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1. Nina Boyle – Constance Antonina Boyle, was a British journalist, campaigner for women’s suffrage and women’s rights, charity and welfare worker and novelist. Nina Boyle was born in Kent. Her mother was the daughter of a medical doctor. Boyle never married. Two of Boyle's brothers served in South Africa around this time. Boyle was employed as a journalist. While in South Africa she began to pursue her interest in women's rights, founding the Women's Enfranchisement League of Johannesburg. But she had more radical opinions about how women's position in society could be improved. Boyle was soon associated with other well-known suffragettes, Charlotte Despard, Teresa Billington-Greig, Edith How-Martyn and Margaret Nevinson. She became one of its leading speakers. By 1912, Boyle was its secretary. The WFL was a breakaway organisation from the Women's Social and Political Union, formed in 1907. In 1912, she became head of the WFL's militant department. Boyle continued her journalism, having many articles published in The Vote. Boyle took a leading role in the WFL's campaigns and demonstrations, was imprisoned three times.Nina Boyle – The transformation to "Voluntary Women Patrols" in 1917
2. Hiphop Tamizha – Hiphop Tamizha is an Indian musical duo consisting of Adhithya "Adhi" Ramachandran Venkatapathy and R. Jeeva based in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. The international brand Remy Martin, after hearing the song and being impressed with their determination, eventually launched Hiphop Tamizha as an official brand. In 2012, Hiphop Tamizha released Hip Hop Tamizhan, India's first Tamil hip album. It was a major critical and commercial success. While the duo are primarily independent musicians, they have also contributed such as composing and performing music for films. They have also launched a clothing brand. Adhi was born on 20 February 1990. Jeeva R. was born 29 June 1991. Adhi's family roots are from Puliampatti Sathyamangalam in the Erode district. Adhi was born with no knowledge of cinema. His father works at Bharathiar University while his mother comes from an agricultural background. Adhi's first exposure to music was when his neighbor showed Michael Jackson's "Jam". His interest in music started developing when he was in the tenth grade. He got positive responses from people expressing his music, encouraging him to start rapping in Tamil. His decision to rap in Tamil rather than English was to avoid looking like a "wannabe".Hiphop Tamizha – Jeeva (left) and Adhi (right) at the audio launch of Aambala, 2014
3. Early Dynastic Period (Mesopotamia) – The Early Dynastic period is an archaeological culture in southern Mesopotamia, generally dated to approximately 2900–2350 BCE. The ED period itself was characterized by the existence of multiple city-states: small states with a relatively simple structure that solidified over time. This development ultimately led under the rule of Sargon of Akkad, the first king of the Akkadian Empire. Despite this political fragmentation, the Early Dynastic city-states shared a relatively homogeneous culture. Sumerian cities like Uruk, Ur, Lagash, Umma and Nippur, located in the south of Mesopotamia, were very influential. To the north and west stretched states centered on cities such as Kish, Mari, Nagar and Ebla. The study of southern Mesopotamia has long been given priority over neighbouring regions. As a result, this area was always better known than neighbouring regions. The term Early Dynastic Period was coined by archaeologist Henri Frankfort, analogous to the similarly named period in Egypt. Since then, the ED I–III has been widely applied to excavations elsewhere in Iraq. The entire ED period is now generally dated to approximately 2900 -- 2350 BCE according to 2800 -- 2230 BCE according to the Short Chronology. The ED period is further divided into sub-periods ED I, ED II, ED IIIb. ED I–III are more or less contemporary with the Early Jezirah I–III periods in northern Mesopotamia. The ED scheme is strictly an archaeological subdivision that does not reflect political developments, as is the case for the periods that follow upon it. The reason for this is that the political history of the ED period is unknown for most of its duration.Early Dynastic Period (Mesopotamia) – Early Dynastic period
4. Weyburn-Midale Carbon Dioxide Project – The Weyburn-Midale Carbon Dioxide Project is, as of 2008, the world's largest carbon capture and storage project. It is located in Saskatchewan, Canada. These EOR operations are independent of the program. Midale oil fields were discovered in 1954 near Midale, Saskatchewan. The Weyburn Oilfield has a current oil production rate of ~ 3,067 m3/day. Original oil-in-place is estimated to be billion barrels. The oil is produced from a total of 963 active wells made up of 534 vertical wells, 171 injection systems. There are also 146 enclosed wells. Current production consists primarily of crude oil with a low gas-to-oil ratio. The Midale field is about 102 square miles in size, has 515 million barrels of oil-in-place. It began injecting CO2 in 2005. Enhanced oil recovery techniques were used in the Weyburn field prior to the introduction of CO2, between the 1970s and 1990s. These include additional vertical drilling, the use of waterfloods to increase pressure in the reservoir. In October 2000, Cenovus began injecting significant amounts of dioxide into the Weyburn field in order to boost oil production. Cenovus holds the largest share of the 37 current partners in the oilfield.Weyburn-Midale Carbon Dioxide Project
6. Politics of Chile – Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in the two chambers of the National Congress. The Judiciary is independent of the legislature of Chile. The Constitution of Chile was approved under the military government of dictator Augusto Pinochet. It entered in March 1981. In September 2005, President Ricardo Lagos signed into law constitutional amendments passed by Congress. Chile's congressional elections are governed by a binomial voting system that rewards coalition slates. Each coalition can present two candidates for two lower-chamber seats apportioned to each chamber's electoral districts. Typically, coalitions split the seats in a district. Only if the leading coalition ticket outpolls the second-place coalition by a margin of more than 2-to-1 does the winning coalition gain both seats. The political parties with the largest representation in the Chilean Congress are the centrist Christian Democrat Party and the conservative Independent Democratic Union. The small Humanist Party failed to gain any seats in the 1998 elections. Vote counting normally takes place the evening of the election day. One voting table, with each, is set up for at-most 200 names in the voting registry. Each table is manned by five people from the same registry.Politics of Chile – National Congress of Chile in Valparaíso
7. Politics of Burkina Faso – The President of Burkina Faso is the head of state. Executive power is exercised by both the Government. Legislative power is vested in both the parliament. The system was dominated by the Congress for Democracy and Progress until the 2014 Burkinabé uprising. The Judiciary is independent of the legislature. In 1990, the Popular Front held its first National Congress, which formed a committee to draft a national constitution. The constitution was approved by referendum in 1991. The opposition did participate in the following year's legislative elections, in which the ODP/MT won a majority of the seats contested for. The judiciary are independent but remain susceptible to outside influence. In 1995, Burkina held its first municipal elections since independence. The president's ODP/MT won over 1,100 of some 1,700 councillor seats being contested. In February 1996, the ODP/MT merged with several small opposition parties to form the Congress for Democracy and Progress. This effectively co-opted much of what viable opposition to Compaoré existed. The remaining opposition parties regrouped for 1997 legislative elections and the 1998 presidential election. The 1997 legislative elections, which international observers pronounced to be substantially free, transparent, resulted in a large CDP majority -- 101 to 111 seats.Politics of Burkina Faso – Burkina Faso
8. Nyctv – NYC TV is considered to be the catalyst behind the trend in hyperlocal content news across local broadcasters in the United States. WNYE-TV is carried on satellite systems. The station has recently begun operating digital multicast sub-channels, also known as DTV channels. NYCTV has been recognized with 160 New York Emmy nominations and 42 New York Emmy Awards. In 2005, NYC TV expanded when it acquired WNYE-TV along with the radio WNYE-FM. The new group was called NYC Media Group. NYC TV has received attention as an innovator in municipal broadcasting. Since its inception, NYC TV has been nominated for 160 New York Emmy Awards, winning 42. It was recently nominated for 4 Webby Awards. Cities such as Los Angeles have expressed interest in replicating the station's success. Its success in attracting viewers is largely viewed as having translated into commercial success. NYC TV now has a wide range of underwriters supporting the station's shows. Companies such as Subaru, American Express, Delta and Snapple, well as many local establishments, have been active in underwriting NYC TV programs. NYC TV aired weekdays on digital channel 4.4 / 28.4. Selected programs air on WNYE-TV, a public television station in New York City.Nyctv – nyctv
9. Victoria's Secret – Victoria's Secret is an American designer, manufacturer and marketer of women's premium lingerie, womenswear and beauty products. With 2012 sales of $ billion, it is the largest American retailer of women's lingerie. Victoria's Secret is wholly owned by a publicly traded company. Raymond picked the name Victoria with the refinement of the Victorian era. The Secret was what was hidden underneath the clothes. The company's first store was located in Stanford Shopping Center in California. Raymond promptly started a mail order catalog and opened three more stores. By the early 1990s, Victoria's Secret had become the largest American retailer, topping $1 billion. By 1980, Raymond had added two more San Francisco stores at 115 Wisconsin Street. By 1982, the fourth store was added at 395 Sutter Street. Victoria's Secret stayed until 1990 when it moved to the larger Powell Street frontage of the Westin St. Francis. In April 1982, Raymond sent out his 12th catalogue; each catalogue cost $3. Catalogue sales now accounted for 55 % of the company's $ million annual sales. The Victoria's Secret stores at this time were "a player" in the underwear market. The business was described as "more burlesque than Main Street."Victoria's Secret – Victoria's Secret Store, 722 Lexington Ave, New York, NY
10. Izumo AirportIzumo Airport – Izumo Airport 出雲空港 Izumo Kūkō
12. Thomas Woods – Thomas Ernest "Tom" Woods, Jr. is an American historian, political commentator, author, podcaster. He has published twelve books. Woods has written extensively on the subjects including the history of the United States, catholicism, economics. He is proponent of the Austrian school of economics, although himself. He is Host of the Tom Woods Show and Contra Krugman podcast. He holds a Ph.D. from Columbia University, both in History. Woods is a member of the editorial board for the Institute's Libertarian Papers. He is also an associate scholar of the Abbeville Institute, in South Carolina. The mission of the Abbeville Institute is to present what is true and valuable in the Southern tradition. The fellowship has grown to associates. Among other activities, the Institute has conducted annual summer schools for college and graduate students, educational programs for the public. He was an ISI Richard M. Weaver Fellow in 1995 -- 96. Woods received the 2004 O.P. Alford III Prize from the Independent Institute in 2003. Woods has additionally been awarded two Humane Studies Fellowships and a Claude R. Lambe Fellowship at George Mason University. The Church and the Market: A Catholic Defense of the Free Economy, won the $50,000 first prize in the 2006 Templeton Enterprise Awards.Thomas Woods – Woods in February 2011.
13. Moule & Polyzoides – The firm was founded "to address the emerging challenge of our time: creating timeless and sustainable buildings, campuses, neighborhoods and towns for current and future generations." Moule & Polyzoides is often sought in both rethinking urban centers as well as creating residential complexes centered around courtyards. The firm was also recognized for 30 Years of Scripps College Campus Stewardship. The project was also selected to receive the 2002 Charter Award from the Congress for the New Urbanism. Armenian Genocide Memorial - Located in Pasadena's Memorial Park and installed to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Armenian genocide. 2015 ICAA Arthur Ross Award for Community Design/Civic Design/City Planning 2012 EPA Smart Growth Award for Overall Excellence - Lancaster, Blvd transformation project.Moule & Polyzoides – Gartz Court in its new location after restoration.
14. Smart Bookmarks – Smart Bookmarks are an extended kind of Internet bookmark used in web browsers. Smart Bookmarks can access with uniformly structured web addresses. Smart Bookmarks first were introduced in OmniWeb on the NEXTSTEP platform in the 1997/1998, where they were called Shortcuts. In Web, Smart Bookmarks appear in a menu when entering text in the bar. By selecting a Smart Bookmark the respective web site is accessed using the text as argument. Smart Bookmarks can also be added to the toolbar, together with their own textbox. The same applies to Galeon, which also allows the user to collapse and expand the textboxes within the toolbar. There is a collection at the web site of the Galeon project. So far, there are two ways to employ smart bookmarks: either through the assignment of keywords or without. E.g. Mozilla derivatives and also Konqueror make you assign keywords, then you type these keywords directly into the address bar followed by the term. Epiphany does not allow you to assign keywords.Smart Bookmarks
15. Badugi – Badugi is a draw poker variant similar to triple draw, with hand-values similar to lowball. Badugi is an often gambling game, with the object being to win money in the form of pots. The winner of the pot is the person with the best hand at the conclusion of play. Badugi is played in cardrooms around the world, well as online. There is some controversy over the origin of this game, played at least since the 1980s. Bryan Micon says he has been told by Korean players that it was also played in South Korea in the 1980s. Play begins with each player being dealt four cards face down. The hand begins with a "pre-draw" betting round, continuing clockwise. Each player must either call the amount of the big blind, raise. Once everyone folded, play proceeds to the draw. Replacement cards are dealt before the next player chooses the number of cards to draw. The first draw is followed by a second betting round. Here players are free to check until someone bets. Again betting proceeds until all players folded. After the second betting round ends, there is another draw followed by a third betting round.Badugi – A best hand in badugi, a four-high badugi.
16. Pacific Mall – Pacific Mall is an Asian shopping centre in Markham, Ontario, Canada. The two entrance roads of the mall are Clayton Drive. It has an underground level that leads to an underground parking lot. Designed by Wallman Clewes Bergman Architects, their first proposal was modified by the aesthetic expectations of Markham Town Council. Pacific Mall first opened its doors in 1997. Its Cantonese name, "太古廣場", is derived from Pacific Place in Hong Kong. The mall has a total of 270,000 square feet of retail space. Pacific Mall incorporates a Pacific-style market. Dentist's office are on the second floor, along with an area containing many shops and restaurants. In the basement, there are bathrooms, other shops. As an official Canadian Tourist Attraction, the mall is open year-round including statutory holidays. Pacific Mall also hosts celebrations for the community. Neighbouring Asian malls are known for their proliferation of video games, movies, music and other entertainment media made in violation of copyright law. In May 2005, over $800,000 worth of unlicensed DVDs were seized by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Four subjects working within the mall were charged with multiple counts under the Copyright Act, also Of Property Obtained by Crime, Fraud.Pacific Mall – Pacific Heritage town
17. Paul Terry (footballer) – Paul Edward Terry is a retired English footballer who played as a midfielder. He made 206 appearances for Yeovil Town and Leyton Orient between 2003 and 2009. He was called up for the semi-professional England National Game XI in January 2003. Terry signed in August 2003. In June 2007, after his contract with Yeovil expired, he joined League One side Leyton Orient on a one-year contract. Terry signed for Conference National club Grays Athletic on 10 August 2009. He made three appearances for Grays before joining August until the end of the 2009 -- 10 season. He was released by Rushden & Diamonds following media revelations that he had an affair with the partner of teammate Dale Roberts. Roberts later committed suicide. On 3 he joined Darlington after a successful trial. Terry joined Thurrock for the start of the 2011–12 season. He is the older brother of former England defender John Terry. He also has two children with his former wife sister of Paul Konchesky, named Georgia Rose Terry and Frankie Edward Terry. Yeovil Town League Two: 2004–05 Darlington FA Trophy: 2010–11 Paul Terry career statistics at SoccerbasePaul Terry (footballer) – Terry with Darlington in 2011
18. History of Lego – Despite its expansion, the company remains privately held. The Lego Group began in Billund, Denmark. In 1916, Christiansen purchased a woodworking shop in Billund, since 1895. The shop mostly had a small staff of apprentices. The workshop burned down in 1924 when a fire ignited some wood shavings. Ole Kirk worked towards expanding his business even further. When the Great Depression hit, Ole Kirk had to focus on smaller projects. He began producing miniature versions of his products as design aids. It was these miniature models of stepladders and ironing boards that inspired him to begin producing toys. In 1932, Ole Kirk's shop started making wooden toys such as piggy banks, houses. The business was not profitable because of the Great Depression. Farmers in the area sometimes traded food for his toys; Ole Kirk continued producing practical furniture in addition to toys to stay in business. In the mid-1930s, the yo-yo fad gave him a brief period of increased activity until it suddenly collapsed. To reduce waste, Ole Kirk used the leftover yo-yo parts for toy trucks. His Godtfred began working for him, taking an active role in the company.History of Lego – 1978 US patent on the minifigure
19. 5th Guards Motor Rifle Division – It traces back to the 6th Mechanized Corps created in 1940, destroyed in 1941 in the beginning of Operation Barbarossa. The corps was reformed in November 1942 under the same name, but with a different organizational structure. In early 1943, the 6th Mechanized Corps was granted "Guards" status and became the 5th Guards Mechanized Corps. It became the 5th Guards Mechanized Division in 1945, subsequently the 5th Guards Motor Rifle Division in 1965. The 6th Mechanised Corps began to form on 15 July 1940 at Bialystok in the Western Special Military District. It was attached to the 10th Army in the Bialystok area and was under the command of Major General M.G. Khatskilevich when the German Operation Barbarossa began in June 1941. The Corps initially comprised the 4th, 7th Tank Divisions and the 29th Mechanized Division, as well as smaller units. The division included 348 tanks, of which 51 were KVs and 150 T-34s. However, there was lack of supplies. The fuel ran out quickly, partially due to unclear orders. The division had to move to three new assembly areas within the first two days of the war. The division was soon immobilized south of Grodno. Similar to the 4th Mechanized Corps, the 6th Mechanized Corps stood out of the remaining mechanized corps of the Red Army. On 22 June 1941 it was fully formed, stationed no further than 100-150 kilometers from the border.5th Guards Motor Rifle Division – A destroyed KV-1 is inspected by German Troops in Russia in 1941
20. Karabinek wz. 1929 – The Karabinek wz.29 was a Polish bolt-action short rifle based on the German Kar98AZ. Early versions had a stacking hook near the end of the stock on the right side. Production of the wz.98 began in July 1922, after the Danzig machinery was moved to Warsaw to create the National Rifle Factory in Radom. Two years later, production of the wz.98 rifles was stopped. It was based on the German Karbiner 98a. K98a rifles differed from German K98as only in minor technical details. The greatest flaw was the weak bayonet mount. The K98a also used a small-ring Mauser action, which complicated production and parts interchangeability. Following the postwar shift to large-ring carbines with 600 mm barrels and Gewehr 98-style bayonet lug/muzzle lengths, such as the Czech vz. The decision was made to develop an intermediate model rifle for the Polish Army. The design was finalized in 1929. There were two versions of the rifle: Infantry models had straight bolt handles, while cavalry models had curved handles. Since both variations used the same stock, infantry models had a cutout in the stock for the curved handle. Production of new weapons began at the National Arms Factory in Radom. Despite wz.Karabinek wz. 1929 – Karabinek wz.29
21. Avtotor – Avtotor is an automobile manufacturing company located in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. It was created in 1996, it was one of the largest producers and assemblers of cars including brands like BMW, Chevrolet, Hummer, Kia. In 2006, it was ranked 69th in Forbes magazine's list of the 200 largest private companies in Russia. It was said, in 2016, to employ 3,500. A $ assembly plant was built, originally planning to produce Nissan automobiles. The plant was installed in an unoccupied shipyard in Kaliningrad. The company's name is the German word "tor", meaning "gate". In 1997, the new plant began assembling Kia automobiles. In the aftermath of the 1998 Russian financial crisis, the company found itself in a financial position, as automobile sales dropped significantly. Later, the company began a partnership with General Motors, starting full-scale assembly on the Chevrolet Lacetti. In 2012, Avtotor formed a partnership with Canadian auto-parts company. Vladimir Shcherbakov released a statement that the Canadian government had pressured Magna International into ending the partnership. A spokesperson for Magna denied the allegations. Assembly of the BMW vehicles began with the BMW 5 Series and 7 Series. In the first year, 555 cars were produced.Avtotor – BMW X6
22. Prenk Pervizi – Pervizi attended the Military Academy from 1914 -- 1918, later in Torino, 1930 -- 1933. As a military figure, he was a protagonist in the foreground of Albanian history in the years between 1918–1944. Right-hand man of King Zog, he remained loyal from the beginning to the end to him and the Albanian Kingdom, 1928-1939. During World War II he was involved in military operations. Sent to the first line of combat, he came into conflict with them, withdrawing the Albanian troops from the Greco-Italian War. He also opposed the German SS troops process in Albania. He spent the rest of his life in Belgium, where he died on September 6, 1977. The Pervizi family from Skuraj village in present-day Milot, Kurbin were a Catholic lineage from north of Albania. The name comes from the Great of Skuraj of Kurbini, who lived in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. It was five centuries before the name of Pervizi returned in the history of Albania. The intervention of his gendarme units saved Albania from a crisis that could have had disastrous consequences for the very existence of it. This action earned a promotion to Captain of First Instance for war merits, the "Gold Medal for Military Valor". Pervizi was not able to thwart a subsequent d'état, which began June 24, 1924. The military loyal to him fled to Yugoslavia. This is known as the June Revolution.Prenk Pervizi – General Prenk Pervizi
24. Outline of theatre – Elements of stagecraft are used to enhance the physicality, presence and immediacy of the experience. Tragedy, the satyr play were the three dramatic genres to emerge there. Western theatre originated in its drama has had a significant and sustained impact on Western culture as a whole. It includes the drama of William Shakespeare, many other famous playwrights. Restoration comedy – English comedies written and performed in the Restoration period from 1660 to 1710. Nineteenth-century theatre – wide range of movements in the theatrical culture of Europe and the United States in the 19th century. Theatre of the United Kingdom -- introduced since at least 1585. West End – popular term for mainstream professional theatre staged in the large theatres of London's'Theatreland', the West End. London fringe – small scale theatres, many of them located above pubs, the equivalent to New York's Off-Broadway or Off-Off-Broadway theatres. Fringe festival – unjuried festivals, such as the Edinburgh Festival Fringe and Adelaide Fringe Festival, permit artists to produce a wide variety of works. Theater of the United States – based in the Western tradition. Broadway – refers to theatrical performances presented in the Theater District centered along Broadway, in Lincoln Center, in Manhattan in New York City. Along with London's West End theatre, Broadway theatre is widely considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world. These theatres are smaller than Broadway theatres. Regional theatre – professional theatre companies outside of New York City that produce their own seasons.Outline of theatre – Historic Outdoor Forest Theater in Carmel, CA at sunsets.
25. Outline of meteorology – Meteorology has application in diverse fields such as the military, energy production, transport, agriculture and construction. Meteorology Climate – the average and variations of weather in a region over long periods of time. Meteorology – the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. Weather – the set of all the phenomena in a given atmosphere at a given time. Written at a bachelor's level. Glossary of Meteorology - From the American Meteorological Society, an excellent reference of nomenclature, equations, concepts for the more advanced reader.Outline of meteorology – Eye of Hurricane Isabel from the International Space Station, September 15, 2003.
28. Outline of solar energy – The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to solar energy: Solar energy – radiant light and heat from the sun. It has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Renewable energy – energy which comes from natural resources which are naturally replenished. Natural resource – materials and components that can be found within the environment. Every man-made product is composed of natural resources. Renewable resource – natural resource with the ability to reproduce through biological or natural processes and are replenished with the passage of time. Timeline of solar energy – Solar power – the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics, or indirectly using concentrated solar power. Active solar – technologies are employed to convert solar energy into another more useful form of energy. Solar tracker – devices that orient various payloads toward the sun. Role of copper in generating and transmitting energy with maximum efficiency in solar photovoltaic power generation, concentrating solar thermal power, solar water heaters. Solar photovoltaics – Solar thermal energy – technology for harnessing solar energy for thermal energy. Solar district heating and solar district cooling. See: Seasonal thermal energy storage. Solar heating -- or solar hot water systems comprise several innovations and many mature renewable energy technologies that have been well established for many years. Solar air conditioning – any air conditioning system that uses solar power.Outline of solar energy – See also: Index of solar energy articles
29. Outline of prehistoric technology – The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to prehistoric technology. Prehistoric technology – technology that predates recorded history. History is the study of the past using written records; it is also the record itself. Anything prior to the written accounts of history is prehistoric, including earlier technologies. Prehistoric technology can be described as: Prehistoric -- "before we had written records," for "before," præ. Prehistory is the span of time before recorded history, before the invention of writing systems. Beginning of prehistoric technology -- the earliest technology began at the beginning of the Stone Age. Latest prehistoric technology – the level of technology reached before true writing was introduced differed by region... Latest prehistoric technology in the Near East – cultures in the Near East achieved the development of writing first, during their Bronze Age. Latest prehistoric technology in the rest of the Old World: Europe, India, China reached Iron Age technological development before the introduction of writing there. The period ended between 6000 and 2000 BCE with the advent of metalworking. Paleolithic -- prehistoric period of human history distinguished by the development of the most primitive stone tools covers roughly 99 % of human technological prehistory. Lower Paleolithic – earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. Ancestors of homo sapiens used stone tools as follows: Homo habilis – first "homo" species. It created stone tools called Oldowan tools.Outline of prehistoric technology – Acheulean hand axes from Kent. The types shown are (clockwise from top) cordate, ficron and ovate. It was the longest-used tool of human history.
31. Nemegtomaia – Nemegtomaia is a genus of oviraptorid dinosaur from the late Cretaceous Period of what is now Mongolia, about 70 million years ago. Nemegtomaia is estimated to have been around 2 m in length, to have weighed 40 kg. Nemegtomaia is estimated to have been around 2 m in length, to have weighed 40 kg, a size extrapolated from more completely known relatives. The neural spines of the neck vertebrae were short, the neural arches had an x-shaped appearance. The middle three of these vertebrae were the largest. The sacrum consisted of eight vertebrae. The scapula appears to have been 185 mm in total length. The appears to have been 152 mm long. The radius of the lower arm was straight, oval in cross-section, may have been 144 mm long. The first finger was relatively large and had a strong ungual, was more massive than the two other fingers. The second finger was slightly longer than the first, the third finger was very small. The upper margin of the ilium of the pelvis was straight, though both ilia were close to each other, they were not fused together. The pubic shaft was turned backwards. The femur is estimated to have been 286 mm long, the tibia of the lower leg 317 mm long. The skull of Nemegtomaia was deep, narrow, short, reached 179 mm in length.Nemegtomaia
32. Nyuserre Ini – Nyuserre Ini was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh, the sixth ruler of the Fifth Dynasty during the Old Kingdom period. His prenomen, Nyuserre, means "Possessed of Ra's Power". Nyuserre was the brother of the short-lived Neferefre. Nyuserre is attested in three ancient Egyptian king lists, all dating to the New Kingdom. Nyuserre's prenomen occupies the 30th entry of the Abydos King List, written nearly 200 yers later during the reign of Seti I. Yet, fragments of his reign length are still visible on the papyrus, indicating a reign of somewhere between 11 and 34 years. Nyuserre is the only Fifth Dynasty king absent from the Saqqara Tablet. Even though no copies of the text survive, it is known through later writings by Sextus Julius Africanus and Eusebius. In particular, Africanus relates that the Aegyptiaca mentioned a ´ Ραθούρης, reigning for forty-four years as the sixth king of the Fifth Dynasty. "Rathurês" is believed to be the Hellenized form of Nyuserre. The latter would himself be the successor of pharaoh Shepseskare, credited with seven years of reign in Manetho's Aegyptiaca after Neferirkare Kakai. In Verner's hypothesis, Neferefre and Nyuserre were brothers, both sons of Neferirkare Kakai. Neferefre succeeded his father at his death but died unexpectedly after a very short reign of about 2 years. Shepseskare apparently succeeded in seizing the crown for a short time. This hypothesis is motivated by the exalted positions that both individuals seem to have enjoyed.Nyuserre Ini – The famous Double Statue in the Museum of Egyptian Art in Munich, portraying Nyuserre as both a young man and an old man
33. Piano Concerto No. 24 (Mozart) – The Piano Concerto No. 24 in C minor, K. 491, is a concerto for keyboard and orchestra composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. He premiered the work at the Burgtheater in Vienna. The work is one of the other being the No. 20 in D Minor. None of Mozart's other piano concertos features a larger array of instruments: the work is scored for strings, woodwinds, horns, timpani. The concerto consists of three movements. Allegro, is in sonata form and is the longest opening movement for a concerto that Mozart had hitherto composed. Larghetto, is in the relative major of E flat and features a strikingly simple principal theme. Allegretto, returns to the home key of C minor and presents a theme followed by eight variations. The work is one in the concerto genre. Its early admirers included Johannes Brahms. Musicologist Arthur Hutchings considered it to be Mozart's greatest concerto. Mozart composed the concerto in the winter of 1785-86, during his fourth season in Vienna. In 1800, Mozart's Constanze sold the original score of the work to the publisher Johann Anton André of Offenbach am Main. The College still houses today. The original score contains no tempo markings; the tempo for each movement is known only from the entries Mozart made into his catalogue.Piano Concerto No. 24 (Mozart) – Piano Concerto No. 24
34. Corvus (constellation) – Corvus is a small constellation in the Southern Celestial Hemisphere. Its name means "raven" in Latin. Beta Corvi form a distinctive quadrilateral in the night sky. With an apparent magnitude of 2.59, Gamma Corvi—also known as Gienah—is the brightest star in the constellation. It is an aging blue giant around 4 times as massive as the Sun. The young star Eta Corvi has been found to have two debris disks. A fourth system is unconfirmed. TV Corvi is a dwarf nova—a white dwarf and brown dwarf in very close orbit. In the Babylonian star catalogues dating from at least 1100 BCE, what later became Corvus was known as the Babylonian Raven. It was similarly placed sitting on the tail of the Serpent. John H. Rogers suggests that Corvus and Crater marked the gate to the Underworld. These two constellations, along with the fish Piscis Austrinus, were introduced around 500 BCE. One myth associated with Corvus is that of Apollo and Coronis. Coronis had been unfaithful to her lover, who learned this information from a pure white crow. Apollo then turned its feathers black in a fit of rage.Corvus (constellation) – Corvus, Crater, and other constellations seen around Hydra in Urania's Mirror (1825).
35. Great spotted woodpecker – The great spotted woodpecker is a bird species of the woodpecker family. Meaning "tree" and kopos, "striking". The specific major is from Latin maior, "greater". It is distributed except in the colder parts of its range. It is not considered a threatened species by the IUCN, being quite common. A recent increase in the British population has resulted in the recolonisation of Ireland. The spotted woodpecker is 23 -- 26 centimetres long, with a 38 -- 44 centimetres wingspan. Weight: 70–98 g. The upperparts are glossy black, with white on the sides of the neck. On the shoulder is the flight feathers are barred with black and white. The three outer tail feathers are barred; these show when the stiff tail is outspread, acting as a support in climbing. The underparts are dull white, undertail coverts crimson. The bill is the legs greenish grey. Males have a crimson spot on the nape, absent in females and juvenile birds. In the latter, the top of the head is crimson between the center of the crown instead.Great spotted woodpecker – Great spotted woodpecker
36. No. 37 Squadron RAAF – No. 37 Squadron is a Royal Australian Air Force medium tactical airlift squadron. It operates Lockheed Martin C-130J Hercules aircraft from New South Wales. It has also supported Australian humanitarian and peacekeeping operations including Somalia, East Timor, Bali, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines. Towards the end of the war it began flying Douglas C-47 Dakotas. It was disbanded two years later. In response to Australia's increasing transport needs during the Vietnam War, the squadron was re-formed at Richmond in February 1966, equipped with C-130E Hercules. It between 2006 and 2012 also operated C-130Hs formerly of No. 36 Squadron. No. 37 Squadron came under the control of a re-formed No. 86 Wing until 2010 when it was transferred to No. 84 Wing. No. 37 Squadron is currently tasked in Australia and overseas transporting troops and cargo, conducting medical evacuation, search-and-rescue, airdrop missions. It is controlled by No. 84 Wing, part of Air Mobility Group. Heavy maintenance is contracted to Airbus Group Australia Pacific and StandardAero. No. 37 Squadron's motto is "Foremost". The squadron operates twelve Lockheed Martin C-130J Hercules, which entered service in 1999. The aircraft are generally crewed by a loadmaster, the latter being responsible for the loading, carriage and unloading of cargo and passengers. The C-130J can carry some 120 passengers.No. 37 Squadron RAAF – No. 37 Squadron's crest
37. House of Music – House of Music is the fourth studio album by American R&B group Tony! Toni! Toné!. After the success of the band's 1993 album Sons of a hiatus marked by individual musical projects, the members of Tony! Toni! Toné! regrouped in 1995 and began recording House of Music, working at a number of studios in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Oakland, Sacramento. Saadiq, Wiggins, Riley worked on songs for House of Music independently before recording them together as a group. In their direction for the album, Tony! Toni! Toné! Sought to emphasize musicianship rather than technique during the sessions. The record expanded with live instrumentation and balladry. Music journalists have noted the album's incorporation of traditional and contemporary sensibilities, witty, sensitive lyrics. Tony! Toni!House of Music – House of Music
38. Zenobia – Septimia Zenobia was a third-century queen of the Syria-based Palmyrene Empire. Many legends surround her ancestry; she was certainly married the ruler of the city, Odaenathus. Her husband became king in 260, elevating Palmyra by defeating the Sassanians and stabilizing the Roman East. After Odaenathus' assassination, Zenobia held de facto power throughout his reign. In 270, Zenobia launched an invasion which culminated with the annexation of Egypt. By mid-271 her realm extended to southern Egypt although she remained nominally subordinate to Rome. However, in reaction to Roman emperor Aurelian's campaign in 272, Zenobia assumed the title of empress. The Romans were victorious after heavy fighting; the queen was captured by Aurelian, who exiled her to Rome. Zenobia fostered an intellectual environment in her court, open to scholars and philosophers. She was protected religious minorities. The queen maintained a stable administration which governed a multiethnic empire. Many tales have been recorded about her fate. She is a national hero in Syria. So white were her teeth that many thought that she had pearls in place of teeth. The queen was born c.Zenobia – Zenobia Antoninianus coin reporting her title, Augusta and showing her diadem and draped bust on a crescent with the reverse showing a standing figure of Iuno Regina, holding a patera in her right hand, a sceptre in her left, a peacock at her feet, and a brilliant star to the right
39. Ninety-five Theses – The Ninety-five Theses or Disputation on the Power of Indulgences are a list of propositions for an academic disputation written by Martin Luther in 1517. The Theses were quickly reprinted, distributed throughout Germany and Europe. They initiated a pamphlet war with preacher Johann Tetzel, which spread Luther's fame even further. Luther's ecclesiastical superiors had him tried for heresy, which culminated in his excommunication in 1521. In the Catholic Church, indulgences are part of the economy of salvation. This punishment could be satisfied by the penitent performing works of mercy. If the temporal punishment is not satisfied during life, it would need to be satisfied in purgatory. With an indulgence, this temporal punishment could be lessened. Under abuses of the system of indulgences, the pope gave official sanction in exchange for a fee. This led to the popular saying, "As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs". Theologians at the University of Paris had criticized this saying late in the fifteenth century. Earlier critics of indulgences included John Wycliffe, who denied that the pope had jurisdiction over purgatory. His followers had advocated a more severe system of penance where indulgences were not available. Johannes von Wesel had also attacked indulgences late in the fifteenth century. Political rulers had an interest in controlling indulgences because local economies suffered when the money for indulgences left a given territory.Ninety-five Theses – "Thesentür" (the "Door of the Theses") memorial at All Saints' Church (Schlosskirche) in Wittenberg
40. Nike-X – This never came to pass; the Nike-X program was canceled and replaced by a much lighter defense system known as Sentinel. The system was developed to limitations of the earlier Nike Zeus system. The key concept that led to Nike-X was that the rapidly thickening atmosphere below 60 kilometres altitude disrupted the explosions. Nike-X intended to wait until the enemy warheads descended below this altitude and then attack them using a very fast missile known as Sprint. The entire engagement could take place as low as 25,000 feet. Many dozens of warheads would need to arrive at the same time in order to overwhelm the system. Building a complete deployment would have been extremely expensive, on the order of the yearly budget of the Department of Defense. The Secretary of Defense, felt the cost could not be justified and worried it would lead to a further nuclear arms race. He directed the teams to consider deployments where a limited number of interceptors might still be militarily useful. Among these, the concept suggested building a lightweight defense against very limited attacks. Nike-X development, in its original form, ended. In 1955 the U.S. Army began considering the possibility of further upgrading their Nike B missile as an anti-ballistic missile to intercept ICBMs. The primary contractor for Nike, was asked to study the issue. Considerable rivalry between the Army and Air Force led to the Nike II being redefined and delayed several times. These barriers were swept aside after the launch of the R-7 Semyorka, the first Soviet ICBM.Nike-X – The Sprint missile was the main weapon in the Nike-X system, intercepting enemy ICBM warheads only seconds before they exploded.
41. Grey jay – The grey jay, also gray jay, Canada jay or whisky jack, is a passerine bird of the family Corvidae. The birds form monogamous mating pairs, with pairs accompanied by a third juvenile from the previous season. The grey jay has become associated with a benevolent figure whose name was Anglicized to Whiskyjack. The grey jay is a relatively large songbird. A grey jay is between 25 to 33 cm long. Its wingspan is around 45 cm. It weighs about 65 to 70 g. Males are slightly larger than females. These birds can live for up to 19 years. Its build is stocky, with thick feathers, broad, rounded wings. These birds have round heads with stout bills. It is also a native resident in northern Minnesota, northern Wisconsin, northern Michigan, northern New England. The grey jay may wander north of the breeding range. In winter it travels irregularly to northwestern Nebraska, central Minnesota, southeastern Wisconsin, central Michigan, southern Pennsylvania, central New York, Massachusetts. P. c. albescens is a resident from northeastern British Columbia and northwestern Alberta southeastward, east of the Rocky Mountains to South Dakota.Grey jay – Gray jay
42. Timeline of the 2001 Atlantic hurricane season – The 2001 Atlantic hurricane season was an average Atlantic hurricane season in which fifteen named storms formed. Hurricane Olga, dissipated on December 6. Four became major hurricanes. The two most significant storms in terms of loss of life and damage, were Tropical Storm Allison and Hurricane Michelle. Tropical Storm Allison was an early season tropical storm that brought devastating rainfall to much of the Gulf Coast of the United States. The storm became the only storm in recorded history to have its name retired by the World Meteorological Organization. Hurricane Michelle was the strongest hurricane during the season, with winds reaching 140 mph, Category 4 status on the Saffir -- Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. Michelle produced torrential rainfall before moving through the Bahamas and dissipating on November 6. This timeline documents tropical cyclone formations, strengthening, weakening, landfalls, dissipations during the season. June 1 0400 UTC – The 2001 Atlantic hurricane season officially begins. June 5 1200 UTC – Tropical Storm Allison develops from an area of low pressure roughly 120 mi south of Galveston, Texas. 1800 UTC – Tropical Storm Allison reaches its peak intensity with winds of 60 mph. 2100 UTC – Tropical Storm Allison makes landfall near Freeport, Texas with winds of 50 mph. June 6 0600 UTC – Tropical Storm Allison weakens to a tropical depression over southeastern Texas. June 10 0000 UTC – Tropical Depression Allison transitions into a subtropical depression.Timeline of the 2001 Atlantic hurricane season – Tropical Storm Allison near peak intensity on June 5, 2001
43. Private Practice (season 1) – The first season of Private Practice premiered on September 26, 2007 and concluded on December 5, 2007. The season consisted of nine episodes. The first season also deals with her budding relationships with her new co-workers. Among them include her best friend Naomi Bennett, a fertility specialist, her ex-husband Sam Bennett, who specializes in internal medicine. Also working within the practice is psychiatrist Violet Turner, pediatrician Cooper Freedman, alternative medicine specialist Pete Wilder, receptionist Dell Parker. It is revealed as well.Private Practice (season 1) – DVD cover art
44. List of municipalities in Nova Scotia – Nova Scotia is the seventh-most populous province in Canada with 921,727 residents as of 2011. It is the second-smallest province in area at approximately 53,000 km2. Nova Scotia's 51 municipalities are home to 7001990000000000000 ♠ 99.0 % of its population. Municipalities in Nova Scotia include regional municipalities, county or district municipalities. Nova Scotia has 3 regional municipalities, 21 county or district municipalities. The provincial capital, is incorporated as a regional municipality. It is Nova Scotia's largest municipality by population with largest municipality by land area at 5,490.28 km2. Nova Scotia has three regional municipalities. The largest regional municipality by population is Halifax, largest municipality of Nova Scotia by population. Halifax's 390,096 residents represent 7001420000000000000♠42% of the total population of the province. Halifax is also the largest municipality by area at 5,490.28 km2. Of Nova Scotia's 18 historical counties, 9 are incorporated as county municipalities. Nova Scotia has 12 district municipalities. St. Mary's with 25,118 and 2,354 residents respectively. Nova Scotia's largest municipality by size is Guysborough which spans 2,111.42 km2 and the smallest by size is Yarmouth at 585.75 km2.List of municipalities in Nova Scotia – Halifax is Nova Scotia's capital and largest municipality.
45. Ajith Kumar filmography – Ajith Kumar is an Indian actor working mainly in Tamil cinema. He was first seen played a small role in the 1990 Tamil film En Veedu En Kanavar. However, his professional career began through the Telugu film Prema Pusthakam. Following that, in the same year he made his debut through Amaravathi. The film helped him get more modelling assignments. He followed that like Paasamalargal and Pavithra. In 1995, he landed his first role in the romantic thriller Aasai. The success of the film helped him establish himself as an up-and-coming actor in Tamil cinema. He was next seen in the epistolary Kadhal Kottai. The film won three National Film Awards including the award for the Best Tamil Film in 1996. Kaadhal Mannan were moderately successful. Ajith's dual portrayal as twin brothers -- where one is mute -- in the S. J. Suryah-directed Vaali fetched him his first Filmfare Award. Furthermore, his performance was well received by the critics. The film's success prompted Rajiv Menon to cast Ajith in his Kandukondain Kandukondain. Featuring an cast, the film saw him paired opposite Tabu.Ajith Kumar filmography – Ajith Kumar in 2010
46. Jacques Rivette filmography – Jacques Rivette was a French film director, screenwriter and film critic. He directed twenty feature films, including the two-part Joan the Maiden, eight short films and a three-part television documentary. He also participated in documentaries. After making his short film, Aux quatre coins, in his hometown of Rouen, Rivette moved to Paris in 1949 to pursue a career in filmmaking. Rivette's association with this group of young cinephiles lead to his work in film criticism. In collaboration with his new friends, Rivette worked as a cinematographer and editor on films by Rohmer and Truffaut. In 1956 Rivette made the short film Le Coup du Berger, which Truffaut credited as enacting the New Wave movement. He began work on his first feature film with the initial support of Italian neorealist director Roberto Rossellini. After staging a theatrical version of Denis Diderot's novel La Religieuse starring Anna Karina in 1963, Rivette became the editor-in-chief of Cahiers du Cinéma until 1965. He then began production on a version of La Religieuse, which led to a lengthy public battle with French censorship over the film's release. Finally released in 1967, the publicity made it financially successful. Rivette was unhappy with La Religieuse and re-evaluated his career, developing a cinematic style with L'Amour fou. This technique led to the thirteen-hour Out 1. His films such as Julie Go Boating, often incorporated fantasy and were better-regarded. During the early 1980s, he began a business partnership with producer Martine Marignac, who produced all his subsequent films.Jacques Rivette filmography – Rivette in 2006
47. Rise Against discography – Rise Against is an American rock band from Chicago. Their discography consists of seven studio albums, one compilation album, eight extended plays, eleven singles, six promotional singles, seventeen music videos. The band was formed under the original name Transistor Revolt. The band then made their major record label debut with Siren Song of the Counter Culture. Their album was The Sufferer & the Witness in 2006. It was the band's first album to chart in other countries. Rise Against's popularity continued to grow with their fifth album Appeal to Reason, released in 2008 by DGC and Interscope Records. The album sold over 482,000 copies by 2011. Rise Against's next album, was released in 2011. Continuing to Reason, it charted within the top ten in several countries, remains their most successful album chart-wise. Rise Against on AllMusic Rise Against on DiscogsRise Against discography – Rise Against's lead singer Tim McIlrath performing with the band at 2006's Warped Tour.
48. Wikipedia community – The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors to the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. Individual contributors are known as "Wikipedians". The Oxford English Dictionary added the word "Wikipedian" in August 2012. Almost all Wikipedians are volunteers. Studies of the size of the community of Wikipedia showed an exponential growth during the early years. In April 2008, lecturer Clay Shirky and computer scientist Martin Wattenberg estimated the total time spent creating Wikipedia at roughly 100 million hours. In November 2011, there were approximately million registered user accounts across all language editions, of which around 270,000 were "active". As of today, the English Wikipedia contains an unknown number of anonymous contributors. There are 127,176 active editors on the English project. Wikipedia editors continue to increase the number, quality of the articles. A fifth spend more than three hours a day. Various studies have been done to the motivations of Wikipedia contributors. A paper written in 2005, called "Why Do People Write for Wikipedia? Incentives to Contribute to Open-Content Publishing", discussed the possible motivations of Wikipedia contributors. Oded Nov, in his 2007 paper "What Motivates Wikipedians", related the motivations of volunteers in general to the motivations of people who contribute to Wikipedia.Wikipedia community – Wikimania 2012 group photograph
49. Wiki markup – Its purpose is to be converted by wiki software into HTML, which, in turn, is served to web browsers. It was created on the original wiki site, WikiWikiWeb. There is commonly accepted standard language. Justification, keywords and so on depend on the particular wiki software used on the particular website. Different Wiki programs may support use of different sets of HTML elements within wikitext. In some cases, permitted HTML elements may be configured by individual wiki sites. MediaWiki supports many common HTML tags. There are different syntax conventions for these links. Many wikis, especially the earlier ones, used CamelCase to mark words that should be automatically linked. In MediaWiki, this convention was replaced with the notation, which Wikipedia calls "free links". Creole is an effort for a "common language to be used across different Wikis". There are several wiki engines that have implemented Creole. Version 1.0 of the specification was released in July 2007. It is not supported by MediaWiki. VisualEditor is an alternative to editing the raw wiki markup code.Wiki markup – Screenshot of the edit window in a Wikipedia article. Note the <nowiki> tag, used to escape wiki markup and HTML. HTML comments can be seen inside the <!-- --> tags.