The Rape of Orithyia by Boreas
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1. Peter Paul Rubens – Sir Peter Paul Rubens was a Flemish/Netherlandish draughtsman and painter. He is widely considered as the most notable artist of Flemish Baroque art school, the catalogue of his works by Michael Jaffé lists 1,403 pieces, excluding numerous copies made in his workshop. His commissioned works were mostly history paintings, which included religious and mythological subjects and he painted portraits, especially of friends, and self-portraits, and in later life painted several landscapes. Rubens designed tapestries and prints, as well as his own house and he also oversaw the ephemeral decorations of the royal entry into Antwerp by the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand in 1635. His drawings are mostly extremely forceful but not overly detailed and he also made great use of oil sketches as preparatory studies. For altarpieces he painted on slate to reduce reflection problems. Rubens was born in the city of Siegen to Jan Rubens and he was named in honour of Saint-Peter and Paul, because he was born on their solemnety. His father, a Calvinist, and mother fled Antwerp for Cologne in 1568, after increased religious turmoil and persecution of Protestants during the rule of the Spanish Netherlands by the Duke of Alba. Jan Rubens became the adviser of Anna of Saxony, the second wife of William I of Orange. Following Jan Rubens imprisonment for the affair, Peter Paul Rubens was born in 1577, the family returned to Cologne the next year. In 1589, two years after his fathers death, Rubens moved with his mother Maria Pypelincks to Antwerp, religion figured prominently in much of his work and Rubens later became one of the leading voices of the Catholic Counter-Reformation style of painting. In Antwerp, Rubens received a Renaissance humanist education, studying Latin, by fourteen he began his artistic apprenticeship with Tobias Verhaeght. Subsequently, he studied under two of the leading painters of the time, the late Mannerist artists Adam van Noort. Much of his earliest training involved copying earlier works, such as woodcuts by Hans Holbein the Younger. Rubens completed his education in 1598, at time he entered the Guild of St. Luke as an independent master. In 1600 Rubens travelled to Italy and he stopped first in Venice, where he saw paintings by Titian, Veronese, and Tintoretto, before settling in Mantua at the court of Duke Vincenzo I Gonzaga. The colouring and compositions of Veronese and Tintoretto had an effect on Rubenss painting. With financial support from the Duke, Rubens travelled to Rome by way of Florence in 1601, there, he studied classical Greek and Roman art and copied works of the Italian mastersPeter Paul Rubens – Self-portrait, 1623, Royal Collection
2. Academy of Fine Arts Vienna – The Academy of Fine Arts Vienna is a public art school of higher education in Vienna, Austria. In 1701 he was ennobled by Emperor Joseph I as Freiherr of the Empire, with his death in 1714, the academy temporarily closed. On 20 January 1725, Emperor Charles VI appointed the Frenchman Jacob van Schuppen as Prefect and Director of the Academy, hofakademie der Maler, Bildhauer und Baukunst. Upon Charles death in 1740, the academy at first declined, however during the rule of his daughter Empress Maria Theresa, a new statute reformed the academy in 1751. The prestige of the academy grew during the deanships of Michelangelo Unterberger and Paul Troger, in 1772, there were further reforms to the organisational structure. Chancellor Wenzel Anton Kaunitz integrated all existing art schools into the k. k. vereinigten Akademie der bildenden Künste, the word vereinigten was later dropped. In 1822 the art cabinet grew significantly with the bequest of honorary member Anton Franz de Paula Graf Lamberg-Sprinzenstein and his collection still forms the backbone of the art on display. In 1872 Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria approved a statute making the academy the supreme government authority for the arts, a new building was constructed according to plans designed by the faculty Theophil Hansen in the course of the layout of the Ringstraße boulevard. On 3 April 1877, the building on Schillerplatz in the Innere Stadt district was inaugurated. In 1907 and 1908, young Adolf Hitler, who had come from Linz, was denied admission to the drawing class. He stayed in Vienna, subsisting on his allowance. Soon he had withdrawn into poverty and started selling amateur paintings, mostly watercolours, during the Austrian Anschluss to Nazi Germany from 1938–1945, the academy was forced to heavily reduce its number of Jewish staff. After World War II, the academy was reconstituted in 1955 and it has had university status since 1998, but retained its original name. It is currently the only Austrian university that doesnt have the university in its name. The Academy currently has about 900 students, almost a quarter of which are foreign students and its faculty includes stars such as Peter Sloterdijk. 110,000 volumes and its etching cabinet has about 150,000 drawings, the collection is one of the biggest in Austria, and is used for academic purposes, although portions are also open to the general public. Official website website of the Media Server Study in Austria, A GuideAcademy of Fine Arts Vienna – Main entrance on Schillerplatz
3. Orithyia – Orithyia was the daughter of King Erechtheus of Athens and his wife, Praxithea, in Greek mythology. Orithyias brothers were Cecrops, Pandorus, and Metion, and her sisters were Procris, Creusa, Boreas, the north wind, fell in love with her. At first he attempted to woo her, but after failing at that he decided to take her by force, while she was playing by the Ilissos River she was carried off to Sarpedon’s Rock, near the Erginos River in Thrace. There she was wrapped in a cloud and raped, aeschylus wrote a satyr play about the abduction called Orithyia which has been lost. Plato writes somewhat mockingly that there may have been an explanation for her story. She may have killed on the rocks of the river when a gust of northern wind came. He also mentions in another account she was taken by Boreas not along the Ilissos, but from the Areopagus, however, many scholars regard this as a later gloss. Plato also mentions that Orithyia was playing with a companion nymph Pharmacea and she gave Boreas two daughters, Chione and Cleopatra, and two sons, Calais and Zetes, both known as the Boreads. These sons grew wings like their father and joined the Argonauts in the quest for the golden fleece, because she was in Thrace with Boreas, she did not die when her sisters either committed suicide or were sacrificed so that Athens could win a war against Eleusis. Orithyia was later made into the goddess of mountain winds. Orithyia is also the name of four other figures in Greek mythology, Orithyia. Orithyia, a nymph, called by some the grandmother of Adonis, Orithyia, a daughter of Cecrops, wife of Makednos and mother of Europus. Orithyia Boreas Abducting Orithyia, red chalk drawing by Giovanni Maria Morandi, currently at the Museum Kunstpalast, the Abduction of Orithyia, painting by Francesco Solimena, currently at the National Art Museum of Azerbaijan, Baku. The Abduction of Orithyia, painting in the style of Francesco Solimena, currently at the Walters Art Museum, the Rape of Orithyia by Boreas, bronze sculpture by Giovanni Battista Foggini, currently at the Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto. The Rape of Orithyia by Boreas, porcelain from Doccia manufactory after Giovanni Battista Foggini, currently at the Art Institute of ChicagoOrithyia – Rape of Orithyia by Boreas. Detail from an Apulian red-figure oinoche, 360 BC.
4. Heraclitus and Democritus (Rubens) – Heraclitus and Democritus is a 1603 painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens. It is now held in the National Sculpture Museum in Valladolid and it shows the ancient Greek philosophers Heraclitus and Democritus. Rubens produced the work as a commission for Francisco Gómez de Sandoval Rojas y Borja and it passed through several collections, ending up in that of the Syrian oil magnate Akram Ojjeh. After Ojjehs death, it was sold to the Spanish Ministry of Culture for 175,000,000 pesetas in December 1999 via Christies of LondonHeraclitus and Democritus (Rubens) – The painting
5. Virgin and Child (Rubens) – The Virgin and Child is a painting by Rubens, commissioned in 1604 and completed between 1608 and 1621. It was seized by France in 1803 and is now in the Musée des Beaux-Arts Tours and it was commissioned by Anne Antheunis, widow of Alexander I Goubau, grand almoner of Antwerp, shortly after her husbands death. She intended is as an ex voto for their joint funeral monument, then in Italy, Rubens only began the work on his return to Flanders in 1608, including a posthumous portrait of Alexandre-Jean and one of Anne from life. It was complete by 1621, the date of Annes deathVirgin and Child (Rubens) – External links 
6. The Fall of Phaeton (Rubens) – The Fall of Phaeton is a painting by the Flemish master Peter Paul Rubens, featuring the ancient Greek myth of Phaeton, a recurring theme in visual arts. Rubens chose to depict the myth at the height of its action, the thunderbolts provide the light contrast to facilitate the display of horror on the faces of Phaeton, the horses and other figures while preserving the darkness of the event. The butterfly winged female figures represent the hours and seasons, who react in terror as the night, the great astrological circle that arches the heavens is also disrupted. The assemblage of bodies form an oval in the center, separating dark. The bodies are arranged so as to assist the viewer’s travel continually around that oval, Rubens painted The Fall of Phaeton in Rome and the painting was probably reworked later around 1606/1608. It has been housed in the National Gallery of Art since 5 January 1990, Rubens also painted other Greek mythological subjects, such as The Fall of Icarus, Perseus Freeing Andromeda, and The Judgement of ParisThe Fall of Phaeton (Rubens) – The Fall of Phaeton
7. Portrait of Marchesa Brigida Spinola-Doria – The Portrait of Marchesa Brigida Spinola-Doria is an oil painting by Peter Paul Rubens, dating to 1606. It is now in the National Gallery of Art in Washington and it was commissioned by Marquess Giacomo Massimiliano Doria, of Genoa, and shows his wife shortly after their wedding in 1605, she came from the equally prominent Spinola family. He died in 1613 and she remarried another Doria and it has been cut several times on each side, removing the garden shown in the background and the lower part of the figure. The overall dimensions of the painting are now 152 by 98 centimetres after the original was reduced in size during the 19th century. Rubens completed a pen and brown ink study for the painting, details removed include the bottom of the Marchesas floor-length wedding gown as the painting has been cut just below her knees and the architecture that formed the backdrop. Writing in The Burlington Magazine in 1951, Christopher Norris indicated the sketch portrayed an older than the 22-year-old Marchesa. In the painting the Marchesa is placed in an opulent setting to convey luxury, adorned with jewels, she wears a satin and lace dress with a broad ruff round her neck. Light is used to emphasise the draping of her wedding gown. It subsequently became the property of Marchessa Brigida Spinola-Dorias second husband, probably in 1625 and it remained in the family until given to relatives of Rati Opizzone. By 1848 it was held in Paris by Simon Horsín-Déon, four years later, in 1854, the portrait was in London and sold several times before being purchased by the Samuel H. Kress foundation in 1957 who donated it to the National Gallery of Art in 1961. First exhibited in 1952 at the Minneapolis Institute of Art when it was likely in the ownership of the Duveen Brothers, since 1961 it has regularly been featured in exhibitionsPortrait of Marchesa Brigida Spinola-Doria – Description 
8. Honeysuckle Bower – The Honeysuckle Bower is a self-portrait of the Flemish Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens and his first wife Isabella Brant. They wed on 3 October 1609, in St. Michaels Abbey, Antwerp, the painting is a full-length double portrait of the couple seated in a bower of honeysuckle. They are surrounded by love and marriage symbolism, the honeysuckle, additionally, Rubens depicts himself as an aristocratic gentleman with his left hand on the hilt of his sword. Media related to Honeysuckle Bower by Peter Paul Rubens at Wikimedia Commons Web Gallery of ArtHoneysuckle Bower – The Honeysuckle Bower
9. The Elevation of the Cross (Rubens) – The Elevation of the Cross is a triptych painting by Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens, completed in 1610-1611. Peter Paul Rubens painted The Elevation of the Cross after returning to Flanders from Italy, the work shows the clear influence of Italian Renaissance and Baroque artists such as Caravaggio, Tintoretto and Michelangelo. The central panel illustrates a tension between the multitude of finely muscled men attempting to lift the cross and the unbearable weight of Christ on the cross. Peter Paul Rubens foreshortening is evident in the contortions of the struggling, strapping men, Christ cuts across the central panel in a diagonal, stylistically akin to Caravaggios Entombment where both descent and ascent are in play at a key moment. Motion, space and time are illustrated along with the struggle to upright the cross, Rubens uses dynamic color and chiaroscuro boldly, a style that would become more subtle with time. The painting is located at the Cathedral of Our Lady in Antwerp, Belgium and it was commissioned by the church to express their allegiance with Catholicism, after the split of the protestants. Under Napoleons rule, the emperor took the painting, along with Peter Paul Rubens The Descent from the Cross, the paintings were returned to the cathedral in 1815. In Ouidas novel A Dog of Flanders the main characters Nello and it serves as the climax of the story, as they both sneak inside the Antwerp Cathedral on a freezing Christmas Eve to witness the beauty of the painting. The next day they are frozen to death in front of the triptychThe Elevation of the Cross (Rubens) – The Elevation of the Cross
10. Prometheus Bound (Rubens) – Prometheus Bound is an oil painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens. It shows the punishment of Prometheus, the painting was first started between 1611 and 1612, and was completed by 1618, with the eagle painted by the specialist animal painter Frans Snyders. For a long time Rubens kept it in his own personal collection and it is now in the collection of the Philadelphia Museum of Art, Pennsylvania. It is based on the Greek play, Prometheus Bound, katherine Crawford Luber, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Handbook of the Collections, p.174Prometheus Bound (Rubens) – Bibliography 
11. Portrait of a Commander – Portrait of a Commander or A Commander Being Dressed for Battle is a portrait of an unknown man in plate armour, normally attributed to Peter Paul Rubens. In July 2010 it was sold for £9 million by Christies after Sothebys turned it down, in December 2011, the portrait was placed on loan with the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. The painting, done in oil on panel, measures 48.25 ×38 3/8 in and it depicts a military commander, as shown by his baton, being dressed by pages. The identity of the commander is unknown, although Charles V, Cornelis van der Geest, the Christies cataloguer felt that the commander appears too idealized to be an actual person. The painting has been praised for its crisp and intense hue, if by Rubens, it would have been painted around 1613. It was sold at the end of the Christies estimate of between £8m and £12m to Konrad Bernheimer for £9 million. For more than 100 years, it was attributed to the School of Porbus and it was not attributed to Rubens until after World War II. According to Brian Sewell, it is an uncomfortable Rubens and the attribution doesnt quite ring true, a panel of academics employed by Christies examined the portrait and ultimately concluded that the painting is a genuine RubensPortrait of a Commander – Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640), Portrait of a Commander
12. St Sebastian (Rubens) – St Sebastian is a painting of c.1614 by Peter Paul Rubens, showing the Christian Saint Sebastian. It dates to the years of Rubens stay in Rome - its sinuous line and defined figures are thought to be the result of his studies of Michelangelo. It was bought by the Borghese directly from cardinal Neri Corsini in Brussels and it is now in the Borghese collection. In 1618, Rubens wrote the English Sir Dudley Carlton a letter describing a collection of his own paintings he had at his home he wished to trade and it is more than likely not that this is that paintingSt Sebastian (Rubens) – Paintings and drawings
13. Madonna of the Basket (Rubens) – The Madonna of the Basket or the Madonna della Cesta is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens, dated to around 1615. It is now held in the Galleria Palatina of the Palazzo Pitti in Florence, between 1799 and 1815 it was confiscated by the French and assigned to the Dijon Museum of Fine Arts. Marco Chiarini, Galleria palatina e Appartamenti Reali, Sillabe, Livorno 1998Madonna of the Basket (Rubens) – This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Italian. (January 2015) Click [show] for important translation instructions.
14. Daniel in the Lions' Den (painting) – Daniel in the Lions Den is a 1615 painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens, now in the National Gallery of Art in Washington DC. The subject is from Daniel 6, 1-28, Rubens modelled the lions on a Moroccan subspecies, examples of which were then in the Spanish governors menagerie in Brussels. In 1618 he acquired more than a hundred pieces of sculpture, in exchange for this painting, eight others. Although the painting shows Daniel as a man, according to the biblical chronology Daniel would have been over eighty years old at the time of the incident depictedDaniel in the Lions' Den (painting) – For other uses, see Daniel in the Lions' Den#Paintings.
15. The Lion and Leopard Hunt – The Lion and Leopard Hunt or The Lion Hunt is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens, now held in the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister in Dresden. It is very similar to his The Tiger Hunt from the musée des beaux-arts de Rennes,2, Oxford University Press and Harvey Miller Ltd, coll. « Corpus Rubenianum Ludwig Burchard »,1986,406 p. part XVIII David Rosand, Rubenss Munich Lion Hunt, Its Sources and Significance, The Art Bulletin, College Art Association,51, no 1, March 1969, p. 29-40The Lion and Leopard Hunt – Notes 
16. Adoration of the Magi (Rubens, Lyon) – For other treatments of this subject by the same artist, see Adoration of the Magi. The Adoration of the Magi is a c. 1617-18 painting by Peter Paul Rubens and it is now in the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon Since it is horizontal rather than vertical it was probably commissioned for a private collection rather than as an altarpiece. 1608-09, might suggest that the Lyon painting was also a secular commission, Rubens made a considerable fortune via the paintings reproduction in engravings and tapestries. The painting arranges full-length figures across the canvas, backed by a frieze-like crowd showing a variety of mature male types, the dim stable is lit by shafts of light. It languished as a copy until Jacques Fouquart resuscitated its reputation, recognized as a work of Rubens, in the exhibition Le siècle de Rubens, ParisAdoration of the Magi (Rubens, Lyon) – The Adoration of the Magi
17. The Five Senses (series) – They are now in the Prado Museum in Madrid. They are all painted in oils on panel, approximately 65 by 110 centimetres in dimensions. The series constitutes one of the best known and most successful collaborations by Brueghel and Rubens and his approach was widely copied in later Flemish painting. Rubens painted the female figures, accompanied by a putto or a winged Cupid in Sight, Hearing, Smell and Touch. The figure in Hearing is playing the lute amongst a collection of musical instruments, in Smell, she sits among flowers in a garden, with a perfume distillery visible on the left. In Taste, seated at a table groaning with food fit for a banquet, she is eating an oyster, in Touch, she embraces a putto in a superbly equipped armoury where there are also medical instruments, pain being an aspect of touch. In Hearing, the music is a dedicated to the couple. Ferdinand in turn offered them through the Duke of Medina de las Torres to his brother King Philip IV of Spain and they were subsequently housed in other royal palaces in Madrid and became part of the founding collection of the Prado in 1819. The Five Senses, executed in the period by Brueghel and 11 others Sight, PD1394, Hearing, PD1395, Smell, PD1396, Taste, PD1397, Touch, PD1398The Five Senses (series) – Sight, 1617
18. The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus – The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus is a 1618 painting by Peter Paul Rubens. It is now on show in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich, the painting depicts the mortal Castor and the immortal Pollux abducting Phoebe and Hilaeira, daughters of Leucippus. Castor the horse-tamer is recognisable from his armour, whilst Pollux the boxer is shown with a bare and they are also distinguished by their horses - Castors is well-behaved and supported by a putto, whereas Polluxs is rearing. The puttos black wing shows the ultimate fate. Phoebe and Hilaeira do not have distinguishing attributes and so which sister is which is unclear and it was bought in Antwerp in 1716 by Johann Wilhelm and Elector Palatine. Initially sent to Mannheim, by 1805/06 it had reached Munich, the painting is also notable for featuring in the Loriot sketch Eheberatung. Evelyn Hamann plays a marriage counsellor, with Loriot and Ingeborg Heydorn playing a couple coming for counselling, the husband replies The men are really helping out the ladies. Alte Pinakothek-Ausgewählte Werke, München, Pinakothek-DuMont,2005, ISBN 978-3-8321-7592-4,50 Klassiker, Gemälde, H. Johannsen, Gerstenberg,2001, ISBN 380-672-516-0The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus – The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus
19. The Union of Earth and Water – The pair is crowned by the goddess Victoria and the union is heralded through a conch by the Triton below. The painting features a pyramidal composition, symmetry and the balance of forms and it was influenced by late Italian Renaissance, particularly by Venetian artists. A smaller copy of the made in the Rubens workshop was owned by the Russian businessman Vladimir Logvinenko. Following the abolition of a thirty per cent import duty on artworks in 2004, the painting is housed in the Rubens Hall of the Hermitage Museum, Russia. Previously it had been in the Chigi Collection in Rome from which it was acquired by the Hermitage Museum between 1798 and 1800The Union of Earth and Water – The Union of Earth and Water
20. The Conversion of Saint Paul (Rubens, Berlin) – The Conversion of Saint Paul is a 1620s painting by Peter Paul Rubens, now missing or lost. It showed the conversion of Paul the Apostle and it was produced for Władysław Vasa of Poland. It remained in France for over a century, until it was bought by G Harris in 1819 and it was bought from him in 1903 by the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin. The painting was moved to the Flakturm Friedrichshain in Berlin for safety with the rest of the collection around 1942 and was lost or destroyed some time between March and May 1945. Between 11 March and 2 May 1945 all but 434 paintings were evacuated from the tower to former salt mines in Thuringia, the tower was surrendered to the Red Army on 2 May and its museum guards sent home. They returned on 4 and 5 May, finding one of the floors broken, on 6 May another floor burned out, with heat and smoke preventing entry, and between 14 and 18 May 1945 the whole tower was destroyed by fire. Rubens, the life of Christ after the passion, Peter Paul Rubens et la France, 1600–1640The Conversion of Saint Paul (Rubens, Berlin) – This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2015)
21. The Fall of the Damned – The Fall of the Damned, conversely known as The Fall of the Rebel Angels is a monumental religious painting by Peter Paul Rubens. It features a jumble of the bodies of the damned, hurled into abyss by archangel Michael, david Freedberg assessed this painting manner as the most brilliant assemblages of lusciously naked flesh in Western art. In 1959 an art vandal threw an acid on the painting, according to him, he did not directly destroy the work, but the acid relieves one from the work of destruction. The sketch of The Fall of the Damned was made in black and red chalks and it is assumed to be the work of a studio assistant, while Rubens then went over the drawing with brush and oil colour. The dramatic chiaroscuro of the forms and clouds emphasizes the darkness into which these figures fallThe Fall of the Damned – The Fall of the Damned
22. Perseus Freeing Andromeda (Rubens) – Perseus Freeing Andromeda is a painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens, executed in 1607. It is housed in the Gemäldegalerie of Berlin, Germany, the painting belonged the M. Pasquier collection in Rouen, which was auctioned in 1755 in Paris. In the 18th century it entered the collection of Frederick II of Prussia and, in 1830, the scene is similar to another Perseus Freeing Andromeda by Rubens now in the Hermitage Museum of St. Petersburg. It depicts the Greek mythology hero Perseus in the act of freeing Andromeda, Perseus, wearing helmet, cuirass and cloak, is sided by two puttoes, and one of them is helping him in removing the ropes that tie Andromeda to the rock. On the left, two puttoes are playing with Pegasus, Perseus winged horse, jaffé, M. Catalogo completo di RubensPerseus Freeing Andromeda (Rubens) – Perseus Freeing Andromeda
23. The Lion Hunt (Rubens) – The Lion Hunt is a 1621 painting by Peter Paul Rubens, now held in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich. It shows two lions attacked by hunters on horseback and on foot and it marks the end of an intensive creative phase for Rubens centred on the theme of hunting. 2, Oxford University Press and Harvey Miller Ltd, coll, « Corpus Rubenianum Ludwig Burchard »,1986,406 p. partie XVIII David Rosand, « Rubenss Munich Lion Hunt, Its Sources and Significance », The Art Bulletin, College Art Association, vol. 51, no 1, March 1969, p. 29-40The Lion Hunt (Rubens) – Bibliography 
24. The History of Constantine – An additional five designs were painted by Cortona in 1630 and woven in the atelier of Cardinal Francesco Barberini in Rome over the next decade. The series was commissioned in 1622 when Rubens was in Paris discussing the paintings he was designing for the Luxembourg Palace for Marie de Médicis. New evidence, such the fact that the designs were listed as the property of de la Planche upon his death, establishing a weak form of copyright, has muddied the issue. One theory is that Rubens only cited the king as the commissioner of the tapestries in the letter in order to increase their perceived importance because his payment was overdue. He repeated only one design from the Rubens set, the apparition of the cross, Cortona also designed several smaller tapestries such as portieres and a baldachin to furnish an entire room, and painted the ceiling of the salon where they were displayed. The dossal he designed, featuring a golden statue of Constantine, hung behind the throne of Urban VIII. The life of the first Christian monarch would have relevance for a king whose own father experienced such a notable conversion to Catholicism. While the subject matter could plausibly have been chosen by Louis XIII himself, it also may have been selected by Comans and de la Planche to appeal to him, Rubens drew on Cardinal Cesare Baronios Annales Ecclesiastici for inspiration and historical detail. Baronio based his writings on the accounts of Eusebius. Rubens designs proved popular and were woven several times by the Comans-La Planche workshop over the next decades. Cortonas tapestries were only woven once, the sole complete set remained with the Barberini collection in Rome until 1889. The tapestries were split up and passed through various hands before being reunited by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, the sketches remain widely scattered, many of them in private hands. Sketch, private collection,18.625 x 25.375 tapestry, the event occurs in a temple of Jupiter and Juno, who preside in the form of statuary. However, in the tapestry, Jupiter wears a more beneficent mien and holds his thunderbolt less threatening. In a dream, he learns that placing this emblem on his banner assures him of triumph over Maxentius, Rubens follows Eusebius quite closely, but replaces the flaming cross he described with the monogram in Lactantius chronicle. One soldier, looking at Constantine rather than the vision, points with the labarum, or military standard, to the next scene. Sketch, private collection,13.9 x 10.8 tapestry, Paris, Mobilier National This episode depicts the moments just before the Battle of Milvian Bridge and this has been emblazoned with Christs symbol, as he was instructed. The monogram of Rubens usual panel maker, Michiel Vrient, is impressed on the back of the panel, along with a branded A that indicates the panel was prepared about 1621-22The History of Constantine – The History of Constantine
25. The Reconciliation of Esau and Jacob – The Reconciliation of Esau and Jacob is a 1624 painting by Peter Paul Rubens. Originally in the Spanish royal collection, it was sent to Germany by Maria Anna of Neuburg to her brother Johann Wilhelm and it is now in the Staatsgalerie Schleissheim near Munich. It shows the story of meeting between Jacob and Esau. It was the model for a painting by Abraham Willemsen and this painting was featured in Willem van Haechts Gallery of Cornelis van der Geest with Joseph and Potiphars wife, 1630sThe Reconciliation of Esau and Jacob – A study for the work (National Galleries of Scotland)
26. Assumption of the Virgin Mary (Rubens) – In Rubens depiction of the Assumption of Mary, a choir of angels lifts her in a spiraling motion toward a burst of divine light. Around her tomb are gathered the 12 apostles — some with their arms raised in awe, the women in the painting are thought to be Mary Magdalene and the Virgin Marys two sisters. A kneeling woman holds a flower, referring to the lilies that miraculously filled the empty coffin, the Antwerp Cathedral of Our Lady opened a competition for an Assumption altar in 1611. Rubens submitted models to the clergy on February 16,1611, in September 1626,15 years later, he completed the piece. There is a studio version, with some differences, in the National Gallery of Art, Washington. Another version hangs on the side altar of the castle church St. Peter and Paul in Kirchheim in Schwaben. Marian art in the Catholic Church Assumption of the Virgin Mary in art National Gallery of Art page about the paintingAssumption of the Virgin Mary (Rubens) – Assumption of the Virgin
27. Minerva Protecting Peace from Mars – Minerva protecting Peace from Mars or Peace and War is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens. He produced it in London between 1629 and 1630, during a mission from the Spanish Netherlands to Charles I of England. It is now in the National Gallery, London and it shows Minerva fighting off Mars, with a nude figure of Peace in the centreMinerva Protecting Peace from Mars – External links 
28. Ildefonso Altarpiece – The Ildefonso Altarpiece is a triptych painting by Peter Paul Rubens, dating to between 1630 and 1631. It is now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum of Vienna and it is named after the central panel, which shows Saint Ildefonsuss vision of the Virgin Mary, in which she gave him a casula. On the side panels are Isabella Clara Eugenia and Albert VII, regents of the Spanish Netherlands, with their patron saints Albert and Elisabeth of HungaryIldefonso Altarpiece – External links 
29. The Rape of the Sabine Women (Rubens) – The Rape of the Sabine Women is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens. It is now in the Belfius Collection and it was commissioned by Philip IV of Spain in 1639 but was still incomplete on Rubens death a year later. It was completed by the Brussels painter Gaspar de Crayer, palais des Beux-Arts de Lille RUBENSThe Rape of the Sabine Women (Rubens) – Bibliography 
30. The Dance of the Villagers – The Dance of the Villagers is a 1635 painting by Peter Paul Rubens. Now in the Prado Museum in Madrid and it is closely related to The Village Fête, of a similar date and on a similar subject. It is now in the Prado MuseumThe Dance of the Villagers – External links 
31. The Origin of the Milky Way (Rubens) – The Origin of the Milky Way, or The Birth of the Milky Way, is a painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens, featuring the Greco-Roman myth of the origin of the Milky Way. The painting depicts Hera, spilling her breast milk, the infant Heracles and Zeus in the background, identifiable by his eagle, Heras face is modelled on Rubens wife, Hélène Fourment. The carriage is pulled by Heras favourite animals, peacocks, due to the dark background of the night sky the figures gain a greater sense of volume. The image was a part of the commission from Philip IV of Spain to decorate Torre de la Parada, Rubens also painted other Greco-Roman mythological subjects, such as Hercules Fighting the Nemean Lion or Perseus Freeing Andromeda. The Origin of the Milky WayThe Origin of the Milky Way (Rubens) – The Origin of the Milky Way
32. Deianira Listens to Fame – Deianira Listens to Fame or Deianira delivering the fatal tunic to the Fury is a 1638 oil painting on canvas. It is now in the Sabauda Gallery in Turin and it is a pendant to another Rubens painting, Hercules in the Garden of the Hesperides. It shows Hercules wife Deianira and another holding an bloody tunicDeianira Listens to Fame – Paintings and drawings
33. The Judgement of Paris (Rubens) – The large versions of 1636 and 1638 are among the best known. These both show Rubens version of idealised beauty, with the goddesses Venus, Minerva and Juno on one side. This version follows the story as narrated in Lucians Judgement of the Goddesses and it shows the award of the golden apple, though alterations show Rubens first painted an earlier point in the story, when the goddesses are ordered to undress by Mercury. It was bought for the National Gallery in London in 1844, painted in 1638 or 1639, this version is now in the Prado and was completed shortly before his death while he was ill with gout. It was commissioned by Philip IV of Spains brother Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria, in 1788 Charles III of Spain decided it was immodest and ordered it to be burned, but he died before that order could be carried outThe Judgement of Paris (Rubens) – The Judgement of Paris
34. Jan Rubens – Jan Rubens was a Flemish magistrate of Antwerp, best known today as the father of Peter Paul Rubens. Rubens was born in Antwerp to an old merchant family and he was trained as a scholar and travelled to Italy where he received his diploma in Canon law in Rome in 1550. He returned north in 1557 and set up his practise in Antwerp where he married Maria Pypelinckx in 1558, on 7 May 1562 he became magistrate of Antwerp and served until 1568, when he fled to Cologne with his family, probably to avoid the Council of Troubles. His position and that of his fellow magistrates became precarious when the Duke of Alva came north to suppress the rebellion after the Beeldenstorm. In Cologne he could renew his work as a lawyer, because there were many Dutch refugees there who wanted to recover seized property they had left behind and he began to work as an advisor to Anna of Saxony and they had an affair at her home in Siegen. By the time it was discovered, she was pregnant and Rubens was arrested during a trip he took to Siegen to visit her and his wife, who knew nothing of the affair, came to support him after he wrote to tell her he feared he would be executed. She supported him throughout his imprisonment and his illegitimate daughter Christina van Diez was born 22 August 1571. Rubens remained in prison, but was allowed to live in Siegen with his family under house arrest in 1573 and was completely released after the death of Anna. In 1574 Philips was born and in 1577 Peter Paul was born, Rubens died in Cologne and his wife wrote an epitaph in Latin that was installed on his gravestone in the St. Peters church there. After the burial she took her back to Antwerp where she stayedJan Rubens – Latin Epitaph for Jan Rubens, written in Latin by Maria complimenting him as a husband, but with the poignant remark that she bore 7 children "all by him".
35. Isabella Brant – Isabella Brant was a Flemish artists model who was the first wife of painter Peter Paul Rubens. She was the daughter of Jan Brant, an important city official in Antwerp and her aunt Mary was married to Phillipe I Rubens, brother of her future husband. Isabella Brant married the brother of her uncle Peter Paul on 3 October 1609 in St. Michaels Abbey and they had three children, Clara, Nicolaas, Lord of Rameyen and Albert. She was 34 years old when she died of the plague, several paintings of Brant and one important drawing of her by Rubens survive, in addition to a portrait of her by Rubens disciple and assistant, Anthony van Dyck. In 1977, Brant appeared on a stamp of Anguilla. Liedtke, Walter A. Flemish paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, new York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Media related to Isabella Brant at Wikimedia CommonsIsabella Brant – Portrait of Isabella Brant by Rubens, c. 1620-1625 (Cleveland Museum of Art)
36. Otto van Veen – He is known for running a large studio in Antwerp, producing several emblem books, and for being, from 1594 or 1595 until 1598, Peter Paul Rubenss teacher. His role as a classically educated humanist artist, reflected in the Latin name by which he is known, Octavius Vaenius, was influential on the young Rubens. Van Veen was born in Leiden around 1556, where his father had been Burgomaster and he probably was a pupil of Isaac Claesz van Swanenburg until October 1572, when the Catholic family moved to Antwerp, and then to Liège. He studied for a time under Dominicus Lampsonius and Jean Ramey and he stayed there for about five years, perhaps studying with Federico Zuccari. Carel van Mander relates that van Veen then worked at the courts of Rudolf II in Prague and William V of Bavaria in Munich, before returning to the Low Countries. In Brussels, he was painter to the governor of the Southern Netherlands, Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma until 1592. After becoming a master in the Guild of St. Luke in 1593, van Veen took numerous commissions for decorations, including altarpieces for the Antwerp cathedral. He also organized his studio and workshop, which included Rubens, the artist later served as dean in two prominent organizations in the city, the Guild of St. Luke in 1602, and the Romanists in 1606. In the seventeenth century, van Veen often worked for the Archdukes Albert and Isabella, later paintings include a series of twelve paintings depicting the battles of the Romans and the Batavians, based on engravings he had already published of the subject, for the Dutch States General. He had two brothers who were painters, Gijsbert van Veen was an engraver and Pieter was an amateur. His daughter Gertruid was also a painter, increasingly, van Veen was active in producing Emblem books, including Quinti Horatii Flacci emblemata, Amorum emblemata, and Amoris divini emblemata. In all these works, van Veens skills as an artist, the Amorum emblemata, for example, pictures 124 putti, or little cupids, enacting the mottoes and quotations from lyricists, philosophers, and ancient writers on the powers of Love. Some of these emblems are as relevant today as they would have to a seventeenth-century audience, a few examples of these mottoes read, A Wished Warre, The woundes that lovers give are willingly receaved. He goes on to quote Cicero and Seneca on this theme, another example familiar to us today as the story of The Tortoise and the Hare, is titled Perseverance winneth, The hare and the tortes layd a wager of their speed. Shows us a cupid and tortoise outpacing the hare and exemplifying the idea that the love which is steady, Emblem Project Utrecht -3 editions of emblem books by Otto van Veen Amorum Emblemata on Internet Archive. Vita D. Thomae Aquinatis a manuscript by Otto van Veen Otto van Veen on Artcyclopedia Belkin, Kristin Lohse, bertini, Giuseppe, Otto van Veen, Cosimo Masi and the Art Market in Antwerp at the End of the Sixteenth Century. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, Otto van Veens Batavians defeating the Roman Van de Velde, Carl, Veen, entry at the Netherlands Institute for Art History Veen, Otto van. Emblemes of Love, with verses in Latin, English, media related to Otto van Veen at Wikimedia CommonsOtto van Veen – Title print of three volume book Schouburg, by Arnold Houbraken. Houbraken considered Van Veen to be the most impressive artist and scholar of his day and put his portrait (lower left) on his title print.
37. Frans Snyders – Frans Snyders or Frans Snijders was a Flemish painter of animals, hunting scenes, market scenes and still lifes. He was one of the earliest specialist animaliers and he is credited with initiating a wide variety of new still-life and he was a regular collaborator with leading Antwerp painters such as Peter Paul Rubens, Anthony van Dyck and Jacob Jordaens. Snyders was born in Antwerp as the son of Jan Snijders, according to legend the famous 16th century painter Frans Floris squandered his fortune in the inn. His brother Michiel also became a painter but no works of him are known, Snyders was recorded as a student of Pieter Brueghel the Younger in 1593, and subsequently trained with Hendrick van Balen, who was the first master of Anthony van Dyck. Snyders became a master of the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke in 1602 and he travelled to Italy in 1608-9 where he first resided in Rome. The artist subsequently traveled from Rome to Milan, Jan Brueghel the Elder had introduced him there by letter to the famous art collector Cardinal Borromeo. Brueghel asked Snyders to paint a copy after a portrait by Titian in the Borromeo collection and this is regarded as evidence that Snyders was a skilled figure painter before he turned his attention to still life painting. Snyders had returned to Antwerp in the spring of 1609, in 1611 he married Margaretha, the sister of Cornelis de Vos and Paul de Vos, two leading painters in Antwerp. His collaboration with Rubens started in the 1610s, Snyders had many patrons including the Ghent Bishop Antonius Triest who commissioned four paintings of market scenes around 1615. He was a friend of van Dyck who painted Snyders and his more than once. Snyders was commercially successful and was able to purchase a house on the high-end Keizerstraat in Antwerp, in 1628 he became the dean of the Guild of Saint Luke. In the period 1636-1638 he was one of the Antwerp artists who assisted Rubens in a commission for decorations for the hunting pavilion Torre de la Parada of Philip IV of Spain. The two artists worked together on decorations for the Royal Alcazar of Madrid and the royal Buen Retiro Palace in Madrid. Snyders painted about 60 hunting paintings and animal pieces after designs by Rubens, in 1639 Rubens and Snyders received a follow-up commission for an additional 18 paintings for the hunting pavilion. After Peter Paul Rubens death Snyders acted as one of the appraisers of the inventory of Rubens collection, in the years 1641 and 1642 Snyders traveled with other artists to the Dutch Republic. In 1646 Snyders was probably in Breda working on a commission, Snyders became a widower in 1647. He died himself on 19 August 1657 in Antwerp and he died childless and bequeathed his fortune to his sister, a beguine. His pupils are believed to have included Nicasius Bernaerts, Peter van Boucle, Juriaen Jacobsze, Jan Roos, Jan Fyt was a student, and then assistant of Snyders from 1629Frans Snyders – A greyhound catching a young wild boar
38. Jan Brueghel the Elder – Jan Brueghel the Elder was a Flemish painter and draughtsman. He was the son of the eminent Flemish Renaissance painter Pieter Brueghel the Elder, a close friend of, and regular collaborator with, Rubens, the two artists were the leading Flemish painters in the first three decades of the 17th century. He was an important innovator who created new types of such as flower garland paintings, paradise landscapes. He further created genre paintings that were imitations, pastiches and reworkings of his fathers works and he was court painter of the Archduke and Duchess Albrecht and Isabella, the governors of the Southern Netherlands. The artist was nicknamed Velvet Brueghel, Flower Brueghel, and Paradise Brueghel, the first is believed to have been given him because of his mastery in the rendering of fabrics. The second nickname is a reference to his specialization in flower still lifes and these paintings have now been reattributed to Jan Brueghel the Elder. Jan Brueghel the Elder was born in Brussels as the son of Pieter Brueghel the Elder and his mother was the daughter of prominent Flemish Renaissance artist Pieter Coecke van Aelst and Mayken Verhulst. His father died about a year after Jans birth in 1569, Mayken Verhulst was an artist in her own right. The early Flemish biographer Karel van Mander wrote in his Schilder-boeck published in 1604 that Mayken was the first art teacher of her two grandsons and she taught them drawing and watercolor painting of miniatures. Jan and his brother may also have trained with local artists in Brussels who were active as tapestry designers, Jan and his brother Pieter were then sent to Antwerp to study oil painting. According to Karel van Mander he studied under Peter Goetkint, an important dealer with a collection of paintings in his shop. Goetkint died on 15 July 1583 not very long after Jan had started his training and it is possible that Jan continued his studies in this shop, which was taken over by Goetkints widow as no other master is recorded. It was common for Flemish painters of that time to travel to Italy to complete their studies, Jan Brueghel left for Italy, first traveling to Cologne where his sister Marie and her family lived. He later visited Frankenthal, an important cultural centre where a number of Flemish landscape artists were active and he then went to Naples after probably spending time in Venice. In Naples he produced after June 1590 a number of drawings and he worked for Don Francesco Caracciolo, a prominent nobleman and priest and founder of the Clerics Regular Minor. Jan produced small-scale decorative work for Don Francesco, Brueghel left Naples for Rome where he resided from 1592 to 1594. Paul Bril was a landscape specialist from Antwerp who had moved to Rome at the end of the 16th century, together with his brother Mathijs Bril, he created atmospheric landscapes for many Roman residences. Brueghel took inspiration from Brils lively drawings and small-scale landscapes of the mid-1590s, during his time in Rome Jan Brueghel became acquainted with Hans Rottenhammer, a German painter of small highly finished cabinet paintings on copperJan Brueghel the Elder – Family of Jan Breughel the Elder, c. 1612-13, by Peter Paul Rubens, depicts Brueghel, his wife Catharina van Mariënburg and their eldest surviving children: Elisabeth (b. 1609) and Pieter (b. 1608).
39. Jacob Jordaens – Jacob Jordaens was a Flemish painter, draughtsman and tapestry designer known for his history paintings, genre scenes and portraits. After Peter Paul Rubens and Anthony van Dyck, he was the leading Flemish Baroque painter of his day, unlike those contemporaries he never travelled abroad to study Italian painting, and his career is marked by an indifference to their intellectual and courtly aspirations. In fact, except for a few trips to locations in the Low Countries. As well as being a painter, he was a prominent designer of tapestries. Jordaens main artistic influences, besides Rubens and the Brueghel family, were northern Italian painters such as Jacopo Bassano, Paolo Veronese, and Caravaggio. Jacob Jordaens was born on 19 May 1593, the first of eleven children, to the wealthy linen merchant Jacob Jordaens Sr. little is known about Jordaens early education. It can be assumed that he received the advantages of the education provided for children of his social class. This assumption is supported by his handwriting, his competence in French. Like Rubens, he studied under Adam van Noort, who was his only teacher, during this time Jordaens lived in Van Noorts house in the Everdijstraat and became very close to the rest of the family. After eight years of training with Van Noort, he enrolled in the Guild of St. Luke as a waterschilder and this medium was often used for preparing tapestry cartoons in the seventeenth century. Although examples of his earliest watercolour works are no longer extant, in the same year as his entry into the guild,1616, he married his teachers eldest daughter, Anna Catharina van Noort, with whom he had three children. In 1618, Jordaens bought a house in Hoogstraat and he would then later buy the adjoining house to expand his household and workspace in 1639, mimicking Rubens house built two decades earlier. He lived and worked here until his death in 1678, Jordaens never made the traditional trip to Italy to study classical and Renaissance art. Despite this, he made efforts to study prints or works of Italian masters available in northern Europe. For example, Jordaens is known to have studied Titian, Veronese, Caravaggio and his commissions frequently came from wealthy local Flemish patrons and clergy, although later in his career he worked for courts and governments across Europe. Besides a large output of oil paintings he was a prolific tapestry designer. Jordaens importance can also be seen by his number of pupils, among them were his cousin and his son Jacob. Like Rubens and other artists at that time, Jordaens studio relied on his assistants, not many of these pupils went on to fame themselves, however a position in Jordaens studio was highly desirable for young artists from across EuropeJacob Jordaens – Self-Portrait with Parents, Brothers, and Sisters (c. 1615). Oil on canvas. The Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia
40. Flemish Baroque painting – Flemish Baroque painting refers to the art produced in the Southern Netherlands during Spanish control in the 16th and 17th centuries. Antwerp, home to the prominent artists Peter Paul Rubens, Anthony van Dyck, Rubens, in particular, had a strong influence on seventeenth-century visual culture. By the seventeenth century, however, Antwerp was the city for innovative artistic production. Brussels was important as the location of the court, attracting David Teniers the Younger later in the century, between 1585 and the early 17th century they made many new altarpieces to replace those destroyed during the iconoclastic outbreaks of 1566. Also during this time Frans Francken the Younger and Jan Brueghel the Elder became important for their small cabinet paintings, often depicting mythological and history subjects. Following his return to Antwerp he set up an important studio, training such as Anthony van Dyck. Most artists active in the city during the first half of the 17th century were influenced by Rubens. Flemish art is notable for the amount of collaboration that took place between independent masters, which was partly related to the local tendency to specialize in a particular area. Frans Snyders, for example, was a painter and Jan Brueghel the Elder was admired for his landscapes. Both artists worked with Rubens, who often painted the figures. In Antwerp, however, this new genre also developed into a specifically Catholic type of painting, history painting, which includes biblical, mythological and historical subjects, was considered by seventeenth-century theoreticians as the most noble art. Abraham Janssens was an important history painter in Antwerp between 1600 and 1620, although after 1609 Rubens was the leading figure, both Van Dyck and Jacob Jordaens were active painting monumental history scenes. Following Rubenss death, Jordaens became the most important Flemish painter, during the second half of the century, history painters combined a local influence from Rubens with knowledge of classicism and Italian Baroque qualities. Artists in the vein include Erasmus Quellinus the Younger, Jan van den Hoecke, Pieter van Lint, Cornelis Schut, later in the century, many painters turned to Anthony van Dyck as a major influence. Among them were Pieter Thijs, Lucas Franchoys the Younger, and artists who were inspired by Late Baroque theatricality such as Theodoor Boeyermans. Additionally, a Flemish variant of Caravaggism was expressed by Theodoor Rombouts, Rubens is closely associated with the development of the Baroque altarpiece. He also exerted an influence on Baroque portraiture through his student Anthony van Dyck. Van Dyck became court painter for Charles I of England and was influential on subsequent English portraiture, other successful portraitists include Cornelis de Vos and Jacob JordaensFlemish Baroque painting – Peter Paul Rubens, The Raising of the Cross, c. 1610–1611
41. Poussinists and Rubenists – In 1671 an argument broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris about whether drawing or color was more important in painting. On one side stood the Poussinists who were a group of French artists, named after the painter Nicolas Poussin, on the other side were the Rubenists, named after Peter Paul Rubens, who prioritize color. There was a strong nationalistic flavour to the debate as Poussin was French but Rubens was Flemish, by that time the French Rococo was in full swing. The Poussinists believed in the Platonic idea of the existence in the mind of objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by the selection, using reason. For the Poussinists, therefore, color was a decorative addition to form and drawing. Their leader was Charles Lebrun, Director of the Academy, and their heroes were Raphael, the Carracci and their touchstones were the forms of classical art. They were opposed by the Rubenists who believed that colour, not drawing, was superior as it was true to nature. Their models were the works of Rubens who had prioritised the accurate depiction of nature over the imitation of classical art, the Rubenists argued that the aim of painting was to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of nature. Drawing, according to the Rubenists, although based on reason, to a certain extent, the debate was simply about whether it was acceptable to paint purely in order to give pleasure to the viewer without the nobler purposes typical of a history painting. Watteaus acceptance was, however, perhaps not everything that he could have hoped for, charles-Antoine Coypel, the son of its then director, tellingly said, The charming paintings of this gracious painter would be a bad guide for whoever wished to paint the Acts of the Apostles. Watteau is considered the greatest of the Rubenist artists, other important Rubenists include François Boucher and Jean-Honoré Fragonard. Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin benefited from the new found interest in still-life and genre painting, the debate and the overlapping development of the Rococo in eighteenth century France have been seen as a form of revival. Jean-Baptiste Dubos observed that what was comprehended through the mind paled compared to what was apprehended through the senses, quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns Poussinistes vs. RubenistesPoussinists and Rubenists – Poussin's Et in Arcadia ego (Les Bergers d’Arcadie), late 1630s.
42. Flemish art – Flemish painting flourished from the early 15th century until the 17th century. These painters were invited to work at foreign courts and had a Europe-wide influence, since the end of the Napoleonic era, Flemish painters had again been contributing to a reputation that had been set by the Old Masters. The Franco-Flemish School of musical composition flourished at the same time, the so-called Flemish Primitives were the first to popularize the use of oil paint. Their art has its origins in the painting of the late Gothic period. Chief among them were Jan van Eyck, Hans Memling, Hugo van der Goes, Robert Campin, the court of the Duchy of Burgundy was an important source of patronage. From the early 16th century, the Italian Renaissance started to influence the Flemish painters, the result was very different from the typical Italian Renaissance painting. The leading artist was Pieter Brueghel the Elder, who avoided direct Italian influence, after the Siege of Antwerp, the Southern Provinces of the Netherlands remained under Spanish rule and were separated from the independent Dutch Republic. Following the deaths of major artists like Rubens in 1640 and the end of the Eighty Years War in 1648, a revival of painting in this region came in the advent of the Belgian Revolution of 1830 and work around that time is often considered Flemish. The painters, who flourished in the aftermath of this period, are usually referred to as Belgian rather than Flemish. That kingdom comprising Flanders, often influences also more recent artistss categorization, new York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Moderne Vlaamse schilderkunst van 1850 tot 1950 van Leys tot Permeke, cS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list Liedtke, Walter A. Flemish paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, The Metropolitan Museum of ArtFlemish art – The Arnolfini portrait by Jan van Eyck.
43. Netherlandish art – From the late Middle Ages until about 1700 the Low Countries were a leading force in the art of northern Europe, thereafter becoming less important. In the earlier High Middle Ages Mosan art, from an area partly in the Low Countries, had had a similar role. The art of the Low Countries includes the traditions of Early Netherlandish painting and it begins approximately with the careers of Robert Campin and Hubert and Jan van Eyck around 1400 and ends with Gerard David about 1520. Other major figures include Rogier van der Weyden, Hugo van der Goes, the 16th century was a period of response to Italian Renaissance art and the development of several distinctly Netherlandish themes. At the start of the century Hieronymus Bosch painted fantastic images, often for courtly viewers, Jan Mabuse, Maarten van Heemskerck and Frans Floris were all instrumental in adopting Italian models and incorporating them into their own artistic language. The spread of Mannerism throughout Europe produced important forms of Northern Mannerist art in the Low Countries, finally, Joachim Patinir was a recognized innovator of landscape painting, while Pieter Bruegel the Elder and Pieter Aertsen helped establish genre painting as a popular subject matter. The 17th century was a period dominated by the distinct individuals Peter Paul Rubens in the Southern Netherlands, Dutch and Flemish painters both followed many of the same themes, including still life, genre, landscape, portraiture and classicism. The most famous painter from the region in the late 17th and early 18th century is Antoine Watteau, otherwise, few painters from about 1700 until the end of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1830 have been incorporated into the art historical discourse. Dutch painters such as Jacob de Wit adopted a lofty Rococo style, indebted somewhat to Rubens, for ceiling decorations, other painters, such as Cornelis Troost, looked to England and especially the works of William Hogarth, for inspiration. Art after 1830 in Belgium and the Netherlands follow separate paths as the countries further develop their own identities, james Ensor is an important figure from Belgium, while Vincent van Gogh, from the Netherlands, posthumously reached the level of modern superstar painter. Koldeweij, A. M. Alexandra Hermesdorf, Paul Huvenne, et alNetherlandish art – Jan van Eyck, The Arnolfini Portrait, National Gallery, London.
44. Palazzi di Genova – Palazzi di Genova is a 1622 book written and illustrated by Peter Paul Rubens, depicting and describing the palaces of Genoa, Italy in 72 plates. A second volume with 67 further plates was added the same year, the illustrations of the second part are usually considered not to be by Rubens though. It is the only book Rubens published himself, the first volume contained plans, facades and additional views of 12 of the palaces of Genoa, the second book contained a further 19 palaces and 4 churches. Included are many of the Palazzi dei Rolli and they were seen by Rubens during his trips to Italy. Rubens was an admirer of the architecture of Italy, as evidenced in his own house, the Genoese style, developed by architects like Galeazzo Alessi, became very popular, and their distribution in Northern Europe was at least partially due to the book by Rubens. Examples of this include the Hôtel de Ville, Lyon, rubenss Palazzi di Genova during the 17th Century in Europe, Questions and Problems. The 1924 German edition from archive. orgPalazzi di Genova – Plate 57 of the first volume of Palazzi di Genova, 1622
45. Rubenshuis – The Rubenshuis is the former home and studio of Peter Paul Rubens in Antwerp. A year after marrying Isabella Brant in 1609, Rubens began construction on an Italian-style villa on the then-Vaartstraat, at the time located at the banks of the canal Herentalse Vaart. Rubens designed the building himself, based on studies of Italian Renaissance palace architecture that formed the basis of his Palazzi di Genova. The layout included his home, studio, a monumental portico, the courtyard opens into a Baroque garden that he also planned. In the adjacent studio he and his students executed many of the works for which Rubens is famous and he had established a well-organised workshop that met the demands of his active studio, including large commissions from England, France, Spain and Bavaria and other locations. He relied on students and collaborators for much of the actual work, Rubens himself, however, guaranteed the quality and often finished paintings with his own hand. In a separate private studio he made drawings, portraits and small paintings without the assistance of his students, Rubens spent most of his lifetime in this palace. After his death, his wife Helena Fourment rented the building to William Cavendish, after the Cavendishes left in 1660, the house was sold. The city bought the house in 1937, and after a restoration the Rubenshuis was opened to the public in 1946. Dozens of paintings and artworks by Rubens and his contemporaries were installed in the rooms, paintings include his early Adam and Eve and a self portrait made when he was about fifty. The Rubenianum, a dedicated to the study of Rubens, is in a building at the rear of the garden. Rockox House Official Website of The Rubens House 360°-panorama van de RubenshuisRubenshuis – The interior courtyard