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1. Jawani Phir Nahi Ani – Jawani Phir Nahi Ani is a 2015 Pakistani adventure and comedy film directed by Nadeem Beyg and co-produced by Humayun Saeed, Salman Iqbal, Shahzad Nasib. The movie was produced by Humayun Saeeds production house, Six Sigma Plus, the film stars Humayun Saeed, Hamza Ali Abbasi, Ahmad Ali Butt, Vasay Chaudhry, Mehwish Hayat and Sohai Ali Abro. The supporting cast includes Javed Sheikh, Ismail Tara, Bushra Ansari, Ayesha Khan, Sarwat Gillani, the plot revolves around the story of a single divorce lawyer who takes his three married friends on a trip to help them escape their wives. The film was released worldwide on 25, September 2015 in India, Middle East, South Africa, Australia and it took the title as the biggest opening Pakistani film of all time with the movie being released on 80 screens domestically. It received mixed reviews from critics but ended up being a success at the box office by grossing over ₨49 crores. Previously, this title had been held by the 1998 hit, three childhood friends, Saif, Sheikh and Pervez, have settled down in marriage life but are afraid of their wives. Their friend Sherry, a lawyer, returns to Pakistan from U. S. to meet them. In Bangkok, Sherry meets a girl named Marina, a daughter of a boss named Bichi Don. When Sherry learns about her fathers occupation, he decides to cut their trip short to get away from Marina. Shortly after, the men get busted for their getaway when the trios wives show up in Bangkok to pay them a visit at the hotel they were staying at. Sherry leaves them and Pervez tries to suicide frm the top of the building but is saved as he lands in a swimming pool, Sherry places the blame on his friends by telling their wives that the trip was their idea and not his. This results in all three wives demanding a divorce since they could no longer trust their husbands, a few months go by and the three friends come across the news that Sherry is getting married to Zoya, daughter of Mehboob Khan, a billionaire in Lahore. Zoya is the nouveau riche kid, who insists on speaking in with a strong American English accent and abbreviates expressions like OMG. She enjoys spending her fathers money carelessly while her mother, worries about her daughters attitude, when the three friends arrive at Sherrys wedding, he asks them not to tell Zoya and her family about Marina. So when Bichi Don arrives as an Arabic speaking person named Ya Sheikh as a guest of his soon-to-be father-in-law, Mehboob Khan and this way, neither Mehboob Khan nor Ya Sheikh could know which Sherry was being brought up during any incriminating conversations. Just two days prior to Sherry and Zoyas wedding, Marina arrives in Lahore, Sherry decides to play another trick on Ya Sheikh. Sherry wants Ya Sheikh to reject him as a potential son-in-law, just as he expected, Ya Sheikh rejects Sherry, saying, He acts gay after 12 AM and leaves Lahore. Sherry and his three friends feel relieved after resolving the situation, but get shocked when Ya Sheikh and Marina come back to Lahore on the day of the weddingJawani Phir Nahi Ani – Theatrical release poster
2. Warli painting – Warli painting is a style of tribal art mostly created by Adivasi from the North Sahyadri Range in India. This range encompasses cities such as Dahanu, Talasari, Jawhar, Palghar, Mokhada and this tribal art originated from Maharashtra, where it is still practiced today. The Warli tribe is one of the largest tribes in India, despite being so close to one of the largest, modern cities in India, tribesmen reject the notions and modern advancements of society today. The style of Warli painting was not discovered until the 1970s even though the style of art is thought to date back as early as 10th century A. D. The Warli culture is centered around Mother Nature and elements of nature are often focal points depicted in Warli painting, farming is their main way of life and the source of their food to provide for the tribe. They greatly respect nature and wildlife for the resources that it provides for life, Warli used their clay huts as the backdrop to their paintings, similar to how ancient people used caves as their canvases. These rudimentary wall paintings use a set of geometric shapes, a circle, a triangle. These shapes are symbollic of different elements of nature, the circle and the triangle come from their observation of nature. The circle is representing the sun and the moon while the triangle is derived from mountains, in contrast, the square appears to be a human invention, indicating a sacred enclosure or a piece of land. The central motif in each painting is the square, known as the chalk or Shaukat. Inside a Devchauk is usually Palaghata, the goddess, symbolizing fertility. Male gods are unusual among the Warli and are related to spirits which have taken human shape. The central motif in paintings is surrounded by scenes portraying hunting, fishing and farming as well as trees. Festivals and dances are common scenes depicted in the ritual paintings. Human and animal bodies are represented by two triangles joined at their tips. The upper triangle depicts the torso and the triangle the pelvis. Their precarious equilibrium symbolizes the balance of the universe, the representation also has the practical and amusing advantage of animating the bodies. Another main theme of Warli art is the denotation of a triangle that is larger at the top representing a man, apart from ritualistic paintings, other Warli paintings covered day-to-day activities of the village peopleWarli painting – Warli paintings, at Sanskriti Kendra Museum, Anandagram, New Delhi.
3. T3 tanker – The T3 tanker, or T3, are a class of sea worthy large tanker ships used to transport fuel oil, gasoline or diesel before and during World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War. The T3 tanker classification is used today. T3 tankers are about 500 to 650 feet in length and are able to sustain a top speed from 15 to 18 knots, the T3 tanker is larger, and usually faster, than a T2 tanker. The hull designation AOG is used by the US Navy to denote that the ship is a T3 gasoline tanker, the AO designation denotes that the ship is a T3 fleet oiler, also referred to as a replenishment oiler. Most of the T3 ships were built for private companies, some T3 tankers were built for or sold to the US Navy, which were renamed using the names of Native Americans, rivers and lakes. The T3 tanker can carry from about 133,800 to 200,000 BBLs, some T3 tankers were used to transport other goods like black oil-crude oil and chemicals. T3s are also called liquid cargo carriers, the T3 tanker has roughly a full load displacement of about 24,830 tons. T3 tankers are operated by the US Navy, War Shipping Administration, each T3 has emergency life rafts on the boat deck. The ships have cargo booms and piping to load and unload fuel, during wartime, the T3 ships were armed for protection with deck guns. A typical ship may have one single 3/50 dual purpose gun, T3 ships normally carries 81 to 304 crew members. If operating as a United States Merchant Marine ship, the crew would be a mix of civilian Merchant Marines, the World War II T3 class tankers were considered large for the their day, but are small compared to the modern tankers of today. A large modern tanker, like the Ultra Large Crude Carrier, is over 300,000 metric tons, another modern tanker, the Very Large Crude Carrier, is over 200,000 metric tons. The attack on Pearl Harbor brought up an urgent need for aircraft carriers and this led to some T3 tankers being converted to escort carriers. The USS Suwannee is an example of a T3 tanker hull AO-33 that was rebuilt to be an escort carrier, the T3 tankers size and speed made the T3 an useful escort carrier. There were two classes of T3 hull carriers, Sangamon class and Commencement Bay class. T3-S-A1 tanker, Class Chiwawa-class oiler,2 steam turbines to a single-screw,7,700 shp, max speed of 15 knots,501 feet long, width 68 ft, max depth 29.6 ft,9,880 gross tons, carry 133,800 barrels. 25 of this design were ordered by the Maritime Commission, of five became Navy oilers as the Chiwawa class oiler. Built by Bethlehem Steel in Sparrows Point, Maryland, served as Fleet Oilers and some were converted to Escort carriers, CVET3 tanker – USS Niobrara AO-72
4. Burns Archive – The Burns Archive is the world’s largest private collection of early medical photography and historic photographs, housing over one million photographs. While it primarily contains images related to medical practises, it is famous for photograohs depicting the darker side of life. Other themes prevalent throughout the collection involve death, crime, racism, the Burns Archive actively acquires, donates, researches, lectures, exhibits, consults, and shares its rare and unusual photographs and expertise worldwide. Many of these collected pictures allowed the community of the era to share knowledge. Having written over 1,100 articles and over 40 books, Dr. Sleeping Beauty was praised by Pulitzer Prize winning author, John Updike, in the American Heritage article he wrote on the book. Burns Archive Creative Director, Elizabeth A. Burns, co-authored various books with Dr. Stanley B. Burns MD, Elizabeth A. Burns, and The Burns Archive, serve as the medical, historical and technical advisers for Steven Soderbergh’s period medical Cinemax series, The Knick, starring Clive Owen. The Knick looks at the professional and personal lives of Dr. John W. Thackery, Dr. Burns provided immersive tutorials in the world of early-20th-century surgery, complete with hands-on practice. Burns, the Archive’s Founder, is a New York City ophthalmologist who acquired his first medical photograph in 1975, the Archive began receiving recognition in 1978, when a selection of its 19th and 20th century photographs were featured in the Time Life Encyclopedia of Collectibles entry on photographs. Burns Mirror, Mirror, The Burns Collection Daguerreotypes Shooting Soldiers, Civil War Medical Photography By R. BBurns Archive – Photo from the book, Shooting Soldiers: Civil War Medical Photography by Dr. R.B. Bontecou. Written by Dr. Stanley B. Burns, published by Burns Archive Press. This photograph depicts G. Porubsky, Co B. 46th NY volunteer soldier displaying excision of the humerus. This photograph from Bontecou's teaching album shows Bontecou's operation of bone removal in the upper arm, which left the patient with a useless limb.
5. Red House Theater – The Red House Theater, often called Hong Lo Red Play House, Red Theater, Ximen Honglou or Ximen Red House in English, is a historic theater in Ximending, Wanhua District, Taipei, Taiwan. The theater is located at 10 Chengdu Road, built in 1908 during Japanese rule and designed by Japanese architect Kondo Juro, it was originally a market building but was used as a theater from 1945 onward. It was renovated due to a fire in the 2000s, the Red House was listed as a Class III Historical Site in 1997. In 2016 the area was subject to an arson attack, the Riverside Live House Corporation Ltd. took control of the horizontal section of the main Cruciform Building in September 2008. It has launched concerts by students and musicians from Thursday throughout the weekend, the building was converted into a theatre in 2007, and has since become a popular part of the gay scene in the neighborhood. It is the site of the annual gay New Year’s Eve countdown and the Taipei Pride and it was the venue of the Wikimania 2007 Party, which included a short film festival. The ground floor houses a cafe and a display on the history of the building. The second-floor theatre hosts regular live performances, the theater is accessible within walking distance west from Ximen Station of the Taipei Metro. List of tourist attractions in Taiwan 紅樓劇場_風華再現 Official Site Red Theater Sparks Renovation of Ximenting Area The Red House,100 Years and a New EleganceRed House Theater – Red House Theater, Ximending, Taipei
6. Canadian Blood Services – A separate organization, Héma-Québec, operates in the province of Quebec. It was created in 1998 as a successor to the Canadian Red Cross blood program and it took over the responsibilities of Canadian blood systems starting from September 26,1998. In addition to donating whole blood, some also offer platelets. Canadian Blood Services received government funding of $35 million over five years to proceed with this new mandate, Canadian Blood Services is governed by an independent Board of Directors, who are recommended and appointed by provincial and territorial ministers of health. The Chief Executive Officer of Canadian Blood Services is Dr. Graham Sher, the new policy came into effect on July 22,2013. Canadas policies are now in line with such as Britain. Other nations, such as the United States, maintain a lifetime ban. Whole blood collection is the shortest process of those listed above,488 mL of blood is collected during a blood donation. For a typical donor this represents about ten percent of their blood supplyCanadian Blood Services – The Canadian Blood Services Head Office building, 1800 Alta Vista, Ottawa, ON.
7. Lamprologini – Lamprologini is a tribe of African cichlid fishes. It contains seven genera and nearly 100 species, over half of the species in this tribe are in the large genus Neolamprologus. Most genera in the tribe are endemic to Lake Tanganyika, but one species of Neolamprologus is from the Malagarasi River in Tanzania, the species in this tribe are very small to medium-sized cichlids, but vary extensively in appearance and habitat preference. Unlike most Tanganyika cichlids which are mouthbrooders, Lamprologini species are substrate spawners, and some are shell dwellersLamprologini – Lamprologini
8. OPV AIDS hypothesis – Data analyses in molecular biology and phylogenetic studies contradict the OPV AIDS hypothesis, consequently, scientific consensus regards the hypothesis as disproven. The journal Nature has described the hypothesis as refuted, two vaccines are used throughout the world to combat poliomyelitis. The second vaccine, a polio vaccine, is a live-attenuated vaccine. The passage of virus produces mutations within the genome. Both vaccines have been used for decades to induce immunity to polio, however, OPV has several advantages, because the vaccine is introduced in the gastrointestinal tract, the primary site of poliovirus infection and replication, it closely mimics a natural infection. OPV also provides long lasting immunity, and stimulates the production of neutralizing antibodies in the pharynx. Hence, OPV not only prevents paralytic poliomyelitis, but also, other benefits of OPV include ease of administration, low cost and suitability for mass vaccination campaigns. Oral polio vaccines were developed in the late 1950s by several groups, including those led by Albert Sabin, Hilary Koprowski, a poliovirus type 1 strain called SM was reported in 1954. A less virulent version of the SM strain was reported by Koprowski in 1957, the name of the vaccine strain was CHAT after Charlton, the name of the child who was the donor of the precursor virus. The Sabin, Koprowski and Cox vaccines were clinically tested in millions of individuals and found to be safe and effective. Because monkey trials found fewer side effects with the Sabin vaccine, in the early 1960s, between 1957 and 1960, Koprowskis vaccine was administered to roughly one million people in the Belgian territories, now the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda and Burundi. In 1960, Koprowski wrote in the British Medical Journal, The Belgian Congo trials have enlarged considerably, more vaccination campaigns organized in several provinces of the Belgian Congo are raising the number of vaccinated individuals into the millions. In South Africa, African green monkey tissue was used to amplify the Sabin vaccine, in French West Africa and Equatorial Africa, baboons were used to amplify a vaccine from the Pasteur Institute. In Poland, the CHAT vaccine was amplified using Asian macaques, in 1987, Blaine Elswood contacted journalist Tom Curtis about a bombshell story on OPV and AIDS. Curtis published an article on the OPV AIDS hypothesis in Rolling Stone in 1992, in response, Hilary Koprowski sued Rolling Stone and Tom Curtis for defamation. The magazine published a clarification which praised Koprowski and stated, Rolling Stone was ordered to pay $1 USD in damages whilst incurring around $500,000 USD in legal fees for its own defense. A few scientists, notably the biologist W. D. Hamilton, thought the hypothesis required serious investigation, journalist Edward Hooper detailed the hypothesis in his 1999 book, The River. Hooper further expanded on his allegations in a 2000 meeting in London, at the Royal Society, in 2001, Hilary Koprowski responded by making a detailed rebuttal of the points made in the book, also in a talk to the Royal SocietyOPV AIDS hypothesis – The Laboratoire Médical de Stanleyville was sited at the city now known as Kisangani
9. Loren Pankratz – Loren Pankratz is a consultation psychologist at the Portland VA Medical Center and professor in the department of psychiatry at Oregon Health & Science University. Following his retirement in 1995, he maintained a forensic practice until 2012 and he testified nationally on cases of Münchausen syndrome by proxy, often defending mothers accused of harming their children. He has also published magic history, magic tricks, and mentalism effects in magazines, Pankratz, along with Ray Hyman and Jerry Andrus, was a founding faculty member of the Skeptics Toolbox in Eugene, Oregon. Pankratz is also a Fellow for the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, Pankratz received his B. A. from Oregon State University in 1962 and his Ph. D. from the University of Oregon in 1968. He is a resident of Oregon. In 2012, Pankratz constructed a display of historically significant books about quackery at the Oregon Health & Science University Library, Pankratz was a psychologist at the Portland VA Medical Center for 24 years. In 1975, Pankratz became consultation psychologist for medical and surgical services where he remained until his retirement in 1995. The purpose of checking a veterans story, of course, is not directed at catching lies, Pankratz was appointed professor in the psychiatry department at Oregon Health Sciences University in 1989. After retirement, he became a professor in the department of psychiatry. He said that many aspiring authors did not check outside facts, in 1993, Pankratz was appointed to the scientific and professional advisory board of the False Memory Syndrome Foundation. He has written about the lack of documented evidence for repressed memory, in 1984, Pankratz and two colleagues founded the Drug-Seeking Behavior Committee which turned the focus of drug abuse from addiction to the earlier problem of risk. Pankratzs articles on Münchausen syndrome by proxy discussed what he says is a problem of false accusations associated with the diagnosis. In the majority of cases he reviewed, the mothers were well meaning but inappropriately concerned about the health of their children, in an interview with Psychology Today Pankratz stated I have seen mothers accused of MBP simply because physicians disagreed about the medical management of their child. After a contentious case in Pennsylvania, Pankratz told the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette that the mother was not creating medical symptoms in her children. Often called in as expert testimony, Pankratz stated, for 30 years, been hired by prosecutors, defense attorneys, insurance companies and the Roman Catholic Church as an expert in medical deception. In his opinion, the mother had not created medical symptoms in her children, instead, the symptoms were caused by a mitochondrial disorder, an uncommon condition that is difficult to diagnose. The children were returned to the care of the mother, Pankratz published Patients Who Deceive in 1998 which is part of the Charles Thomas Behavioral Science and Law series. Reviewer Phillip Resnick wrote that Pankratz clearly explains the difference between a malingerer and a person with factitious disorder who wants to be sick, Resnick says the book showcases many dramatic examples of creating illusions of illnessLoren Pankratz – Loren Pankratz
10. Lajos Kossuth – With the help of his talent in oratory in political debates and public speeches, Kossuth emerged from a poor gentry family into regent-president of Kingdom of Hungary. As the most influential contemporary American journalist Horace Greeley said of Kossuth, “Among the orators, patriots, statesmen, exiles, he has, living or dead, no superior. ”Kossuths powerful English and American speeches so impressed and touched the most famous contemporary American orator Daniel Webster, that he wrote a book about Kossuths life. He was widely honored during his lifetime, including in Great Britain, Kossuths bronze bust can be found in the United States Capitol with the inscription, Father of Hungarian Democracy, Hungarian Statesman, Freedom Fighter, 1848–1849. Kossuth was born in Monok, Kingdom of Hungary, a town in the county of Zemplén. His father, László Kossuth, belonged to the nobility, had a small estate and was a lawyer by profession. László Kossuth had two brothers and one sister, the House of Kossuth originated from the county of Turóc. They acquired the rank of nobility in 1263 from King Béla IV, the mother of Lajos Kossuth, Karolina Weber was born to a Lutheran family of partial German descent, living in Upper Hungary. His mother raised the children as strict Lutherans, as a result of his mixed ancestry, and as was quite common during his era, he spoke three languages - Slovak, Hungarian and German. Kossuth studied at the Piarist college of Sátoraljaújhely and one year in the Calvinist college of Sárospatak, aged nineteen, he entered his fathers legal practice. He was popular locally, and having been appointed steward to the countess Szapáry and he was subsequently dismissed on the grounds of some misunderstanding in regards to estate funds. Shortly after his dismissal by Countess Szapáry, Kossuth was appointed as deputy to Count Hunyady at the National Diet, the Diet met during 1825–1827 and 1832–1836 in Pressburg, then capital of Hungary. Only the upper aristocracy could vote in the House of Magnates, however, at the time, a struggle to reassert a Hungarian national identity was beginning to emerge under leaders such as Wesselényi and the Széchenyis. In part, it was also a struggle for economic and political reforms against the stagnant Austrian government, Kossuths duties to Count Hunyady included reporting on Diet proceedings in writing, as the Austrian government, fearing popular dissent, had banned published reports. The high quality of Kossuths letters led to their being circulated in manuscript among other liberal magnates, readership demands led him to edit an organized parliamentary gazette, spreading his name and influence further. Orders from the Official Censor halted circulation by lithograph printing, distribution in manuscript by post was forbidden by the government, although circulation by hand continued. In 1836, the Diet was dissolved, Kossuth continued to report, covering the debates of the county assemblies. The newfound publicity gave the national political prominence. Previously, they had had little idea of each others proceedings and his embellishment of the speeches from the liberals and reformers enhanced the impact of his newslettersLajos Kossuth – Lajos Kossuth
11. Car dealerships in North America – In the United States, direct manufacturer auto sales are prohibited in almost every state by franchise laws requiring that new cars be sold only by dealers. Used car dealerships carry cars from different manufacturers, while new car dealerships are generally franchises associated with only one manufacturer. Some new car dealerships may carry multiple brands from the same manufacturer, in some locales, dealerships have been consolidated and a single owner may control a chain of dealerships representing several different manufacturers. New car dealerships also sell used cars, and take in trade-ins and/or purchase used vehicles at auction, most dealerships also provide a series of additional services for car buyers and owners, which are sometimes more profitable than the core business of selling cars. Most car dealerships display their inventory in a showroom and on a car lot, under U. S. federal law, all new cars must carry a sticker showing the offering price and summarizing the vehicles features. Salespersons, usually those who work on commission, negotiate with buyers to determine a final sales price. In many cases, this includes negotiating the price of a trade-in—the dealers purchase of the current automobile. The result is referred to as desking the deal and this is the final step of negotiation process. The information generated during the desking phase includes payment and pricing options and it requires the customer. The next step is a purchase and sales agreement or a sales agreement, the final paperwork is also printed out at this phase. A car dealer orders vehicles from the manufacturer for inventory and pays interest, dealer holdbacks are a system of payments made by the manufacturers to their dealers. The holdback payments assist the ability to stock their inventory of vehicles and improves the profitability of dealers. Typically the holdback amount is around 1% to 3% of the manufacturers suggested retail price. The holdback allows dealerships to promote at- or near-invoice price sales, with the advent of the Internet, the process of selling cars has undergone a considerable change. More than 70% of car purchases in the United States start with research on the Internet and this empowers the buyers with the knowledge of features of comparable cars and the prices and discounts offered by different dealers within the same geographic area. This helps the buyers during price negotiations and puts pressure on the profit margin of the dealer. Trade in value is an important facet of the car deal, trade value estimates can be found at sites such as NADA, KBB, Edmunds, and Consumer Reports. However, most of these values are estimated from a chart that may or may not be based on recent average sales prices of a particular makeCar dealerships in North America – A typical franchised, new-car and -truck dealership in the United States/Canada
12. Arthur Penn – Arthur Hiller Penn was an American director and producer of film, television and theater. Penn directed critically acclaimed films throughout the 1960s such as the drama The Chase, the crime film Bonnie and Clyde. He also got attention for his revisionist Western Little Big Man, by the mid-1970s his films were received with much less enthusiasm. In the 1990s he returned to stage and television direction and production, Penn was born to a Russian Jewish family in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Sonia, a nurse, and Harry Penn, a watchmaker. He was the brother of Irving Penn, the successful fashion photographer. During the 1920s, he moved in with his mother after she divorced Penns father, some time after, he came back to his sickly father, leading him to run his fathers watch repair shop. At 19 he was drafted into the army, stationed in Britain, he became interested in theater. He started to direct and take part in shows being put on for the soldiers around England at the time, as Penn grew up, he became increasingly interested in film, especially after seeing the Orson Welles film Citizen Kane. He later attended Black Mountain College in North Carolina, and was a commentator in the documentary Fully Awake about the college. After making a name for himself as a director of quality television dramas, Penn made his debut with a western. A retelling of the Billy the Kid legend, it was distinguished by Paul Newmans sharp portrayal of the outlaw as a troubled youth. The production was completed in only 23 days, but Warner Brothers reedited the film against his wishes with a new ending he disapproved of, the film subsequently failed upon release in North America, but was well received in Europe. Penns second film was The Miracle Worker, the story of Anne Sullivans struggle to teach the blind and it garnered two Academy Awards for its leads Anne Bancroft and Patty Duke. In 1965 Penn directed Mickey One, heavily influenced by the French New Wave, it was the dreamlike story of a standup comedian on the run from sinister, ambiguous forces. In 2010, Penn commented, You know, you could not have gone through the Second World War with all that nonsense with Russia being an ally, the McCarthy period was ridiculous and humiliating, deeply humiliating. When I finally did Mickey One, it was in repudiation of the kind of fear that free people to the point where they were telling on each other. It just astonished me, really astonished me, I mean, I was a vet, so it was nothing like what we thought we were fighting for. Penns next film was The Chase a thriller following events in a small corrupt Southern town on the day an escaped convict, played by Robert Redford, returnsArthur Penn – Arthur Penn
13. Illinois Beach State Park – Illinois Beach State Park is part of the Illinois state park system and is located along Lake Michigan in Winthrop Harbor, Zion, and unincorporated Benton Township in northeast Illinois. Recreational activities at Illinois Beach State Park include boating, swimming, hiking, bicycling, camping, bird watching, known primarily for the beach, Illinois Beach State Park also includes dune areas, wetlands, prairie, and black oak savanna. The area at the far end of the park is a designated nature preserve. The park was created starting in 1948 when the state acquired the first parcels. The northern unit, acquired between 1971 and 1982, was previously an Illinois National Guard training facility known as Camp Logan, during the American Civil War, Camp Logan was a Union prisoner of war camp. The entry to the beach is usually from an area on its north side. South, the beach is less crowded and a mile of shoreline extends to an inlet into a wetland, as the South Unit is not in an actual municipality, the police protection is provided by the Lake County Sheriffs Department. The fire and emergency services are provided by the Beach Park Fire Department. The water is supplied by the City of Zion, and telephone service is through the Waukegan switch, the North Unit is in Winthrop Harbor, Illinois which provides primary police and fire/emergency medical services. Both properties also fall under the jurisdiction of the Illinois Department of Conservation Police, water service is also provided by Zion and phone service comes thorough the Zion/Winthrop Harbor switch. Illinois Beach State Park official website Trails at Illinois Beach State ParkIllinois Beach State Park – Shoreline along the Northern Unit of Illinois Beach State Park
14. Earth vs. the Spider (2001 film) – Earth vs. the Spider is a 2001 science fiction horror television film directed by Scott Ziehl. It is the first of a series of made for Cinemax paying tribute to the films of American International Pictures. The films in this tribute series reused the titles of old American International Pictures films, the film centers on a shy, obsessive comic book fan who injects himself with an experimental serum derived from spiders, which gives him minor super powers. As time progresses, more horrific changes occur, slowly transforming into a grotesque human spider, when his partner is killed during a botched robbery at the research laboratory where he works, Quentin is fired and he injects himself with an experimental serum derived from spiders. The next day he is wracked with a high fever. After he recovers he discovers that he has developed increased strength, later that night, Stephanie is attacked and almost raped by a stalker until Quentin intervenes and kills the man, leaving before Stephanie can see him. Quentin later returns to his apartment and finds Stephanie being interviewed by Detective Frank Grillo in hopes of identifying her savior, at first Quentin is thrilled that he is finally able to live his dream of becoming a superhero. However, as the go by he begins to develop more spider-like abilities including being able to shoot webs from his abdomen. Later, Quentin is overwhelmed with an insatiable hunger but is unable to eat solid food. Arriving at a store in an effort to find something to satisfy his hunger, he happens upon a man attempting to rape a young woman and attacks him. Expecting the woman to be grateful, he is surprised when she yells at him in anger as the man was her boyfriend. When she attempts to call the police Quentin encases her in webbing, Police Officer Williams arrives on the scene, the next day the police converge on the store and find the man’s body which has been sucked dry of all fluids and the woman in a state of shock. Detective Grillo is confused by the state of the man’s body, horrified at what he is becoming as his body mutates even further, and afraid of hurting anyone else, Quentin holes himself up in his room in an effort to prevent any more murders. The next night, he is overwhelmed by his hunger and ventures out. Now realizing that the killer might have injected himself with the serum and theorizing that Quentin might be the killer, Frank visits Quentin’s apartment. After discovering the same webbing found at the store, Frank enters the basement where he discovers dozens of bodies encased in webbing. Meanwhile, Frank’s wife Trixie has followed her husband who she believes is hiding Officer Williams with whom she was having an affair. Trixie is then attacked by an almost completely metamorphosed Quentin who flees when Frank attempts to rescue her, entering the apartment Quentin kidnaps Stephanie and takes her to an abandoned building nearbyEarth vs. the Spider (2001 film) – Italian DVD Cover Art
15. Election Day (Modern Family) – Election Day is the 19th episode of the third season of the American sitcom Modern Family, and the series 67th episode overall. This episode originally aired on ABC on April 11,2012 and it was written by Ben Karlin, and directed by Bryan Cranston. Cameron and Mitchell campaign for Claire in a truck with a speaker from which they urge people to vote for Claire. They do really well till the moment Cameron sees someone tossing a tissue on the street instead of the garbage can that is next to them. Cameron gets upset and shouts to the man via the speaker to pick it up, when the man does it, they realize the power of the microphone and they begin using it for reasons unrelated to Claires campaign. When they see a friend named Sandy on the street, they start commenting her fiancé, the only problem is that the microphone is on and Sandy, along with everyone else on the street, hears the “private” conversation. Now they have to convince Sandy that her fiancé is not gay, phil’s task is to drive 50 senior citizens to the polls to vote for Claire but he only manages to transport one, their neighbor and Luke’s best friend Walt. Walt first remembers that he needs his glasses to be able to vote, Phil is willing to take him back home to change it, but Walt does not have a second one at home so they need to go and buy one. Later, Walt needs food to take his pills and he will not vote until he eats and has his pills, the result is that the polls close and Phil gets only one extra vote for Claire instead of fifty. Meanwhile, Alex is in charge of the banks and she supervises everyone so they do their part right. Luke promises that if they vote for Claire they will not have to pay taxes again, there is only one left for which she is afraid to open the letter. Jay does not really have a task, he just needs to vote, while going to the polls with Gloria and Manny, he sees that a woman he slept with is working the polls and he runs away. He later explains to Gloria why he left, Dottie is the first woman he dated after his divorce and the way he ended it was not the best. He returns to the polls and tries to vote while Dottie is not there, Dottie takes the ballot and she refuses to put it in the box as revenge. As a result, Jay does not even vote for his daughter, in the meantime, Claire is being interviewed at the polls by a local newspaper reporter who does not even recognize her as the candidate. Before the reporter takes a picture of her, Alex notices a tag sticking out of Claire’s suit, Claire bites it off but she loses her fake front tooth. The night, despite the day, everyone is gathered at the Dunphy house for the election results party while waiting for the outcome. Claire takes a moment to thank everyone for their help and what they did during the day to get her more votes since she does not know that they did not really help muchElection Day (Modern Family) – Episodes
16. Queen Elizabeth's Almshouses, Richmond – Queen Elizabeth’s Almhouses, Richmond are almshouses in Richmond, London, founded by Sir George Wright in 1600 to house eight poor aged women. Known originally as the Lower almshouses, they were built in Petersham Road, by 1767, they were almost derelict. In 1767, William Turner rebuilt the almshouses on land at the top end of his estate in The Vineyard, funds for the rebuilding were raised by public subscription. The almshouses were rebuilt again in 1857 and they were damaged during World War II and replaced with four newly built houses in 1955. The almshouses are now managed by The Richmond Charities, new residents are accepted from 65 years of age. List of almshouses in the United Kingdom The Richmond CharitiesQueen Elizabeth's Almshouses, Richmond – Districts
17. Wiktionary – Wiktionary is a multilingual, web-based project to create a free content dictionary of all words in all languages. It is collaboratively edited via a wiki, and its name is a portmanteau of the words wiki and it is available in 172 languages and in Simple English. Like its sister project Wikipedia, Wiktionary is run by the Wikimedia Foundation and its wiki software, MediaWiki, allows almost anyone with access to the website to create and edit entries. The English Wiktionary includes a Wikisaurus of synonyms of various words, Wiktionary data are frequently used in various natural language processing tasks. Wiktionary was brought online on December 12,2002, following a proposal by Daniel Alston, on March 28,2004, the first non-English Wiktionaries were initiated in French and Polish. Wiktionaries in numerous other languages have since been started, Wiktionary was hosted on a temporary domain name until May 1,2004, when it switched to the current domain name. As of November 2016, Wiktionary features over 25.9 million entries across its editions, forty-one Wiktionary language editions now contain over 100,000 entries each. Seven of the 18 bots registered at the English Wiktionary created 163,000 of the entries there, of the 648,970 definitions the English Wiktionary provides for 501,171 English words,217,850 are form of definitions of this kind. This means its coverage of English is slightly smaller than that of major monolingual print dictionaries, the Oxford English Dictionary, for instance, has 615,000 headwords, while Merriam-Websters Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged has 475,000 entries. Detailed statistics exist to show how many entries of various kinds exist, the English Wiktionary does not rely on bots to the extent that some other editions do. The French and Vietnamese Wiktionaries, for example, imported large sections of the Free Vietnamese Dictionary Project and these imported entries make up virtually all of the Vietnamese editions contents. Almost all non-Malagasy-language entries of the Malagasy Wiktionary were copied by bot from other Wiktionaries, like the English edition, the French Wiktionary has imported the approximately 20,000 entries from the Unihan database of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean characters. The Russian edition grew by nearly 80,000 entries as LXbot added boilerplate entries for words in English, in 2017 English part of en. wikitionary had over 500,000 gloss definitions and over 900,000 definitions. Wiktionary has historically lacked a uniform logo across its numerous language editions, some editions use logos that depict a dictionary entry about the term Wiktionary, based on the previous English Wiktionary logo, which was designed by Brion Vibber, a MediaWiki developer. Because a purely textual logo must vary considerably from language to language, some communities adopted the winning entry by Smurrayinchester, a 3×3 grid of wooden tiles, each bearing a character from a different writing system. However, the poll did not see as much participation from the Wiktionary community as some community members had hoped, in April 2009, the issue was resurrected with a new contest. This time, a depiction by AAEngelman of an open hardbound dictionary won a vote against the 2006 logo. In the following years, some wikis replaced their logos with one of the two newer logosWiktionary – Wiktionary
18. Wikivoyage – Wikivoyage is a free web-based travel guide for travel destinations and travel topics written by volunteer authors. It is a project of Wikipedia and supported and hosted by the same non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Wikivoyage has been called the Wikipedia of travel guides, the resulting site went live as Wikivoyage on December 10,2006 and was owned and operated by a German association set up for that purpose, Wikivoyage e. V. Content was published under the copyleft license Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike, in 2012, following a lengthy history of dissatisfaction with their existing host, the English-language version community of Wikitravel also decided as a community to fork their project. Using a wiki model, Wikivoyage is built through collaboration of Wikivoyagers from around the globe, articles can cover different levels of geographic specificity, from continents to districts of a city. These are logically connected in a hierarchy, by specifying that the location covered in one article is within the location described by another. The project also includes articles on travel-related topics, phrasebooks for travelers, Wikivoyage is a multilingual project available in nine languages, with each language-specific project developed independently. While now a Wikimedia project, it was begun independently, Wikivoyage content is broadly categorized as, destinations, itineraries, phrasebooks, and travel topics. Geographical units within the hierarchy may be described in articles, based on the criterion. Itineraries may cross geographical regions, but usually have a well-defined path, a phrasebook includes, An overview of the language, giving a brief history, scope, alphabet or symbol set, and any other general info on the language. A pronunciation guide, with a description of each symbol in the language. Each entry in the phrase list includes the word or phrase being translated, the spelling in the local language symbol set as it would be written down. Wikivoyage uses the free MediaWiki software to allow internet-based editing without requiring registration, quality assurance occurs in the same way as on Wikipedia, through reciprocal control by editors. The use of the software is intended to facilitate familiarization with Wikivoyage. Wikivoyage uses the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike license, but not the GNU free documentation license and this is intended to facilitate the production of printed guides from a legal point of view. Media files are intended to be published either in the domain or under multiple licenses. The information is built up in a structured way than usual for encyclopaedias. In the German-language version, different name spaces are used to different topicsWikivoyage – Screenshot of Wikivoyage's portal before the WMF migration
19. Wikiquote – Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. And to be as proper as possible in regard to the details of the quotations, though there are many online collections of quotations, Wikiquote is distinguished by being among the few that provide an opportunity for visitors to contribute. Wikiquote pages are cross-linked to articles about the personalities on Wikipedia. Initially, the project was created solely in English, an expansion to include additional languages was started in July 2004. As of September 2016, there are 89 versions, as of September 2016, thirty-one versions each have more than 1,000 articles. Sixty language versions have 100 or more articles, Wikimedia Foundation List of Wikiquote Projects by Language Official websiteWikiquote – Screenshot of the wikiquote.org home page
20. Wikisource – Wikisource is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikisource is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project, the projects aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations. Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts, the project officially began in November 24,2003 under the name Project Sourceberg. The name Wikisource was adopted later that year and it received its own domain name seven months later, the project has come under criticism for lack of reliability but it is also cited by organisations such as the National Archives and Records Administration. The project holds works that are either in the domain or freely licensed, professionally published works or historical source documents, not vanity products. Verification was initially made offline, or by trusting the reliability of digital libraries. Now works are supported by online scans via the ProofreadPage extension, some individual Wikisources, each representing a specific language, now only allow works backed up with scans. While the bulk of its collection are texts, Wikisource as a whole hosts other media, some Wikisources allow user-generated annotations, subject to the specific policies of the Wikisource in question. Wikisources early history included several changes of name and location, the original concept for Wikisource was as storage for useful or important historical texts. These texts were intended to support Wikipedia articles, by providing evidence and original source texts. The collection was focused on important historical and cultural material. The project was originally called Project Sourceberg during its planning stages, in 2001, there was a dispute on Wikipedia regarding the addition of primary source material, leading to edit wars over their inclusion or deletion. Project Sourceberg was suggested as a solution to this, perhaps Project Sourceberg can mainly work as an interface for easily linking from Wikipedia to a Project Gutenberg file, and as an interface for people to easily submit new work to PG. Wed want to complement Project Gutenberg--how, exactly, and Jimmy Wales adding like Larry, Im interested that we think it over to see what we can add to Project Gutenberg. It seems unlikely that primary sources should in general be editable by anyone -- I mean, Shakespeare is Shakespeare, unlike our commentary on his work, the project began its activity at ps. wikipedia. org. The contributors understood the PS subdomain to mean either primary sources or Project Sourceberg, however, this resulted in Project Sourceberg occupying the subdomain of the Pashto Wikipedia. A vote on the name changed it to Wikisource on December 6,2003. Despite the change in name, the project did not move to its permanent URL until July 23,2004, since Wikisource was initially called Project Sourceberg, its first logo was a picture of an icebergWikisource – The original Wikisource logo
21. Outline of Venezuela – The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Venezuela, Venezuela – sovereign country located in northern South America. Venezuela comprises a continental mainland and numerous islands located off the Venezuelan coastline in the Caribbean Sea, the country borders Guyana to the east, Brazil to the south, and Colombia to the west. Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, St. Lucia, Barbados, Curaçao, Bonaire, Aruba, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, falling within the tropics, Venezuela sits close to the equator, in the Northern Hemisphere. In 1895, after the dispute over the Guyana border flared up, it was submitted to a neutral commission, today, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is known widely for its petroleum industry, the environmental diversity of its territory, and its natural features. Venezuela is considered to be among the worlds 17 most biodiverse countries, Venezuela at Encyclopædia Britannica Venezuela from the Library of Congress Country Studies Venezuela Information Office Other Venezuela travel guide from Wikivoyage Venezuela at DMOZOutline of Venezuela – An enlargeable relief map of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
22. Outline of theatre – Elements of design and stagecraft are used to enhance the physicality, presence and immediacy of the experience. Tragedy, comedy, and the play were the three dramatic genres to emerge there. Western theatre originated in Athens and its drama has had a significant, medieval theatre – theatre of Europe between the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and the beginning of the Renaissance in approximately the 15th century AD. Medieval theatre covers all drama produced in Europe over that period and refers to a variety of genres, including liturgical drama, mystery plays, morality plays. It includes the drama of William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe and many other famous playwrights, Restoration comedy – English comedies written and performed in the Restoration period from 1660 to 1710. After public stage performances had been banned for 18 years by the Puritan regime, nineteenth-century theatre – wide range of movements in the theatrical culture of Europe and the United States in the 19th century. Theatre of the United Kingdom – introduced by the Romans and part of the British culture since at least 1585, West End – popular term for mainstream professional theatre staged in the large theatres of Londons Theatreland, the West End. London fringe – small scale theatres, many of them located above pubs, Fringe festival – unjuried festivals, such as the Edinburgh Festival Fringe and Adelaide Fringe Festival, permit artists to produce a wide variety of works. Theater of the United States – based in the Western tradition, Broadway – refers to theatrical performances presented in the Theater District centered along Broadway, and in Lincoln Center, in Manhattan in New York City. Along with Londons West End theatre, Broadway theatre is considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world. Off-Broadway – professional venue in New York City with a capacity between 100 and 499, and for a specific production of a play, musical or revue. These theatres are smaller than Broadway theatres, regional theatre – professional theatre companies outside of New York City that produce their own seasons. Summer stock theatre – any theatre that presents stage productions only in the summer within the United States, often viewed as a starting point for professional actors, stock casts are typically young, just out of high school or still in college. Platon Kerzhentsev was one of its principal practitioners, african Theatre includes, Ancient Egyptian quasi-theatrical events – earliest recorded quasi-theatrical event dates back to 2000 BCE with the passion plays of Ancient Egypt. This story of the god Osiris was performed annually at festivals throughout the civilization, yoruba theatre – origins are traced back to the masquerade of the Egungun. The traditional ceremony culminates in the essence of the masquerade where it is deemed that ancestors return to the world of the living to visit their descendants, traces of these ancient temple dances of India are seen in Bharatanatyam and Odissi. Theatre of China – began as early as the Shang Dynasty and often involved happiness, mimes, thai theatre – a tradition from the Middle Ages to stage plays based on plots drawn from Indian epics. In particular, the version of Thailands national epic RamakienOutline of theatre – Historic Outdoor Forest Theater in Carmel, CA at sunsets.
23. Outline of meteorology – The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to meteorology, Meteorology – interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere which explains and forecasts weather events. Meteorology has application in diverse fields such as the military, energy production, transport, agriculture. Meteorology Climate – the average and variations of weather in a region over long periods of time, Meteorology – the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. Written at a degree level. Glossary of Meteorology - From the American Meteorological Society, an excellent reference of nomenclature, equations, jetStream - An Online School for Weather - National Weather Service Learn About Meteorology - Australian Bureau of Meteorology The Weather Guide - Weather Tutorials and News at AboutOutline of meteorology – Eye of Hurricane Isabel from the International Space Station, September 15, 2003.
24. Outline of prehistoric technology – The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to prehistoric technology. Prehistoric technology – technology that predates recorded history, History is the study of the past using written records, it is also the record itself. Anything prior to the first written accounts of history is prehistoric, including earlier technologies. About 2.5 million years before writing was developed, technology began with the earliest hominids who used tools, which they may have used to start fires, hunt, cut food. Prehistoric technology can be described as, Prehistoric – before we had written records, from the Latin word for before, prehistory is the span of time before recorded history, that is, before the invention of writing systems. Beginning of prehistoric technology – the earliest technology began before recorded history, latest prehistoric technology – the level of technology reached before true writing was introduced differed by region. Latest prehistoric technology in the Near East – cultures in the Near East achieved the development of writing first, latest prehistoric technology in the rest of the Old World, Europe, India, and China reached Iron Age technological development before the introduction of writing there. Stone Age – broad prehistoric period, lasting roughly 2.5 million years, during which stone was used in the manufacture of implements with a sharp edge. The period began with hominids and ended between 6000 and 2000 BCE with the advent of metalworking, Paleolithic – prehistoric period of human history distinguished by the development of the most primitive stone tools discovered, and covers roughly 99% of human technological prehistory. Lower Paleolithic – earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age and it spans the time from around 2. Ancestors of homo sapiens used stone tools as follows, Homo habilis – first homo species and it lived from approximately 2.3 to 1.4 million years ago in Africa and created stone tools called Oldowan tools. Homo ergaster – in eastern and southern Africa about 2.5 to 1.7 million years ago, it refined Oldowan tools, Homo antecessor – earliest hominid in Northern Europe. It lived from 1.2 million to 800,000 years ago, Homo heidelbergensis – lived between 600,000 and 400,000 years ago and used stone tool technology similar to the Acheulean tools used by Homo erectus. Control of fire by early humans – European and Asian sites dating back 1.5 million years ago seem to indicate controlled use of fire by H. erectus. A northern Israel site from about 690,000 to 790,000 years ago suggests that man could light fires, burial – the act of placing a deceased person into the ground. Homo heidelbergensis – may have been the first species to bury their dead about 500,000 years ago, Middle Paleolithic period – in Europe and the Near East during which the Neanderthals lived. Their technology is mainly the Mousterian, the earliest evidence of settlement in Australia dates to around 55,000 years ago when modern humans likely crossed from Asia by island-hopping. The Bhimbetka rock shelters exhibit the earliest traces of life in IndiaOutline of prehistoric technology – Acheulean hand axes from Kent. The types shown are (clockwise from top) cordate, ficron and ovate. It was the longest-used tool of human history.
25. Super Mario Bros.: The Lost Levels – The Lost Levels is a 1986 side-scrolling, action platformer video game developed and published by Nintendo. An installment in the Super Mario series, it is the first sequel to the 1985 video game Super Mario Bros, the games are similar in style and gameplay apart from a large increase in difficulty. Like the original, Mario or Luigi venture to rescue the Princess from Bowser, unlike the original, the game has no two-player option and Luigi is differentiated from his twin plumber brother by having less ground friction and higher jump height. The Lost Levels also introduces setbacks like poison mushroom power-ups, counterproductive level warps, the game has 32 levels across eight worlds, and five bonus worlds. The Lost Levels was first released in Japan for the Famicom Disk System as Super Mario Bros.2 on June 3,1986, following the success of its predecessor. It was developed by Nintendo R&D4—the team led by Mario creator Shigeru Miyamoto—and designed for players who had mastered the original, it additionally uses the same engine as Super Mario Bros. Nintendo of America considered the game too difficult to sell in North America, the game was not released in North America until its inclusion on the 1993 Super Nintendo Entertainment System compilation Super Mario All-Stars. It was later ported to the Game Boy Color, Game Boy Advance, the game is known for its intense difficulty, which contributes to its reputation as a black sheep in the franchise. Reviewers viewed The Lost Levels as an extension of the original release, journalists appreciated the games challenge as spectators of speedruns, and recognized the game as a precursor to the franchise subculture that creates and shares nearly impossible levels. This sequel gave Luigi his first character traits and introduced the poison mushroom item, the Lost Levels was the most popular game on the Disk System, for which it sold about 2.5 million copies. In 2014, IGN ranked the game #117 on its list of top 125 Nintendo games, the Lost Levels is a side-scrolling, platformer action game similar in style and gameplay to the original 1985 Super Mario Bros. save for an increase in difficulty. As in the original, Mario venture to rescue the Princess from Bowser, the player jumps between platforms, avoids enemy and inanimate obstacles, finds hidden secrets, and collects power-ups like the mushroom, the Fire Flower, and the Invincibility Star. Unlike the original, there is no two-player mode and the player chooses between the twin plumbers, who are differentiated for the first time, at the title screen, Luigi, designed for skilled players, has less ground friction and higher jump height. The games difficulty picks up from near the end of the original, the Lost Levels introduces irritants including poison mushrooms, level warps that set the player farther back in the game, and wind gusts that redirect the players course mid-air. The poison mushroom, in particular, works as an anti-mushroom, some of the games levels require split-second precision and others require the player to jump on invisible blocks. There were also some changes, though the soundtrack is identical. After each boss fight, Toad tells Mario that our princess is in another castle, the main game has 32 levels across eight worlds and five bonus worlds. A hidden World 9 is accessible if the player does not use a warp zone, bonus worlds A through D are accessible when the player plays through the game eight times, for a total of 52 levelsSuper Mario Bros.: The Lost Levels – Japanese cover art
26. Octopus – The octopus is a cephalopod mollusc of the order Octopoda. It has two eyes and four pairs of arms and, like other cephalopods, it is bilaterally symmetric and it has a beak, with its mouth at the center point of the arms. It has no internal or external skeleton, allowing it to squeeze through tight places, octopuses are among the most intelligent and behaviorally diverse of all invertebrates. Octopuses inhabit diverse regions of the ocean, including reefs, pelagic waters. They trail their eight arms behind them as they swim, all octopuses are venomous, but only one group, the blue-ringed octopuses, is known to be deadly to humans. Around 300 species are recognized, which is over one-third of the number of known cephalopod species. The term octopus may also be used to specifically to the genus Octopus. Octopuses appear in mythology as sea monsters like the Kraken of Norway and the Akkorokamui of the Ainu, a battle with an octopus appears in Victor Hugos book Toilers of the Sea, inspiring other works such as Ian Flemings Octopussy. Octopuses appear in Japanese erotic art, shunga and they are eaten in many parts of the world, especially the Mediterranean and the Asian seas. The scientific Latin term octopus was derived from Ancient Greek ὀκτώπους, related to the word octopus are the terms Octopoda and the adjectival octopoid. The standard pluralized form of octopus in the English language is octopuses /ˈɒktəpʊsɪz/, the alternative plural octopi – which misguidedly assumes it is a Latin -us-word – is considered grammatically incorrect. It is nevertheless used frequently enough to make it notable, and was acknowledged by the descriptivist Merriam-Webster 11th Collegiate Dictionary. The Oxford English Dictionary lists octopuses, octopi, and octopodes, in order, labeling octopodes as rare. The underside of the arms are covered in circular, adhesive suckers, while often called tentacles, the arms of octopuses are often distinguished from the pair of feeding tentacles found in squid and cuttlefish. The bulbous and hollow mantle is fused to the back of the head, Most of the vital organs are contained in the mantle while the central brain is located in the head. The eyes of the octopus are located at the top of the head, anatomical and embryological evidence shows that the tentacles are part of the ventral side, while the abdomen is dorsal, the head forms forms the anterior and the mantle posterior. The mouth of an octopus, located underneath the tentacles, contains a hard beak on the outside and a radula. Both of these structures are made of chitin, Most of the octopus body is made of soft material allowing it to lengthen, contract, and contort itselfOctopus
27. Cyclone Ada – The 1969–70 Australian region cyclone season saw above average activity. Resorts and boats were destroyed or severely damaged at Hayman, Daydream and South Molle Islands, about 80% of buildings in the mainland centres of Shute Harbour, Airlie Beach and Cannonvale were severely damaged. Some damage occurred also inland at Proserpine where, following 24-hours of heavy rain accompanied the storm. Fourteen people died and property damage was estimated at A$390 million, like Tropical Cyclone Tracy that devastated Darwin on Christmas Eve 1974, Ada was small in diameter and damage from her path was limited to a comparatively small geographical area. The wind from Tropical Cyclone Ada was not felt in Bowen or Mackay, however the heavy rains did cause flooding in the Pioneer River and the Don River. Before degenerating into a rainstorm Cyclone Ada travelled further inland to the Cathu State Forest and caused damage to the eucalypts, rainforestCyclone Ada – Map plotting the track and intensity of the storm according to the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale
28. Battle of Kunersdorf – At the Battle of Kunersdorf, in the Seven Years War on 12 August 1759, near Kunersdorf, immediately east of Frankfurt an der Oder, more than 100,000 men clashed in a decisive battle. Although Fredericks troops initially gained the hand in the battle. By afternoon, when the combatants were exhausted, fresh Austrian troops thrown into the fray made the difference and this is the only time in the Seven Years War that the Prussian Army, under Frederick, completely lost its discipline and disintegrated. With this loss, Frankfurt and subsequently Berlin, were open to assault by the Russians and Austrians, although, surprisingly, Saltykov and Laudon did not follow up on the victory. Only 3,000 soldiers from Fredericks original 50,000 remained with him after the battle and this represented the penultimate success of the Russian Empire under Elizabeth of Russia and arguably was Fredericks worst defeat. Although the Seven Years War was a conflict, it took a specific intensity in the European theater based on the recently concluded War of the Austrian Succession. The 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle concluded the war with Austria. Frederick II of Prussia, known as Frederick the Great, acquired the prosperous province of Silesia, Empress Maria Theresa of Austria had signed the treaty to gain time to rebuild her military forces and forge new alliances, she was intent upon regaining ascendancy in the Holy Roman Empire. In 1754, escalating tensions between Britain and France in North America offered the Empress the opportunity to regain her lost territories, similarly, France sought to break the British dominance of Atlantic trade. France and Austria put aside their old rivalry to form a coalition of their own and this series of political maneuvers became known as the Diplomatic Revolution. At the outset of the war, Frederick had one of the finest armies in Europe, his troops—any company—could fire at least four volleys a minute, and some of them could fire five. By the end of 1757, Prussia had achieve victories at Rossbach and Leuthen, in April 1758, Prussia and Britain concluded the Anglo-Prussian Convention. Britain also dispatched 7–9,000 troops to reinforce Fredericks brother-in-laws, Ferdinand evicted the French from Hanover and Westphalia and re-captured the port of Emden in March 1758, he crossed the Rhine with his own forces, causing general alarm in France. Despite Ferdinands victory over the French at the Battle of Krefeld, while Ferdinand kept the French occupied, Prussia had to contend with Sweden, Russia, and Austria. By 1758, Frederick was increasingly concerned by the Russian advance from the east, just east of the Oder river in Brandenburg-Neumark, at the Battle of Zorndorf, on 25 August 1758 a Prussian army of 35,000 men fought a Russian army of 43,000. Both sides suffered casualties but the Russians withdrew, and Frederick claimed victory. At the Battle of Tornow on 25 September, a Swedish army repulsed six assaults by a Prussian army, by late summer, fighting had reached a draw, particularly after the Battle of Zorndorf. None of Prussias enemies seemed willing to take the steps to pursue Frederick into PrussiaBattle of Kunersdorf – Painting by Alexander Kotzebue, 1848
29. Red-billed tropicbird – The red-billed tropicbird, also known as the boatswain bird is a tropicbird, one of three closely related seabirds of tropical oceans. The scientific name is derived from Ancient Greek phaethon, sun and Latin aetherius, the red-billed tropicbird occurs in the tropical Atlantic, eastern Pacific and Indian Oceans. The Indian Ocean race, P. a. indicus, was at one time considered a full species and it breeds on tropical islands laying a single egg directly onto the ground or a cliff ledge. Breeding in the Western Palaearctic occurs on the Cape Verde Islands, total numbers in 2000 were probably less than 150 pairs. It disperses widely when not breeding, and sometimes wanders far, in July 2005, one was found in eastern New Brunswick, Canada, and another sighting at Matinicus Rock, Maine. There was confirmed sighting on Lord Howe Island near Australia in November 2010, the adult is a slender, mainly white bird,48 cm long, excluding the central tail feathers which double the total length, and a one-metre wingspan. The long wings have black markings on the flight feathers, there is black through the eye. Sexes are similar, although males average longer tails, juveniles lack the tail streamers, are greyer-backed, and have a yellow bill. P. a. indicus has a black eye stripe. They feed on fish and squid, but are poor swimmers, the red-billed tropicbird was featured in error on the $50 Bermudian dollar and was replaced in 2012 by the white-tailed tropicbird. The breeding of the Red-billed Tropicbird in the Galapagos Islands, birds of India by Grimmett, Inskipp and Inskipp, ISBN 0-691-04910-6 Seabirds, An Identification Guide by Harrison, Peter ISBN 0-7470-1410-8 Red-billed Tropicbird BirdLife InternationalRed-billed tropicbird – Red-billed tropicbird
30. Death of Leelah Alcorn – Leelah Alcorn was an American transgender girl whose suicide attracted international attention. Assigned male at birth, she was raised in a conservative Christian household in Ohio, at age 14, she came out as transgender to her parents, Carla and Doug Alcorn, who refused to accept her female gender identity. After she revealed her attraction toward males to her classmates, her parents removed her from school, in her suicide note, Alcorn cited loneliness and alienation as key reasons for her decision to end her life and blamed her parents for causing these feelings. She committed suicide by walking out in front of oncoming traffic on the Interstate 71 highway, Alcorn arranged for her suicide note to be posted online several hours after her death, and it soon attracted international attention across mainstream and social media. LGBT rights activists called attention to the incident as evidence of the problems faced by youth, while vigils were held in her memory in the United States. Petitions were formed calling for the establishment of Leelahs Law, a ban on conversion therapy in the U. S. which received a response from U. S. President Barack Obama. Within a year, the city of Cincinnati had criminalised conversion therapy and they defended their refusal to accept their childs identity and their use of conversion therapy by reference to their Christian beliefs. Assigned male at birth, Alcorn was given the name Joshua Ryan Alcorn and she eventually rejected this forename, and in her suicide note signed herself Josh Alcorn. She was one of several children, according to her note, she immediately informed her mother, who reacted extremely negatively by claiming that it was only a phase and that God had made her a male, so she could never be a woman. She stated that made her hate herself, and that she developed a form of depression. Her mother sent her to Christian conversion therapists, but there only got more Christians telling me that I was selfish and wrong and that I should look to God for help. Aged sixteen, she requested that she be allowed to undergo treatment, but was denied permission, I felt hopeless. On my 16th birthday, when I didnt receive consent from my parents to start transitioning, according to a childhood friend, Alcorn received a positive reception from many at school, although her parents were appalled. In Alcorns words, They felt like I was attacking their image, and they wanted me to be their perfect little straight Christian boy, and thats obviously not what I wanted. They removed her from Kings High School, and enrolled her as an eleventh grader at an online school, according to Alcorn, her parents cut her off from the outside world for five months as they denied her access to social media and many forms of communication. She described this as a significant contributing factor towards her suicide, two months prior to her death, Alcorn sought out help on the social media website Reddit, asking users whether the treatment perpetrated by her parents was considered child abuse. Or Gods going to send you straight to hell and these all made me feel awful about myself, I was Christian at the time so I thought that God hated me and that I didnt deserve to be alive. Further, she explained, I tried my absolute hardest to live up to their standards and be a straight male, on Reddit, Alcorn also disclosed that she was prescribed increasing dosages of the anti-depressant ProzacDeath of Leelah Alcorn – Alcorn in 2014
31. 250t-class torpedo boat – The 250t class were high-seas torpedo boats built for the Austro-Hungarian Navy between 1913 and 1916. A total of 27 boats were built by three shipbuilding companies, with the letter after the number indicating the manufacturer. There were small variations between manufacturers, mainly in the turbines used, and whether they had one or two funnels. The eight boats of the T-group, designated 74 T –81 T, were built by Stabilimento Tecnico Triestino, the sixteen boats of the F-group, designated 82 F –97 F, were built by Ganz & Danubius at their shipyards at Fiume and Porto Re. The three M-group boats, designated 98 M –100 M, were manufactured by Cantiere Navale Triestino at Monfalcone, although widely used during the war, the class suffered no losses, despite a number of them being hit during surface engagements and damaged by accidents. In 1917, one of the 66 mm guns on each boat was placed on an anti-aircraft mount, by 1940, thirteen boats of the class had been lost or scrapped, including all six Portuguese boats. During World War II, the five remaining Greek boats were sunk by Axis aircraft during the German-led invasion of Greece in April 1941. The six surviving Yugoslav boats were captured by the Italians during the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, the remaining two were seized by the Germans. One was destroyed by Royal Navy Motor Torpedo Boats in June 1944, the two surviving boats were commissioned by the Yugoslav Navy after the war, with one continuing in service until the early 1960s. This specification was based on an expectation that the Strait of Otranto, Stabilimento Tecnico Triestino of Trieste was selected for the contract to build eight vessels, ahead of one other tenderer. Despite the specifications of the contract being very close to the requirements for the torpedo boat. The STT boats used Parsons turbines driving two propeller shafts, another tender was requested for four more boats, but when Ganz & Danubius reduced their price by ten percent, a total of sixteen boats were ordered from them. These boats were powered by AEG-Curtiss turbines, and had two rather than the single funnel of the STT boats. The third contract went to Cantiere Navale Triestino, who used Melms-Pfenniger turbines, the boats of all three groups used steam generated by two Yarrow water-tube boilers, one of which burned fuel oil and the other coal. When completed, all 27 boats were armed with two Škoda 66 mm L/30 guns, and four 450 mm torpedo tubes, each vessel could carry 10–12 naval mines. The T-group were built by STT at the Port of Trieste between April 1913 and December 1914 and they had a waterline length of 58.2 m, a beam of 5.7 m, and a normal draught of 1.5 m. While their designed displacement was 262 tonnes, they displaced about 320 tonnes fully loaded, the crew consisted of 39 officers and enlisted men. Their Parsons turbines were rated at 5,000 shp with an output of 6,000 shp250t-class torpedo boat – The first of the 250t class, 74 T
32. The Million Second Quiz – The Million Second Quiz is an American game show hosted by Ryan Seacrest and broadcast by NBC. The series aired from September 9 to September 19,2013, for a titular million seconds, contestants attempted to maintain control of a money chair by winning trivia matches against other contestants, earning money for every second they occupied the chair. At any given moment, the four highest-scoring contestants other than the one in the chair were sequestered together, when time ran out, the four top scorers received the money they had accumulated and competed in a stepladder playoff for a top prize of $2,000,000. The series was cross-promoted through a number of NBCUniversal properties, and NBC broadcast a live prime time show for each night of the competition and a two-hour finale. Additionally, through an app, viewers could play the game against others. Outside of the time episodes, the program was also webcast throughout the competition by means of the Million Second Quiz app. The program itself also served as a vehicle for promoting NBCs then-upcoming lineup for the 2013-14 television season, geiger Engineers provided the structural engineering for the hourglass and other rooftop structures as well as the required rooftop shoring. The quiz was set in a structure located on a roof in midtown Manhattan. An indoor set in the building was also constructed for use during the non-prime time portions of the game and for any inclement weather situations. Contestants played in a competition that ran 24 hours a day for 1,000,000 seconds, or about eleven. At any given time, one contestant sat in the Money Chair, each bout lasted a set number of seconds, after a question was read, the contestants had five seconds to secretly lock in their answers on separate keypads. The contestant in the earned money at a rate of $10 per second, even when bouts were not being played. When this contestant lost a bout, he/she stopped earning money, only the four contestants with the highest total winnings kept their money once the countdown clock ran out of time. Each prime-time broadcast hour consists of three bouts, the Challenger bout, the Line Jumper bout, and the Winners Defense bout, questions start at one point each, with the value increasing by one every 100 seconds. At any time, either contestant may choose to instead of answering, doing so doubles that questions value. A doubled opponent may either answer or double back, quadrupling the point value, if a doubled or doubled-back contestant answers incorrectly or fails to act within five seconds, the points are awarded to his/her opponent. Contestants may double as often as they wish during a bout, at the end of the bout, the contestant with the higher score wins and either retains the Money Chair or replaces its current occupant. If the bout ends in a tie score, a question is askedThe Million Second Quiz – The Million Second Quiz
33. Guadeloupe amazon – The Guadeloupe amazon or Guadeloupe parrot is a hypothetical extinct species of parrot in the family Psittacidae. It was hunted, and by 1779 was already rare, the Guadeloupe amazon was first mentioned by Jean-Baptiste Du Tertre in 1664 and Jean-Baptiste Labat. Storrs Olson and Edgar Maíz consider A. violacea as probably identical to the living species, the violet macaw was described by Rothschild and featured in his book, Extinct Birds published in 1907. Its native name was supposedly oné couli, only the genus Ara is thus known to have colonised the West Indies. The Guadeloupe amazon appears to have gone extinct by the end of the 18th century, in 1779, Buffon stated the bird had become very rare, and perhaps extinctGuadeloupe amazon – Guadeloupe amazon
34. Inaccessible Island rail – The Inaccessible Island rail is a small bird of the rail family, Rallidae. It is the species in the genus Atlantisia. It is found only on Inaccessible Island in the Tristan Archipelago in the isolated south Atlantic, thomson was unable to collect a specimen, much to his regret. Another attempt was made to collect a specimen by Lord Crawford on his yacht Valhalla in 1905, a final attempt was made during the Shackleton–Rowett Expedition, which passed by in April 1922 on its way back to Britain. This visit also failed, but members of the expedition left collecting material with a Rev. H. M. C, Rogers, then chaplain on Tristan da Cunha. The following year two study skins arrived in the Natural History Museum, London, followed soon after by another skin, percy Lowe was then able to use the skins to describe the species. He did so, briefly, at a meeting of the British Ornithologists Club, the generic name Atlantisia was named for the fabled island of Atlantis, destroyed by volcano. The specific name honours the Rev Rogers who collected and sent the first specimens of the species to Lowe. Two extinct flightless species of rail were at one time placed in the genus as the Inaccessible Island rail. In 1973 American paleontologist Storrs Olson synonymised this genus with the genus Atlantisia with Aphanocrex, both species became extinct due to predation by introduced species, mainly cats and rats. The Inaccessible Island rail is the smallest living bird in the world. Males are larger and weigh more than females, weighing 35–49 g and it is dark chestnut-brown above and dark grey on the head and below, with degraded white barring on the flanks and belly. The female is similar to the male but with paler grey and it has a black bill, which is shorter than the head, and a red eye. The wings are reduced and weak, and smaller than same-sized flying relatives, the tail is short,3.5 cm long, and the uppertail coverts and undertail coverts are nearly as long as the tail rectrices. The Inaccessible Island rail has a low metabolic rate, measured in a 1989 at around 60-68% the rate expected for a bird of their weight. The island lacks predators and other competitors, and as such can be expected to be at full carrying capacity for rails and this in turn would favour energy conservation by the rails, resulting in small body size, low BMR and flightlessness. A comparison of flighted and flightless rails, including the Inaccessible Island rail, the Inaccessible rail is endemic to the uninhabited Inaccessible Island in the Tristan da Cunha group in the mid-Atlantic Ocean. The island has a wet oceanic climate with high rainfall, limited sunshineInaccessible Island rail – Inaccessible Island rail
35. Grade II* listed buildings in North Somerset – North Somerset is a unitary authority in the ceremonial county of Somerset, England. Listing was begun by a provision in the Town and Country Planning Act 1947, once listed, severe restrictions are imposed on the modifications allowed to a buildings structure or its fittings. North Somerset constitutes part of the county of Somerset. As a unitary authority, North Somerset is administered independently of the county of Somerset. Its administrative headquarters are located in the hall of Weston-super-Mare. North Somerset includes areas that were part of Somerset before the creation of Avon in 1974. There are 79 Grade II* listed buildings in North Somerset, Grade II* listed buildings in Somerset Grade I listed buildings in North Somerset Media related to Grade II* listed buildings in Somerset at Wikimedia CommonsGrade II* listed buildings in North Somerset – Barn to south west of Powdermill Farmhouse
36. List of songs recorded by Rise Against – Rise Against is an American rock band from Chicago. After their formation in 1999, the signed a recording contract with the independent record label Fat Wreck Chords. Under this label, they released The Unraveling and Revolutions per Minute, the band signed with Geffen Records the following year, and made their major record label debut with Siren Song of the Counter Culture, which was followed by The Sufferer & the Witness. Both albums reached the Billboard 200, with the latter peaking at number ten, Rise Against has recorded 113 songs, which include 103 original songs and 10 covers. During the early part of their career, Rise Againsts music was characterized by its gritty combination of hardcore punk, with the release of Appeal to Reason, the bands music shifted toward a more accessible and radio-friendly sound, with greater emphasis on production value. Rise Against is well known for their social commentary, which often permeates their lyrics. Songs like Hero of War and Survivor Guilt question the brutality of modern warfare, not all Rise Against songs discuss controversial topics, such as Savior, which is about forgiveness and broken relationshipsList of songs recorded by Rise Against – Rise Against recorded covers of "Fix Me" and "Nervous Breakdown" by Black Flag (pictured).
37. Mel Gibson filmography – Mel Gibson, AO is an American actor, director, producer and screenwriter who made his acting debut on the Australian television drama series The Sullivans. Gibson became a part of the Australian New Wave cinema movement in the early 1980s having starred in his role in George Millers dystopian action Mad Max. He reprised the role in its sequels, Mad Max 2 and he starred in Peter Weirs war drama Gallipoli and the romantic drama The Year of Living Dangerously. Gibson starred in Franco Zeffirellis Hamlet in 1990, as the character of William Shakespeares tragedy of the same name. It was the first film produced by Icon Productions, a company he co-founded alongside Bruce Davey. Gibsons directorial debut was The Man Without a Face, an adaptation of Isabelle Hollands novel of the same name, two years later he directed and produced Braveheart, an epic historical drama in which he also portrayed Sir William Wallace, a 13th century Scottish knight. The film earned him a Golden Globe Award for Best Director, Gibson went on to star in Ransom, Payback, What Women Want and The Patriot, and We Were Soldiers. Gibson directed, co-wrote and produced The Passion of the Christ in 2004, upon its release, the film received mixed reviews from critics and was criticized for its graphic violence and alleged undertones of antisemitism. Nevertheless, it amassed $370.3 million in the United States and $611.4 million worldwide, making it Gibsons highest-grossing film to date. Two years later he directed, co-wrote and produced Apocalypto, an adventure set in Central America depicting the final days of the Maya civilization before Spanish arrival in the 16th century. Gibson subsequently took a hiatus from directing during which time he landed roles in Edge of Darkness, Machete Kills, The Expendables 3. Gibson directed Hacksaw Ridge in 2016, a war drama focusing on American World War II veteran Desmond Doss. The film received praise from critics and audiences alike, as well as several awards, mel Gibson at the Internet Movie DatabaseMel Gibson filmography – Gibson at the 1990 Air America premiere
38. List of Norwich City F.C. managers – Norwich City F. C. is an association football club based in Norwich, Norfolk, and was founded in 1902. The clubs first manager, John Bowman, was appointed in 1905, since then,39 men have held the job on a permanent basis. As of March 2017, the position is filled on a basis by Alan Irvine. Ken Brown holds the record for most games in charge, with a total of 367 between 1980 and 1987. Excluding caretaker managers, the shortest reigns were those of George Swindin and Jimmy Jewell, fifteen managers have been named in the Norwich City F. C. Hall of Fame, some of whom were also former players. The last Norwich manager to win a trophy was Ken Brown. Norwich reached the top tier of English football for the first time in 1972, the highest league finish Norwich have ever achieved was third in the 1992–93 season, under Mike Walker. The following season, he managed Norwich in their only European campaign to date in the UEFA Cup, Norwich City was founded as an amateur football club in 1902. In the early years of the history, there was no manager. Arthur Turner, was the joint secretary of the club, and his role included that of match secretary, according to Eastwood. Following an FA Commission of inquiry, the club was informed on the last day of 1904 that they had deemed a professional organisation. The FA announced various shortcomings in the practices, many of which involved Turner specifically, including. Paid for the use of a gymnasium and also for the training, the sum of £8 was also paid to a player when he left the club. Payments were made to players without a receipt being taken, spent considerable sums of money in travelling to other towns in East Anglia. The club officials, including Turner, had to be removed from office, the response was swift, at a meeting two days later, it was resolved to find a place in professional football. On 30 May 1905, they were elected to play in the Southern League, in place of Wellingborough, Bowman served two years in the role. Bowman also has a place in Norwich City history for making the first recorded link between the team and its nickname Canaries, although at time the club nickname was still Citizens. The earliest known recorded link between the club and canaries, came in a 1905 newspaper interview with Bowman, quoting him saying, Well I knew of the Citys existenceList of Norwich City F.C. managers – Michael Wynn-Jones and Delia Smith at a fans' event
39. Caroline Norton – Caroline Elizabeth Sarah Norton was an English social reformer, and author of the early and mid-nineteenth century. Caroline left her husband in 1836, following which her husband sued her close friend Lord Melbourne, the jury threw out the claim, but Caroline was unable to obtain a divorce and was denied access to her three sons. Carolines intense campaigning led to the passing of the Custody of Infants Act 1839, the Matrimonial Causes Act 1857 and the Married Womens Property Act 1870. Caroline modelled for the fresco of Justice in the House of Lords by Daniel Maclise, Caroline was born in London to Thomas Sheridan and the novelist Caroline Henrietta Callander. Her father was an actor, soldier, and colonial administrator, and her mother was Scottish, the daughter of a landed gentleman, Col. Sir James Callander of Craigforth and Lady Elizabeth MacDonnell, the sister of an Irish peer, Mrs. Sheridan authored three short novels described by one of her daughters biographers as rather stiff with the style of the eighteenth century, but none without a certain charm and wit. In 1817, her father died in South Africa, where he was serving as the secretary at the Cape of Good Hope. His family was left virtually penniless, the combined beauty and accomplishments of the Sheridan sisters led to their being collectively referred to as the Three Graces. The eldest sister, Helen, was a songwriter who married Price Blackwood, through her, Caroline became the aunt of Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava, who later served as the third Governor General of Canada and eighth Viceroy of India. Her younger sister, Georgiana, considered the prettiest of the three, later became the wife of Edward Seymour, 12th Duke of Somerset, in 1827, Caroline married George Chapple Norton, barrister, M. P. for Guildford, and the younger brother of Lord Grantley. Norton was a jealous and possessive husband, given to violent fits of drunkenness, to make matters worse, Norton was unsuccessful in his chosen career as a barrister, and the couple fought bitterly over money. During the early years of her marriage, Caroline used her beauty, wit, Carolines unorthodox behaviour and candid conversation raised more than a few eyebrows among 19th-century British high society, she made enemies and admirers in almost equal measure. In spite of his jealousy and pride, Norton encouraged his wife to use her connections to advance his career and it was entirely due to her influence that in 1831 he was made a Metropolitan Police Magistrate. During these years, Caroline turned to prose and poetry as a means of releasing her inner emotions and her first book, The Sorrows of Rosalie, was well received. The Undying One, a romance founded upon the legend of the Wandering Jew, in 1836, Caroline left her husband. Caroline managed to subsist on her earnings as an author, but Norton claimed these as his own, arguing successfully in court that, as her husband, paid nothing by her husband, her earnings confiscated, Caroline used the law to her own advantage. Running up bills in her husbands name, Caroline told the creditors when they came to collect, not long after their separation, Norton abducted their sons, hiding them with relatives in Scotland and later in Yorkshire, refusing to tell Caroline anything of their whereabouts. Norton accused Caroline of being involved in an affair with her close friend, Lord MelbourneCaroline Norton – Caroline Norton by Sir George Hayter in 1832
40. Wikipedia community – The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors to the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. Individual contributors are known as Wikipedians, the Oxford English Dictionary added the word Wikipedian in August 2012. With the increased maturity and visibility of Wikipedia, other categories of Wikipedians have emerged, such as Wikipedians in residence, studies of the size of the community of Wikipedia showed an exponential growth in the number of Wikipedia contributors during the early years. In April 2008, writer and lecturer Clay Shirky and computer scientist Martin Wattenberg estimated the time spent creating Wikipedia at roughly 100 million hours. In November 2011, there were approximately 31.7 million registered user accounts across all language editions, of which around 270,000 were active. The English Wikipedia, the largest language edition, currently has 139,716 editors who have performed an edit in the last 30 days, and an unknown number of contributors without an account. About half of the active editors spend at least one hour a day editing, various studies have been done with regard to the motivations of Wikipedia contributors. In a 2003 study of Wikipedia as a community, economics Ph. D, a paper written by Andrea Forte and Amy Bruckman in 2005, called Why Do People Write for Wikipedia. Incentives to Contribute to Open-Content Publishing, discussed the possible motivations of Wikipedia contributors and it applied Latour and Woolgars concept of the cycle of credit to Wikipedia contributors, suggesting that the reason that people write for Wikipedia is to gain recognition within the community. Oded Nov, in his 2007 paper What Motivates Wikipedians, related the motivations of volunteers in general to the motivations of people who contribute to Wikipedia, Nov carried out a survey using the six motivations of volunteers, identified in an earlier paper. g. The Wikimedia Foundation has carried out surveys of Wikipedia contributors and users. In 2008, the Wikimedia Foundation, alongside the Collaborative Creativity Group at UNU-Merit and it was the most comprehensive survey of Wikipedia ever conducted. The results of the survey were published two years later on March 24,2010, the Wikimedia Foundation began a process in 2011 of semi-annual surveys in order to understand Wikipedia editors more and better cater to their needs. A further study in 2014 by Cheng-Yu Lai and Heng-Li Yang explored the reasons why people continue editing Wikipedia content, the study used authors of the English-language version of the site and received 288 valid online survey responses. Editors of Wikipedia have occasionally given personal testimonials of why they contribute to Wikipedia, a common theme of these testimonials is the enjoyment that editors seem to get from contributing to Wikipedia and being part of the Wikipedia community. Also mentioned is the addictive quality of editing Wikipedia. Gina Trapani of Lifehacker said it turns out editing an article isnt scary at all and its easy, surprisingly satisfying and can become obsessively addictive. Jimmy Wales has also commented on the quality of Wikipedia, saying The main thing about Wikipedia. is that it’s funWikipedia community – Wikimania 2012 group photograph
41. Wiki markup – Wiki markup, also known as wikitext language and wikicode, is a lightweight markup language used to write pages at wiki-based websites that is a simplified/alternative/intermediate to HTML. Its purpose is to be converted by wiki software into HTML and it was created in 1995 to format pages on the original wiki site, WikiWikiWeb. There is no accepted standard wikitext language. The grammar, structure, justification, keywords and so on depend on the wiki software used on the particular website. Different Wiki programs may use of different sets of HTML elements within wikitext. In some cases, permitted HTML elements may be configured by individual wiki sites, MediaWiki supports many common HTML tags. All wikitext markup languages have a way of hyperlinking to other pages within the site. Many wikis, especially the ones, used CamelCase to mark words that should be automatically linked. In MediaWiki, this convention was replaced with the notation, which Wikipedia calls free links, Creole is an effort for a common wiki markup language to be used across different Wikis. There are several engines that have implemented Creole. Version 1.0 of the specification was released in July 2007 and it is not supported by MediaWiki. VisualEditor is a more user-friendly online rich-text editor and an alternative to editing the raw wiki markup source code, VisualEditor was developed by the Wikimedia Foundation in partnership with Wikia. In 2013, the beta was available for Mediawiki. org, in 2015, VisualEditor was offered to all users of most language editions of Wikipedia. What you see is Wiki - Questioning WYSIWYG in the Internet Age MediaWiki alternative parsers MediaWikis simple text formatWiki markup – Screenshot of the edit window in a Wikipedia article. Note the <nowiki> tag, used to escape wiki markup and HTML. HTML comments can be seen inside the <!-- --> tags.