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1. Vitsyebsk gate – The breach existed from February 10, 1942 until September 28, 1942. 54th infantry brigade taking part in the 4th Shock Army offensive captured town Usvyaty during night combat, 20 January 1942. Forces of 360th division и 48th infantry brigade have managed to capture only western parts of town Velizh and dig in there 29 January 1942. Meanwhile, 249th infantry division and 51st brigade surpassed Velizh and according to the order dated 30.12.1942 attacked Surazh. Then 51st brigade blocked town from the north while 249th infantry division marched further south-west towards Vitebsk coming close to the city 3 February 1942. But both units were too undermanned for these tasks. German units counter-attacked: 277th infantry regiment threw Soviet forces out from Surazh to the east till Ostrovki settlement around 10 February 1942. Later both Soviet units return even more dig in there on the north-east suburbs of Velizh, forming the south border of the Vitebsk Gate. Red Army actually even tried to make any offensive here since the 249th infantry division's retreat during February 1942. Managed to control a large area with no strategical roads whatsoever. The 40 km gap in German defence line was filled by partisans. They have destroyed German garrisons in and hold control other villages Tarasenki, Punische, Galevichi, Ozerki, Ukraytzi, Verechje, Kazakove and others. The part of Surazh ` rayon ` of Vitebsk region was the first part of Belarusian territory liberated by Soviet forces since 1941. Initially, the North-Western Operational Group was created by the Belarusian Communist Party, liaisoning with 3rd and 4th Soviet strike armies. Later, the Headquarters of the Partisan Movement under Ponomarenko was created, with territorial Headquarters subsequently created in September 1942.Vitsyebsk gate – Map of the Vitebsk (Surazh) Gate (English)
2. Keyshia Cole – Keyshia Cole is an American singer–songwriter, record producer, businesswoman, television personality. She was born in Oakland, California, her career began when she met MC Hammer at the age of twelve and later met rapper Tupac Shakur. At the age of eighteen she moved to Los Angeles and was later introduced to A&M Records. It was certified gold within 17 weeks, then platinum just eight weeks later. The album stayed on the charts for over a year, eventually selling over 1.6 million copies. Cole released her second album Just like You, the album debuted and peaked at number two on the Billboard 200. It was nominated for Best Contemporary R&B Album at the 50th Grammy Awards. The album has been certified platinum in sales by the Recording Industry Association of America, has sold 1.7 million copies in the U.S. A Different Me is Cole's third album, released in 2008. The album debuted at number two on the Billboard 200 with first week sales of 322,000, the highest of Cole's career. The album has been certified platinum by the RIAA. Calling All Hearts is Cole's fourth album, released on December 21, 2010 in the United States by Geffen Records. The album debuted and peaked at number nine on the Billboard 200, with first week sales of 129,000. The album has sold 400,000 copies in the U.S. as of November 2012. Cole's fifth Woman to Woman debuted with first week sales of 96,000 lower than her last effort.Keyshia Cole – Cole at the BET Hip Hop Awards in Atlanta, Georgia, 2007
5. Communist Party of Nepal (United Marxist) – Communist Party of Nepal was a political party in Nepal existing from 2005 until 2013. Prabhu Narayan Chaudhari was the president of the party. Other politburo members were: Madhav Gyawali Hemant Bahadur B.C. The students wing of the party was the Nepal Progressive Student Federation. In mid-October 2006, the party went through an internal crisis. Prabhu Narayan Chaudhuri received harsh criticism as Minister of Land Reforms. On October 14 he was gheraoed by party cadres. Ten politburo members, including both Manandhar and Chaudhuri, resigned. Chandra Deo Joshi was appointed acting chairman whereas Lok Narayan Subedi became the general secretary of the party. In 2007, Chandra Deo Joshi broke away from CPN, formed a separate CPN. List of communist parties in Nepal NCP demands republic, peaceCommunist Party of Nepal (United Marxist) – Communist Party of Nepal (United Marxist)
6. Treaty of Waitangi claims and settlements – Treaty of Waitangi claims and settlements have been a significant feature of New Zealand race relations and politics since 1975. The settlements are typically seen as part of a broader Māori Renaissance. Because the Treaty of Waitangi has limited legal standing in itself, the primary means of registering and researching Treaty claims is through the Waitangi Tribunal. The primary means of settling those claims is through negotiations with the government of the day. The Treaty of Waitangi is often considered to be the founding document for European settlement in New Zealand. Initially, there was little dispute, as the settlers were able to buy land from the Māori through legal channels. However, after a while, Māori became disillusioned and less willing to sell, while the Crown came under increasing pressure from settlers wishing to buy. Consequently, government land agents were involved in a number of dubious land purchases. Agreements were negotiated with only one owner of tribally owned land and in some cases land was purchased from the wrong people altogether. Rebellion caused by these actions were met with punitive land confiscations. Eventually this led to the New Zealand Wars, which culminated in the confiscation of a large part of the Waikato and Taranaki. By the 1940s, settlements in the form of modest annual payments had been arranged with some iwi. In 1975 the Treaty of Waitangi Act established the Waitangi Tribunal to hear claims of Crown violations of the Treaty of Waitangi, to address those concerns. It allowed any Māori to lodge a claim against the Crown for breaches of the Treaty of Waitangi and its principles. Originally its mandate was limited to claims about contemporary issues, those that occurred after the establishment of the Tribunal.Treaty of Waitangi claims and settlements – The Treaty of Waitangi
7. Canary Islands oystercatcher – The Canary Islands oystercatcher, Canarian oystercatcher, or Canarian black oystercatcher, was a shorebird endemic to Fuerteventura, Lanzarote, their offshore islets in the Canary Islands, Spain. Though this bird was long known to naturalists, it was considered a local population of the African black oystercatcher until 1913. The second and third toes were connected by a small web. The sexes did not differ in color; juvenile birds are unknown but probably had some greyish-buff fringes to the feathers. This seems to have never bred or even strayed outside the eastern Canaries at least in historic times. Information about its ecology are scant and usually second-hand or inferred from circumstantial information. It was called marino on Fuerteventura, grajo de mar on Lanzarote, corvino on Graciosa. In addition, the local lapero was also used, possibly on Alegranza. What is known about its feeding habits indicates that had always been less commonly found in habitat. As with all oystercatchers, its diet consisted of crustaceans rather than oysters. Especially the limpets Patella candei, Patella cf. ulyssiponensis, as well as the African mussel Perna picta were favorite prey items. The alarm call peepe-peepe peepe-peepe. The birds appear to have been territorial in the breeding season and vagrant, but not occurring at other times. Its courtship was reported to be peculiar, with three males joining in a "dancing" display, presenting themselves to best effect. Once the females had chosen a partner, they remained monogamous, probably for life if the pairing proved successful in most other species of the genus.Canary Islands oystercatcher – Canary Islands oystercatcher
8. Homalopoma – Homalopoma, common name the dwarf turbans, is a genus of mostly very small sea snails with a calcareous operculum, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Colloniidae. A new Mediterranean species of the Genus Homalopoma, with notes on the Genusgroup. Bollettino Malacologico, Milano, 30: 182-188. Gofas, S.; Le Renard, J.; Bouchet, P.. Mollusca, in: Costello, M.J. et al.. European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 180-213 Williams S.T. Karube S. & Ozawa T. Molecular systematics of Vetigastropoda: Trochidae, Turbinidae and Trochoidea redefined. Zoologica Scripta 37: 483–506.Homalopoma – Homalopoma
9. Steve Carell – Steven John "Steve" Carell is an American actor, comedian, director, producer and writer. He has also voiced characters in the animated films, Over the Hedge, Horton Hears a Who!, Despicable Me, Despicable Me 2 and Minions. Carell also received acclaim in Little Miss Sunshine and The Big Short, the latter of which earned him a Golden Globe nomination. The youngest of Carell was born at Emerson Hospital in Concord, Massachusetts, raised in nearby Acton, Massachusetts. His mother, Harriet Theresa, was a psychiatric nurse. His maternal uncle, Stanley Koch, worked with scientist Allen B. DuMont to create cathode ray tubes. His mother was of Polish ancestry. His father, born under the surname "Caroselli", later changed it to "Carell". He was educated at Nashoba Brooks School, The Fenn School and Middlesex School. Carell also played ice hockey and while in high school. Carell later joined a reenacting group portraying the 10th Regiment of Foot. Carell attributed his interest to this earning a degree in the subject from Denison University in Granville, Ohio, in 1984. Carell also spent time at WDUB, the campus radio station. He states that he worked in Littleton, Massachusetts.Steve Carell – Carell at the 2014 Montclair Film Festival
10. Casey Fossum – Casey Paul Fossum is a former professional pitcher. He throws left-handed. Fossum was born in New Jersey. He attended Midway High School in Waco, Texas. He then attended Texas A&M University, leading the Aggies to the 1999 College World Series in Omaha, Nebraska. Fossum also won the C. E. "Pat" Olsen Outstanding Pitcher Award in 1999 and was a second team All-American in 1998. During three years with Boston, Fossum moved between the rotation, compiling 14 victories with two saves in 75 games. After a recurrence of tendinitis in his shoulder, he underwent surgery in September 2003. He was sent to the Arizona Diamondbacks in the trade that brought Curt Schilling to the Red Sox. In 2004, for the first time in his career, he was used exclusively as a starting pitcher. He finished third in starts, innings pitched and strikeouts, despite missing the first 5 1/2 weeks to recover from surgery. Before the 2005 season, Fossum was traded for outfielder José Cruz, Jr.. In 2006, Fossum was 6-6, with a 5.33 ERA in 25 starts. On August 2007, the Devil Rays released Fossum.Casey Fossum – Fossum with the Tampa Bay Devil Rays
11. Arthur Penn – Arthur Hiller Penn was an American director and producer of film, television and theater. Penn directed critically acclaimed films throughout the 1960s such as the drama The Chase, the comedy Alice's Restaurant. He also got attention for his revisionist Western Little Big Man. By the mid-1970s his films were received with much less enthusiasm. In the 1990s he returned including an executive producer role for the crime series Law & Order. Penn was born to a Russian Jewish family in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Harry Penn, a watchmaker. He was the younger brother of the successful fashion photographer. During the 1920s, he moved in with his mother after she divorced Penn's father. Some time after, he came back to his sickly father, leading him to run his father's watch shop. At 19 he was drafted into the army. Stationed in Britain, he became interested in theater. He started to take part in shows being put on for the soldiers around England at the time. As Penn grew up, he became increasingly interested especially after seeing the Orson Welles film Citizen Kane. He later was a featured commentator in the documentary Fully Awake about the college. A retelling of the Kid legend, it was distinguished by Paul Newman's sharp portrayal of the outlaw as a psychologically troubled youth.Arthur Penn – Arthur Penn
12. Creosote – Creosotes are a category of carbonaceous chemicals formed by the distillation of various tars and by pyrolysis of plant-derived material, such as wood or fossil fuel. They are typically used as antiseptics. Some creosote types were used historically as a treatment for components of outdoor wood structures to prevent rot. Samples may be commonly found inside chimney flues, where the wood burns under variable conditions, producing soot and tarry smoke. The two main kinds recognized in industry are wood-tar creosote. Creosote also has been made from pre-coal formations such as lignite, yielding peat, yielding peat-tar creosote. The creosote has a broad range of definitions depending on the origin of the coal tar oil and end use of the material. The AWPA Standards require that creosote "shall be a pure coal product derived entirely from tar produced by the carbonization of bituminous coal." Currently, all creosote treated wood products -- foundation and marine piling, lumber, posts, railroad crossties, utility poles -- are manufactured using this type of wood preservative. The manufacturing process can only be a process under the supervision of a licensed applicator certified by the State Departments of Agriculture. No brush-on, non-pressure uses of creosote are allowed, as specified by the EPA approved label for the use of creosote. The AWPA Standard P3 does however, allow blending of a high-boiling petroleum oil meeting the AWPA Standard P4. The information that follows describing the various types of creosote materials and its uses should be considered as primarily being of only historical value. This history is important, because it traces the origin of these different materials used during the 19th and 20th centuries. These are not the only active element of creosote.Creosote – Larrea tridentata
13. Rachel Blanchard – Rachel Louise Blanchard is a Canadian actress. Blanchard was graduated from Havergal College in Toronto before going to Queen's University. Blanchard is probably best known for playing the part of Cher Horowitz on the series Clueless. She also played Roxanne from 2002 to 2004. She reprised this role in the fourth series. Rachel Blanchard at the Internet Movie DatabaseRachel Blanchard – Blanchard at the 2008 Toronto International Film Festival
14. Last Ninja 2 – The Acorn Electron, BBC Micro, 1990: Amiga, Atari ST, NES ports followed in 1989. The NES version of the game was named simply The Last Ninja. In 1990, the Last Ninja Remix edition of the game was re-released for 8-bit systems. The player, controlling a ninja, must fight his way through various levels populated by opponents, collecting necessary items in the process. Each level is divided into several screens. The ninja can move in eight different directions and jump. Enemies, armed with various ninja weapons, wander around the levels. There are also hot-dogs that restore health when eaten. The game continues from the aftermath of the events of The Last Ninja. With the Koga scrolls now in his possession, Armakuni has begun training a new order of shadow warriors. During a session, he is mysteriously transported to 20th-century New York City. Torn from his own time, Armakuni must defeat the evil shogun Kunitoki once more. The Ninja Remix re-release version has an added short intro sequence, minor graphic changes and a remixed soundtrack. Limited edition of the game included a plastic shuriken. In 2015 the code of the Konix version was discovered.Last Ninja 2 – Commodore 64 cover art by Joe Roth
15. Palace of Zarzuela – Zarzuela Palace is the residence of King Felipe VI and Queen Letizia and their family. The palace is near the Royal Palace of El Pardo. The complex also houses the official residence of the current King and Queen in a nearby mansion. The palace is owned by the Spanish State and administered by a state agency called Patrimonio Nacional. During the 17th century, King Philip IV ordered a country palace or lodge to be built at La Zarzuela near Madrid. It was a slate-roofed building with two lateral arcades. His wife have lived in the palace since their marriage in 1962. In summer 2002, Felipe VI, then Prince of Asturias, moved into a 3,150 square metres palace built within La Zarzuela Palace's grounds. The theatre was the birthplace of the Spanish operetta style, zarzuela. Official webpage of the Spanish MonarchyPalace of Zarzuela – Kings Juan Carlos and Felipe VI (then the prince of Asturias) with Russian Prime Minister Dmitri Medvedev, and their wives, at the Zarzuela palace in 2009
16. Valeria Lynch – María Cristina Lancelotti, better known by her stage name Valeria Lynch, is an Argentine singer and actress. In 1969, she debuted with Eduardo Bergara Leumann singing "Cuando un amigo se va". Romay allegedly discovered her great talent suggested that she use a pseudonym. Valeria Lynch formally began performing in the 1970s singing jingles and underground rock with a group called Expression. In 1976 she joined Héctor Cavallero, who had discovered her around 1974 when she was singing in the underground clubs of Buenos Aires. The couple had two sons, Santiago Cavallero. After eighteen years together, they separated in 1995. In 1977 she released her first album, Valeria Lynch, the cover was a drawing of her profile made by her friend Horacio Fontova. Her version of the song "Mujer Sola", written by the Italian Mia Martini, was the first cut of circulation. Her debut as a balladeer was at the legendary scene of the nightclub Michelangelo in the barrio of San Telmo. In April 1979, she made her first promotional trip to Mexico and Central America. During the 1980s, Valeria Lynch's success spread throughout Latin America. In 1980, while performing the musical "Estan tocando cancion" with Victor Laplace and Cipe Lincovsky in Buenos Aires, she released her third studio album "Capricornio". The song "Somos Locos del Amor"was a favorite of the Argentine public. Playing the role of Eva Perón opened the doors to international level.Valeria Lynch – Valeria Lynch interpretando Magica Luna.
17. Gerald and Charlene Gallego – Gerald Armond Gallego and Charlene Adelle Gallego are two American serial killers who terrorized Sacramento, California between 1978 and 1980. They killed a total of 10 victims, mostly teenagers, whom they kept before killing them. Charlene Gallego was born in October 1956. Charles, was a respected entrepreneur, the vice president of a supermarket chain. Mercedes, regularly traveled as part of their business life. Early school reports suggest Charlene was a shy child who had good attendance. Charlene's mother Mercedes was involved in a accident, leaving her badly hurt and causing her not to travel as often. By high school Charlene had begun using drugs. She also bragged about having a black lover. Her parents were in denial. Charlene married a introverted man, dependent on heroin. She didn't care about her appearance. Her first husband hated that Charlene's parents often intervened in their relationship. The marriage failed. She married another man – a soldier.Gerald and Charlene Gallego – Charlene (top) and Gerald (bottom) Gallego
18. Outline of Venezuela – The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Venezuela: Venezuela – sovereign country located in northern South America. Venezuela comprises numerous islands located off the Venezuelan coastline in the Caribbean Sea. The country borders Guyana to the east, Colombia to the west. Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, the Grenadines and the Leeward Antilles lie just north, off the Venezuelan coast. Falling within the tropics, Venezuela sits close to the equator, in the Northern Hemisphere. The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is known widely for its petroleum industry, the environmental diversity of its territory, its natural features. Venezuela is considered to be among the world's 17 most biodiverse countries. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Venezuela at Encyclopædia Britannica Venezuela from the Library of Congress Country Studies Venezuela Information Office Other Venezuela travel guide from Wikivoyage Venezuela at DMOZOutline of Venezuela – An enlargeable relief map of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
19. Outline of theatre – Elements of stagecraft are used to enhance the physicality, presence and immediacy of the experience. Tragedy, the satyr play were the three dramatic genres to emerge there. Western theatre originated in its drama has had a significant and sustained impact on Western culture as a whole. It includes the drama of William Shakespeare, many other famous playwrights. Restoration comedy – English comedies written and performed in the Restoration period from 1660 to 1710. Nineteenth-century theatre – wide range of movements in the theatrical culture of Europe and the United States in the 19th century. Theatre of the United Kingdom -- introduced since at least 1585. West End – popular term for mainstream professional theatre staged in the large theatres of London's'Theatreland', the West End. London fringe – small scale theatres, many of them located above pubs, the equivalent to New York's Off-Broadway or Off-Off-Broadway theatres. Fringe festival – unjuried festivals, such as the Edinburgh Festival Fringe and Adelaide Fringe Festival, permit artists to produce a wide variety of works. Theater of the United States – based in the Western tradition. Broadway – refers to theatrical performances presented in the Theater District centered along Broadway, in Lincoln Center, in Manhattan in New York City. Along with London's West End theatre, Broadway theatre is widely considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world. These theatres are smaller than Broadway theatres. Regional theatre – professional theatre companies outside of New York City that produce their own seasons.Outline of theatre – Historic Outdoor Forest Theater in Carmel, CA at sunsets.
20. Outline of meteorology – Meteorology has application in diverse fields such as the military, energy production, transport, agriculture and construction. Meteorology Climate – the average and variations of weather in a region over long periods of time. Meteorology – the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. Weather – the set of all the phenomena in a given atmosphere at a given time. Written at a bachelor's level. Glossary of Meteorology - From the American Meteorological Society, an excellent reference of nomenclature, equations, concepts for the more advanced reader.Outline of meteorology – Eye of Hurricane Isabel from the International Space Station, September 15, 2003.
23. Outline of solar energy – The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to solar energy: Solar energy – radiant light and heat from the sun. It has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Renewable energy – energy which comes from natural resources which are naturally replenished. Natural resource – materials and components that can be found within the environment. Every man-made product is composed of natural resources. Renewable resource – natural resource with the ability to reproduce through biological or natural processes and are replenished with the passage of time. Timeline of solar energy – Solar power – the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics, or indirectly using concentrated solar power. Active solar – technologies are employed to convert solar energy into another more useful form of energy. Solar tracker – devices that orient various payloads toward the sun. Role of copper in generating and transmitting energy with maximum efficiency in solar photovoltaic power generation, concentrating solar thermal power, solar water heaters. Solar photovoltaics – Solar thermal energy – technology for harnessing solar energy for thermal energy. Solar district heating and solar district cooling. See: Seasonal thermal energy storage. Solar heating -- or solar hot water systems comprise several innovations and many mature renewable energy technologies that have been well established for many years. Solar air conditioning – any air conditioning system that uses solar power.Outline of solar energy – See also: Index of solar energy articles
24. Outline of prehistoric technology – The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to prehistoric technology. Prehistoric technology – technology that predates recorded history. History is the study of the past using written records; it is also the record itself. Anything prior to the written accounts of history is prehistoric, including earlier technologies. Prehistoric technology can be described as: Prehistoric -- "before we had written records," for "before," præ. Prehistory is the span of time before recorded history, before the invention of writing systems. Beginning of prehistoric technology -- the earliest technology began at the beginning of the Stone Age. Latest prehistoric technology – the level of technology reached before true writing was introduced differed by region... Latest prehistoric technology in the Near East – cultures in the Near East achieved the development of writing first, during their Bronze Age. Latest prehistoric technology in the rest of the Old World: Europe, India, China reached Iron Age technological development before the introduction of writing there. The period ended between 6000 and 2000 BCE with the advent of metalworking. Paleolithic -- prehistoric period of human history distinguished by the development of the most primitive stone tools covers roughly 99 % of human technological prehistory. Lower Paleolithic – earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. Ancestors of homo sapiens used stone tools as follows: Homo habilis – first "homo" species. It created stone tools called Oldowan tools.Outline of prehistoric technology – Acheulean hand axes from Kent. The types shown are (clockwise from top) cordate, ficron and ovate. It was the longest-used tool of human history.
26. Banded stilt – The banded stilt is a nomadic stilt endemic to Australia. It belongs to the monotypic Cladorhynchus. This is mottled or entirely absent in non-breeding adults and juveniles. The eyes are dark brown. They breed whenever the water conditions are suitable for shrimp to flourish and lay 3 -- 4 white, brown or black eggs on a scrape. The majority of observed breeding events have occurred in South Australia and Western Australia immediately following freshwater inflows. The name is derived from the Ancient Greek words leukos "white", kephale "head". Georges Cuvier described it as Recurvirostra orientalis the same year. Belgian ornithologist Bernard du Bus de Gisignies described it to the Royal Academy of Belgium in 1835. George Robert Gray placed the banded stilt in 1840 noting that the name Leptorhynchus had been previously used. The genus name is from rhynchos "bill". Likewise, German naturalist Johannes Gistel proposed the Timeta for to replace Leptorhynchus in 1848. John Gould had described it as Himantopus recorded it as Cladorhynchus pectoralis in his 1865 work Handbook to the Birds of Australia. Ludwig Reichenbach placed in a new genus, naming it Xiphidiorhynchus pectoralis in 1845. Australian ornithologist Fred Lawson gave the name Cladorhynchus australis in 1904.Banded stilt – Banded stilt
27. Capella – Although it appears to be a single star to the naked eye, it is actually a star system of four stars in two binary pairs. Capella Aa is the brighter of the two at spectral G8III whereas Ab is slightly smaller and of spectral class G0III. Aa has a calculated mass of 3.05 times that of the Sun and Ab that of the Sun. Around 10,000 astronomical units from the first, consists of two faint, small and relatively cool red dwarfs. They are designated Capella L. I through to K are actually unrelated stars in the same visual field. The Capella system is relatively close, at only 42.8 light-years from the Sun. α Aurigae is the star's Bayer designation. The traditional Capella is a diminutive of "Capra". In 2016, the International Astronomical Union standardize proper names for stars. Capella is so entered in the IAU Catalog of Star Names. Many observers tried to discern the component stars without success. This was the interferometric measurement of any object outside the Solar System. A high-precision orbit was published in 1994 based at Mount Wilson Observatory. In February 1936, Carl L. Stearns observed that this companion appeared to be double itself; this was confirmed in September that year by Gerard Kuiper.Capella – Capella is the brightest star in Auriga
28. Roosevelt dime – The dime, in U.S. usage, is a ten-cent coin, one tenth of a United States dollar, labeled formally as "one dime". The denomination was first authorized by the Coinage Act of 1792. As of 2011, the coin cost 5.65 cents to produce. The word "dime" comes from the Latin decima. The Coinage Act of 1792 established the dime, mill as subdivisions of the dollar equal to 1⁄10, 1⁄100 and 1⁄1000 dollar respectively. The nation's first Secretary of the Treasury, recommended the issuance of six such coins in 1791, in a report to Congress. Among the six was a silver coin, "which shall be, in value, one tenth part of a silver unit or dollar". Thus dimes are made thin. With the passage of the Coinage Act of 1965, the dime's content was removed. Dimes from 1965 to the present are composed of outer layers of 25 percent nickel, bonded to a pure copper core. These sets are not meant for general circulation. Since its introduction in 1796, the dime has been issued in six major types, excluding the 1792 "disme". The name for each type indicates the design on the coin's obverse. The composition of the disme was set at 10.76 percent copper. In 1792, a limited number of dismes were never circulated.Roosevelt dime – 1792 Disme copper pattern
29. X-10 Graphite Reactor – It was built during World War II as part of the Manhattan Project. An intermediate step was considered prudent. The next step for the project, codenamed X-10, was the construction of a semiworks where techniques and procedures could be developed and training conducted. The centerpiece of this was the X-10 Graphite Reactor. It was air-cooled, used nuclear graphite as a neutron moderator, pure natural uranium in metal form for fuel. DuPont commenced construction of the plutonium semiworks in Oak Ridge on February 2, 1943. The reactor produced its first plutonium in early 1944. It supplied the Los Alamos Laboratory of plutonium and its first reactor-bred product. Studies of these samples heavily influenced design. The reactor and chemical plant provided invaluable experience for engineers, technicians, reactor operators, safety officials who then moved on to the Hanford site. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1966. At Columbia University, Enrico Fermi and Leo Szilard began exploring how this might be done. He convinced his old friend and collaborator Albert Einstein lending his fame to the proposal. This resulted in support into nuclear fission, which became the Manhattan Project. In April 1941, the National Defense Research Committee asked a Nobel-Prize-winning physics professor at the University of Chicago, to report on the uranium program.X-10 Graphite Reactor – X-10 Reactor, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
30. Morihei Ueshiba – Morihei Ueshiba was a martial artist and founder of the Japanese martial art of Aikido. Ueshiba is often referred to as "the founder" Kaiso or Ōsensei, "Great Teacher". After this experience, his martial arts skill appeared to be greatly increased. He moved in 1926 where he set up the Aikikai Hombu Dojo. Ueshiba continued training at another dojo he had set up in Iwama. From the end of the war until the 1960s, Ueshiba worked to promote aikido throughout Japan and abroad. Ueshiba died in 1969. Morihei Ueshiba was born in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan on December 14, 1883, the fourth child born to Yoroku Ueshiba and his wife Yuki. The young Ueshiba was raised in a somewhat privileged setting. His father was a rich landowner, politically active. He was a rather weak, sickly bookish in his inclinations. The need for such strength was further emphasized when the young Ueshiba witnessed his father being attacked by followers of a competing politician. At the age of six he had little interest in the rote learning of Confucian education. Thereafter Ueshiba married his childhood acquaintance Hatsu Itokawa. In 1903, he was called up for military service.Morihei Ueshiba – Morihei Ueshiba in Ayabe in 1921
31. Resident Evil 5 – Resident Evil 5, known in Japan as Biohazard 5, is a survival horror third-person shooter video game developed and published by Capcom. The major installment in the Resident Evil series, the game was announced in July 2005. It was released for Microsoft Windows in September of that year. It was re-released on June 28, 2016. Chris soon learns that he must confront his past in the form of Albert Wesker. The game was announced in 2005, the same predecessor Resident Evil 4 was released. Several staff members from the original Resident Evil worked on Resident Evil 5. It was the first video game to use a virtual camera system. Resident Evil 5's gameplay was similar to that of the previous installment. Producer Jun Takeuchi said that three years of actual time were spent on the game, after a year devoted to concept and planning. At its peak, about 110 people worked on the project. Resident Evil 5 had a mostly positive reception, although the game was criticised for problems with its controls. Outselling its predecessor, Resident Evil 5 became the franchise's individual game. Resident Evil 6, was released in 2012. Resident Evil 5 is a third-person shooter with an over-the-shoulder perspective.Resident Evil 5 – Resident Evil 5
32. Phantasmagoria (video game) – Phantasmagoria is an interactive movie point-and-click adventure game released by Sierra On-Line and designed by Roberta Williams for MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows. Released on August 1995, it tells the story of a writer who moves into a remote mansion and finds herself terrorized by supernatural forces. Phantasmagoria was noted for its graphic gore, sexual content. Williams waited eight years for technology to improve before doing so. Directed by Peter Maris, the game featured a cast of 25 actors, with all filming taking place in front of a blue screen. While most games at the time featured 80 to 100 backgrounds, Phantasmagoria included more than 1,000. A professional Hollywood special effects house worked on the game, the musical score included a neo-Gregorian chant performed by a 135-voice choir. Sierra strongly promoted the game, but stressed it was intended for adult audiences. The company willingly included a password-protected censoring option down the graphic content. It received criticism for easy puzzles. The game drew controversy, particularly due to a rape scene. Other retailers declined to carry it, religious politicians condemned it, it was banned altogether in Australia. Phantasmagoria: A Puzzle of Flesh, was released in 1996, although it has no storyline connection to the original game. A single-player game, the player controls protagonist Adrienne Delaney, always on the screen. The player can click certain areas of the screen to make her explore specific objects.Phantasmagoria (video game) – Phantasmagoria
33. Simone Russell – Simone Russell is a fictional character on the American soap opera Passions, which aired on NBC from 1999 to 2007 and on DirecTV in 2007–08. Simone, a member of Passions' Russell family, is introduced as the youngest daughter of Eve Russell and T. C. Russell, as well as the younger sister of Whitney Russell. The network defended the show's treatment of Simone's sexuality as a serious commentary on the topic. The character was created as a part of the show's effort to represent full-realized African-American characters on television. The exact reasons behind Cardwell's departure remain unknown while Pharris chose to leave to pursue other acting opportunities. Doe was the final actress to play Simone before the character was written off the show shortly before its transition to DirecTV. Her storyline made daytime history by having the first instance in a soap opera of two women in bed making love. The character is also notable for being daytime TV's African-American lesbian. At the 17th GLAAD Media Awards, the show won Outstanding Daily Drama for its portrayal of Simone's sexual orientation. Kalouria believed the show was set apart by including "the African American Russells and the Hispanic Lopez-Fitzgeralds". Over the course of the show, Simone was played by three actresses: Lena Cardwell, Cathy Jenéen Doe. After seeing her audition, producers Reilly and Lisa de Cazotte considered the ideal choice for the role of Simone. NBC fired Cardwell in the winter of 2001, in a move, described by an article from Soapcentral. Cast members expressed disappointment from the show and the re-casting of Simone.Simone Russell – Cathy Jenéen Doe as Simone Russell
34. The Chase (U.S. game show) – The Chase is an American television quiz show based on the British program of the same name. The program involves a competition in which contestants attempt to win money by challenging a quiz show genius known as the "chaser". The show received a nomination at the 41st Daytime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Game Show. In Ireland the show is seen on Challenge under the title The Chase USA. The series features Mark Labbett as the chaser. Three new contestants compete on each episode as a team. After the minute is up, the contestant competes head to head against the chaser in order to continue to the Final Chase. During celebrity episodes, contestants start with $5,000 already in the bank. In addition, the contestant must instead answer six questions correctly without being caught. Usually, the contestant is permitted to talk briefly with her teammates for advice as to which offer to take. The chaser starts the round off of the gameboard eight spaces away from the bank. Both chaser are then presented with the same multiple choice question, each locks-in their answer separately. For each question the contestant answers correctly, the money earned moves one step closer to the team bank. For each question answered correctly by the chaser, he moves one step closer to the money. The chaser catches the contestant eliminating them from the game.The Chase (U.S. game show) – The Chase
35. Nine Stones, Winterbourne Abbas – Archaeologists believe that it was likely erected during the Bronze Age. The Nine Stones circle has a diameter of 9.1 metres by 7.8 metres and consists of nine sarsen megaliths which are irregularly spaced. Two of the stones, both located on the north-western side of the monument, are considerably larger than the others. Antiquarians like William Stukeley first took an interest during the 18th century. It later received archaeological attention, although has not been excavated. Local folklore has grown up around the circle, associating it with the Devil and with petrified children. The Nine Stones are regarded as a sacred site by local Druids, who perform religious ceremonies there. The circle is adjacent to the A35 road and encircled on its three other sides by trees. The site is owned by English Heritage and is open without charge to visitors. The Nine Stones circle is positioned at the national grid reference 36100904. It is located on the southern side of the A35 road, on the western edge of the village of Winterbourne Abbas. Enclosed within iron railings, it is surrounded on three sides by trees and on the fourth by the A35. The roots of a beech tree have engulfed two of the megaliths in the circle. He noted that it was difficult to take clear photographs of the site because of the surrounding trees. These include stone circles.Nine Stones, Winterbourne Abbas – Nine Stones
36. Yugoslav torpedo boat T3 – The Yugoslav torpedo boat T3 was a sea-going torpedo boat, operated by the Royal Yugoslav Navy between 1921 and 1941. She saw active service during World War I, performing convoy, escort and minesweeping tasks, anti-submarine operations. In German/Croatian service her crew of 52 enlisted men. She was sunk by Allied aircraft in February 1945 while in the port of Trieste. Stabilimento Tecnico Triestino of Trieste was selected for the contract to build eight vessels, ahead of one other tenderer. The designation signified STT. The T-group boats had a waterline length of 58.2 m, a normal draught of 1.5 m. While their designed displacement was 262 tonnes, they displaced about 320 tonnes fully loaded. The crew consisted of 39 officers and enlisted men. The turbine was rated at 5,000 shp with a maximum output of 6,000 shp and designed to reach a top speed of 28 knots. They carried 24 tonnes of fuel oil, which gave them a range of 980 nmi at 16 knots. The T-group had one funnel rather than the two funnels of the later groups of the class. This contributed with them. They could also carry 10–12 naval mines. 78 T was the fifth of its class to be built.Yugoslav torpedo boat T3 – The first of the 250t-class, T-group, 74 T
37. INS Vikrant (R11) – INS Vikrant was a Majestic-class aircraft carrier of the Indian Navy. Construction was completed in 1961. In January 2014, the ship was scrapped in November 2014 after final clearance from the Supreme Court. During early years of World War II, the Royal Navy decided to build a fleet of light aircraft carriers to counter the Japanese navies. The 1942 Design Light Fleet Carrier, commonly referred to as the British Light Fleet Carrier, was the result. All were laid down to the Colossus-class design during 1942 and 1943. However, only eight were completed to this design; none saw combat. Two entered service as aircraft maintenance carriers. The final six were re-designated the Majestic class. The improvements from the Colossus class to the Majestic class include improved displacement, armament, catapult, aircraft capacity. The fifth ship in HMS Hercules, ordered on 7 August 1942, was laid down on 14 October 1943 by Vickers-Armstrong on the River Tyne. Though she was launched on 22 September 1945, her construction was suspended in May 1946, following the end of World War II. At the time of suspension, 75% of the construction was complete. In May 1947, a decade before being sold to India, she was laid up in Gareloch off the Clyde. In January 1957, she was towed to Belfast to complete her construction and modifications by Harland and Wolff.INS Vikrant (R11) – INS Vikrant in 1984
38. List of accolades received by The Act of Killing – The Act of Killing is a 2012 documentary film directed by Joshua Oppenheimer, Christine Cynn, an anonymous co-director. The film received critical acclaim. The review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reported a 96% approval rating with an average rating of 8.7/10 based on 137 reviews. On Metacritic, the film has an average score of 89 out of 100, based on 30 reviews, indicating "universal acclaim". It won 59. Awards for The Act of Killing at Internet Movie DatabaseList of accolades received by The Act of Killing
39. Dhanush filmography – Dhanush is an Indian film actor, director, producer, lyricist and singer known for his work in Indian Cinema. In 2011, he won the National Film Award for the Aadukalam. He received international attention with his popular song "Why this Kolaveri Di" becomes 1st Indian video to cross million views on YouTube. He has won seven Filmfare Awards including Bollywood Filmfare Award. He received his second National Award for producing the best children's film Kaaka Muttai in 2015. The Edison Awards have been presented by the Tamil MyTamilMovie.com since 2009 to honour excellence in Tamil cinema. One of the leading weeklies of Tamil Nadu has been awarding the films, technicians on various criteria.Dhanush filmography – Dhanush in 2010
40. List of Naruto: Shippuden episodes – Naruto: Shippuden is an anime series adapted from Part II of the Naruto manga series by Masashi Kishimoto. The series is produced by TV Tokyo. It began broadcasting on February 2007. Viz had stated the English dub would be released sometime in the near future. The English dub of Naruto: Shippuden made its US premiere on Disney XD on October 28, 2009. The first release of the series in North America was released on September 2009. Episodes 1 through 53 were broadcast in 4:3 standard fullscreen, while episodes 54 onward were made and broadcast in 16:9 widescreen. Toonami began airing the series from the beginning on January 4, 2014 in an uncut format. The series is being released to Region 2 DVD in Japan with four or five episodes per disc. There are currently six series of DVD releases divided by arc. There is also a special feature included with the seventh Naruto: Shippuden compilation DVD based on the second ending of the series called Hurricane! "Konoha Academy" Chronicles. Limited edition of Seventh DVD of "Vengeance" comes with special DVD Behind the Scenes of UCHIHA containing interview mixed from episodes. "Naruto: Shippuden episodes from 2007". TV Tokyo.List of Naruto: Shippuden episodes – The cover of the first DVD compilation released by Studio Pierrot and Aniplex.
41. Alfred Hitchcock filmography – Alfred Hitchcock was an English director and filmmaker. His directorial debut was The Pleasure Garden. Hitchcock followed this with The Lodger: A Story of his first commercial and critical success. Two years later, he directed the Blackmail, his first sound film. In 1935, Hitchcock directed The 39 Steps. Three years later, he directed the comic thriller The Lady Vanishes starring Michael Redgrave. In 1940, Hitchcock transitioned to Hollywood productions, the first of, the psychological Rebecca starring Laurence Olivier, Joan Fontaine. The film won Best Picture. Hitchcock reteamed with Fontaine on the romantic psychological thriller Suspicion which also starred Cary Grant. In 1943, Hitchcock directed another psychological Shadow of a Doubt which starred Teresa Wright, Joseph Cotten. Three years later, he reunited with Grant on the thriller Notorious which also starred Ingrid Bergman. Three years later he directed Strangers on a Train. He collaborated on three films: Dial M for Murder, Rear Window, To Catch a Thief. For Rear Window Hitchcock received a nomination at the Academy Awards. 1955 also marked his debut as the host of the anthology television series Alfred Hitchcock Presents which he also produced.Alfred Hitchcock filmography – Studio publicity photo of Hitchcock in 1955
43. Suriya filmography – Saravanan Sivakumar, known by his stage name Suriya, is an Indian film actor, producer and television presenter, best known for his work in Tamil cinema. After making his debut in Nerukku Ner, Suriya landed his breakthrough role in Nandha and then had his first commercial success with the thriller Kaakha Kaakha. Suriya has also found success with science fiction films like 7aum Arivu and 24. As of 2010, he has won three Tamil Nadu State Film Awards and three Filmfare Awards South. In 2013, Suriya founded the production house 2D Entertainment. Suriya is the eldest son of Tamil film actor Sivakumar and his younger brother Karthi is also an actor. Suriya married co-star Jyothika in 2006, after being engaged for several years. In 2008, he began Agaram Foundation, which funds for various philanthropic activities. Suriya was born in 1975 to Tamil film actor Sivakumar and his wife Lakshmi as Saravanan. Suriya has two younger siblings, brother Karthi and sister Brindha. Suriya is married to Jyothika, with whom he worked with in as many as seven films. The couple, after being together for several years, got married on 11 September 2006. They have two children, a daughter named Diya and a son named Dev. Before his career in films, Suriya worked at a garment exports factory for eight months. To avoid nepotism, he did not reveal himself to his boss as Sivakumar's son, but his boss ultimately learnt the truth himself.Suriya filmography – Suriya in 2014
44. Gandalf – Gandalf /ˈɡændɑːlf/ is a fictional character and one of the protagonists in J. R. R. Tolkien's novels The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. Gandalf is a wizard, the army of the West. In The Lord of the Rings, Gandalf returns from death as Gandalf the White. Tolkien discusses Gandalf in his essay on the Istari, which appears in the Unfinished Tales. Mostly he journeyed tirelessly on foot, leaning on a staff, so he was called among Men of the North Gandalf'the Elf of the Wand'. ... ... As one of the Maiar, he would have participated at the creation of the world. However Gandalf does not attain any prominence until the Valar settle in Valinor. In Valinor, he was known as Olórin. Gandalf was also closely associated with two other Valar: Nienna, the patron of mercy, who gave him tutelage. As one of the Maiar, he was not a mortal Man but an angelic being who had taken human form. As one of those spirits, Olórin was in the Creator's ` Secret Fire'. Gandalf the Grey was the last of the Istari landing in the Havens of Mithlond. The chief Wizard, later learned of the gift and resented it. The head of their Order, was strained.Gandalf – "Der Berggeist" by Josef Madlener.
45. Bracket – A bracket is a tall punctuation mark typically used in matched pairs within text, to set apart or interject other text. Used unqualified, brackets refer in different contexts. The matched pair may be described as left and right symbols. Brackets include round brackets/parentheses, square brackets, curly brackets/braces, various other pairs of symbols. In modern British usage this is usually the parenthesis. Chevrons were the earliest type of bracket to appear in written English. Desiderius Erasmus coined the lunula to refer to the rounded parentheses, recalling the shape of the crescent moon. Some of the following names are contextual. Sometimes referred to as angle brackets, in such cases as HTML markup. Occasionally known as broken brokets. The characters ` ``", known as guillemets or angular quote brackets, are actually quotation mark glyphs used in several European languages. Which one of each pair is the opening mark and, the closing quote varies between languages. In English, typographers generally prefer to not set brackets in italics, even when the enclosed text is italic. However, in other languages like German, if brackets enclose text in italics, they are usually set in italics too. Parentheses / pəˈrɛnθᵻsiːz / contain material, aside from the main point.Bracket – Move up
46. Wikipedia community – The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors to the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. Individual contributors are known as "Wikipedians". The Oxford English Dictionary added the word "Wikipedian" in August 2012. Almost all Wikipedians are volunteers. Studies of the size of the community of Wikipedia showed an exponential growth during the early years. In April 2008, lecturer Clay Shirky and computer scientist Martin Wattenberg estimated the total time spent creating Wikipedia at roughly 100 million hours. In November 2011, there were approximately million registered user accounts across all language editions, of which around 270,000 were "active". As of today, the English Wikipedia contains an unknown number of anonymous contributors. There are 127,176 active editors on the English project. Wikipedia editors continue to increase the number, quality of the articles. A fifth spend more than three hours a day. Various studies have been done to the motivations of Wikipedia contributors. A paper written in 2005, called "Why Do People Write for Wikipedia? Incentives to Contribute to Open-Content Publishing", discussed the possible motivations of Wikipedia contributors. Oded Nov, in his 2007 paper "What Motivates Wikipedians", related the motivations of volunteers in general to the motivations of people who contribute to Wikipedia.Wikipedia community – Wikimania 2012 group photograph
47. Wiki markup – Its purpose is to be converted by wiki software into HTML, which, in turn, is served to web browsers. It was created on the original wiki site, WikiWikiWeb. There is commonly accepted standard language. Justification, keywords and so on depend on the particular wiki software used on the particular website. Different Wiki programs may support use of different sets of HTML elements within wikitext. In some cases, permitted HTML elements may be configured by individual wiki sites. MediaWiki supports many common HTML tags. There are different syntax conventions for these links. Many wikis, especially the earlier ones, used CamelCase to mark words that should be automatically linked. In MediaWiki, this convention was replaced with the notation, which Wikipedia calls "free links". Creole is an effort for a "common language to be used across different Wikis". There are several wiki engines that have implemented Creole. Version 1.0 of the specification was released in July 2007. It is not supported by MediaWiki. VisualEditor is an alternative to editing the raw wiki markup code.Wiki markup – Screenshot of the edit window in a Wikipedia article. Note the <nowiki> tag, used to escape wiki markup and HTML. HTML comments can be seen inside the <!-- --> tags.