is on top of Samsons right shoulder, as his left arm is draped over her legs. The man snipping Samsons hair is crossing his hands, which is a sign of betrayal, philistine soldiers can be seen in the right-hand background of the painting. The niche behind Delilah contains a statue of the Venus, the Goddess of love, notably, Cupids mouth is bound, rather than his eyes. This statue can be taken to represent the cause of Samsons fate, the old woman standing behind Delilah, providing further light for the scene, does not appear in the biblical narrative of Samson and Delilah. She is believed to be a procuress, and the adjacent profiles of her and Delilah may symbolise the old womans past, the painting was originally commissioned by Nicolaas II Rockox, Lord mayor of Antwerp, Belgium, for his Rockox House. In addition to being a patron, Rockox was a personal friend of Rubens. The painting was intended to be placed above a 7-foot mantleshelf. The painting was sold for charity when Rockox died in 1640. In 1700, a panel named Samson and Delilah was bought by Prince Johann Adams Andreas I and this painting was likely Rubens painting. The painting was sold in 1880 in Paris, where it was later found by Ludwig Burchard in 1929. Eventually, the painting sold at auction in 1980 at Christies, purchased by the National Gallery, there has been some doubt cast over the attribution of the painting to Rubens, led by the artist and scholar of Fayum portraits Euphronsyne Doxiades. The painting was attributed to the Dutch painter Gerard van HonthorstSamson and Delilah (Rubens) – Samson and Delilah
5. The Elevation of the Cross (Rubens) – The Elevation of the Cross is a triptych painting by Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens, completed in 1610-1611. Peter Paul Rubens painted The Elevation of the Cross after returning to Flanders from Italy, the work shows the clear influence of Italian Renaissance and Baroque artists such as Caravaggio, Tintoretto and Michelangelo. The central panel illustrates a tension between the multitude of finely muscled men attempting to lift the cross and the unbearable weight of Christ on the cross. Peter Paul Rubens foreshortening is evident in the contortions of the struggling, strapping men, Christ cuts across the central panel in a diagonal, stylistically akin to Caravaggios Entombment where both descent and ascent are in play at a key moment. Motion, space and time are illustrated along with the struggle to upright the cross, Rubens uses dynamic color and chiaroscuro boldly, a style that would become more subtle with time. The painting is located at the Cathedral of Our Lady in Antwerp, Belgium and it was commissioned by the church to express their allegiance with Catholicism, after the split of the protestants. Under Napoleons rule, the emperor took the painting, along with Peter Paul Rubens The Descent from the Cross, the paintings were returned to the cathedral in 1815. In Ouidas novel A Dog of Flanders the main characters Nello and it serves as the climax of the story, as they both sneak inside the Antwerp Cathedral on a freezing Christmas Eve to witness the beauty of the painting. The next day they are frozen to death in front of the triptychThe Elevation of the Cross (Rubens) – The Elevation of the Cross
6. Massacre of the Innocents (Rubens) – The first, measuring 142 x 182 cm, was painted after his return to his native Antwerp in 1608, following eight years spent in Italy. The first version painted by Rubens dates from around 1611–12, at the end of the seventeenth century, the painting became part of the Liechtenstein Collection in Vienna, Austria, along with another Rubens painting, Samson and Delilah. The Forchondt brothers sold both paintings to Hans-Adam I, Prince of Liechtenstein whom they knew through his father Karl Eusebius, Prince of Liechtenstein around 1700. The paintings were given the Liechtenstein family seal and are recorded in the collection until the 19th century, under that attribution it remained until it was sold to an Austrian family in 1920. It was subsequently loaned in 1923 to Stift Reichersberg, a monastery in northern Austria, in 2001, the painting was seen by George Gordon, an expert in Flemish and Dutch paintings at Sothebys in London. He was persuaded that it was indeed a Rubens by its characteristics and style to the Samson. The work was sold at auction at Sothebys, London on July 10,2002 for £49.5 million to Canadian businessman and art collector Kenneth Thomson, 2nd Baron Thomson of Fleet. These influences are seen in painting through the sheer drama and emotive dynamism of the scene. There is also evidence of the use of chiaroscuro and he also used ecorche figures - anatomical statues with the skin removed-to study how the body was made. At the time of Rubens first painting on the subject Antwerp had been involved in only a few years before- a conflict temporarily frozen by the truce of 1609. In one year alone over 8000 citizens had been killed by Calvinists, Antwerp however remained a Catholic stronghold and became a leading centre of Counter Reformation thought. Towards the end of his life, between 1636 and 1638, Rubens painted a version of the Massacre of the Innocents. This version was acquired by the Alte Pinakothek, Munich by 1706, a copy of this later version was made as an engraving in 1643 by Paulus Pontius. BBC News article on the auction ART4 2-DAY articleMassacre of the Innocents (Rubens) – Peter Paul Rubens. Massacre of the Innocents, 1611–12 (Art Gallery of Ontario), lost and later rediscovered.
7. Prometheus Bound (Rubens) – Prometheus Bound is an oil painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens. It shows the punishment of Prometheus, the painting was first started between 1611 and 1612, and was completed by 1618, with the eagle painted by the specialist animal painter Frans Snyders. For a long time Rubens kept it in his own personal collection and it is now in the collection of the Philadelphia Museum of Art, Pennsylvania. It is based on the Greek play, Prometheus Bound, katherine Crawford Luber, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Handbook of the Collections, p.174Prometheus Bound (Rubens) – Bibliography 
8. The Four Philosophers – The Four Philosophers is a 1611-12 painting by Peter Paul Rubens. It is now held in the Galleria Palatina of the Palazzo Pitti in Florence and it also features in the 1772 painting The Tribuna of the Uffizi by Zoffany. Beginning from left to right it shows Peter Paul, Philip Rubens, Justus Lipsius, in the background is Peter Pauls bust of Seneca, now believed to be a copy of an imaginary Hellenistic portrait of the Greek poet Hesiod. Marco Chiarini, Galleria palatina e Appartamenti Reali, Sillabe, Livorno 1998The Four Philosophers – Bibliography 
9. The Descent from the Cross (Rubens) – The Descent from the Cross is the central panel of a triptych painting by Peter Paul Rubens in 1612–1614. It is still in its place, the Cathedral of Our Lady, Antwerp, Belgium. The subject was one Rubens returned to again and again in his career and this particular work was commissioned on September 7,1611, by the Confraternity of the Arquebusiers, whose Patron Saint was St. Christopher. Although essentially Baroque, the oil on panel piece is rooted in the Venetian tradition, in its composition and use of light, the triptych recalls Caravaggios Roman period. One of Savior’s feet comes to rest on the shoulder of the Magdalene. Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus, placed midway on ladders so as to each other, form. The Virgin, standing at the foot of the tree, extends her arms towards her Son, Salome, kneeling. On the ground are seen the superscription and a basin where the crown of thorns. The crowd, always elated by the spectacle of torture, has departed from Golgotha as daylight fades, in 1794, Napoleon removed this painting and The Elevation of the Cross and sent them to the Louvre. After his defeat, they were returned to the cathedral in 1815, in addition to the original work for Antwerp, Rubens painted two other versions exploring the same theme. In Ouidas novel A Dog of Flanders the main characters Nello and it serves as the climax of the story, as they both sneak inside the Antwerp Cathedral on a freezing Christmas Eve to witness the beauty of the painting. The next day they are frozen to death in front of the triptych. Jaffé, M. Catalogo completo di Rubens, martin, John R. Rubens, The Antwerp Altarpieces - The Raising of the Cross and the Descent from the Cross - Norton Critical Studies in Art HistoryThe Descent from the Cross (Rubens) – The Descent from the Cross
10. The Four Continents – The Four Continents, also known as The Four Rivers of Paradise, is a painting by Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens, made in the 1610s. It depicts the female personifications of four continents sitting with the personifications of their major rivers – the Danube, the Ganges, the Nile. Europe is shown on the left, Africa in the middle, Asia on the right and America behind it, the tigress, protecting the cubs from the crocodile, is used as a symbol of Asia. The personification of the Danube holds a rudder, the bottom part of the painting shows several putti. Artist Elizabeth McGrath proposed a different interpretation of the figures on the painting, believing them to be nymphs instead. McGrath also suggested different river names, the Tigris instead of the Danube and the Euphrates instead of the Río de la Plata, arguing that those names also appear in Christian exegesisThe Four Continents – The Four Continents
11. Daniel in the Lions' Den (painting) – Daniel in the Lions Den is a 1615 painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens, now in the National Gallery of Art in Washington DC. The subject is from Daniel 6, 1-28, Rubens modelled the lions on a Moroccan subspecies, examples of which were then in the Spanish governors menagerie in Brussels. In 1618 he acquired more than a hundred pieces of sculpture, in exchange for this painting, eight others. Although the painting shows Daniel as a man, according to the biblical chronology Daniel would have been over eighty years old at the time of the incident depictedDaniel in the Lions' Den (painting) – For other uses, see Daniel in the Lions' Den#Paintings.
12. The Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt – The Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt is an oil painting on canvas by Peter Paul Rubens. It was commissioned in 1615 to decorate Schleißheim Palace, along three other works depicting lion, wolf, and boar hunts. The cycle of paintings were looted from the palace during the Napoleonic Wars, only the Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt was returned to Munich, at which time it was added to the collection that is now the Alte Pinakothek. Peter Paul Rubens created the oil painting entitled The Hippopotamus. The hunt takes place on the banks of the Nile, as indicated by a tree in the background. As hippopotami and crocodiles were considered dangerous nuisances, their destruction was a duty performed by noblemen, the enraged hippopotamus tramples the crocodile, as both are attacked by the hunters and hounds. The accurately-rendered physical appearances of the hippopotamus and crocodile contrasts with contemporary renderings and reflect the growing interest in empiricism. It has been suggested that Rubens may have traveled to Rome to view a temporarily-displayed dead hippopotamus preserved in brine prior to the painting of the picture, Rubens created the genre of the large hunting scene and his studio produced dozens for aristocratic patrons in the 1610s and 1620s. Rubens and his studio produced the four large canvases in Antwerp over the years 1615–16, the Wittelsbach collection formed the nucleus of Alte Pinakothek in Munich, the present location of the Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt and The Lion Hunt from the same cycle. The cycle of paintings were looted from the palace during the Napoleonic Wars, only the Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt was returned to Munich, at which time it was added to the collection that is now the Alte Pinakothek. The complexity of the grouping, representation of turbulent motion and violent action, high drama. In the notice of January 25,1847, Eugène Delacroix admired the crocodile as a masterpiece of execution, remarking, however, that its action could have been more interestingThe Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt – The Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt
13. The Wolf and Fox Hunt – The Wolf and Fox Hunt is a c.1616 painting by Peter Paul Rubens now held in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. It shows mounted and walking hunters chasing two wolves and three foxes and it marks the beginning of an intensive creative phase in which Rubens focuses on the theme of hunting. The painting on the right is called The Wolf and Fox Hunt and this is the first art by Ruben when he created a market for a new form of art. This is one of the paintings of very large hunting scenes painted on a canvas. The painting was trimmed from the top and the left side as it was too big. The wolves in the painting are his own creation and work and this painting by Rubens was considered to be a modern replacement for tapestries which was good as tapestries required a lot more time and money to be completedThe Wolf and Fox Hunt – External links 
14. The Lion and Leopard Hunt – The Lion and Leopard Hunt or The Lion Hunt is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens, now held in the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister in Dresden. It is very similar to his The Tiger Hunt from the musée des beaux-arts de Rennes,2, Oxford University Press and Harvey Miller Ltd, coll. « Corpus Rubenianum Ludwig Burchard »,1986,406 p. part XVIII David Rosand, Rubenss Munich Lion Hunt, Its Sources and Significance, The Art Bulletin, College Art Association,51, no 1, March 1969, p. 29-40The Lion and Leopard Hunt – Notes 
15. Adoration of the Magi (Rubens, Lyon) – For other treatments of this subject by the same artist, see Adoration of the Magi. The Adoration of the Magi is a c. 1617-18 painting by Peter Paul Rubens and it is now in the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon Since it is horizontal rather than vertical it was probably commissioned for a private collection rather than as an altarpiece. 1608-09, might suggest that the Lyon painting was also a secular commission, Rubens made a considerable fortune via the paintings reproduction in engravings and tapestries. The painting arranges full-length figures across the canvas, backed by a frieze-like crowd showing a variety of mature male types, the dim stable is lit by shafts of light. It languished as a copy until Jacques Fouquart resuscitated its reputation, recognized as a work of Rubens, in the exhibition Le siècle de Rubens, ParisAdoration of the Magi (Rubens, Lyon) – The Adoration of the Magi
16. The Five Senses (series) – They are now in the Prado Museum in Madrid. They are all painted in oils on panel, approximately 65 by 110 centimetres in dimensions. The series constitutes one of the best known and most successful collaborations by Brueghel and Rubens and his approach was widely copied in later Flemish painting. Rubens painted the female figures, accompanied by a putto or a winged Cupid in Sight, Hearing, Smell and Touch. The figure in Hearing is playing the lute amongst a collection of musical instruments, in Smell, she sits among flowers in a garden, with a perfume distillery visible on the left. In Taste, seated at a table groaning with food fit for a banquet, she is eating an oyster, in Touch, she embraces a putto in a superbly equipped armoury where there are also medical instruments, pain being an aspect of touch. In Hearing, the music is a dedicated to the couple. Ferdinand in turn offered them through the Duke of Medina de las Torres to his brother King Philip IV of Spain and they were subsequently housed in other royal palaces in Madrid and became part of the founding collection of the Prado in 1819. The Five Senses, executed in the period by Brueghel and 11 others Sight, PD1394, Hearing, PD1395, Smell, PD1396, Taste, PD1397, Touch, PD1398The Five Senses (series) – Sight, 1617
17. The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus – The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus is a 1618 painting by Peter Paul Rubens. It is now on show in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich, the painting depicts the mortal Castor and the immortal Pollux abducting Phoebe and Hilaeira, daughters of Leucippus. Castor the horse-tamer is recognisable from his armour, whilst Pollux the boxer is shown with a bare and they are also distinguished by their horses - Castors is well-behaved and supported by a putto, whereas Polluxs is rearing. The puttos black wing shows the ultimate fate. Phoebe and Hilaeira do not have distinguishing attributes and so which sister is which is unclear and it was bought in Antwerp in 1716 by Johann Wilhelm and Elector Palatine. Initially sent to Mannheim, by 1805/06 it had reached Munich, the painting is also notable for featuring in the Loriot sketch Eheberatung. Evelyn Hamann plays a marriage counsellor, with Loriot and Ingeborg Heydorn playing a couple coming for counselling, the husband replies The men are really helping out the ladies. Alte Pinakothek-Ausgewählte Werke, München, Pinakothek-DuMont,2005, ISBN 978-3-8321-7592-4,50 Klassiker, Gemälde, H. Johannsen, Gerstenberg,2001, ISBN 380-672-516-0The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus – The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus
18. Feast in the House of Simon the Pharisee – Feast in the House of Simon the Pharisee, also known as Christ in the Home of Simon the Pharisee, is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens. 1618-1620, and is in The Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, the painting depicts an incident from Luke 7 where Jesus visits Simon the Pharisee, and has his feet anointed by a sinful woman. Jesus proceeds to tell the Parable of the Two DebtorsFeast in the House of Simon the Pharisee – Feast in the House of Simon the Pharisee
19. The Conversion of Saint Paul (Rubens, Berlin) – The Conversion of Saint Paul is a 1620s painting by Peter Paul Rubens, now missing or lost. It showed the conversion of Paul the Apostle and it was produced for Władysław Vasa of Poland. It remained in France for over a century, until it was bought by G Harris in 1819 and it was bought from him in 1903 by the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin. The painting was moved to the Flakturm Friedrichshain in Berlin for safety with the rest of the collection around 1942 and was lost or destroyed some time between March and May 1945. Between 11 March and 2 May 1945 all but 434 paintings were evacuated from the tower to former salt mines in Thuringia, the tower was surrendered to the Red Army on 2 May and its museum guards sent home. They returned on 4 and 5 May, finding one of the floors broken, on 6 May another floor burned out, with heat and smoke preventing entry, and between 14 and 18 May 1945 the whole tower was destroyed by fire. Rubens, the life of Christ after the passion, Peter Paul Rubens et la France, 1600–1640The Conversion of Saint Paul (Rubens, Berlin) – This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2015)
20. Perseus Freeing Andromeda (Rubens) – Perseus Freeing Andromeda is a painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens, executed in 1607. It is housed in the Gemäldegalerie of Berlin, Germany, the painting belonged the M. Pasquier collection in Rouen, which was auctioned in 1755 in Paris. In the 18th century it entered the collection of Frederick II of Prussia and, in 1830, the scene is similar to another Perseus Freeing Andromeda by Rubens now in the Hermitage Museum of St. Petersburg. It depicts the Greek mythology hero Perseus in the act of freeing Andromeda, Perseus, wearing helmet, cuirass and cloak, is sided by two puttoes, and one of them is helping him in removing the ropes that tie Andromeda to the rock. On the left, two puttoes are playing with Pegasus, Perseus winged horse, jaffé, M. Catalogo completo di RubensPerseus Freeing Andromeda (Rubens) – Perseus Freeing Andromeda
21. Isabella Brant (drawing) – Isabella Brant, a portrait drawing, was executed in Antwerp around 1621 by Flemish artist and diplomat, Peter Paul Rubens. Brant was Rubens first wife and modelled for some of his portraits until her death in 1626. The portrait is drawn in black and red chalk with white heightening on brown wash paper and this drawing is noted for its immediacy and attractiveness and was the basis for three oil paintings. The first was painted in 1621 by Rubens pupil, Anthony van Dyck as a gift to his mentor and this portrait now hangs in the National Gallery of Art in Washington. The second, painted by Rubens between 1620 and 1625, is located in the Cleveland Museum of Art and the third painted by Rubens in 1625, is located in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. Following Rubens death, the drawing passed through five known collectors and was acquired by the British Museum in 1893. During re-mounting work in 1964, a sketch was discovered on the reverse side of the portrait. The sketch, also in red and black chalk is presumed to be a self-portrait of Rubens, the portrait of Isabella Brant was drawn by Rubens around 1621, when she was about 30 years old and had been married to Rubens for 12 years. Rubens employed the aux trois crayons technique, using red and black chalk, the head of the portrait was sketched in detail while the eyes had been retouched with pen and black ink. This drawing, which is the only one sketched of Isabella Brant in this medium, has been admired for centuries as a example of Rubens portrait drawing. Rubens intimate drawing was intended to capture the sweetness and vivacity of his first wife, the sitters head is shown with a slight downward tilt — facing slightly to the left and looking directly at the observer. She is shown wearing drop earrings and her hair and features are depicted with care, while her clothes are sketchily portrayed. Her mischievous smile is further enhanced by the dimples in her plump cheeks, the great detail and animation of the portrait suggests that Rubens had great affection for his wife. The drawing was used as a basis for three oil portraits, the 1621 painting of Brant outside the portico of the family home, was done by Rubens pupil, Anthony van Dyck as a parting gift to his mentor. The striking similarity between the portrait and drawing meant that van Dyck would have had access to the sketch for this work. The Cleveland portrait by Rubens, painted between 1620 and 1625, displays such as the pulled-back hair and the mocking smile. The Uffizi, portrait was produced close to Brants death in June 1626, although the pose is similar, the face exhibits puffiness as a result of her illness. In 1964, the drawing was re-mounted in preparation for its showing at the 1965 Masterpieces of the Print Room exhibition at the British MuseumIsabella Brant (drawing) – A portrait of Isabella Brant
22. Portrait of Susanna Lunden – Portrait of Susanna Lunden or Le Chapeau de Paille is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens. It is now in the National Gallery, London, the portraits subject is Susanna Lunden, elder sister of Rubens future second wife Helena Fourment. The portrait probably dates to the time of Susannas second marriage in 1622, to Arnold LundenPortrait of Susanna Lunden – External links 
23. Perseus and Andromeda (Rubens) – Perseus and Andromeda is a 1622 painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens featuring the ancient Greek myth of Perseus and Andromeda after the formers defeat of the Gorgon. The paintings shows the Gorgons reflection on Perseus shield, the painting also shows Tobiano Pegasus, the goddess of glory over Perseus head and several putti. The bottom of the painting partially shows Cetus, killed by Perseus earlier and this painting probably remained in Rubens house until his death, an engraving from 1684, depicting the facade of Rubens house in Antwerp, shows the painting through the window of the second floor. In the summer of 1769 the painting was acquired by the Russian Hermitage Museum from the collections of Heinrich von Brühl and it is now housed in the Rubens Hall on the second floor of the Hermitage MuseumPerseus and Andromeda (Rubens) – Perseus and Andromeda
24. The History of Constantine – An additional five designs were painted by Cortona in 1630 and woven in the atelier of Cardinal Francesco Barberini in Rome over the next decade. The series was commissioned in 1622 when Rubens was in Paris discussing the paintings he was designing for the Luxembourg Palace for Marie de Médicis. New evidence, such the fact that the designs were listed as the property of de la Planche upon his death, establishing a weak form of copyright, has muddied the issue. One theory is that Rubens only cited the king as the commissioner of the tapestries in the letter in order to increase their perceived importance because his payment was overdue. He repeated only one design from the Rubens set, the apparition of the cross, Cortona also designed several smaller tapestries such as portieres and a baldachin to furnish an entire room, and painted the ceiling of the salon where they were displayed. The dossal he designed, featuring a golden statue of Constantine, hung behind the throne of Urban VIII. The life of the first Christian monarch would have relevance for a king whose own father experienced such a notable conversion to Catholicism. While the subject matter could plausibly have been chosen by Louis XIII himself, it also may have been selected by Comans and de la Planche to appeal to him, Rubens drew on Cardinal Cesare Baronios Annales Ecclesiastici for inspiration and historical detail. Baronio based his writings on the accounts of Eusebius. Rubens designs proved popular and were woven several times by the Comans-La Planche workshop over the next decades. Cortonas tapestries were only woven once, the sole complete set remained with the Barberini collection in Rome until 1889. The tapestries were split up and passed through various hands before being reunited by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, the sketches remain widely scattered, many of them in private hands. Sketch, private collection,18.625 x 25.375 tapestry, the event occurs in a temple of Jupiter and Juno, who preside in the form of statuary. However, in the tapestry, Jupiter wears a more beneficent mien and holds his thunderbolt less threatening. In a dream, he learns that placing this emblem on his banner assures him of triumph over Maxentius, Rubens follows Eusebius quite closely, but replaces the flaming cross he described with the monogram in Lactantius chronicle. One soldier, looking at Constantine rather than the vision, points with the labarum, or military standard, to the next scene. Sketch, private collection,13.9 x 10.8 tapestry, Paris, Mobilier National This episode depicts the moments just before the Battle of Milvian Bridge and this has been emblazoned with Christs symbol, as he was instructed. The monogram of Rubens usual panel maker, Michiel Vrient, is impressed on the back of the panel, along with a branded A that indicates the panel was prepared about 1621-22The History of Constantine – The History of Constantine
25. The Conversion of Saint Bavo – The Conversion of Saint Bavo is a 1623-1624 altarpiece by Peter Paul Rubens. It was commissioned as the altarpiece for Sint-Baafskathedraal in Ghent by bishop Antoon Triest. It is still sited in the cathedral, an oil sketch for it is now in the National Gallery, London. 72, Arcade, Brussel,1972 Gent, duizend jaar kunst en cultuur, Bijlokemuseum, Gent,1975The Conversion of Saint Bavo – Bibliography 
26. The Rape of the Sabine Women (Rubens) – The Rape of the Sabine Women is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens. It is now in the Belfius Collection and it was commissioned by Philip IV of Spain in 1639 but was still incomplete on Rubens death a year later. It was completed by the Brussels painter Gaspar de Crayer, palais des Beux-Arts de Lille RUBENSThe Rape of the Sabine Women (Rubens) – Bibliography 
27. The Dance of the Villagers – The Dance of the Villagers is a 1635 painting by Peter Paul Rubens. Now in the Prado Museum in Madrid and it is closely related to The Village Fête, of a similar date and on a similar subject. It is now in the Prado MuseumThe Dance of the Villagers – External links 
28. The Origin of the Milky Way (Rubens) – The Origin of the Milky Way, or The Birth of the Milky Way, is a painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens, featuring the Greco-Roman myth of the origin of the Milky Way. The painting depicts Hera, spilling her breast milk, the infant Heracles and Zeus in the background, identifiable by his eagle, Heras face is modelled on Rubens wife, Hélène Fourment. The carriage is pulled by Heras favourite animals, peacocks, due to the dark background of the night sky the figures gain a greater sense of volume. The image was a part of the commission from Philip IV of Spain to decorate Torre de la Parada, Rubens also painted other Greco-Roman mythological subjects, such as Hercules Fighting the Nemean Lion or Perseus Freeing Andromeda. The Origin of the Milky WayThe Origin of the Milky Way (Rubens) – The Origin of the Milky Way
29. Jan Rubens – Jan Rubens was a Flemish magistrate of Antwerp, best known today as the father of Peter Paul Rubens. Rubens was born in Antwerp to an old merchant family and he was trained as a scholar and travelled to Italy where he received his diploma in Canon law in Rome in 1550. He returned north in 1557 and set up his practise in Antwerp where he married Maria Pypelinckx in 1558, on 7 May 1562 he became magistrate of Antwerp and served until 1568, when he fled to Cologne with his family, probably to avoid the Council of Troubles. His position and that of his fellow magistrates became precarious when the Duke of Alva came north to suppress the rebellion after the Beeldenstorm. In Cologne he could renew his work as a lawyer, because there were many Dutch refugees there who wanted to recover seized property they had left behind and he began to work as an advisor to Anna of Saxony and they had an affair at her home in Siegen. By the time it was discovered, she was pregnant and Rubens was arrested during a trip he took to Siegen to visit her and his wife, who knew nothing of the affair, came to support him after he wrote to tell her he feared he would be executed. She supported him throughout his imprisonment and his illegitimate daughter Christina van Diez was born 22 August 1571. Rubens remained in prison, but was allowed to live in Siegen with his family under house arrest in 1573 and was completely released after the death of Anna. In 1574 Philips was born and in 1577 Peter Paul was born, Rubens died in Cologne and his wife wrote an epitaph in Latin that was installed on his gravestone in the St. Peters church there. After the burial she took her back to Antwerp where she stayedJan Rubens – Latin Epitaph for Jan Rubens, written in Latin by Maria complimenting him as a husband, but with the poignant remark that she bore 7 children "all by him".
30. Isabella Brant – Isabella Brant was a Flemish artists model who was the first wife of painter Peter Paul Rubens. She was the daughter of Jan Brant, an important city official in Antwerp and her aunt Mary was married to Phillipe I Rubens, brother of her future husband. Isabella Brant married the brother of her uncle Peter Paul on 3 October 1609 in St. Michaels Abbey and they had three children, Clara, Nicolaas, Lord of Rameyen and Albert. She was 34 years old when she died of the plague, several paintings of Brant and one important drawing of her by Rubens survive, in addition to a portrait of her by Rubens disciple and assistant, Anthony van Dyck. In 1977, Brant appeared on a stamp of Anguilla. Liedtke, Walter A. Flemish paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, new York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Media related to Isabella Brant at Wikimedia CommonsIsabella Brant – Portrait of Isabella Brant by Rubens, c. 1620-1625 (Cleveland Museum of Art)
31. Helena Fourment – Helena Fourment or Hélène Fourment was the second wife of Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens. She was the subject of a few portraits by Rubens, and also modeled for other religious, Hélène Fourment was the daughter and youngest child of Daniël Fourment, an Antwerp silk merchant, and Clara Stappaerts. They had four sons and seven daughters, Helena Fourment was buried together with her husband, children and parents in the Saint James church, Antwerp. Most of the daughters married into important families, Clara Stappaerts Daniel II Fourment, Lord of Wijtvliet, marr. Clara Brant, sister of Isabella Brant,23 october 1627 to Nicolas Pycqueri, died 1661, almoner of Antwerp. Who were both painted by Rubens. Hélène Fourment married Rubens on 6 December 1630, when she was 16 years old and his first wife, Isabella Brant, had died in 1626. Hélènes brother Daniël Fourment the younger was married to Clara Brant, 2nd to Hélène Fourment, Clara-Joanna Rubens, baptized 18 January 1632, marr. Philips van Parys, knight François I Rubens, bapt,12 July 1633, alderman of Antwerp in 1659, marr. Isabella-Helena Rubens, baptized 3 May 1635 Peter III Paul Rubens, baptized 1 March 1637, constantia-Albertina Rubens, baptized 3 February 1641, entered La Cambre Abbey in l668. After the death of Rubens, Helena started a relationship with Jan-Baptist de Brouchoven, count of Bergeyck assessor and alderman of Antwerp and they had five further children together. Liedtke, Walter A. Flemish paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, media related to Hélène Fourment at Wikimedia CommonsHelena Fourment – Helena Fourment, circa 1630, by Jan Boeckhorst
32. Tobias Verhaecht – Tobias Verhaecht was a Flemish painter primarily of landscapes. His style was indebted to the mannerist world landscape developed by artists like Joachim Patinir and it is not clear with whom he studied. Before 1590 he travelled to Italy and first worked in Florence where Francesco I de Medici and he then moved on to Rome where he was active as a painter of landscape frescos. He returned to Antwerp where he became a master of the Guild of St. Luke in 1590–91 and he married Suzanna van Mockenborch, who was the granddaughter of Peter Paul Rubens stepfather and a cousin of his mother. After the death of his first wife in 1595, he remarried the next year, Verhaecht was a member of a local Chamber of rhetoric and wrote a comedy for it in 1620. He was the first teacher of Rubens who studied with him around 1592 and his other pupils included his son Willem van Haecht, Jacques Backereel, Geeraert van Beemel, Cornelis Bol, Pieter van den Hoeck and Abraham Matthyssens. Verhaecht specialized in landscapes and also produced versions of the Tower of Babel. The landscapes depict imaginary mountains characterized by rocky peaks seen from a high viewpoint and his work closely resembles in style the set of 12 large landscape prints published by Hieronymus Cock after designs by Pieter Bruegel the Elder. Some of Verhaecht’s landscapes were made into prints and he collaborated with other local painters such as Jan Brueghel the Elder, Frans Francken the Younger, Sebastian Vrancx and Gillis Coignet who painted the figures in his paintings. ISBN 0-300-07038-1 Tobias Verhaecht on ArtcyclopediaTobias Verhaecht – St John the Evangelist at Patmos, Tobias Verhaecht and Gillis Coignet
33. Otto van Veen – He is known for running a large studio in Antwerp, producing several emblem books, and for being, from 1594 or 1595 until 1598, Peter Paul Rubenss teacher. His role as a classically educated humanist artist, reflected in the Latin name by which he is known, Octavius Vaenius, was influential on the young Rubens. Van Veen was born in Leiden around 1556, where his father had been Burgomaster and he probably was a pupil of Isaac Claesz van Swanenburg until October 1572, when the Catholic family moved to Antwerp, and then to Liège. He studied for a time under Dominicus Lampsonius and Jean Ramey and he stayed there for about five years, perhaps studying with Federico Zuccari. Carel van Mander relates that van Veen then worked at the courts of Rudolf II in Prague and William V of Bavaria in Munich, before returning to the Low Countries. In Brussels, he was painter to the governor of the Southern Netherlands, Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma until 1592. After becoming a master in the Guild of St. Luke in 1593, van Veen took numerous commissions for decorations, including altarpieces for the Antwerp cathedral. He also organized his studio and workshop, which included Rubens, the artist later served as dean in two prominent organizations in the city, the Guild of St. Luke in 1602, and the Romanists in 1606. In the seventeenth century, van Veen often worked for the Archdukes Albert and Isabella, later paintings include a series of twelve paintings depicting the battles of the Romans and the Batavians, based on engravings he had already published of the subject, for the Dutch States General. He had two brothers who were painters, Gijsbert van Veen was an engraver and Pieter was an amateur. His daughter Gertruid was also a painter, increasingly, van Veen was active in producing Emblem books, including Quinti Horatii Flacci emblemata, Amorum emblemata, and Amoris divini emblemata. In all these works, van Veens skills as an artist, the Amorum emblemata, for example, pictures 124 putti, or little cupids, enacting the mottoes and quotations from lyricists, philosophers, and ancient writers on the powers of Love. Some of these emblems are as relevant today as they would have to a seventeenth-century audience, a few examples of these mottoes read, A Wished Warre, The woundes that lovers give are willingly receaved. He goes on to quote Cicero and Seneca on this theme, another example familiar to us today as the story of The Tortoise and the Hare, is titled Perseverance winneth, The hare and the tortes layd a wager of their speed. Shows us a cupid and tortoise outpacing the hare and exemplifying the idea that the love which is steady, Emblem Project Utrecht -3 editions of emblem books by Otto van Veen Amorum Emblemata on Internet Archive. Vita D. Thomae Aquinatis a manuscript by Otto van Veen Otto van Veen on Artcyclopedia Belkin, Kristin Lohse, bertini, Giuseppe, Otto van Veen, Cosimo Masi and the Art Market in Antwerp at the End of the Sixteenth Century. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, Otto van Veens Batavians defeating the Roman Van de Velde, Carl, Veen, entry at the Netherlands Institute for Art History Veen, Otto van. Emblemes of Love, with verses in Latin, English, media related to Otto van Veen at Wikimedia CommonsOtto van Veen – Title print of three volume book Schouburg, by Arnold Houbraken. Houbraken considered Van Veen to be the most impressive artist and scholar of his day and put his portrait (lower left) on his title print.
34. Anthony van Dyck – Sir Anthony van Dyck was a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England, after enjoying great success in Italy and Flanders. He also painted biblical and mythological subjects, displayed outstanding facility as a draughtsman, the Van Dyke beard is named after him. Antoon van Dyck was born to parents in Antwerp. By the age of fifteen he was already an accomplished artist, as his Self-portrait, 1613–14. He was admitted to the Antwerp painters Guild of Saint Luke as a master by February 1618. His influence on the young artist was immense, Rubens referred to the nineteen-year-old van Dyck as the best of my pupils. At the same time the dominance of Rubens in the small and declining city of Antwerp probably explains why, despite his periodic returns to the city, van Dyck spent most of his career abroad. In 1620, at the instigation of George Villiers, Marquess of Buckingham, van Dyck went to England for the first time where he worked for King James I of England, receiving £100. After about four months he returned to Flanders, but moved on in late 1621 to Italy and he was already presenting himself as a figure of consequence, annoying the rather bohemian Northern artists colony in Rome, says Giovan Pietro Bellori, by appearing with the pomp of Zeuxis. He was mostly based in Genoa, although he travelled extensively to other cities. In 1627, he went back to Antwerp where he remained for five years, a life-size group portrait of twenty-four City Councillors of Brussels he painted for the council-chamber was destroyed in 1695. He was evidently very charming to his patrons, and, like Rubens, well able to mix in aristocratic and court circles, by 1630 he was described as the court painter of the Habsburg Governor of Flanders, the Archduchess Isabella. In this period he produced many religious works, including large altarpieces. King Charles I was the most passionate and generous collector of art among the British monarchs, and saw art as a way of promoting his elevated view of the monarchy. In 1628, he bought the collection that the Gonzagas of Mantua were forced to dispose of. In 1626, he was able to persuade Orazio Gentileschi to settle in England, later to be joined by his daughter Artemisia and some of his sons. Rubens was a target, who eventually came on a diplomatic mission, which included painting, in 1630. He was very well-treated during his visit, during which he was knightedAnthony van Dyck – Self-Portrait With a Sunflower (after 1633), Trinity College, Cambridge
35. Frans Snyders – Frans Snyders or Frans Snijders was a Flemish painter of animals, hunting scenes, market scenes and still lifes. He was one of the earliest specialist animaliers and he is credited with initiating a wide variety of new still-life and he was a regular collaborator with leading Antwerp painters such as Peter Paul Rubens, Anthony van Dyck and Jacob Jordaens. Snyders was born in Antwerp as the son of Jan Snijders, according to legend the famous 16th century painter Frans Floris squandered his fortune in the inn. His brother Michiel also became a painter but no works of him are known, Snyders was recorded as a student of Pieter Brueghel the Younger in 1593, and subsequently trained with Hendrick van Balen, who was the first master of Anthony van Dyck. Snyders became a master of the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke in 1602 and he travelled to Italy in 1608-9 where he first resided in Rome. The artist subsequently traveled from Rome to Milan, Jan Brueghel the Elder had introduced him there by letter to the famous art collector Cardinal Borromeo. Brueghel asked Snyders to paint a copy after a portrait by Titian in the Borromeo collection and this is regarded as evidence that Snyders was a skilled figure painter before he turned his attention to still life painting. Snyders had returned to Antwerp in the spring of 1609, in 1611 he married Margaretha, the sister of Cornelis de Vos and Paul de Vos, two leading painters in Antwerp. His collaboration with Rubens started in the 1610s, Snyders had many patrons including the Ghent Bishop Antonius Triest who commissioned four paintings of market scenes around 1615. He was a friend of van Dyck who painted Snyders and his more than once. Snyders was commercially successful and was able to purchase a house on the high-end Keizerstraat in Antwerp, in 1628 he became the dean of the Guild of Saint Luke. In the period 1636-1638 he was one of the Antwerp artists who assisted Rubens in a commission for decorations for the hunting pavilion Torre de la Parada of Philip IV of Spain. The two artists worked together on decorations for the Royal Alcazar of Madrid and the royal Buen Retiro Palace in Madrid. Snyders painted about 60 hunting paintings and animal pieces after designs by Rubens, in 1639 Rubens and Snyders received a follow-up commission for an additional 18 paintings for the hunting pavilion. After Peter Paul Rubens death Snyders acted as one of the appraisers of the inventory of Rubens collection, in the years 1641 and 1642 Snyders traveled with other artists to the Dutch Republic. In 1646 Snyders was probably in Breda working on a commission, Snyders became a widower in 1647. He died himself on 19 August 1657 in Antwerp and he died childless and bequeathed his fortune to his sister, a beguine. His pupils are believed to have included Nicasius Bernaerts, Peter van Boucle, Juriaen Jacobsze, Jan Roos, Jan Fyt was a student, and then assistant of Snyders from 1629Frans Snyders – A greyhound catching a young wild boar
36. Jan Brueghel the Elder – Jan Brueghel the Elder was a Flemish painter and draughtsman. He was the son of the eminent Flemish Renaissance painter Pieter Brueghel the Elder, a close friend of, and regular collaborator with, Rubens, the two artists were the leading Flemish painters in the first three decades of the 17th century. He was an important innovator who created new types of such as flower garland paintings, paradise landscapes. He further created genre paintings that were imitations, pastiches and reworkings of his fathers works and he was court painter of the Archduke and Duchess Albrecht and Isabella, the governors of the Southern Netherlands. The artist was nicknamed Velvet Brueghel, Flower Brueghel, and Paradise Brueghel, the first is believed to have been given him because of his mastery in the rendering of fabrics. The second nickname is a reference to his specialization in flower still lifes and these paintings have now been reattributed to Jan Brueghel the Elder. Jan Brueghel the Elder was born in Brussels as the son of Pieter Brueghel the Elder and his mother was the daughter of prominent Flemish Renaissance artist Pieter Coecke van Aelst and Mayken Verhulst. His father died about a year after Jans birth in 1569, Mayken Verhulst was an artist in her own right. The early Flemish biographer Karel van Mander wrote in his Schilder-boeck published in 1604 that Mayken was the first art teacher of her two grandsons and she taught them drawing and watercolor painting of miniatures. Jan and his brother may also have trained with local artists in Brussels who were active as tapestry designers, Jan and his brother Pieter were then sent to Antwerp to study oil painting. According to Karel van Mander he studied under Peter Goetkint, an important dealer with a collection of paintings in his shop. Goetkint died on 15 July 1583 not very long after Jan had started his training and it is possible that Jan continued his studies in this shop, which was taken over by Goetkints widow as no other master is recorded. It was common for Flemish painters of that time to travel to Italy to complete their studies, Jan Brueghel left for Italy, first traveling to Cologne where his sister Marie and her family lived. He later visited Frankenthal, an important cultural centre where a number of Flemish landscape artists were active and he then went to Naples after probably spending time in Venice. In Naples he produced after June 1590 a number of drawings and he worked for Don Francesco Caracciolo, a prominent nobleman and priest and founder of the Clerics Regular Minor. Jan produced small-scale decorative work for Don Francesco, Brueghel left Naples for Rome where he resided from 1592 to 1594. Paul Bril was a landscape specialist from Antwerp who had moved to Rome at the end of the 16th century, together with his brother Mathijs Bril, he created atmospheric landscapes for many Roman residences. Brueghel took inspiration from Brils lively drawings and small-scale landscapes of the mid-1590s, during his time in Rome Jan Brueghel became acquainted with Hans Rottenhammer, a German painter of small highly finished cabinet paintings on copperJan Brueghel the Elder – Family of Jan Breughel the Elder, c. 1612-13, by Peter Paul Rubens, depicts Brueghel, his wife Catharina van Mariënburg and their eldest surviving children: Elisabeth (b. 1609) and Pieter (b. 1608).
37. Flemish Baroque painting – Flemish Baroque painting refers to the art produced in the Southern Netherlands during Spanish control in the 16th and 17th centuries. Antwerp, home to the prominent artists Peter Paul Rubens, Anthony van Dyck, Rubens, in particular, had a strong influence on seventeenth-century visual culture. By the seventeenth century, however, Antwerp was the city for innovative artistic production. Brussels was important as the location of the court, attracting David Teniers the Younger later in the century, between 1585 and the early 17th century they made many new altarpieces to replace those destroyed during the iconoclastic outbreaks of 1566. Also during this time Frans Francken the Younger and Jan Brueghel the Elder became important for their small cabinet paintings, often depicting mythological and history subjects. Following his return to Antwerp he set up an important studio, training such as Anthony van Dyck. Most artists active in the city during the first half of the 17th century were influenced by Rubens. Flemish art is notable for the amount of collaboration that took place between independent masters, which was partly related to the local tendency to specialize in a particular area. Frans Snyders, for example, was a painter and Jan Brueghel the Elder was admired for his landscapes. Both artists worked with Rubens, who often painted the figures. In Antwerp, however, this new genre also developed into a specifically Catholic type of painting, history painting, which includes biblical, mythological and historical subjects, was considered by seventeenth-century theoreticians as the most noble art. Abraham Janssens was an important history painter in Antwerp between 1600 and 1620, although after 1609 Rubens was the leading figure, both Van Dyck and Jacob Jordaens were active painting monumental history scenes. Following Rubenss death, Jordaens became the most important Flemish painter, during the second half of the century, history painters combined a local influence from Rubens with knowledge of classicism and Italian Baroque qualities. Artists in the vein include Erasmus Quellinus the Younger, Jan van den Hoecke, Pieter van Lint, Cornelis Schut, later in the century, many painters turned to Anthony van Dyck as a major influence. Among them were Pieter Thijs, Lucas Franchoys the Younger, and artists who were inspired by Late Baroque theatricality such as Theodoor Boeyermans. Additionally, a Flemish variant of Caravaggism was expressed by Theodoor Rombouts, Rubens is closely associated with the development of the Baroque altarpiece. He also exerted an influence on Baroque portraiture through his student Anthony van Dyck. Van Dyck became court painter for Charles I of England and was influential on subsequent English portraiture, other successful portraitists include Cornelis de Vos and Jacob JordaensFlemish Baroque painting – Peter Paul Rubens, The Raising of the Cross, c. 1610–1611
38. Antwerp school – Antwerp took over from Bruges as the main trading and commercial center of the Low Countries around 1500. Painters, artists and craftsmen joined the Guild of Saint Luke, the first school of artists that emerged in the city were the Antwerp Mannerists, a group of anonymous late Gothic painters active in the city from about 1500 to 1520. They were followed by Mannerist painters in the Italian tradition that developed at the end of the High Renaissance, Jan Gossaert was a major artist in the city at this time. Other artists, such as Frans Floris, continued this style, artists such as Otto van Veen and members of the Francken family, working in a late mannerist style, provided new religious decoration. It also marked a beginning of decline in the city. The city experienced a renewal in the 17th century. The large workshops of Peter Paul Rubens and Jacob Jordaens, the city was an internationally significant publishing centre, and had a huge production of old master prints and book illustrations. Antwerp animaliers or animal painters, such as Frans Snyders, Jan Fyt, many artists joined the Guild of Romanists, a society for which having visited Rome was a condition of membership. The artistic legacy of Antwerp is represented in museumsAntwerp school – Paul de Vos, Ark van Noah
39. Rubenesque – Sir Peter Paul Rubens was a Flemish/Netherlandish draughtsman and painter. He is widely considered as the most notable artist of Flemish Baroque art school, the catalogue of his works by Michael Jaffé lists 1,403 pieces, excluding numerous copies made in his workshop. His commissioned works were mostly history paintings, which included religious and mythological subjects and he painted portraits, especially of friends, and self-portraits, and in later life painted several landscapes. Rubens designed tapestries and prints, as well as his own house and he also oversaw the ephemeral decorations of the royal entry into Antwerp by the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand in 1635. His drawings are mostly extremely forceful but not overly detailed and he also made great use of oil sketches as preparatory studies. For altarpieces he painted on slate to reduce reflection problems. Rubens was born in the city of Siegen to Jan Rubens and he was named in honour of Saint-Peter and Paul, because he was born on their solemnety. His father, a Calvinist, and mother fled Antwerp for Cologne in 1568, after increased religious turmoil and persecution of Protestants during the rule of the Spanish Netherlands by the Duke of Alba. Jan Rubens became the adviser of Anna of Saxony, the second wife of William I of Orange. Following Jan Rubens imprisonment for the affair, Peter Paul Rubens was born in 1577, the family returned to Cologne the next year. In 1589, two years after his fathers death, Rubens moved with his mother Maria Pypelincks to Antwerp, religion figured prominently in much of his work and Rubens later became one of the leading voices of the Catholic Counter-Reformation style of painting. In Antwerp, Rubens received a Renaissance humanist education, studying Latin, by fourteen he began his artistic apprenticeship with Tobias Verhaeght. Subsequently, he studied under two of the leading painters of the time, the late Mannerist artists Adam van Noort. Much of his earliest training involved copying earlier works, such as woodcuts by Hans Holbein the Younger. Rubens completed his education in 1598, at time he entered the Guild of St. Luke as an independent master. In 1600 Rubens travelled to Italy and he stopped first in Venice, where he saw paintings by Titian, Veronese, and Tintoretto, before settling in Mantua at the court of Duke Vincenzo I Gonzaga. The colouring and compositions of Veronese and Tintoretto had an effect on Rubenss painting. With financial support from the Duke, Rubens travelled to Rome by way of Florence in 1601, there, he studied classical Greek and Roman art and copied works of the Italian mastersRubenesque – Self-portrait, 1623, Royal Collection
40. Poussinists and Rubenists – In 1671 an argument broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris about whether drawing or color was more important in painting. On one side stood the Poussinists who were a group of French artists, named after the painter Nicolas Poussin, on the other side were the Rubenists, named after Peter Paul Rubens, who prioritize color. There was a strong nationalistic flavour to the debate as Poussin was French but Rubens was Flemish, by that time the French Rococo was in full swing. The Poussinists believed in the Platonic idea of the existence in the mind of objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by the selection, using reason. For the Poussinists, therefore, color was a decorative addition to form and drawing. Their leader was Charles Lebrun, Director of the Academy, and their heroes were Raphael, the Carracci and their touchstones were the forms of classical art. They were opposed by the Rubenists who believed that colour, not drawing, was superior as it was true to nature. Their models were the works of Rubens who had prioritised the accurate depiction of nature over the imitation of classical art, the Rubenists argued that the aim of painting was to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of nature. Drawing, according to the Rubenists, although based on reason, to a certain extent, the debate was simply about whether it was acceptable to paint purely in order to give pleasure to the viewer without the nobler purposes typical of a history painting. Watteaus acceptance was, however, perhaps not everything that he could have hoped for, charles-Antoine Coypel, the son of its then director, tellingly said, The charming paintings of this gracious painter would be a bad guide for whoever wished to paint the Acts of the Apostles. Watteau is considered the greatest of the Rubenist artists, other important Rubenists include François Boucher and Jean-Honoré Fragonard. Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin benefited from the new found interest in still-life and genre painting, the debate and the overlapping development of the Rococo in eighteenth century France have been seen as a form of revival. Jean-Baptiste Dubos observed that what was comprehended through the mind paled compared to what was apprehended through the senses, quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns Poussinistes vs. RubenistesPoussinists and Rubenists – Poussin's Et in Arcadia ego (Les Bergers d’Arcadie), late 1630s.
41. Netherlandish art – From the late Middle Ages until about 1700 the Low Countries were a leading force in the art of northern Europe, thereafter becoming less important. In the earlier High Middle Ages Mosan art, from an area partly in the Low Countries, had had a similar role. The art of the Low Countries includes the traditions of Early Netherlandish painting and it begins approximately with the careers of Robert Campin and Hubert and Jan van Eyck around 1400 and ends with Gerard David about 1520. Other major figures include Rogier van der Weyden, Hugo van der Goes, the 16th century was a period of response to Italian Renaissance art and the development of several distinctly Netherlandish themes. At the start of the century Hieronymus Bosch painted fantastic images, often for courtly viewers, Jan Mabuse, Maarten van Heemskerck and Frans Floris were all instrumental in adopting Italian models and incorporating them into their own artistic language. The spread of Mannerism throughout Europe produced important forms of Northern Mannerist art in the Low Countries, finally, Joachim Patinir was a recognized innovator of landscape painting, while Pieter Bruegel the Elder and Pieter Aertsen helped establish genre painting as a popular subject matter. The 17th century was a period dominated by the distinct individuals Peter Paul Rubens in the Southern Netherlands, Dutch and Flemish painters both followed many of the same themes, including still life, genre, landscape, portraiture and classicism. The most famous painter from the region in the late 17th and early 18th century is Antoine Watteau, otherwise, few painters from about 1700 until the end of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1830 have been incorporated into the art historical discourse. Dutch painters such as Jacob de Wit adopted a lofty Rococo style, indebted somewhat to Rubens, for ceiling decorations, other painters, such as Cornelis Troost, looked to England and especially the works of William Hogarth, for inspiration. Art after 1830 in Belgium and the Netherlands follow separate paths as the countries further develop their own identities, james Ensor is an important figure from Belgium, while Vincent van Gogh, from the Netherlands, posthumously reached the level of modern superstar painter. Koldeweij, A. M. Alexandra Hermesdorf, Paul Huvenne, et alNetherlandish art – Jan van Eyck, The Arnolfini Portrait, National Gallery, London.
42. Rubenshuis – The Rubenshuis is the former home and studio of Peter Paul Rubens in Antwerp. A year after marrying Isabella Brant in 1609, Rubens began construction on an Italian-style villa on the then-Vaartstraat, at the time located at the banks of the canal Herentalse Vaart. Rubens designed the building himself, based on studies of Italian Renaissance palace architecture that formed the basis of his Palazzi di Genova. The layout included his home, studio, a monumental portico, the courtyard opens into a Baroque garden that he also planned. In the adjacent studio he and his students executed many of the works for which Rubens is famous and he had established a well-organised workshop that met the demands of his active studio, including large commissions from England, France, Spain and Bavaria and other locations. He relied on students and collaborators for much of the actual work, Rubens himself, however, guaranteed the quality and often finished paintings with his own hand. In a separate private studio he made drawings, portraits and small paintings without the assistance of his students, Rubens spent most of his lifetime in this palace. After his death, his wife Helena Fourment rented the building to William Cavendish, after the Cavendishes left in 1660, the house was sold. The city bought the house in 1937, and after a restoration the Rubenshuis was opened to the public in 1946. Dozens of paintings and artworks by Rubens and his contemporaries were installed in the rooms, paintings include his early Adam and Eve and a self portrait made when he was about fifty. The Rubenianum, a dedicated to the study of Rubens, is in a building at the rear of the garden. Rockox House Official Website of The Rubens House 360°-panorama van de RubenshuisRubenshuis – The interior courtyard