Tigress with Her Cubs
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1. Akademie der Bildenden Kunste, Vienna – The Academy of Fine Arts Vienna is a public art school of higher education in Vienna, Austria. In 1701 he was ennobled by Emperor Joseph I as Freiherr of the Empire, with his death in 1714, the academy temporarily closed. On 20 January 1725, Emperor Charles VI appointed the Frenchman Jacob van Schuppen as Prefect and Director of the Academy, hofakademie der Maler, Bildhauer und Baukunst. Upon Charles death in 1740, the academy at first declined, however during the rule of his daughter Empress Maria Theresa, a new statute reformed the academy in 1751. The prestige of the academy grew during the deanships of Michelangelo Unterberger and Paul Troger, in 1772, there were further reforms to the organisational structure. Chancellor Wenzel Anton Kaunitz integrated all existing art schools into the k. k. vereinigten Akademie der bildenden Künste, the word vereinigten was later dropped. In 1822 the art cabinet grew significantly with the bequest of honorary member Anton Franz de Paula Graf Lamberg-Sprinzenstein and his collection still forms the backbone of the art on display. In 1872 Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria approved a statute making the academy the supreme government authority for the arts, a new building was constructed according to plans designed by the faculty Theophil Hansen in the course of the layout of the Ringstraße boulevard. On 3 April 1877, the building on Schillerplatz in the Innere Stadt district was inaugurated. In 1907 and 1908, young Adolf Hitler, who had come from Linz, was denied admission to the drawing class. He stayed in Vienna, subsisting on his allowance. Soon he had withdrawn into poverty and started selling amateur paintings, mostly watercolours, during the Austrian Anschluss to Nazi Germany from 1938–1945, the academy was forced to heavily reduce its number of Jewish staff. After World War II, the academy was reconstituted in 1955 and it has had university status since 1998, but retained its original name. It is currently the only Austrian university that doesnt have the university in its name. The Academy currently has about 900 students, almost a quarter of which are foreign students and its faculty includes stars such as Peter Sloterdijk. 110,000 volumes and its etching cabinet has about 150,000 drawings, the collection is one of the biggest in Austria, and is used for academic purposes, although portions are also open to the general public. Official website website of the Media Server Study in Austria, A GuideAkademie der Bildenden Kunste, Vienna – Main entrance on Schillerplatz
2. Virgin and Child (Rubens) – The Virgin and Child is a painting by Rubens, commissioned in 1604 and completed between 1608 and 1621. It was seized by France in 1803 and is now in the Musée des Beaux-Arts Tours and it was commissioned by Anne Antheunis, widow of Alexander I Goubau, grand almoner of Antwerp, shortly after her husbands death. She intended is as an ex voto for their joint funeral monument, then in Italy, Rubens only began the work on his return to Flanders in 1608, including a posthumous portrait of Alexandre-Jean and one of Anne from life. It was complete by 1621, the date of Annes deathVirgin and Child (Rubens) – External links 
3. The Fall of Phaeton (Rubens) – The Fall of Phaeton is a painting by the Flemish master Peter Paul Rubens, featuring the ancient Greek myth of Phaeton, a recurring theme in visual arts. Rubens chose to depict the myth at the height of its action, the thunderbolts provide the light contrast to facilitate the display of horror on the faces of Phaeton, the horses and other figures while preserving the darkness of the event. The butterfly winged female figures represent the hours and seasons, who react in terror as the night, the great astrological circle that arches the heavens is also disrupted. The assemblage of bodies form an oval in the center, separating dark. The bodies are arranged so as to assist the viewer’s travel continually around that oval, Rubens painted The Fall of Phaeton in Rome and the painting was probably reworked later around 1606/1608. It has been housed in the National Gallery of Art since 5 January 1990, Rubens also painted other Greek mythological subjects, such as The Fall of Icarus, Perseus Freeing Andromeda, and The Judgement of ParisThe Fall of Phaeton (Rubens) – The Fall of Phaeton
4. The Circumcision (Rubens) – The Circumcision is an oil on canvas painting of the Circumcision of Jesus by Peter Paul Rubens, produced in 1605 during his stay in Rome. It is now in the Chiesa del Gesù e dei Santi Ambrogio e Andrea church in Genoa and it was commissioned by Marcello Pallavicino, vestryman of the Casa Professa of Jesuits in Genoa. It is mainly influenced by Mantuan paintings from the court of Vincenzo Gonzaga, G. Bertelli, G. Briganti, A. Giuliano, Storia dellArte Italiana, vol. 3, p.299, Roma 2009, Edizioni Scolastiche Bruno MondadoriThe Circumcision (Rubens) – The Circumcision
5. Portrait of Marchesa Brigida Spinola-Doria – The Portrait of Marchesa Brigida Spinola-Doria is an oil painting by Peter Paul Rubens, dating to 1606. It is now in the National Gallery of Art in Washington and it was commissioned by Marquess Giacomo Massimiliano Doria, of Genoa, and shows his wife shortly after their wedding in 1605, she came from the equally prominent Spinola family. He died in 1613 and she remarried another Doria and it has been cut several times on each side, removing the garden shown in the background and the lower part of the figure. The overall dimensions of the painting are now 152 by 98 centimetres after the original was reduced in size during the 19th century. Rubens completed a pen and brown ink study for the painting, details removed include the bottom of the Marchesas floor-length wedding gown as the painting has been cut just below her knees and the architecture that formed the backdrop. Writing in The Burlington Magazine in 1951, Christopher Norris indicated the sketch portrayed an older than the 22-year-old Marchesa. In the painting the Marchesa is placed in an opulent setting to convey luxury, adorned with jewels, she wears a satin and lace dress with a broad ruff round her neck. Light is used to emphasise the draping of her wedding gown. It subsequently became the property of Marchessa Brigida Spinola-Dorias second husband, probably in 1625 and it remained in the family until given to relatives of Rati Opizzone. By 1848 it was held in Paris by Simon Horsín-Déon, four years later, in 1854, the portrait was in London and sold several times before being purchased by the Samuel H. Kress foundation in 1957 who donated it to the National Gallery of Art in 1961. First exhibited in 1952 at the Minneapolis Institute of Art when it was likely in the ownership of the Duveen Brothers, since 1961 it has regularly been featured in exhibitionsPortrait of Marchesa Brigida Spinola-Doria – Description 
6. Adoration of the Magi (Rubens, Madrid) – For other treatments of this subject by the same artist, see Adoration of the Magi. The Adoration of the Magi is a painting by the Flemish Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens and he first painted it in 1609 and later gave it a major reworking between 1628 and 1629 during his second trip to Spain. It is now in the Museo del Prado in Madrid and it is one of many works on the subject by Rubens - others include those of 1616-17 and 1624. Towards the end of 1608 Antwerp was preparing to receive the peace delegates negotiating an end to the war between Spain and the Dutch Republic and their negotiations were to be held in Antwerp City Hall between 28 March and 9 April 1609 and resulted in the Twelve Years Truce. He had returned to Antwerp and was already the citys most notable painter and he was paid 1,800 florins for the commission. The theme of the commission was an allusion to the benefits the city hoped to gain from peace, there is also a study for the whole work in a private collection in London, which allows its original appearance to be reconstructed. The town magistrates presented the painting to Calderón, but in 1621 he fell into disgrace and was executed, in 1623 Philip IV of Spain purchased the painting from the sale of Calderóns collection and installed it in his Royal Alcázar of Madrid. In September 1628 Rubens travelled to Spain for the second time and he had been summoned there to inform the king about his peace negotiations with Britain, but was also able to rework the painting while he was there. Francisco Pacheco relates in his work El arte de la pintura changed some things in his painting of the Adoration of the Magi that was in the palace. This amounted to a complete re-working, with details modified, strips added to the top and right hand edges. It was later installed in the Royal Palace of Madrid and he went to the Museo del Prado. In 2004, the painting underwent a complete restoration, catalogue entry Article on the painting in the Enciclopedia online del Prado. The painting in the Prados online gallery, Article on the painting on the Centro Virtual Cervantes. The painting on the Prado website, El Siglo de Rubens en el Museo del Prado. Catálogo Razonado de Pintura Flamenca del Siglo XVII, barcelona / Madrid, Editorial Prensa Ibérica, S. A. / Museo Nacional del Prado. Museo del Prado, Catálogo de las pinturas, Madrid, Ministerio de Educación y CulturaAdoration of the Magi (Rubens, Madrid) – Contents
7. Samson and Delilah (Rubens) – Samson and Delilah is a painting by the Flemish Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens which is currently on display in the National Gallery. It dates from about 1609 to 1610, two preliminary copies of the painting also exist today, an ink and wash drawing on paper, and an oil sketch on wood panel. The oil sketch is currently on display in the Cincinnati Art Museum, the painting depicts an episode from the Old Testament story of Samson and Delilah. Samson was a Hebrew hero known for fighting the Philistines, having fallen in love with Delilah, who has been bribed by the Philistines, Samson tells her the secret of his great strength, his uncut hair. Without his strength, Samson is captured by the Philistines, Rubens portrays the moment when, having fallen asleep on Delilahs lap, a young man cuts Samsons hair. Samson and Delilah are in a room, which is lit mostly by a candle held by an old woman to Delilahs left. Delilah is depicted with all of her clothes, but with her breasts exposed and her left hand is on top of Samsons right shoulder, as his left arm is draped over her legs. The man snipping Samsons hair is crossing his hands, which is a sign of betrayal, philistine soldiers can be seen in the right-hand background of the painting. The niche behind Delilah contains a statue of the Venus, the Goddess of love, notably, Cupids mouth is bound, rather than his eyes. This statue can be taken to represent the cause of Samsons fate, the old woman standing behind Delilah, providing further light for the scene, does not appear in the biblical narrative of Samson and Delilah. She is believed to be a procuress, and the adjacent profiles of her and Delilah may symbolise the old womans past, the painting was originally commissioned by Nicolaas II Rockox, Lord mayor of Antwerp, Belgium, for his Rockox House. In addition to being a patron, Rockox was a personal friend of Rubens. The painting was intended to be placed above a 7-foot mantleshelf. The painting was sold for charity when Rockox died in 1640. In 1700, a panel named Samson and Delilah was bought by Prince Johann Adams Andreas I and this painting was likely Rubens painting. The painting was sold in 1880 in Paris, where it was later found by Ludwig Burchard in 1929. Eventually, the painting sold at auction in 1980 at Christies, purchased by the National Gallery, there has been some doubt cast over the attribution of the painting to Rubens, led by the artist and scholar of Fayum portraits Euphronsyne Doxiades. The painting was attributed to the Dutch painter Gerard van HonthorstSamson and Delilah (Rubens) – Samson and Delilah
8. Honeysuckle Bower – The Honeysuckle Bower is a self-portrait of the Flemish Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens and his first wife Isabella Brant. They wed on 3 October 1609, in St. Michaels Abbey, Antwerp, the painting is a full-length double portrait of the couple seated in a bower of honeysuckle. They are surrounded by love and marriage symbolism, the honeysuckle, additionally, Rubens depicts himself as an aristocratic gentleman with his left hand on the hilt of his sword. Media related to Honeysuckle Bower by Peter Paul Rubens at Wikimedia Commons Web Gallery of ArtHoneysuckle Bower – The Honeysuckle Bower
9. The Four Philosophers – The Four Philosophers is a 1611-12 painting by Peter Paul Rubens. It is now held in the Galleria Palatina of the Palazzo Pitti in Florence and it also features in the 1772 painting The Tribuna of the Uffizi by Zoffany. Beginning from left to right it shows Peter Paul, Philip Rubens, Justus Lipsius, in the background is Peter Pauls bust of Seneca, now believed to be a copy of an imaginary Hellenistic portrait of the Greek poet Hesiod. Marco Chiarini, Galleria palatina e Appartamenti Reali, Sillabe, Livorno 1998The Four Philosophers – Bibliography 
10. The Crowning of the Virtuous Hero – The Crowning of the Virtuous Hero is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens, painted between 1613 and 1614. Unsigned, it was commissioned by the St George Guild of Archers in Antwerp for their hall and is now in the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister within the Schloss Wilhelmshöhe in Kassel. It shows an ancient Roman general being crowned by Nike with laurels of victory and treading underfoot a bound barbarian, to his right is a genius of Harmony, who presents him with a bound bundle of arrows. The figure on the right is intended as the guardian of religion. Behind the altar is a red and white tricolour, referring to the house of Habsburg. William VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel acquired the painting between 1730 and 1760 to add to his collection of Dutch paintings at the Schloss Bellevue in Kassels Oberneustadt or upper new town. In 1813 general Czerniczew forced Jerome Bonaparte to flee and negotiations began for the return of this, jacob Grimm played an instrumental part in gaining the return of the Rubens, which occurred in December 1815. Between 1878 and 1943, the painting was in the Neue Galerie at the Schloss Bellevue, in 1943 the painting was moved to a store elsewhere - Kassel was a target for Allied bombing and the Schloss Wilhelmshöhe was severely damaged. In 1956 the painting was moved to headquarters of the Landesmuseum until in April 1974 it returned to Kassel. Georg Westermann Verlag, Braunschweig 1982, S. 38-45 Eduard Brauns, a. Bernecker Verlag, Melsungen 1971, S.20 u.21 Friedhelm Häring Hans, Joachim Klein, DuMont Kunst- Reiseführer Hessen. Auflage 1988, S.56 Jürgen Weishaupt, Kasseler Kostbarkeiten, Verlag Thiele & Schwarz, Kassel 1981, S.8 u.66The Crowning of the Virtuous Hero – The Coronation of the Virtuous Hero
11. St Sebastian (Rubens) – St Sebastian is a painting of c.1614 by Peter Paul Rubens, showing the Christian Saint Sebastian. It dates to the years of Rubens stay in Rome - its sinuous line and defined figures are thought to be the result of his studies of Michelangelo. It was bought by the Borghese directly from cardinal Neri Corsini in Brussels and it is now in the Borghese collection. In 1618, Rubens wrote the English Sir Dudley Carlton a letter describing a collection of his own paintings he had at his home he wished to trade and it is more than likely not that this is that paintingSt Sebastian (Rubens) – Paintings and drawings
12. Madonna of the Basket (Rubens) – The Madonna of the Basket or the Madonna della Cesta is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens, dated to around 1615. It is now held in the Galleria Palatina of the Palazzo Pitti in Florence, between 1799 and 1815 it was confiscated by the French and assigned to the Dijon Museum of Fine Arts. Marco Chiarini, Galleria palatina e Appartamenti Reali, Sillabe, Livorno 1998Madonna of the Basket (Rubens) – This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Italian. (January 2015) Click [show] for important translation instructions.
13. The Lion and Leopard Hunt – The Lion and Leopard Hunt or The Lion Hunt is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens, now held in the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister in Dresden. It is very similar to his The Tiger Hunt from the musée des beaux-arts de Rennes,2, Oxford University Press and Harvey Miller Ltd, coll. « Corpus Rubenianum Ludwig Burchard »,1986,406 p. part XVIII David Rosand, Rubenss Munich Lion Hunt, Its Sources and Significance, The Art Bulletin, College Art Association,51, no 1, March 1969, p. 29-40The Lion and Leopard Hunt – Notes 
14. Adoration of the Magi (Rubens, Lyon) – For other treatments of this subject by the same artist, see Adoration of the Magi. The Adoration of the Magi is a c. 1617-18 painting by Peter Paul Rubens and it is now in the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon Since it is horizontal rather than vertical it was probably commissioned for a private collection rather than as an altarpiece. 1608-09, might suggest that the Lyon painting was also a secular commission, Rubens made a considerable fortune via the paintings reproduction in engravings and tapestries. The painting arranges full-length figures across the canvas, backed by a frieze-like crowd showing a variety of mature male types, the dim stable is lit by shafts of light. It languished as a copy until Jacques Fouquart resuscitated its reputation, recognized as a work of Rubens, in the exhibition Le siècle de Rubens, ParisAdoration of the Magi (Rubens, Lyon) – The Adoration of the Magi
15. The Five Senses (series) – They are now in the Prado Museum in Madrid. They are all painted in oils on panel, approximately 65 by 110 centimetres in dimensions. The series constitutes one of the best known and most successful collaborations by Brueghel and Rubens and his approach was widely copied in later Flemish painting. Rubens painted the female figures, accompanied by a putto or a winged Cupid in Sight, Hearing, Smell and Touch. The figure in Hearing is playing the lute amongst a collection of musical instruments, in Smell, she sits among flowers in a garden, with a perfume distillery visible on the left. In Taste, seated at a table groaning with food fit for a banquet, she is eating an oyster, in Touch, she embraces a putto in a superbly equipped armoury where there are also medical instruments, pain being an aspect of touch. In Hearing, the music is a dedicated to the couple. Ferdinand in turn offered them through the Duke of Medina de las Torres to his brother King Philip IV of Spain and they were subsequently housed in other royal palaces in Madrid and became part of the founding collection of the Prado in 1819. The Five Senses, executed in the period by Brueghel and 11 others Sight, PD1394, Hearing, PD1395, Smell, PD1396, Taste, PD1397, Touch, PD1398The Five Senses (series) – Sight, 1617
16. The Union of Earth and Water – The pair is crowned by the goddess Victoria and the union is heralded through a conch by the Triton below. The painting features a pyramidal composition, symmetry and the balance of forms and it was influenced by late Italian Renaissance, particularly by Venetian artists. A smaller copy of the made in the Rubens workshop was owned by the Russian businessman Vladimir Logvinenko. Following the abolition of a thirty per cent import duty on artworks in 2004, the painting is housed in the Rubens Hall of the Hermitage Museum, Russia. Previously it had been in the Chigi Collection in Rome from which it was acquired by the Hermitage Museum between 1798 and 1800The Union of Earth and Water – The Union of Earth and Water
17. Feast in the House of Simon the Pharisee – Feast in the House of Simon the Pharisee, also known as Christ in the Home of Simon the Pharisee, is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens. 1618-1620, and is in The Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, the painting depicts an incident from Luke 7 where Jesus visits Simon the Pharisee, and has his feet anointed by a sinful woman. Jesus proceeds to tell the Parable of the Two DebtorsFeast in the House of Simon the Pharisee – Feast in the House of Simon the Pharisee
18. The Conversion of Saint Paul (Rubens, Berlin) – The Conversion of Saint Paul is a 1620s painting by Peter Paul Rubens, now missing or lost. It showed the conversion of Paul the Apostle and it was produced for Władysław Vasa of Poland. It remained in France for over a century, until it was bought by G Harris in 1819 and it was bought from him in 1903 by the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin. The painting was moved to the Flakturm Friedrichshain in Berlin for safety with the rest of the collection around 1942 and was lost or destroyed some time between March and May 1945. Between 11 March and 2 May 1945 all but 434 paintings were evacuated from the tower to former salt mines in Thuringia, the tower was surrendered to the Red Army on 2 May and its museum guards sent home. They returned on 4 and 5 May, finding one of the floors broken, on 6 May another floor burned out, with heat and smoke preventing entry, and between 14 and 18 May 1945 the whole tower was destroyed by fire. Rubens, the life of Christ after the passion, Peter Paul Rubens et la France, 1600–1640The Conversion of Saint Paul (Rubens, Berlin) – This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2015)
19. Saint George and the Dragon (Rubens) – Saint George and the Dragon is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens, based upon the motif with the same name. It is housed in the Museo del Prado of Madrid and it was painted in Genoa while Rubens was in Italy to complete his artistic training. The princess presence on the left is included to represent the Church, media related to Saint George and the Dragon by Rubens at Wikimedia CommonsSaint George and the Dragon (Rubens) – Saint George and the Dragon
20. Perseus Freeing Andromeda (Rubens) – Perseus Freeing Andromeda is a painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens, executed in 1607. It is housed in the Gemäldegalerie of Berlin, Germany, the painting belonged the M. Pasquier collection in Rouen, which was auctioned in 1755 in Paris. In the 18th century it entered the collection of Frederick II of Prussia and, in 1830, the scene is similar to another Perseus Freeing Andromeda by Rubens now in the Hermitage Museum of St. Petersburg. It depicts the Greek mythology hero Perseus in the act of freeing Andromeda, Perseus, wearing helmet, cuirass and cloak, is sided by two puttoes, and one of them is helping him in removing the ropes that tie Andromeda to the rock. On the left, two puttoes are playing with Pegasus, Perseus winged horse, jaffé, M. Catalogo completo di RubensPerseus Freeing Andromeda (Rubens) – Perseus Freeing Andromeda
21. The Three Graces (Rubens, monochrome) – The Three Graces is a grisaille painting by Peter Paul Rubens, dating to 1620-1623. It is now held in the Galleria Palatina in Florence and it was acquired by Monsignor Francesco Airoldi, nuncio to Brussels, who offered it to cardinal Leopoldo de Medici, a great admirer of Rubens. The cardinals art collection passed to the Uffizi after his death - the grisaille was transferred to the Palatina in 1928The Three Graces (Rubens, monochrome) – External links 
22. Isabella Brant (drawing) – Isabella Brant, a portrait drawing, was executed in Antwerp around 1621 by Flemish artist and diplomat, Peter Paul Rubens. Brant was Rubens first wife and modelled for some of his portraits until her death in 1626. The portrait is drawn in black and red chalk with white heightening on brown wash paper and this drawing is noted for its immediacy and attractiveness and was the basis for three oil paintings. The first was painted in 1621 by Rubens pupil, Anthony van Dyck as a gift to his mentor and this portrait now hangs in the National Gallery of Art in Washington. The second, painted by Rubens between 1620 and 1625, is located in the Cleveland Museum of Art and the third painted by Rubens in 1625, is located in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. Following Rubens death, the drawing passed through five known collectors and was acquired by the British Museum in 1893. During re-mounting work in 1964, a sketch was discovered on the reverse side of the portrait. The sketch, also in red and black chalk is presumed to be a self-portrait of Rubens, the portrait of Isabella Brant was drawn by Rubens around 1621, when she was about 30 years old and had been married to Rubens for 12 years. Rubens employed the aux trois crayons technique, using red and black chalk, the head of the portrait was sketched in detail while the eyes had been retouched with pen and black ink. This drawing, which is the only one sketched of Isabella Brant in this medium, has been admired for centuries as a example of Rubens portrait drawing. Rubens intimate drawing was intended to capture the sweetness and vivacity of his first wife, the sitters head is shown with a slight downward tilt — facing slightly to the left and looking directly at the observer. She is shown wearing drop earrings and her hair and features are depicted with care, while her clothes are sketchily portrayed. Her mischievous smile is further enhanced by the dimples in her plump cheeks, the great detail and animation of the portrait suggests that Rubens had great affection for his wife. The drawing was used as a basis for three oil portraits, the 1621 painting of Brant outside the portico of the family home, was done by Rubens pupil, Anthony van Dyck as a parting gift to his mentor. The striking similarity between the portrait and drawing meant that van Dyck would have had access to the sketch for this work. The Cleveland portrait by Rubens, painted between 1620 and 1625, displays such as the pulled-back hair and the mocking smile. The Uffizi, portrait was produced close to Brants death in June 1626, although the pose is similar, the face exhibits puffiness as a result of her illness. In 1964, the drawing was re-mounted in preparation for its showing at the 1965 Masterpieces of the Print Room exhibition at the British MuseumIsabella Brant (drawing) – A portrait of Isabella Brant
23. The Lion Hunt (Rubens) – The Lion Hunt is a 1621 painting by Peter Paul Rubens, now held in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich. It shows two lions attacked by hunters on horseback and on foot and it marks the end of an intensive creative phase for Rubens centred on the theme of hunting. 2, Oxford University Press and Harvey Miller Ltd, coll, « Corpus Rubenianum Ludwig Burchard »,1986,406 p. partie XVIII David Rosand, « Rubenss Munich Lion Hunt, Its Sources and Significance », The Art Bulletin, College Art Association, vol. 51, no 1, March 1969, p. 29-40The Lion Hunt (Rubens) – Bibliography 
24. Marie de' Medici cycle – The Marie de Medici Cycle is a series of twenty-four paintings by Peter Paul Rubens commissioned by Marie de Medici, widow of Henry IV of France, for the Luxembourg Palace in Paris. Rubens received the commission in the autumn of 1621, after negotiating the terms of the contract in early 1622, the project was to be completed within two years, coinciding with the marriage of Maries daughter, Henrietta Maria. Twenty-one of the paintings depict Maries own struggles and triumphs in life, the remaining three are portraits of herself and her parents. The paintings now hang in the Louvre in Paris, much speculation exists on the exact circumstances under which Marie de Medici decided to commission Rubens to paint such a grandiose project, conceived in truly heroic proportions. The immortalizing of her life, however, seems to be the most apparent reason for the Queens choice to commission a painter who was capable of executing such a demanding task. The contract stated that Rubens was to paint all the figures, Marie de Medici became the second wife to King Henry IV of France in a marriage by proxy on 5 October 1600 by the power invested in her uncle, Grand Duke Ferdinand of Tuscany. When Henry was assassinated in 1610, Louis XIII, his son, Louis mother, Marie, acted as his regent as commanded by the Frankish Salic law in case of an infant ruler. However, even after Louis came of age at thirteen in 1614, in 1617, Louis XIII finally decided to take governing matters in his own hands at the age of fifteen and the queen was exiled to Blois. Louis and his mother were not reconciled for over four years, upon her return, Marie focused on building and decorating the Luxembourg Palace, an enormous undertaking in which Peter Paul Rubens played a key role. Rubens, then court painter to the Duchy of Mantua under Vincenzo I Gonzaga, had first met Marie at her wedding in Florence in 1600. In 1621, Marie de Medici commissioned Rubens to paint two large series depicting the lives of herself and her husband, Henry IV, to adorn both wings of the first floor of the Luxembourg Palace. The cycle of paintings dedicated to the life of Henry IV was never completed, the fact that the Henry IV series was not realized can be attributed in part to Marie de Medici being permanently banned from France by her son in 1631. She escaped to Brussels, and later died in exile in 1642 in the house that the Peter Paul Rubenss family had occupied more than fifty years prior. While this cycle was one of Rubenss first great commissions, Marie de Medicis life proved a one to portray. Rubens had the task of creating twenty-one paintings about a woman whose life could be measured by her marriage to Henry IV, furthermore, unlike her husband, Maries life was neither graced with triumphant victories nor punctuated by vanquished foes. Rather, implications of political scandal in her life made any literal depiction of the far too controversial for Rubens to execute without incurring the disapproval from others in government. Rubens painted extravagant images of the Queen Mother surrounded by ancient gods, the ambiguity of the figures was essentially used to depict Marie in a positive light. Rubenss Medici commission was an inspiration for artists as well, particularly the French painters Jean-Antoine WatteauMarie de' Medici cycle – Maria de' Medici
25. The Reconciliation of Esau and Jacob – The Reconciliation of Esau and Jacob is a 1624 painting by Peter Paul Rubens. Originally in the Spanish royal collection, it was sent to Germany by Maria Anna of Neuburg to her brother Johann Wilhelm and it is now in the Staatsgalerie Schleissheim near Munich. It shows the story of meeting between Jacob and Esau. It was the model for a painting by Abraham Willemsen and this painting was featured in Willem van Haechts Gallery of Cornelis van der Geest with Joseph and Potiphars wife, 1630sThe Reconciliation of Esau and Jacob – A study for the work (National Galleries of Scotland)
26. The Annunciation (Rubens) – The Annunciation is the title of two paintings by Peter Paul Rubens. The first was commissioned by the Jesuit college in Antwerp and painted in 1609 and it is now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. Around 1610 Rubens composed the second version and painted the righthand half, in 1627-1628 he completed it and also modified the figure of Mary. It is now in the Rubenshuis in Antwerp, who acquired it in 1954, the two compositions are strikingly different. The Vienna painting is a traditional composition. The angel Gabriel is on the right and he has just alighted on the ground, his robe still billowing from his flight, and he kneels as if in reverence or supplication. Mary stands on the left facing Gabriel, but she leans back slightly as if in surprise or alarm, the Antwerp painting is a more original composition. Mary kneels on the right, her body is turned away from Gabriel, Gabriel is still airborne, he reaches with his left hand toward Mary and points with his right hand toward heaven. The Rubenshuis painting was in Madrid during Rubens stay there from 28 August 1628 to 29 April 1629, there it was acquired by Diego Messia, marquis de Leganés, commander of the Spanish artillery and cavalry in the Spanish Netherlands. In 1655, the painting was in the inventory of the collection then it was left to the Altamira family. It then passed through the Smith, Hamlet, earl of Caldon and Graupe collections in Britain before being acquired by the Brussels collector Gaston DulièreThe Annunciation (Rubens) – History 
27. Ildefonso Altarpiece – The Ildefonso Altarpiece is a triptych painting by Peter Paul Rubens, dating to between 1630 and 1631. It is now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum of Vienna and it is named after the central panel, which shows Saint Ildefonsuss vision of the Virgin Mary, in which she gave him a casula. On the side panels are Isabella Clara Eugenia and Albert VII, regents of the Spanish Netherlands, with their patron saints Albert and Elisabeth of HungaryIldefonso Altarpiece – External links 
28. The Rape of the Sabine Women (Rubens) – The Rape of the Sabine Women is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens. It is now in the Belfius Collection and it was commissioned by Philip IV of Spain in 1639 but was still incomplete on Rubens death a year later. It was completed by the Brussels painter Gaspar de Crayer, palais des Beux-Arts de Lille RUBENSThe Rape of the Sabine Women (Rubens) – Bibliography 
29. Consequences of War – Consequences of War, also known as Horror of war, was executed between 1638-1639 by Peter Paul Rubens in oil paint on canvas. It was painted for Ferdinando II de Medici, although commissioned by an Italian, art historians characterize both the work and the artist as Flemish Baroque. It serves as a commentary on a European continent ravaged by the Thirty Years War, Mars, Mars is the central figure in the composition. The Roman god of war charges with shield and sword as well as breastplate, the figure’s skin and cape are dominated by the color red to further emphasize his identity as the Roman god. Book and Drawing, Underneath Mars’s feet lie a book and a drawing and these represent the manner in which the arts and letters are forgotten and destroyed in the chaos and violence of war. Temple of Janus, To the far left of the painting, in Ancient Rome, the Temple of Janus would be closed to indicate times of peace while an open door denoted war. This phenomenon is referenced in Fasti by Ovid, Venus, The Roman goddess of love endeavors to restrain Mars and keep the peace. Her arm is looped ineffectually around his in a physical gesture and her expression, meanwhile, plaintively entreaties Mars to stop his charge. Venus is depicted in typical Rubensian fashion with characteristic rolls of exposed flesh The goddess is accompanied by Amors, Fury Alekto, Alekto drags Mars on to his destructive purpose with a torch held high. Alekto was the Greek and Roman incarnation of anger and she appears in both Virgil’s Aeneid and Dante’s Inferno. Alekto translates from the Greek to “the implacable or unceasing anger. ”Pestilence and Famine, in addition, they deliberately refer to the apocalypse. Harmony, Rubens depicts Harmony as a holding a lute. However the chaos has pushed her to the ground and broken her lute, the damage to the lute represents the discord of war. Mother, Beside Harmony a mother clutches a child. This, Rubens writes, shows how “War corrupts and disrupts and destroys everything” including “procreation and charity. ”Architect, An architect and his instruments have similarly fallen to the ground, showing how in times of war destruction and not creation is the norm. Arrows, Arrows lie on the ground near Venus and the Amors, when bound together they represent Concord but in their present state show its absence. Next to them lie the olive branch and caduceus, the symbols of peace and they too are depicted cast upon the ground to signify their absence in Europe. Woman in black, The figure to Venus’s left represents Europe and her cross-topped globe represents the Christian world and is carried by the small angel to her immediate leftConsequences of War – Consequences of War
30. Deianira Listens to Fame – Deianira Listens to Fame or Deianira delivering the fatal tunic to the Fury is a 1638 oil painting on canvas. It is now in the Sabauda Gallery in Turin and it is a pendant to another Rubens painting, Hercules in the Garden of the Hesperides. It shows Hercules wife Deianira and another holding an bloody tunicDeianira Listens to Fame – Paintings and drawings
31. Jan Rubens – Jan Rubens was a Flemish magistrate of Antwerp, best known today as the father of Peter Paul Rubens. Rubens was born in Antwerp to an old merchant family and he was trained as a scholar and travelled to Italy where he received his diploma in Canon law in Rome in 1550. He returned north in 1557 and set up his practise in Antwerp where he married Maria Pypelinckx in 1558, on 7 May 1562 he became magistrate of Antwerp and served until 1568, when he fled to Cologne with his family, probably to avoid the Council of Troubles. His position and that of his fellow magistrates became precarious when the Duke of Alva came north to suppress the rebellion after the Beeldenstorm. In Cologne he could renew his work as a lawyer, because there were many Dutch refugees there who wanted to recover seized property they had left behind and he began to work as an advisor to Anna of Saxony and they had an affair at her home in Siegen. By the time it was discovered, she was pregnant and Rubens was arrested during a trip he took to Siegen to visit her and his wife, who knew nothing of the affair, came to support him after he wrote to tell her he feared he would be executed. She supported him throughout his imprisonment and his illegitimate daughter Christina van Diez was born 22 August 1571. Rubens remained in prison, but was allowed to live in Siegen with his family under house arrest in 1573 and was completely released after the death of Anna. In 1574 Philips was born and in 1577 Peter Paul was born, Rubens died in Cologne and his wife wrote an epitaph in Latin that was installed on his gravestone in the St. Peters church there. After the burial she took her back to Antwerp where she stayedJan Rubens – Latin Epitaph for Jan Rubens, written in Latin by Maria complimenting him as a husband, but with the poignant remark that she bore 7 children "all by him".
32. Isabella Brant – Isabella Brant was a Flemish artists model who was the first wife of painter Peter Paul Rubens. She was the daughter of Jan Brant, an important city official in Antwerp and her aunt Mary was married to Phillipe I Rubens, brother of her future husband. Isabella Brant married the brother of her uncle Peter Paul on 3 October 1609 in St. Michaels Abbey and they had three children, Clara, Nicolaas, Lord of Rameyen and Albert. She was 34 years old when she died of the plague, several paintings of Brant and one important drawing of her by Rubens survive, in addition to a portrait of her by Rubens disciple and assistant, Anthony van Dyck. In 1977, Brant appeared on a stamp of Anguilla. Liedtke, Walter A. Flemish paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, new York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Media related to Isabella Brant at Wikimedia CommonsIsabella Brant – Portrait of Isabella Brant by Rubens, c. 1620-1625 (Cleveland Museum of Art)
33. Tobias Verhaecht – Tobias Verhaecht was a Flemish painter primarily of landscapes. His style was indebted to the mannerist world landscape developed by artists like Joachim Patinir and it is not clear with whom he studied. Before 1590 he travelled to Italy and first worked in Florence where Francesco I de Medici and he then moved on to Rome where he was active as a painter of landscape frescos. He returned to Antwerp where he became a master of the Guild of St. Luke in 1590–91 and he married Suzanna van Mockenborch, who was the granddaughter of Peter Paul Rubens stepfather and a cousin of his mother. After the death of his first wife in 1595, he remarried the next year, Verhaecht was a member of a local Chamber of rhetoric and wrote a comedy for it in 1620. He was the first teacher of Rubens who studied with him around 1592 and his other pupils included his son Willem van Haecht, Jacques Backereel, Geeraert van Beemel, Cornelis Bol, Pieter van den Hoeck and Abraham Matthyssens. Verhaecht specialized in landscapes and also produced versions of the Tower of Babel. The landscapes depict imaginary mountains characterized by rocky peaks seen from a high viewpoint and his work closely resembles in style the set of 12 large landscape prints published by Hieronymus Cock after designs by Pieter Bruegel the Elder. Some of Verhaecht’s landscapes were made into prints and he collaborated with other local painters such as Jan Brueghel the Elder, Frans Francken the Younger, Sebastian Vrancx and Gillis Coignet who painted the figures in his paintings. ISBN 0-300-07038-1 Tobias Verhaecht on ArtcyclopediaTobias Verhaecht – St John the Evangelist at Patmos, Tobias Verhaecht and Gillis Coignet
34. Adam van Noort – Adam van Noort was a Flemish painter and draughtsman and one of the teachers of Peter Paul Rubens. Adam van Noort was mainly know for his paintings but he also created some portraits. He was a designer for engravings for the Collaert family of printmakers and publishers, Adam van Noort was born and died in Antwerp. He was the son of Lambert van Noort from Amersfoort and Katelijne van Broeckhuysen from Zwolle and his parents had established themselves in Antwerp where Lambert became a member of the local Guild of Saint Luke in 1549. His father was primarily as a designer of stained-glass windows and engravings, an architect and, to a lesser extent. Adam van Noort probably initially trained with his father but must have had other teachers since his father died when he was still young and he was not registered with any other teacher in the records of the Guild of Saint Luke. He became a master of the Guild of Saint Luke in 1587 and he married Elisabeth Nuyts, with whom he had five children. Van Noort served as dean of the Guild of Saint Luke from 1597 until 1602 and he had problems with the Guild, which accused him of poor management of the accounts and misappropriation of materials of the Guild. Some other guild members objected to his actions and he was forced to substitute the panels, the commission to paint the substituted panels did finally not go to van Noort but to Maerten de Vos. A second conflict with the Guild arose from the fact that he did not settle his accounts in time after he ceased being a deacon of the Guild. Adam’s present-day fame largely rests on the fact that he was the teacher of two of the leading Flemish Baroque painters Peter Paul Rubens and Jacob Jordaens, Rubens only stayed for a little over a year and is not believed to have been influenced much by van Noorts training. Jordaens married van Noort’s daughter Elisabeth and would influence the style of his teacher, the total number of pupils of van Noort was around 35. This attests to the fact that in his time he was a respected artist. He was also successful and was able to acquire several properties in Antwerp. The other pupils of Adam van Noort include Hendrick van Balen, Ferdinand van Apshoven the Elder, Artus de Bruyn, Hendrik van der Eedt, Remoldus Eynhoudt, van Noort lived to an old age but likely ceased practising as an artist aroun 1630. He made his last will on 31 August 1640 and died not long after September that year, van Noort painted mainly paintings of religious subjects and portraits. He collaborated with Marten de Vos and Ambrosius Francken on the decorations for the Joyous Entry of Archduke Ernest of Austria in 1594. Originally working in the Mannerist style of the two artists, he developed his own style which was a transformation of Frans Floris’ Romanism executed on a smaller scaleAdam van Noort – Portrait of Adam van Noort by Anthony van Dyck
35. Otto van Veen – He is known for running a large studio in Antwerp, producing several emblem books, and for being, from 1594 or 1595 until 1598, Peter Paul Rubenss teacher. His role as a classically educated humanist artist, reflected in the Latin name by which he is known, Octavius Vaenius, was influential on the young Rubens. Van Veen was born in Leiden around 1556, where his father had been Burgomaster and he probably was a pupil of Isaac Claesz van Swanenburg until October 1572, when the Catholic family moved to Antwerp, and then to Liège. He studied for a time under Dominicus Lampsonius and Jean Ramey and he stayed there for about five years, perhaps studying with Federico Zuccari. Carel van Mander relates that van Veen then worked at the courts of Rudolf II in Prague and William V of Bavaria in Munich, before returning to the Low Countries. In Brussels, he was painter to the governor of the Southern Netherlands, Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma until 1592. After becoming a master in the Guild of St. Luke in 1593, van Veen took numerous commissions for decorations, including altarpieces for the Antwerp cathedral. He also organized his studio and workshop, which included Rubens, the artist later served as dean in two prominent organizations in the city, the Guild of St. Luke in 1602, and the Romanists in 1606. In the seventeenth century, van Veen often worked for the Archdukes Albert and Isabella, later paintings include a series of twelve paintings depicting the battles of the Romans and the Batavians, based on engravings he had already published of the subject, for the Dutch States General. He had two brothers who were painters, Gijsbert van Veen was an engraver and Pieter was an amateur. His daughter Gertruid was also a painter, increasingly, van Veen was active in producing Emblem books, including Quinti Horatii Flacci emblemata, Amorum emblemata, and Amoris divini emblemata. In all these works, van Veens skills as an artist, the Amorum emblemata, for example, pictures 124 putti, or little cupids, enacting the mottoes and quotations from lyricists, philosophers, and ancient writers on the powers of Love. Some of these emblems are as relevant today as they would have to a seventeenth-century audience, a few examples of these mottoes read, A Wished Warre, The woundes that lovers give are willingly receaved. He goes on to quote Cicero and Seneca on this theme, another example familiar to us today as the story of The Tortoise and the Hare, is titled Perseverance winneth, The hare and the tortes layd a wager of their speed. Shows us a cupid and tortoise outpacing the hare and exemplifying the idea that the love which is steady, Emblem Project Utrecht -3 editions of emblem books by Otto van Veen Amorum Emblemata on Internet Archive. Vita D. Thomae Aquinatis a manuscript by Otto van Veen Otto van Veen on Artcyclopedia Belkin, Kristin Lohse, bertini, Giuseppe, Otto van Veen, Cosimo Masi and the Art Market in Antwerp at the End of the Sixteenth Century. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, Otto van Veens Batavians defeating the Roman Van de Velde, Carl, Veen, entry at the Netherlands Institute for Art History Veen, Otto van. Emblemes of Love, with verses in Latin, English, media related to Otto van Veen at Wikimedia CommonsOtto van Veen – Title print of three volume book Schouburg, by Arnold Houbraken. Houbraken considered Van Veen to be the most impressive artist and scholar of his day and put his portrait (lower left) on his title print.
36. Jan Brueghel the Elder – Jan Brueghel the Elder was a Flemish painter and draughtsman. He was the son of the eminent Flemish Renaissance painter Pieter Brueghel the Elder, a close friend of, and regular collaborator with, Rubens, the two artists were the leading Flemish painters in the first three decades of the 17th century. He was an important innovator who created new types of such as flower garland paintings, paradise landscapes. He further created genre paintings that were imitations, pastiches and reworkings of his fathers works and he was court painter of the Archduke and Duchess Albrecht and Isabella, the governors of the Southern Netherlands. The artist was nicknamed Velvet Brueghel, Flower Brueghel, and Paradise Brueghel, the first is believed to have been given him because of his mastery in the rendering of fabrics. The second nickname is a reference to his specialization in flower still lifes and these paintings have now been reattributed to Jan Brueghel the Elder. Jan Brueghel the Elder was born in Brussels as the son of Pieter Brueghel the Elder and his mother was the daughter of prominent Flemish Renaissance artist Pieter Coecke van Aelst and Mayken Verhulst. His father died about a year after Jans birth in 1569, Mayken Verhulst was an artist in her own right. The early Flemish biographer Karel van Mander wrote in his Schilder-boeck published in 1604 that Mayken was the first art teacher of her two grandsons and she taught them drawing and watercolor painting of miniatures. Jan and his brother may also have trained with local artists in Brussels who were active as tapestry designers, Jan and his brother Pieter were then sent to Antwerp to study oil painting. According to Karel van Mander he studied under Peter Goetkint, an important dealer with a collection of paintings in his shop. Goetkint died on 15 July 1583 not very long after Jan had started his training and it is possible that Jan continued his studies in this shop, which was taken over by Goetkints widow as no other master is recorded. It was common for Flemish painters of that time to travel to Italy to complete their studies, Jan Brueghel left for Italy, first traveling to Cologne where his sister Marie and her family lived. He later visited Frankenthal, an important cultural centre where a number of Flemish landscape artists were active and he then went to Naples after probably spending time in Venice. In Naples he produced after June 1590 a number of drawings and he worked for Don Francesco Caracciolo, a prominent nobleman and priest and founder of the Clerics Regular Minor. Jan produced small-scale decorative work for Don Francesco, Brueghel left Naples for Rome where he resided from 1592 to 1594. Paul Bril was a landscape specialist from Antwerp who had moved to Rome at the end of the 16th century, together with his brother Mathijs Bril, he created atmospheric landscapes for many Roman residences. Brueghel took inspiration from Brils lively drawings and small-scale landscapes of the mid-1590s, during his time in Rome Jan Brueghel became acquainted with Hans Rottenhammer, a German painter of small highly finished cabinet paintings on copperJan Brueghel the Elder – Family of Jan Breughel the Elder, c. 1612-13, by Peter Paul Rubens, depicts Brueghel, his wife Catharina van Mariënburg and their eldest surviving children: Elisabeth (b. 1609) and Pieter (b. 1608).
37. Antwerp school – Antwerp took over from Bruges as the main trading and commercial center of the Low Countries around 1500. Painters, artists and craftsmen joined the Guild of Saint Luke, the first school of artists that emerged in the city were the Antwerp Mannerists, a group of anonymous late Gothic painters active in the city from about 1500 to 1520. They were followed by Mannerist painters in the Italian tradition that developed at the end of the High Renaissance, Jan Gossaert was a major artist in the city at this time. Other artists, such as Frans Floris, continued this style, artists such as Otto van Veen and members of the Francken family, working in a late mannerist style, provided new religious decoration. It also marked a beginning of decline in the city. The city experienced a renewal in the 17th century. The large workshops of Peter Paul Rubens and Jacob Jordaens, the city was an internationally significant publishing centre, and had a huge production of old master prints and book illustrations. Antwerp animaliers or animal painters, such as Frans Snyders, Jan Fyt, many artists joined the Guild of Romanists, a society for which having visited Rome was a condition of membership. The artistic legacy of Antwerp is represented in museumsAntwerp school – Paul de Vos, Ark van Noah
38. Poussinists and Rubenists – In 1671 an argument broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris about whether drawing or color was more important in painting. On one side stood the Poussinists who were a group of French artists, named after the painter Nicolas Poussin, on the other side were the Rubenists, named after Peter Paul Rubens, who prioritize color. There was a strong nationalistic flavour to the debate as Poussin was French but Rubens was Flemish, by that time the French Rococo was in full swing. The Poussinists believed in the Platonic idea of the existence in the mind of objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by the selection, using reason. For the Poussinists, therefore, color was a decorative addition to form and drawing. Their leader was Charles Lebrun, Director of the Academy, and their heroes were Raphael, the Carracci and their touchstones were the forms of classical art. They were opposed by the Rubenists who believed that colour, not drawing, was superior as it was true to nature. Their models were the works of Rubens who had prioritised the accurate depiction of nature over the imitation of classical art, the Rubenists argued that the aim of painting was to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of nature. Drawing, according to the Rubenists, although based on reason, to a certain extent, the debate was simply about whether it was acceptable to paint purely in order to give pleasure to the viewer without the nobler purposes typical of a history painting. Watteaus acceptance was, however, perhaps not everything that he could have hoped for, charles-Antoine Coypel, the son of its then director, tellingly said, The charming paintings of this gracious painter would be a bad guide for whoever wished to paint the Acts of the Apostles. Watteau is considered the greatest of the Rubenist artists, other important Rubenists include François Boucher and Jean-Honoré Fragonard. Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin benefited from the new found interest in still-life and genre painting, the debate and the overlapping development of the Rococo in eighteenth century France have been seen as a form of revival. Jean-Baptiste Dubos observed that what was comprehended through the mind paled compared to what was apprehended through the senses, quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns Poussinistes vs. RubenistesPoussinists and Rubenists – Poussin's Et in Arcadia ego (Les Bergers d’Arcadie), late 1630s.
39. Flemish art – Flemish painting flourished from the early 15th century until the 17th century. These painters were invited to work at foreign courts and had a Europe-wide influence, since the end of the Napoleonic era, Flemish painters had again been contributing to a reputation that had been set by the Old Masters. The Franco-Flemish School of musical composition flourished at the same time, the so-called Flemish Primitives were the first to popularize the use of oil paint. Their art has its origins in the painting of the late Gothic period. Chief among them were Jan van Eyck, Hans Memling, Hugo van der Goes, Robert Campin, the court of the Duchy of Burgundy was an important source of patronage. From the early 16th century, the Italian Renaissance started to influence the Flemish painters, the result was very different from the typical Italian Renaissance painting. The leading artist was Pieter Brueghel the Elder, who avoided direct Italian influence, after the Siege of Antwerp, the Southern Provinces of the Netherlands remained under Spanish rule and were separated from the independent Dutch Republic. Following the deaths of major artists like Rubens in 1640 and the end of the Eighty Years War in 1648, a revival of painting in this region came in the advent of the Belgian Revolution of 1830 and work around that time is often considered Flemish. The painters, who flourished in the aftermath of this period, are usually referred to as Belgian rather than Flemish. That kingdom comprising Flanders, often influences also more recent artistss categorization, new York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Moderne Vlaamse schilderkunst van 1850 tot 1950 van Leys tot Permeke, cS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list Liedtke, Walter A. Flemish paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, The Metropolitan Museum of ArtFlemish art – The Arnolfini portrait by Jan van Eyck.
40. Netherlandish art – From the late Middle Ages until about 1700 the Low Countries were a leading force in the art of northern Europe, thereafter becoming less important. In the earlier High Middle Ages Mosan art, from an area partly in the Low Countries, had had a similar role. The art of the Low Countries includes the traditions of Early Netherlandish painting and it begins approximately with the careers of Robert Campin and Hubert and Jan van Eyck around 1400 and ends with Gerard David about 1520. Other major figures include Rogier van der Weyden, Hugo van der Goes, the 16th century was a period of response to Italian Renaissance art and the development of several distinctly Netherlandish themes. At the start of the century Hieronymus Bosch painted fantastic images, often for courtly viewers, Jan Mabuse, Maarten van Heemskerck and Frans Floris were all instrumental in adopting Italian models and incorporating them into their own artistic language. The spread of Mannerism throughout Europe produced important forms of Northern Mannerist art in the Low Countries, finally, Joachim Patinir was a recognized innovator of landscape painting, while Pieter Bruegel the Elder and Pieter Aertsen helped establish genre painting as a popular subject matter. The 17th century was a period dominated by the distinct individuals Peter Paul Rubens in the Southern Netherlands, Dutch and Flemish painters both followed many of the same themes, including still life, genre, landscape, portraiture and classicism. The most famous painter from the region in the late 17th and early 18th century is Antoine Watteau, otherwise, few painters from about 1700 until the end of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1830 have been incorporated into the art historical discourse. Dutch painters such as Jacob de Wit adopted a lofty Rococo style, indebted somewhat to Rubens, for ceiling decorations, other painters, such as Cornelis Troost, looked to England and especially the works of William Hogarth, for inspiration. Art after 1830 in Belgium and the Netherlands follow separate paths as the countries further develop their own identities, james Ensor is an important figure from Belgium, while Vincent van Gogh, from the Netherlands, posthumously reached the level of modern superstar painter. Koldeweij, A. M. Alexandra Hermesdorf, Paul Huvenne, et alNetherlandish art – Jan van Eyck, The Arnolfini Portrait, National Gallery, London.
41. Rubenshuis – The Rubenshuis is the former home and studio of Peter Paul Rubens in Antwerp. A year after marrying Isabella Brant in 1609, Rubens began construction on an Italian-style villa on the then-Vaartstraat, at the time located at the banks of the canal Herentalse Vaart. Rubens designed the building himself, based on studies of Italian Renaissance palace architecture that formed the basis of his Palazzi di Genova. The layout included his home, studio, a monumental portico, the courtyard opens into a Baroque garden that he also planned. In the adjacent studio he and his students executed many of the works for which Rubens is famous and he had established a well-organised workshop that met the demands of his active studio, including large commissions from England, France, Spain and Bavaria and other locations. He relied on students and collaborators for much of the actual work, Rubens himself, however, guaranteed the quality and often finished paintings with his own hand. In a separate private studio he made drawings, portraits and small paintings without the assistance of his students, Rubens spent most of his lifetime in this palace. After his death, his wife Helena Fourment rented the building to William Cavendish, after the Cavendishes left in 1660, the house was sold. The city bought the house in 1937, and after a restoration the Rubenshuis was opened to the public in 1946. Dozens of paintings and artworks by Rubens and his contemporaries were installed in the rooms, paintings include his early Adam and Eve and a self portrait made when he was about fifty. The Rubenianum, a dedicated to the study of Rubens, is in a building at the rear of the garden. Rockox House Official Website of The Rubens House 360°-panorama van de RubenshuisRubenshuis – The interior courtyard