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1. 23rd Iowa Volunteer Infantry Regiment – The 23rd Regiment Iowa Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Organized at Des Moines and mustered in September 19,1862, attached to Dept. Missouri to February,1863. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, Army of Southeast Missouri, Dept, 2nd Brigade, 14th Division, 13th Army Corps, Dept. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 13th Army Corps, Dept, tennessee, to August,1863, and Dept. of the Gulf to March,1864. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 13th Army Corps, Dept, 1st Brigade, 3rd Division, 19th Army Corps, Dept. 4th Brigade, 2nd Division, 19th Corps, Dept, Gulf, to December,1864, 4th Brigade, Reserve Corps, Military Division West Mississippi, to February,1865. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, Reserve Corps, Middle Division West Mississippi, 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 13th Army Corps, Military Division West Mississippi, to July,1865. SERVICE. --Duty at St. Louis, Camp Patterson and West Plains, March via Thomasville and Eminence to Iron Mountain, Mo. February 9–26, and duty there until March 9. Moved to St. Genevieve March 9–12, thence to Millikens Bend, March 22–27, and duty there until April 25. Movement on Bruinsburg and turning Grand Gulf April 25–30, Battle of Port Gibson May 1. Battle of Champions Hill May 16, siege of Vicksburg May 18-July 4. Ordered to the Dept. of the Gulf August 13, duty at Carrollton, Brashear City and Berwick until October 3. Western Louisiana Campaign October 3-November 17, expedition to New Iberia October 3–7, and to Vermillion Bayou October 8–30. Moved to Brazos Santiago, Texas, November 17–23, duty at Indianola until March,1864, and at Matagorda Island until May 4. Thence to Join Banks on Red River, May 4–15, joined at Simsport and retreat to Morganza May 16–22. Moved to Duvalls Bluff October 12, and duty there and in Arkansas until January,1865, Campaign against Mobile and its defenses March and April. Steeles march from Pensacola, Fla. to Blakely, Ala, occupation of Canoe Station March 27. Siege of Fort Blakely April 2–9, assault and capture of Fort Blakely April 923rd Iowa Volunteer Infantry Regiment – Iowa state flag
2. Emsland test facility – The Emsland Transrapid Test Facility is a testing site for Transrapid maglev trains in Emsland, Germany. The single track runs between Dörpen and Lathen. Turning loops are at each end, the track is elevated for almost its entire length to allow continued farming and grazing of the land occupied. Until the 2006 Lathen maglev train accident, the trains often carried paying passengers and they regularly ran at up to 420 km/h. All runs, including those with passengers, were fully monitored, construction of the facility began in 1980 and was completed in 1984. In 2006,23 people were killed in the Lathen maglev train accident on the track, involving a Transrapid passenger train, the accident was discovered to have been caused by human failure in implementing safety and checking protocols. At the end of 2011, the license has expired. In early 2012, the demolition and reconversion of all the Emsland site, including the tracks and factory, was approvedEmsland test facility – Emsland Test Facility
3. Andy Hess – Andy Hess is an American bassist and former member of Govt Mule, having joined the band in 2003. Previously, he was The Black Crowes bassist from February 2001 until their hiatus early the following year and he has also played in Joan Osbornes band and has done session work for artists including David Byrne and Tina Turner. Hess is currently touring with Steve Kimock and he performed on The John Scofields Band albums Up All Night which was released in 2003 and Überjam Deux which was released in 2013Andy Hess – Andy Hess
4. Kenny Passarelli – Kenny Passarelli is an American bass guitarist. Passarelli was a member of Barnstorm, co-writing the hit Rocky Mountain Way. Passarelli has played with a variety of musicians, including Joe Walsh, Elton John, Dan Fogelberg, Stephen Stills and Hall. He served as a replacement for Dee Murray in the Elton John Band from 1975–76, playing on the albums Rock of the Westies and Blue Moves. After leaving Johns band he joined the Hall and Oates band in June 1977 and appeared on their albums Livetime and Along the Red Ledge. comKenny Passarelli – Passarelli playing with Joe Walsh on bass in 1973
5. Phillip E. Johnson – Phillip E. Johnson is a retired UC Berkeley law professor and author who is considered the father of the intelligent design movement. He became a Christian while a tenured professor and he is a critic of what he calls Darwinism. By Darwinism, he means fully naturalistic evolution, involving chance mechanisms, as a Christian, Johnson believes that a God exists who could create out of nothing if He wanted to do so, but who also might have chosen to work through a natural evolutionary process instead. Johnson rejects that evolution is a fact and favors neo-creationary views known as intelligent design, Johnson eventually abandoned that position in 1996. The consensus of the community considers Johnsons opinions on evolution to be pseudoscience. Johnson was born in Aurora, Illinois, in 1940 and he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in English literature, from Harvard University in 1961. He studied law at the University of Chicago, graduating top of his class and he served as a law clerk for the Chief Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court Earl Warren and Chief Justice of the California Supreme Court Roger J. Traynor. Johnson became a member of the California Bar in January 1966 and he is an emeritus professor of law at Boalt School of Law at the University of California, Berkeley, where he served on the active faculty from 1967 to 2000. Johnson has served as deputy district attorney and has held visiting professorships at Emory University, Johnson became a Christian following a divorce, and later became an elder in the Presbyterian Church. Johnson later said, Something about the Darwinists rhetorical style made me think they had something to hide, despite having no formal background in biology, he felt that could add insight into the premises and arguments. He noted that people think about evolutionism depends very heavily on the kind of logic they employ. Since the publication of the first edition of Darwin on Trial in 1991, Johnson popularized the term intelligent design in his book, Darwin on Trial. He remains one of the best known advocates for intelligent design and he is the author of several books on intelligent design, science, philosophy, and religion, as well as textbooks on criminal law. He has appeared on programs such as PBSs Firing Line. Since 2001, Johnson has suffered a series of right brain strokes. In 2004, he was awarded the inaugural Phillip E. Johnson Award for Liberty and Truth by Biola University, Johnson has two children and lives with his wife in Berkeley, California. Johnson has stated in an interview that he believed the strength of America is not in its towers or in its battleships, of course, I said that, but I wasnt sure it was really true anymore. This isnt the same country we were in the previous decades, Johnson said the U. S. was cringing in fear of Muslim terrorists after September 11 attacks and that professors were afraid to discuss it because theyre afraid of what the Muslim students will doPhillip E. Johnson – Watchmaker analogy
6. Churubusco – Churubusco is a neighbourhood of Mexico City. Under the current territorial division of the Mexican Federal District, it is a part of the borough of Coyoacán and it is centred on the former Franciscan monastery at 19°21′20″N 99°8′55″W. The name Churubusco is the interpretation the Spanish conquistadors gave to the original Nahuatl name Huitzilopochco – meaning place of Huitzilopochtli, earlier attested forms that the adapted name took include Huycholopuzco, Ocholopusco, Ochoroposco, Uchilubusco, and Chulibusco. The first settlers are believed to have arrived in the area, Huitzilopochco existed as an independent lordship within Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Its first ruler was Huitzilatzin, a grandson of Huitzilihuitl, the second Tlatoani and its population numbered some 15,000 dedicated to the cultivation of fruit and flowers and the extraction of salt from the neighboring Lake Texcoco. A temple dedicated to the worship of Huitzilopochtli stood at a known as Teopanzolco. Within the Aztec Empire, this teocalli ranked second only to the one at the Templo Mayor in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, Huitzilopochco was famous for the hummingbird feathers that it sent in tribute to the capital. In 1503, Ahuitzotl, the eighth Tlatoani, connected a nearby spring to the Mexico-Tenochtitlan water supply and this is believed to have been the direct cause of the great flood of that year that devastated the city and claimed hundreds of lives – including that of Ahuitzotl. During Hernán Cortéss siege of Mexico-Tenochtitlan in 1521, Huitzilopochco was razed to the ground, some years later, Franciscan friars founded a small convent in the Teopanzolco district, using stones from the destroyed teocalli of Huitzilopochtli. The convent was dedicated to Mary, Queen of Angels and they rebuilt the monastery and added a novitiate and a school. In the second half of century, thanks to the generosity of one Diego del Castillo and his wife. A series of enhancements were made to the monastery and its church, including an altar dedicated to Our Lady of Guadalupe in 1766. In 1797 an independent chapel, dedicated to Saint Anthony of Padua, was erected, on 20 August 1847, during the U. S. invasion of Mexico, a bloody and decisive battle was fought in Churubusco – specifically, in the vicinity of the monastery. In 1857, President Ignacio Comonfort had a monument commemorating the defence of the monastery built in front of its main gates. In 1869, during the Reform period under President Benito Juárez and it was converted into a military hospital specialising in contagious diseases. The museum was opened to the public in 1921, with the rapid expansion of Mexico City during the mid-20th century, Churubusco ceased to be a separate village and was swallowed up by the urban sprawl of the capital. The motion picture production facility of Estudios Churubusco – the nerve centre of the Golden Age of Mexican Cinema – opened in the district in 1945. It stands in a residential neighbourhood just outside the southernmost loop of the inner ring-road, in the middle of a pleasant, metro General Anaya is located in the vicinityChurubusco – Churubusco's monastery at the height of the 1847 Battle of Churubusco
7. Cam Ward (politician) – Cam Ward is a Republican member of the Alabama Senate. He has represented District 14 since 2010, Ward was born in Milton, Florida and graduated from Bradford County High School in Starke, Florida. He received a degree from Troy University and a law degree from the Cumberland School of Law at Samford University. While at Troy, Ward served two terms as Student Government Association president, Ward is the Executive Director of the Industrial Development Board of Alabaster, Alabama. He is chairman of the Autism Task Force of Alabama and helped launch Autism Alabama, in December 2010, Ward supported a piece of legislation granting Subpoena Power to the Alabama Ethics Commission. The bill passed both chambers of of the Alabama Legislature on December 16,2010, and was signed into law by Governor Bob Riley. In 2016, Ward was recognized by the Foundation for Government Accountabilitys with the Friend of Government Accountability Award for his efforts in healthcare reform. S, Cam Ward Project Vote Smart – State Rep. Cam Ward Appearances on C-SPANCam Ward (politician) – Sen. Ward at Montgomery Tea Party in Summer of 2009.
8. Seamanship – Seamanship is the art of operating a ship or boat. The degree of knowledge needed within these areas is dependent upon the nature of the work, navigation is the art and science of safely and efficiently directing the movements of a vessel from one point to another. Piloting uses water depth and visible references, while dead reckoning uses courses and distances from the last known position, more than just finding a vessels present location, safe navigation includes predicting future location, route planning and collision avoidance. Nautical navigation in western nations, like air navigation, is based on the nautical mile, navigation also includes electronics such as GPS and Loran. Celestial navigation involves taking sights by sextant on the planets, moon, stars, sun and using the data with a nautical almanac, accurate time information is also needed. After nautical dusk, navigation at sea referencing the horizon is no longer possible, a fundamental skill of professional seamanship is being able to maneuver a vessel with accuracy and precision. Unlike vehicles on land, a ship afloat is subject to the movements of the air around it, another complicating factor is the mass of a ship that has to be accounted for when stopping and starting. Ship-handling is about arriving and departing a berth or buoy, maneuvering in confined channels and harbours and in proximity to other ships, two other types of operations, berthing alongside another ship and replenishment at sea, are occasionally included. Fundamental to low-speed maneuvering is an understanding of the configuration and handedness of the propeller, thus to put the vessel into astern mode the rudder can be rotated through 180 degrees without altering the speed and direction of the engine. Since with the propeller or rudder configuration the propeller is designed to operate at maximum efficiency when going ahead. But with the Kortz Nozzle, the ahead and astern thrust is the same, most commercial vessels in excess of size limits determined by local authorities are handled in confined areas by a marine pilot. Marine pilots are seafarers with extensive seafaring experience and are usually qualified master mariners who have trained as expert ship-handlers. These pilots are conversant with all types of vessel and propulsion systems, as well as handling ships of all sizes in all weather and they are also experts in the geographical areas they work. In most countries, the pilot takes over the conduct of the navigation from the ship master and this means that the master and crew should adhere to the pilots orders in respect of the safe navigation of the vessel when in a compulsory pilotage area. The master may with good cause resume conduct of the vessels navigation, however this should never be done lightly. In situations where the pilot is an advisor even though he has the con, the master, upon realizing there is a dangerous situation developing, must take such action as to avoid an accident or at least to minimize the damage from one that cant be avoided. In some countries and areas, the role is as an advisor. However, in practice, they are likely to have the conduct of the vessel, especially on larger ships using tug boats to assistSeamanship – Sailors aboard USS San Antonio handle mooring lines.
9. Badugi – Badugi is a draw poker variant similar to triple draw, with hand-values similar to lowball. During each of three drawing rounds, players can trade zero to four cards from their hands for new ones from the deck, in an attempt to form the best badugi hand and win the pot. Badugi is a gambling game, with the object being to win money in the form of pots. The winner of the pot is the person with the best badugi hand at the conclusion of play, Badugi is played in cardrooms around the world, as well as online. There is some controversy over the origin of this game, which has played at least since the 1980s. Bill Rosmus reports that in the 1980s in Winnipeg, Canada it was played under the name Off Suit Lowball in the room of pool halls. Bryan Micon says he has told by several Korean players that it was also played in South Korea in the 1980s. Another ancestor of badugi is displayed in a game played in Toronto in the 1970s and 1980s, off on high low, in both games the objective was to make a 5 card hand, with a pair being mandatory. Either an off hand, or an on hand, leapfrog made this much more difficult with stipulation that the cards must not touch each other, in terms of pip value. Oftentimes, the pot would stay, making for a start to the next hand. Play begins with each player being dealt four face down. The hand begins with a betting round, beginning with the player to the left of the big blind. Each player must either call the amount of the big blind, fold, once everyone has put the same amount of money in the pot or folded, play proceeds to the draw. Beginning with the first player still in the pot to the left of the dealer, each player may discard any number of cards, replacement cards are dealt before the next player chooses the number of cards to draw. The discarded cards are not returned to the deck but are discarded for the remainder of the hand unless the deck becomes depleted, the first draw is followed by a second betting round. Here players are free to check until someone bets, again betting proceeds until all players have put in an equal amount of money or folded. After the second betting round ends, there is another draw followed by a betting round. After that there is the draw, followed by a fourth betting roundBadugi – A best hand in badugi, a four-high badugi.
10. Albany High School (California) – Albany High School is a comprehensive public high school located in Albany, California. The school educates approximately 1,300 students from grades 9 through 12, in 2001, Albany was accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges for the maximum term of six years. Albany High School was #756 nationally ranked in 2016, and #119 among California high schools, the school is known for its athletic, science, math, and music programs. The music program at the school serves approximately 250 students and supports choral, orchestral, concert band, craig Bryant is the Director of Instrumental Music, a position he has held since the fall of 2007. Students participate in the Jazz School Studio bands, the Oakland, Berkeley and San Francisco Youth Orchestras, the instrumental music program is made up of two concert bands, two jazz bands, and a string orchestra. There are approximately 140 students involved in the program, with half the jazz students also participating in one of the concert bands. Each group at the school three times per week to rehearse. The ensembles at AHS perform four concerts a year in addition to participating in festivals. The groups have garnered attention through performances at Yoshis Oakland, Ashkenaz, the Freight and Salvage. The Albany High School Jazz Band has received top ratings and awards at the Folsom, Reno, the 2010 group performed as a featured ensemble at the 2010 California Music Education Association State Conference in Sacramento. Albany High School has a Science Bowl program, the Science Bowl team won the 1993 Department of Energy National Science Bowl competition. Through the 1990s and 2000s, the team was a consistent top finisher at the national level, Albany High won its 2008 Science Bowl regional competition, defeating academic rival Mission San Jose High School. In 2009, their NOSB team did not fare as well, however, they fared much better in the National Science Bowl, placing fifth nationwide. In 1993, they won the nationwide Science Bowl competition in Washington D. C, in 2016, they won the National Ocean Sciences Bowl National Championship, earning the team an all-expenses paid trip to Monaco. In 2011, the school Science Bowl team went to Washington D. C. for the nationals, in 2012, the school National Ocean Sciences Bowl team went to Baltimore for Nationals, where they took seventh place. In 2013, the National Ocean Sciences Bowl team went to Milwaukee for Nationals, fall sports include football, girls and boys cross country, girls volleyball, girls golf, and girls tennis. Sports offered during the winter are girls and boys soccer, girls and boys basketball, sports teams offered during the spring include softball, baseball, girls and boys track and field, girls and boys swimming, boys golf, and boys tennis. Albany Highs soccer team was successful in 2010, with the varsity boys, the girls volleyball team went to the Northern California State Championships in 2011, but lostAlbany High School (California) – Albany High School
11. Danny Fox – Daniel Fox is a footballer who plays as a left back for Nottingham Forest. He represented England at under-21 international level, has since been selected for Scotland, Fox was born in Winsford, Cheshire and learnt his trade at his boyhood club Evertons youth system at thirteen from Liverpool. As Fox progressed through the academy, Fox was offered a time contract with the club. After leaving Everton, Walsall moved quickly to sign Fox, alongside Everton youth teammate Anthony Gerrard on 3 June 2005, Fox made his debut for the club against Rotherham United in the opening game of the season, making first start. In the next game against Southend United, Fox provided an assist for Matty Fryatt to score the club’s first goal in the match, as they drew 2–2 and was named Man of the Match by Birmingham Mail. Fox’s performance throughout August earned him Evening Mail Saddlers Player of the Month and since making his debut, despite the injuries and suspension, Fox finished his first season at Walsall, making 33 appearances. Fox later reflected the 2005–06 season, in which he stated the season made him more mature as a player. Fox then scored his goal against Peterborough United on 1 January 2007, for the second time this season. Despite missing two matches in the 2006–07 season, due to injury and suspension, Fox ended of the season with 44 appearances and three goals, as he helped the club promoted to League One. In the 2007–08 season saw Fox continued to make an impression at Walsall when he scored his first goal of the season against Gillingham on 1 September 2007, two weeks later, on 15 September 2007, Fox scored again, in a 2–1 win over Millwall. Fox scored again three weeks later on 2 October 2007, in a 3–2 win over Doncaster Rovers, however, on 26 December 2007, Fox received the first red card of his career in a 1–1 draw against Port Vale after a second bookable offence. In the January transfer window, Fox’s future was in doubt after attracted interests from clubs, during his time at Walsall, Fox made over 100 appearances and scoring six times in all competitions, as well as, having a positive attitude. On 28 January 2008, Fox joined Coventry City in a transfer deal, after agreeing personal terms. Before this, Colchester United had agreed a fee with Walsall for Fox, just days after signing for Coventry City, Fox made his debut for the club in a 1–0 defeat against Hull City. Two months after making his debut, Fox scored his first goal in a 5–1 win over Colchester United, in the next game against Wolverhampton Wanderers on 26 April 2008, Fox provided an assist for Elliott Ward, in a 1–1 draw. As the 2007–08 season progressed, in which Fox made eighteen appearance and scoring once, ahead of the 2008–09 season, Fox attracted interests from Premier League clubs, though Ray Ranson made it clear that Fox and Dann were not for sale. Despite this, Fox remained in the first team in his first full season at the club. Fox scored his first goal of the season, in a 1–1 draw against Swansea City on 25 November 2008 and scored in the game on 1 December 2008Danny Fox – Fox playing for Celtic
12. Sir Charles Hardy Islands – Sir Charles Hardy Islands is in the reef of the same name adjacent to Pollard Channel & Blackwood Channel about 40 km east of Cape Grenville off Cape York Peninsula. Shipwrecks in this include, Charles Eaton. On board was Captain William DOyley of the Bengal Artillery and his family, from Sydney to India, struck the Great Detached Reef, approximately 40 miles east of the Sir Charles Hardy Islands, on the outer Barrier Reef on 15 August 1834. Six of the crew stole the boats and set out for Timor which they reached two months later. Those abandoned at the wreck made two rafts, then set out for the mainland and they lived with their captors for some months, being eventually exchanged at Murray Island to a native for a bunch of bananas. Their new owner treated them kindly and months later, when the schooner Isabella was making a search for the lost ship, only Ireland and they were handed over to the Captain Charles Morgan Lewis of the Isabella, who returned them to Sydney. The ship also carried back skulls believed to be those of the murdered passengers, Captain Lewis took leave of absence to take the young D’Oyley back to England to be placed in care of relatives. Lost on the Great Detached Reef,24 July 1854, the 27 passengers and crew crowded into the longboat and set out for the Australian mainland. Came to Australia from Liverpool, arriving 1859, sailed from Sydney to Gladstone where she took on horses for Madras, leaving 8 September 1859. Wrecked on a reef near Raine Island, Queensland,22 September 1859, the crew took to the boats but while passing through Torres Strait they were attacked by natives with several crew killed. One boat sighted a derelict near the Sir Charles Hardy Islands and recognised her to be the Liverpool ship Marina and they repaired her and spent three hazardous months sailing her to Port Curtis. After being further repaired at Gladstone, she foundered off Cape Moreton,1860 and her loss is associated with the mysterious origin of a cannon later rumoured to have been lost by the Spaniard De Quirros HMS Pandora. The naval frigate sent in pursuit of Bounty mutineers and the vessel, the Sir Charles Hardy Islands are the closest terrestrial islands, approximately 60 miles to the south-west of Pandora Entrance. It was considered that Burke would have attempted to make a course from Eyres Creek to the Albert. She sailed from Melbourne on 29 July 1861, after loading 30 horses and forage, on 24 August 1861 they left Brisbane to sail for the Gulf in company with the HMCSS Victoria captained by Commander William Henry Norman. A hurricane struck near Raine Island and the Firefly grounded adjacent to Sir Charles Hardys IslandsSir Charles Hardy Islands – Victoria
13. Intermediate good – Intermediate goods or producer goods or semi-finished products are goods, such as partly finished goods, used as inputs in the production of other goods including final goods. A firm may make and then use intermediate goods, or make and then sell, in the production process, intermediate goods either become part of the final product, or are changed beyond recognition in the process. The use of the intermediate goods can be slightly misleading. Rock salt is electrolyzed to produce chlorine, which is reacted with carbon monoxide to give phosgene, phosgene, a chlorine compound, and a diamine are then reacted to produce a diisocyanate and hydrochloric acid that is neutralized in situ. The chlorine is removed as chloride salt waste, the diisocyanate reacts with a diol to produce polyurethane, which contains no chlorine. Chlorine is used because chlorine is electronegative enough to produce an isocyanate, but does not become a part of the product, it lowers the atom economyIntermediate good – A BMW car engine.
14. Wiktionary – Wiktionary is a multilingual, web-based project to create a free content dictionary of all words in all languages. It is collaboratively edited via a wiki, and its name is a portmanteau of the words wiki and it is available in 172 languages and in Simple English. Like its sister project Wikipedia, Wiktionary is run by the Wikimedia Foundation and its wiki software, MediaWiki, allows almost anyone with access to the website to create and edit entries. The English Wiktionary includes a Wikisaurus of synonyms of various words, Wiktionary data are frequently used in various natural language processing tasks. Wiktionary was brought online on December 12,2002, following a proposal by Daniel Alston, on March 28,2004, the first non-English Wiktionaries were initiated in French and Polish. Wiktionaries in numerous other languages have since been started, Wiktionary was hosted on a temporary domain name until May 1,2004, when it switched to the current domain name. As of November 2016, Wiktionary features over 25.9 million entries across its editions, forty-one Wiktionary language editions now contain over 100,000 entries each. Seven of the 18 bots registered at the English Wiktionary created 163,000 of the entries there, of the 648,970 definitions the English Wiktionary provides for 501,171 English words,217,850 are form of definitions of this kind. This means its coverage of English is slightly smaller than that of major monolingual print dictionaries, the Oxford English Dictionary, for instance, has 615,000 headwords, while Merriam-Websters Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged has 475,000 entries. Detailed statistics exist to show how many entries of various kinds exist, the English Wiktionary does not rely on bots to the extent that some other editions do. The French and Vietnamese Wiktionaries, for example, imported large sections of the Free Vietnamese Dictionary Project and these imported entries make up virtually all of the Vietnamese editions contents. Almost all non-Malagasy-language entries of the Malagasy Wiktionary were copied by bot from other Wiktionaries, like the English edition, the French Wiktionary has imported the approximately 20,000 entries from the Unihan database of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean characters. The Russian edition grew by nearly 80,000 entries as LXbot added boilerplate entries for words in English, in 2017 English part of en. wikitionary had over 500,000 gloss definitions and over 900,000 definitions. Wiktionary has historically lacked a uniform logo across its numerous language editions, some editions use logos that depict a dictionary entry about the term Wiktionary, based on the previous English Wiktionary logo, which was designed by Brion Vibber, a MediaWiki developer. Because a purely textual logo must vary considerably from language to language, some communities adopted the winning entry by Smurrayinchester, a 3×3 grid of wooden tiles, each bearing a character from a different writing system. However, the poll did not see as much participation from the Wiktionary community as some community members had hoped, in April 2009, the issue was resurrected with a new contest. This time, a depiction by AAEngelman of an open hardbound dictionary won a vote against the 2006 logo. In the following years, some wikis replaced their logos with one of the two newer logosWiktionary – Wiktionary
15. Wikibooks – Wikibooks is a wiki-based Wikimedia project hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation for the creation of free content textbooks and annotated texts that anyone can edit. In June 2016, Compete. com estimated that Wikibooks had 1,478,812 unique visitors, the wikibooks. org domain was registered on July 19,2003, and launched to host and build free textbooks on subjects such as organic chemistry and physics. In August 2006, Wikiversity became an independent Wikimedia Foundation project, Wikijunior is a subproject of Wikibooks that specializes in books for children. The project consists of both a magazine and a website, and is currently being developed in English, Danish, Finnish, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Spanish and it is funded by a grant from the Beck Foundation. While some books are original, others began as text copied over from other sources of free content textbooks found on the Internet, all of the sites content is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike license. The project is working towards completion of textbooks on numerous subjects, cK-12 Foundation Digital library e-book European Library Free High School Science Texts Global Text ibiblio LibriVox, an online digital library of free public domain audiobooks. Open Content Alliance Project Gutenberg Universal library Wikibooks, What is Wikibooks, all Systems Go, The Newly Emerging Infrastructure to Support Free Books. An Interview with Curtis Bonk, A Look at Wikibooks and Wikibookians, English Wikibooks Main Page Wikijunior Main Page Wikibooks multilingual portal Wikibooks Language Editions, list of Wikibooks for various languages ordered by size. Wikibooks page on Meta-Wiki Wikibooks takes on textbook industryWikibooks – Formats
16. Wikivoyage – Wikivoyage is a free web-based travel guide for travel destinations and travel topics written by volunteer authors. It is a project of Wikipedia and supported and hosted by the same non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Wikivoyage has been called the Wikipedia of travel guides, the resulting site went live as Wikivoyage on December 10,2006 and was owned and operated by a German association set up for that purpose, Wikivoyage e. V. Content was published under the copyleft license Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike, in 2012, following a lengthy history of dissatisfaction with their existing host, the English-language version community of Wikitravel also decided as a community to fork their project. Using a wiki model, Wikivoyage is built through collaboration of Wikivoyagers from around the globe, articles can cover different levels of geographic specificity, from continents to districts of a city. These are logically connected in a hierarchy, by specifying that the location covered in one article is within the location described by another. The project also includes articles on travel-related topics, phrasebooks for travelers, Wikivoyage is a multilingual project available in nine languages, with each language-specific project developed independently. While now a Wikimedia project, it was begun independently, Wikivoyage content is broadly categorized as, destinations, itineraries, phrasebooks, and travel topics. Geographical units within the hierarchy may be described in articles, based on the criterion. Itineraries may cross geographical regions, but usually have a well-defined path, a phrasebook includes, An overview of the language, giving a brief history, scope, alphabet or symbol set, and any other general info on the language. A pronunciation guide, with a description of each symbol in the language. Each entry in the phrase list includes the word or phrase being translated, the spelling in the local language symbol set as it would be written down. Wikivoyage uses the free MediaWiki software to allow internet-based editing without requiring registration, quality assurance occurs in the same way as on Wikipedia, through reciprocal control by editors. The use of the software is intended to facilitate familiarization with Wikivoyage. Wikivoyage uses the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike license, but not the GNU free documentation license and this is intended to facilitate the production of printed guides from a legal point of view. Media files are intended to be published either in the domain or under multiple licenses. The information is built up in a structured way than usual for encyclopaedias. In the German-language version, different name spaces are used to different topicsWikivoyage – Screenshot of Wikivoyage's portal before the WMF migration
17. Wikiquote – Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. And to be as proper as possible in regard to the details of the quotations, though there are many online collections of quotations, Wikiquote is distinguished by being among the few that provide an opportunity for visitors to contribute. Wikiquote pages are cross-linked to articles about the personalities on Wikipedia. Initially, the project was created solely in English, an expansion to include additional languages was started in July 2004. As of September 2016, there are 89 versions, as of September 2016, thirty-one versions each have more than 1,000 articles. Sixty language versions have 100 or more articles, Wikimedia Foundation List of Wikiquote Projects by Language Official websiteWikiquote – Screenshot of the wikiquote.org home page
18. Wikisource – Wikisource is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikisource is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project, the projects aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations. Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts, the project officially began in November 24,2003 under the name Project Sourceberg. The name Wikisource was adopted later that year and it received its own domain name seven months later, the project has come under criticism for lack of reliability but it is also cited by organisations such as the National Archives and Records Administration. The project holds works that are either in the domain or freely licensed, professionally published works or historical source documents, not vanity products. Verification was initially made offline, or by trusting the reliability of digital libraries. Now works are supported by online scans via the ProofreadPage extension, some individual Wikisources, each representing a specific language, now only allow works backed up with scans. While the bulk of its collection are texts, Wikisource as a whole hosts other media, some Wikisources allow user-generated annotations, subject to the specific policies of the Wikisource in question. Wikisources early history included several changes of name and location, the original concept for Wikisource was as storage for useful or important historical texts. These texts were intended to support Wikipedia articles, by providing evidence and original source texts. The collection was focused on important historical and cultural material. The project was originally called Project Sourceberg during its planning stages, in 2001, there was a dispute on Wikipedia regarding the addition of primary source material, leading to edit wars over their inclusion or deletion. Project Sourceberg was suggested as a solution to this, perhaps Project Sourceberg can mainly work as an interface for easily linking from Wikipedia to a Project Gutenberg file, and as an interface for people to easily submit new work to PG. Wed want to complement Project Gutenberg--how, exactly, and Jimmy Wales adding like Larry, Im interested that we think it over to see what we can add to Project Gutenberg. It seems unlikely that primary sources should in general be editable by anyone -- I mean, Shakespeare is Shakespeare, unlike our commentary on his work, the project began its activity at ps. wikipedia. org. The contributors understood the PS subdomain to mean either primary sources or Project Sourceberg, however, this resulted in Project Sourceberg occupying the subdomain of the Pashto Wikipedia. A vote on the name changed it to Wikisource on December 6,2003. Despite the change in name, the project did not move to its permanent URL until July 23,2004, since Wikisource was initially called Project Sourceberg, its first logo was a picture of an icebergWikisource – The original Wikisource logo
19. Outline of Venezuela – The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Venezuela, Venezuela – sovereign country located in northern South America. Venezuela comprises a continental mainland and numerous islands located off the Venezuelan coastline in the Caribbean Sea, the country borders Guyana to the east, Brazil to the south, and Colombia to the west. Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, St. Lucia, Barbados, Curaçao, Bonaire, Aruba, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, falling within the tropics, Venezuela sits close to the equator, in the Northern Hemisphere. In 1895, after the dispute over the Guyana border flared up, it was submitted to a neutral commission, today, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is known widely for its petroleum industry, the environmental diversity of its territory, and its natural features. Venezuela is considered to be among the worlds 17 most biodiverse countries, Venezuela at Encyclopædia Britannica Venezuela from the Library of Congress Country Studies Venezuela Information Office Other Venezuela travel guide from Wikivoyage Venezuela at DMOZOutline of Venezuela – An enlargeable relief map of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
20. Outline of theatre – Elements of design and stagecraft are used to enhance the physicality, presence and immediacy of the experience. Tragedy, comedy, and the play were the three dramatic genres to emerge there. Western theatre originated in Athens and its drama has had a significant, medieval theatre – theatre of Europe between the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and the beginning of the Renaissance in approximately the 15th century AD. Medieval theatre covers all drama produced in Europe over that period and refers to a variety of genres, including liturgical drama, mystery plays, morality plays. It includes the drama of William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe and many other famous playwrights, Restoration comedy – English comedies written and performed in the Restoration period from 1660 to 1710. After public stage performances had been banned for 18 years by the Puritan regime, nineteenth-century theatre – wide range of movements in the theatrical culture of Europe and the United States in the 19th century. Theatre of the United Kingdom – introduced by the Romans and part of the British culture since at least 1585, West End – popular term for mainstream professional theatre staged in the large theatres of Londons Theatreland, the West End. London fringe – small scale theatres, many of them located above pubs, Fringe festival – unjuried festivals, such as the Edinburgh Festival Fringe and Adelaide Fringe Festival, permit artists to produce a wide variety of works. Theater of the United States – based in the Western tradition, Broadway – refers to theatrical performances presented in the Theater District centered along Broadway, and in Lincoln Center, in Manhattan in New York City. Along with Londons West End theatre, Broadway theatre is considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world. Off-Broadway – professional venue in New York City with a capacity between 100 and 499, and for a specific production of a play, musical or revue. These theatres are smaller than Broadway theatres, regional theatre – professional theatre companies outside of New York City that produce their own seasons. Summer stock theatre – any theatre that presents stage productions only in the summer within the United States, often viewed as a starting point for professional actors, stock casts are typically young, just out of high school or still in college. Platon Kerzhentsev was one of its principal practitioners, african Theatre includes, Ancient Egyptian quasi-theatrical events – earliest recorded quasi-theatrical event dates back to 2000 BCE with the passion plays of Ancient Egypt. This story of the god Osiris was performed annually at festivals throughout the civilization, yoruba theatre – origins are traced back to the masquerade of the Egungun. The traditional ceremony culminates in the essence of the masquerade where it is deemed that ancestors return to the world of the living to visit their descendants, traces of these ancient temple dances of India are seen in Bharatanatyam and Odissi. Theatre of China – began as early as the Shang Dynasty and often involved happiness, mimes, thai theatre – a tradition from the Middle Ages to stage plays based on plots drawn from Indian epics. In particular, the version of Thailands national epic RamakienOutline of theatre – Historic Outdoor Forest Theater in Carmel, CA at sunsets.
21. Outline of meteorology – The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to meteorology, Meteorology – interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere which explains and forecasts weather events. Meteorology has application in diverse fields such as the military, energy production, transport, agriculture. Meteorology Climate – the average and variations of weather in a region over long periods of time, Meteorology – the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. Written at a degree level. Glossary of Meteorology - From the American Meteorological Society, an excellent reference of nomenclature, equations, jetStream - An Online School for Weather - National Weather Service Learn About Meteorology - Australian Bureau of Meteorology The Weather Guide - Weather Tutorials and News at AboutOutline of meteorology – Eye of Hurricane Isabel from the International Space Station, September 15, 2003.
22. Outline of solar energy – The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to solar energy, Solar energy – radiant light and heat from the sun. It has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies, Solar energy can be described as all of the following, Energy – an indirectly observed quantity, often understood as the ability a physical system has to do work on other physical systems. Renewable energy – energy which comes from resources which are naturally replenished. Natural resource – materials and components that can be found within the environment, every man-made product is composed of natural resources. Renewable resource – natural resource with the ability to reproduce through biological or natural processes and are replenished with the passage of time. Growth of photovoltaics – Timeline of solar cells – begins in the 19th century when it is observed that the presence of sunlight is capable of generating electrical energy. Timeline of solar energy – Solar power – the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics, active solar – technologies are employed to convert solar energy into another more useful form of energy. Solar tracker – devices that orient various payloads toward the sun, role of copper in generating and transmitting energy with maximum efficiency in solar photovoltaic power generation, concentrating solar thermal power, and solar water heaters. Solar photovoltaics – Solar thermal energy – technology for harnessing solar energy for thermal energy, Solar district heating and solar district cooling. Solar water heating – or solar hot water systems comprise several innovations, Solar air conditioning – any air conditioning system that uses solar power. Thermal mass – a concept in building design regarding how the mass of the building provides inertia against temperature fluctuations, Solar pond – a pool of saltwater which acts as a large-scale solar thermal energy collector with integral heat storage for supplying thermal energy. Solar chimney – solar chimney – often referred to as a thermal chimney – is a way of improving the ventilation of buildings by using convection of air heated by passive solar energy. Concentrated solar power – a system that uses mirrors or lenses to concentrate a large area of sunlight, or solar thermal energy, electrical power is produced when the concentrated light is converted to heat, which drives a heat engine connected to an electrical power generator. Parabolic trough – a type of thermal energy collector. Photovoltaics – is a method of generating power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. Growth of photovoltaics – showing the history of installed photovoltaics, Timeline of solar cells – begins in the 19th century when it is observed that the presence of sunlight is capable of generating usable electrical energy. Solar insolation – a measure of radiation energy received on a given surface area. It is also called solar irradiation, not to be confused with insulationOutline of solar energy – See also: Index of solar energy articles
23. Outline of prehistoric technology – The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to prehistoric technology. Prehistoric technology – technology that predates recorded history, History is the study of the past using written records, it is also the record itself. Anything prior to the first written accounts of history is prehistoric, including earlier technologies. About 2.5 million years before writing was developed, technology began with the earliest hominids who used tools, which they may have used to start fires, hunt, cut food. Prehistoric technology can be described as, Prehistoric – before we had written records, from the Latin word for before, prehistory is the span of time before recorded history, that is, before the invention of writing systems. Beginning of prehistoric technology – the earliest technology began before recorded history, latest prehistoric technology – the level of technology reached before true writing was introduced differed by region. Latest prehistoric technology in the Near East – cultures in the Near East achieved the development of writing first, latest prehistoric technology in the rest of the Old World, Europe, India, and China reached Iron Age technological development before the introduction of writing there. Stone Age – broad prehistoric period, lasting roughly 2.5 million years, during which stone was used in the manufacture of implements with a sharp edge. The period began with hominids and ended between 6000 and 2000 BCE with the advent of metalworking, Paleolithic – prehistoric period of human history distinguished by the development of the most primitive stone tools discovered, and covers roughly 99% of human technological prehistory. Lower Paleolithic – earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age and it spans the time from around 2. Ancestors of homo sapiens used stone tools as follows, Homo habilis – first homo species and it lived from approximately 2.3 to 1.4 million years ago in Africa and created stone tools called Oldowan tools. Homo ergaster – in eastern and southern Africa about 2.5 to 1.7 million years ago, it refined Oldowan tools, Homo antecessor – earliest hominid in Northern Europe. It lived from 1.2 million to 800,000 years ago, Homo heidelbergensis – lived between 600,000 and 400,000 years ago and used stone tool technology similar to the Acheulean tools used by Homo erectus. Control of fire by early humans – European and Asian sites dating back 1.5 million years ago seem to indicate controlled use of fire by H. erectus. A northern Israel site from about 690,000 to 790,000 years ago suggests that man could light fires, burial – the act of placing a deceased person into the ground. Homo heidelbergensis – may have been the first species to bury their dead about 500,000 years ago, Middle Paleolithic period – in Europe and the Near East during which the Neanderthals lived. Their technology is mainly the Mousterian, the earliest evidence of settlement in Australia dates to around 55,000 years ago when modern humans likely crossed from Asia by island-hopping. The Bhimbetka rock shelters exhibit the earliest traces of life in IndiaOutline of prehistoric technology – Acheulean hand axes from Kent. The types shown are (clockwise from top) cordate, ficron and ovate. It was the longest-used tool of human history.
24. Steve Biko – Stephen Bantu Biko was a South African anti-apartheid activist. Ideologically an African nationalist and African socialist, he was at the forefront of a grassroots anti-apartheid campaign known as the Black Consciousness Movement during the late 1960s and 1970s, a Xhosa, Biko grew up in Ginsberg, Eastern Cape. In 1966, he began studying medicine at the University of Natal, here he was increasingly politicised and rose to a senior position in the National Union of South African Students. He developed the view that to white domination, black people had to organise independently. To this end he was a figure in the creation of the South African Students Organisation in 1968. Through SASO, Biko developed his Black Consciousness ideas, which were influenced by those of Frantz Fanon. The movement campaigned for an end to apartheid and the transition of South Africa toward universal suffrage, in 1972 Biko was involved in founding the Black Peoples Convention to promote BC ideas among the wider population. The government was concerned by his activities, and in 1973 they placed him under a banning order and he remained politically active and helped to organise Black Consciousness programs in the Ginsberg area, including the establishment of a healthcare centre. He received anonymous threats and was detained by security services on four occasions. Following his arrest in August 1977, Biko was tortured by state security officers and he sustained fatal head injuries, and died shortly after. Over 20,000 people attended his funeral, many of his writings were posthumously published for a wider audience, and his life was the subject of a book by his friend Donald Woods and later the 1987 film Cry Freedom. The National Party regime that ruled South Africa during Bikos lifetime claimed that he hated whites, more widely, Biko has been called a martyr of the anti-apartheid movement. Bantu Stephen Biko was born on 18 December 1946, the third child of Mzingayi Mathew Biko and Alice Mamcete Biko, he was born at his grandmothers house in Tarkastad, Eastern Cape. Mzingayi and Alice had married in Whittlesea, where the former worked as a policeman, Mzingayi was then transferred to Queenstown, Port Elizabeth, Fort Cox, and finally King Williams Town, where he and Alice settled in Ginsberg township. This was a settlement of around 800 families, with four families sharing a water supply. The township housed both Bantu African and Coloured individuals, and Xhosa, Afrikaans, and English were all spoken, there, Mzingaye worked at a clerk in the King Williams Town Native Affairs Office, while studying for a law degree by correspondence from the University of South Africa. Alice was employed in work, first for local white households. The name Bantu literally means people, although Biko interpreted this in terms of the saying Umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu, among the nicknames that he acquired as a child were Goofy and Xwaku-Xwaku, the latter a reference to his unkempt appearanceSteve Biko – Stephen Biko
25. Black stork – The black stork is a large wading bird in the stork family Ciconiidae. It is a widespread, but uncommon, species that breeds in the parts of Europe, across temperate Asia. This is a shy and wary species, unlike the related white stork. It is seen in pairs or small flocks—in marshy areas, rivers or inland waters, the black stork feeds on amphibians and insects. The stork family contains several genera in three groups, the open-billed and wood storks, the giant storks, and the typical storks. The typical storks include the stork and six other extant species. Within the genus Ciconia, the black storks closest relatives are the other European species, the stork and its former subspecies. The black stork was found to be basal in analysis of cytochrome b DNA by Beth Slikas in 1997. Fossil remains have been recovered from Miocene beds Rusinga and Maboko Islands in Kenya, the black stork was one of the many species originally described by Linnaeus in the landmark 1758 10th edition of his Systema Naturae, where it was given the binomial name of Ardea nigra. It was moved to the new genus Ciconia by French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson two years later, both the genus and the specific names are Latin, Ciconia is stork and nigra is black. The word stork is derived from the Old English word storc, thought to be related to the Old High German storah, meaning stork, and the Old English stearc, meaning stiff. Slightly smaller than the white stork, the stork is a large bird,95 to 100 cm in length with a 145–155 cm wingspan. They can stand as tall as 102 cm, like all storks, it has long legs, a long neck, and a long, straight, pointed beak. The plumage is all black with a green sheen, except for the white lower breast, belly, axillaries. The breast feathers are long and shaggy forming a ruff which is used in courtship displays. The bare skin around its eyes is red, as are its red bill, the sexes are identical in appearance, except that males are larger than females on average. The juvenile resembles the adult in plumage pattern, but the corresponding to the adult black feathers are browner. The scapulars, wing and upper tail coverts have pale tips, the legs, bill, and bare skin around the eyes are greyish greenBlack stork – Black stork
26. Canadian Indian residential school system – In Canada, the Indian residential schools were a network of residential schools for Indigenous people. The network was funded by the Canadian governments Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, the school system was created for the purpose of removing children from the influence of the aboriginal culture and assimilating them into the dominant Canadian culture. Over the course of the existence, approximately 30% of native children. It has been estimated that at least 6,000 of these students died while in attendance, an amendment to the Indian Act in 1884 made attendance at day schools, industrial schools, or residential schools compulsory for First Nations children. Due to the nature of many communities, school locations meant that for some families residential schools were the only way to comply. School distance was used as a way to intentionally keep families from their children. Indian Commissioner Hayter Reed argued for schools at greater distances to cut down on family visits that he viewed as counteracting the civilizing of Indigenous children, parental visits were further restricted by the use of a pass system designed to confine Indigenous peoples to reserves. Disconnected from their families and culture, students who attended the school system often graduated unable to fit in to their communities or Canadian society. Forced to speak English or French and abandon their cultural heritage, on June 11,2008, a public apology was offered by Prime Minister Stephen Harper on behalf of the Government of Canada and the leaders of the other federal parties in the Canadian House of Commons. Nine days prior, the Indian Residential Schools Truth and Reconciliation Commission was established to uncover the truth about the schools, the commission gathered statements from residential school survivors through public and private statement gatherings at various local, regional and national events across Canada. Seven national events held between 2008-2013 commemorated the experience of students of residential schools. The ‘civilizing mission’ rested on a belief of racial and cultural superiority, attempts at assimilating Indigenous populations began as early as the 17th century with the arrival of French colonists in New France. The establishment of day and boarding schools by including the Récollets, Jesuits. The political instability and realities of life also played a role in the decision to halt the education programs. An increase in orphaned and foundling colonial children limited Church resources, responsible for separating children from their families and communities, the system has been described as cultural genocide because its aim was killing the Indian in the child. Designed as a program, children were prohibited, in many schools. The primary stated goal was to convert Indigenous children to Christianity, the renewed interest in residential schools at the turn of the 19th century has been linked to the decline in military hostility faced by British settlers, particularly after the War of 1812. With the threat of invasion minimized Indigenous communities were no longer viewed as allies and this system of using established school facilities set up by missionaries was employed by the federal government for economic expedienceCanadian Indian residential school system – Qu'Appelle Indian Industrial School in Lebret, Saskatchewan ca. 1885. Parents of First Nations children had to camp outside the gates of the residential schools in order to visit their children.
27. John C. Breckinridge – John Cabell Breckinridge was a lawyer, politician, and soldier from the U. S. state of Kentucky. He represented the state in both houses of Congress and became the 14th and youngest-ever Vice President of the United States and he served in the U. S. Senate during the outbreak of the American Civil War, but was expelled after joining the Confederate Army. He remains the only Senator of the United States convicted of treason against the United States of America by the Senate and he was appointed Confederate Secretary of War late in the war. Elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1851, after reapportionment in 1854 made his re-election unlikely, he declined to run for another term. The Democrats won the election, but Breckinridge had little influence with Buchanan and, as presiding officer of the Senate, in 1859, he was elected to succeed U. S. Senator John J. Crittenden at the end of Crittendens term in 1861, as vice president, Breckinridge joined with Buchanan in supporting the pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution for Kansas, which led to a split in the Democratic Party. The Southern wing was led by Breckinridge, doughfaced Northerner Buchanan, and the northern wing, a third party, the Constitutional Union Party, nominated John Bell. Taking his seat in the Senate, he urged compromise to preserve the Union although seven states had already seceded, Unionists took control of the state legislature when Kentuckys neutrality was breached. After this occurred, Breckinridge fled behind Confederate battle lines where he was commissioned a brigadier general, following the Battle of Shiloh in April 1862, he was promoted to major general, and in October he was assigned to the Army of Mississippi under General Braxton Bragg. After participating in Jubal Earlys 1864 campaigns in the Shenandoah Valley, Breckinridge was charged with defending Confederate supplies in Tennessee, in February 1865, Confederate President Jefferson Davis appointed him Secretary of War. Concluding that the war was hopeless, he urged Davis to arrange a national surrender, after the fall of the Confederate capital at Richmond, he ensured the preservation of Confederate military and governmental records. He traveled south from Richmond and managed to capture by Federal forces. He then fled to Cuba, Great Britain, and finally, in exile, he toured Europe from August 1866 to June 1868. When President Andrew Johnson extended amnesty to all former Confederates in late 1868, he returned to Kentucky, War injuries sapped his health, and after two operations, he died on May 17,1875. John Cabell Breckinridge was born at Thorn Hill, his familys estate near Lexington, Kentucky, the fourth of six children born to Joseph Cabell and Mary Clay Breckinridge, he was their only son. His mother was the daughter of Samuel Stanhope Smith, who founded Hampden–Sydney College in 1775, and granddaughter of John Witherspoon, having previously served as Speaker of the Kentucky House of Representatives, his father had been appointed Kentuckys Secretary of State just prior to his sons birth. In February, the family moved with Governor John Adair to the Governors Mansion in Frankfort, in August 1823, an illness referred to as the prevailing fever struck Frankfort, and Cabell Breckinridge took his children to stay with his mother in Lexington. On his return, both he and his wife fell ill, he died, but she survived and his assets were not enough to pay his debts, and his wife joined the children in Lexington, supported by her mother-in-lawJohn C. Breckinridge – John C. Breckinridge
28. Louise Bryant – Louise Bryant was an American journalist known for her sympathetic coverage of Russia and the Bolsheviks during the Russian Revolution. Her news stories, distributed by Hearst during and after her trips to Petrograd and Moscow, appeared in newspapers across the U. S. a collection of articles from her first trip was published in book form as Six Red Months in Russia in 1918. In 1919, she defended the revolution in testimony before the Overman Committee, later that year, she undertook a nationwide speaking tour to encourage public support of the Bolsheviks and to discourage armed U. S. intervention in Russia. Bryant grew up in rural Nevada and attended the University of Nevada in Reno, pursuing a career in journalism, she became society editor of the Portland, Oregon, Spectator and freelanced for The Oregonian. During her years in Portland, she became active in the suffrage movement. During a National Womans Party suffrage rally in Washington, D. C. in 1919, she was arrested, like Reed, she had lovers outside of marriage, during her Greenwich Village years these included playwright Eugene ONeill and painter Andrew Dasburg. The 1981 film, Reds, tells the story of Bryants time with Reed, after his death from typhus in 1920, Bryant continued to write for Hearst about Russia as well as Turkey, Hungary, Greece, Italy, and other countries in Europe and the Middle East. Some of these articles were republished in book form in Mirrors of Moscow in 1923, later that year she married William Christian Bullitt, Jr. with whom she had her only child, Anne, born in 1924. Suffering from a rare and painful disorder, Bryant wrote and published little in her last 10 years, Bullitt, winning sole custody of Anne, divorced her in 1930. Bryant died in Paris in 1936 and was buried in Versailles, a group from Portland visited her neglected grave in 1998 and worked to restore it. Bryant was born Anna Louise Mohan in 1885 in San Francisco and her father, Hugh Mohan, born in Pennsylvania, became a journalist and stump speaker involved in labor issues and Democratic Party politics. Moving to San Francisco, he continued to write for newspapers, and in 1880 he married Louisa Flick, the Mohans had two children, Barbara and Louis, before the birth of Anna Louise. Later in 1885, the moved to Reno, where Mohan continued his journalistic career. One day he went away and never returned, louises mother divorced him in 1889 and married Sheridan Bryant, a freight conductor on the Southern Pacific railway. The family, which added two more children, Floyd and William lived in Wadsworth. However, Louise soon accepted an invitation from her stepgrandfather, James Say and she remained there for three or four years, returning to Wadsworth only at her mothers insistence at the age of 12. Attending high school in Wadsworth and Reno, then Nevada State University, Bryant developed interests in journalism, debate, illustration, social life, dancing, and basketball. Depressed after the death of Say in 1906, Bryant left school for a job in Jolon, California and that summer she moved, this time to Eugene, Oregon, where her brother Louis worked for the Southern PacificLouise Bryant – Portrait of Bryant in 1913 by Paul Trullinger's uncle, John Henry Trullinger
29. Black-throated loon – The black-throated loon is a migratory aquatic bird found in the northern hemisphere. The species is known as an Arctic loon in North America and its current name is a compromise proposed by the International Ornithological Committee. The black-throated loon was one of the species originally described by Linnaeus in his 18th-century work. The genus name Gavia comes from the Latin for sea mew, the specific arctica is Latin for northern or arctic. Breeding adults are 58 to 77 cm in length with a 100 to 130 cm wingspan, body mass is reportedly from 2–3.4 kg. They have a head, black throat, white underparts. Non-breeding plumage is drabber with the chin and foreneck white and its bill is grey or whitish and dagger-shaped. In all plumages, a white flank patch distinguishes this species from all other divers including the otherwise almost identical Pacific diver and it breeds in Eurasia and occasionally in western Alaska. It winters at sea, as well as on large lakes over a wider range. This species can be found to habitate the area around isolated, the nest is made on the ground, out of heaped plant material like leaves and sticks on the shores of lakes. The black-throated loon lays a clutch of two 76 by 47 millimetres eggs that are brown-green with darker speckles and these eggs are incubated by both parents for a period of 27 to 29 days. The hatched, mobile young are fed by parents for a period of weeks. This species, like all divers, is a specialist fish-eater and it feeds on fish, insects, crustaceans and amphibians. The calls include a yodelling high-pitched wail and harsh growls, similar, the black-throated diver is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds applies. Instructions for constructing and deploying artificial floating islands to provide black-throated divers with nesting opportunities are given in Hancock, both species decreased elsewhere in Europe. The black-throated diver is the current school emblem of Achfary Primary School, dr Mark Eaton, an RSPB scientist, traced the drop in overall numbers to warming of the North Sea which reduced stocks of the fish on which they feed. Artificial floating islands for nesting Black-throated Divers Gavia arctica in Scotland, construction, use, field Guide to the Birds of North America. Identification of divers in immature and winter plumages, field identification of Arctic and Pacific LoonsBlack-throated loon – Black-throated loon
30. Rainbow pitta – The rainbow pitta is a small passerine bird in the family Pittidae, endemic to northern Australia. A colourful bird, it has a black head with brown stripes above the eye, dark green upper parts, pale blue shoulders, black underparts. It feeds on insects, crustaceans and other animals and builds an untidy. It is a shy forest bird but is common and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated it as being of least concern. It has a black head and underparts, green upperparts, pale blue shoulder. It has a bill, pink legs, brown eye. Both sexes are similar, with the female being smaller and duller than the male. An Australian endemic, the rainbow pitta lives in the forests of northern Australia, as with other pittas, it is a secretive and shy bird. The diet consists mainly of insects, arthropods and small animals, the female lays three to four glossy cream eggs with blotches inside its large domed nest. Locally common throughout its range, the rainbow pitta is evaluated as being of least concern on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. BirdLife Species Factsheet Many Australian bird pictures and callsRainbow pitta – Rainbow pitta
31. Hurricane Andrew – Hurricane Andrew was, at the time of its occurrence in August 1992, the most destructive hurricane in United States history. Passing directly through the town of Homestead, Florida, a city south of Miami, Andrew obliterated entire blocks of homes, over 25,000 houses were destroyed in Miami-Dade County alone, and nearly 100,000 more were severely damaged. 65 people were killed and the total across the affected regions exceeded $26 billion. Andrew originated from a wave over the central Atlantic, becoming the fourth tropical cyclone. In Miami-Dade County alone, damage was estimated at $25 billion. Several hours later, the hurricane emerged over the Gulf of Mexico at Category 4 strength, with the Gulf Coast of the United States in its projected path, after weakening slightly, Andrew moved ashore near Morgan City, Louisiana, as low-end Category 3 storm. The effects of land caused the hurricane to rapidly lose its intensity. The next day, Andrew merged with a system over the southern Appalachian Mountains. In the Bahamas, Andrew brought storm surge, hurricane-force winds, about 800 houses were destroyed in the archipelago, and there was substantial damage to the transport, water, sanitation, agriculture, and fishing sectors. Overall, Andrew left four dead and $250 million in damage throughout the Bahamas, in parts of southern Florida, Andrew produced severe winds, a wind gust of 177 mph was observed at a house in Perrine. These winds wreaked catastrophic damage in Florida—Miami-Dade County cities of Florida City, Homestead, a total of 63,000 homes were destroyed and more than 101,000 others were damaged, leaving roughly 175,000 people homeless. As many as 1.4 million people lost power at the height of the storm, in the Everglades,70,000 acres of trees were downed. Rainfall in Florida was substantial, peaking at 13.98 in in western Miami-Dade County, altogether, Andrew killed 44 and left a record $25 billion in damage in the state. Before moving ashore Andrew caused extensive damage to oil platforms in the Gulf of Mexico and it produced hurricane-force winds along its path through Louisiana, leaving about 152,000 without electricity. Over 80% of trees in the Atchafalaya River Basin were downed, throughout the basin and Bayou Lafourche,187 million freshwater fish were killed in the hurricane. An F3 tornado in St. John the Baptist Parish wrecked 163 structures, with 23,000 houses damaged,985 others destroyed, and 1,951 mobile homes demolished, property losses in Louisiana exceeded $1.5 billion. The hurricane caused the deaths of 17 people in the state, Andrew spawned at least 28 tornadoes along the Gulf Coast, especially in Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi. A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on August 14, under the influence of a ridge of high pressure to its north, the wave tracked quickly westwardHurricane Andrew – Hurricane Andrew at peak intensity
32. A Wizard of Earthsea – A Wizard of Earthsea is a young adult fantasy novel written by the American author Ursula K. Le Guin, first published by the small press Parnassus in 1968, the novel received highly positive reviews, initially as a work for children, and later among a general audience as well. Set in the archipelago of Earthsea, the story centers around a young mage named Ged. Displaying great power while still a boy, he joins the school of wizardry, during a magical duel, Geds spell goes awry and releases a shadow creature that attacks him. The novel follows his journey as he seeks to be free of the creature, the book has often been described as a Bildungsroman or coming of age story, as it explores Geds process of learning to cope with power and come to terms with death. A Wizard of Earthsea is widely regarded as a classic of fantasy, the book was widely influential within the genre of fantasy, Margaret Atwood, for instance, called A Wizard of Earthsea one of the wellsprings of fantasy literature. George Slusser has described the series as a work of high style, early concepts for the Earthsea setting were developed in two short stories, The Rule of Names and The Word of Unbinding, both published in Fantastic. The stories were collected in Le Guins anthology The Winds Twelve Quarters. It was also used as the setting for a story Le Guin wrote in 1965 or 1966, in 1967, Herman Schein asked Le Guin to try writing a book for older kids, giving her complete freedom over the subject and the approach. Drawing from her stories, Le Guin began work on A Wizard of Earthsea. Le Guin has said that the book was in part a response to the image of wizards as ancient and wise, and to her wondering where they come from. Le Guin later said that her choice of fantasy as a medium, the short stories published in 1964 introduced the world of Earthsea and important concepts in it, such as Le Guins treatment of magic. It also introduced Yevaud, a dragon who featured briefly in A Wizard of Earthsea, Le Guins depiction of Earthsea was influenced by her familiarity with Native American legends as well as Norse mythology. The influence of Norse lore can be seen in the characters of the Kargs, who are blonde and blue-eyed, Le Guins belief in Taoism is also visible in the idea of a cosmic balance in the universe of Earthsea. Earthsea itself is an archipelago or group of islands, in the fictional history of this world, the islands were raised from the ocean by Segoy, an ancient deity or hero. The world is inhabited by humans and dragons, and several among the humans are sorcerers or wizards. The world is shown as being based on a balance, which most of its inhabitants are aware of. The setting of Earthsea is preindustrial, and has many cultures within the widespread archipelago, most of the characters of the story are of the Hardic peoples, who are dark-skinned, and who populate most of the islandsA Wizard of Earthsea – Robbins cover of first edition
33. Alan Bush – Alan Dudley Bush was a British composer and pianist. He was a committed communist, and politics sometimes provided central themes in his music. Alan Bush was born in Dulwich, London, to Alfred Walter Bush and he was educated first at Highgate School and then at the Royal Academy of Music, where he studied composition under Frederick Corder and piano with Tobias Matthay. Later he studied musicology and philosophy with Johannes Wolf and Friedrich Blumein at the University of Berlin and he also studied the piano under Benno Moiseiwitsch and Artur Schnabel. One of his composition students was Michael Head, who introduced Bush to his younger sister Nancy. She provided libretti for three of his four operas, three childrens operas and other works. From 1925 to 1978 he taught at the Royal Academy of Music where his compositions included A Homage to William Sterndale Bennett. His academic training, particularly in Berlin, put him in contact with well-known socialist artists from different traditions, such as Bertolt Brecht, Kurt Weill, in April 1940 he conducted the British premiere of Aram Khachaturians Piano Concerto in D-flat with Moura Lympany as soloist. She had agreed after Clifford Curzon had declined Edward Clarks offer, even though the score was still in manuscript and she had only one month in which to learn the piece. Clark was a conductor and influential former BBC producer, but was in this instance acting in his capacity as a member of the Society for Cultural Relations with the USSR. Bush had been friends with Clark for some years, Clark was also left-leaning, in 1930 Bush had dedicated his Dance Overture for Military Band to Edward Clark. He was known as an advocate of Marxism, holding posts as conductor of the London Labour Choral Union. Bush composed the music for and conducted the choir at the Pageant of Labour at the Crystal Palace on 15–20 October 1934. Other works include four symphonies, Variations, Nocturne and Finale on an English Sea-song, Op.60, for piano and orchestra, many of these works were performed first in Eastern Europe. In 1936 he was co-founder of the Workers Music Association, becoming President in 1938 continuing to be President until his death in 1995, during this time Topic Records was formed as a mail order label to provide recordings to the members of the WMA. He arranged Karl Dallas 1955 song The Family of Man for choir, dolly Collins, older sister of Shirley Collins was a student of his in the late 1950s and early 60s. Another notable student is Michael Nyman, other notable students include Timothy Bowers, Hubert du Plessis, Carl van Wyk, Hafliði Hallgrimsson, and Judith Bingham. He died in Watford in 1995 after a short illness, richard Stoker, Bush, Alan Dudley, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press,2004 accessed 17 February 2008 Bullivant, JoannaAlan Bush – Alan Bush (right) with Stephan Hermlin, 1952.
34. The Getaway (1972 film) – The Getaway is a 1972 American neo-noir action crime film based on the 1958 novel of the same name by Jim Thompson. The film was directed by Sam Peckinpah from a screenplay by Walter Hill. The film centers on two outlaws Carter Doc McCoy and his wife Carol McCoy on the run due to a successful yet complicated bank heist organized by crooked businessman Jack Beynon, the cast also features Ben Johnson, Al Lettieri, Sally Struthers, Jack Dodson, and Slim Pickens. The film marks the collaboration between McQueen and Peckinpah after Junior Bonner also released the same year. Jim Thompson was originally tapped by McQueen and producer David Foster to write the adaptation of his book. However, due to differences, McQueen replaced him with Walter Hill. Filming commenced on February 7,1972, and was mostly in Texas. During production, McQueen and MacGraw began an affair, likewise, McQueen and Peckinpah would get involved in heated arguments due to the latters increasing alcohol intake. Originally scored by longtime collaborator Jerry Fielding, Peckinpah became unimpressed with Fieldings soundtrack, Jones was then nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score for his work—the only nomination the film has received. The Getaway was released on December 13,1972, the film was remade in 1994 with Alec Baldwin and Kim Basinger in the starring roles. Carter Doc McCoy, in prison in Texas, is denied parole, when his wife Carol visits him, he tells her to do whatever is necessary to make a deal with Jack Beynon, a corrupt businessman in San Antonio, in order to free him. Beynon uses his influence and gets Doc paroled on the condition that he takes part in a robbery with two of his minions, Rudy and Frank. During the robbery, Frank kills a guard, Rudy attempts a double-cross, shooting Frank and drawing a gun on Doc, who beats him to the draw and shoots Rudy several times. Doc leaves Rudy for dead, but Rudy, having worn a bulletproof vest, is alive albeit wounded. Doc meets with Beynon, who attempts a double-cross before Carol shoots, Doc realizes that Carol had sex with Beynon to secure his release from prison. Doc angrily gathers up the money and, after a bitter quarrel, a bloodied Rudy forces rural veterinarian Harold and his young wife Fran to treat his injuries, then kidnaps them to pursue Doc and Carol. Beynons brother Cully and his thugs also pursue the McCoys, at a train station, a shifty con man swaps locker keys with Carol and steals their bag of money. Doc follows him onto a train and forcefully takes it back, the injured con man and witnesses are taken to the police station, where they identify Docs mug shotThe Getaway (1972 film) – Original U.S. theatrical poster
35. Australian Cricket Hall of Fame – The Australian Cricket Hall of Fame is a part of the Australian Gallery of Sport and Olympic Museum in the National Sports Museum at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. This Hall of Fame commemorates the greatest Australian cricketers of all time, the Australian Cricket Hall of Fame was an idea conceived by the Melbourne Cricket Club to honour Australias legendary cricketers. It was inaugurated on 6 December 1996 by the Prime Minister of Australia, the hall of fame opened with 10 inaugural members. As of January 2014, it comprises 39 members in all, belinda Clark was the first woman admitted—in 2014 New members are inducted every year at the Allan Border Medal night. The following criteria are referred to for induction into the hall of fame, the player must be retired from the game for at least 5 years. Based on more than just statistics, the player must have impacted the way in which the game is played. Should have either played at least 20 Test matches or made at least a thousand runs or taken at least 75 wickets, the player should have played in at least one country other than Australia. Members and their test cricket performancesAustralian Cricket Hall of Fame – Jack Blackham
36. List of FA Community Shield matches – The match is traditionally played at the beginning of the English football season. Selected XI described in The Times as being an England team masquerading, in 1974 the match was moved to its permanent place as the opener to the English Football League, and played at Wembley Stadium. It has been held at the English national stadium ever since, except while it was being redeveloped, during which the matches were switched to the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff, manchester United are the most successful team, having won the title on 21 occasions. They are also the team which has most frequently appeared in the match, key Results Teams shown in italics were set up only for the purpose of playing in these matches, or are defunctList of FA Community Shield matches – Manchester United were the first winners of the Charity Shield, photographed here at the start of the 1908 season
37. Fight Club (novel) – Fight Club is a 1996 novel by Chuck Palahniuk. It follows the experiences of an unnamed protagonist struggling with insomnia, inspired by his doctors exasperated remark that insomnia is not suffering, the protagonist finds relief by impersonating a seriously ill person in several support groups. Then he meets a man named Tyler Durden and establishes an underground fighting club as radical psychotherapy. In 1999, director David Fincher adapted the novel into a film of the name, starring Brad Pitt. The film acquired a following despite lower than expected box-office results. The films prominence heightened the profile of the novel and that of Palahniuk, the sequel Fight Club 2 was released in comic book form in May 2015. Fight Club centers on an anonymous narrator, who works as a product recall specialist for a car company. Because of the stress of his job and the jet lag brought upon by frequent business trips, when he seeks treatment, his doctor advises him to visit a support group for testicular cancer victims to see what real suffering is like. He finds that sharing the problems of not having testicular cancer himself—alleviates his insomnia. The narrators unique treatment works until he meets Marla Singer, another tourist who visits the group under false pretenses. The possibly disturbed Marla reminds the narrator that he is a faker who does not belong there and he begins to hate Marla for keeping him from crying, and, therefore, from sleeping. After a confrontation, the two agree to attend separate support group meetings to avoid each other, the truce is uneasy, and the narrators insomnia returns. While on a beach, the narrator meets Tyler Durden. After an explosion destroys the narrators condominium, he asks to stay at Tylers house, Tyler agrees, but asks for something in return, I want you to hit me as hard as you can. Both men find that they enjoy the ensuing fistfight, Marla, noticing that the narrator has not recently attended his support groups, calls him to claim that she has overdosed on Xanax in a half-hearted suicide attempt. Tyler returns from work, picks up the phone to Marlas drug-induced rambling, Tyler and Marla embark on an uneasy affair that confounds the narrator and confuses Marla. Throughout this affair, Marla is unaware both of fight clubs existence and the interaction between Tyler and the narrator, because Tyler and Marla are never seen at the same time, the narrator wonders whether Tyler and Marla are the same person. As fight club attains a nationwide presence, Tyler uses it to spread his anti-consumerist ideas and he eventually gathers the most devoted fight club members and forms Project Mayhem, a cult-like organization that trains itself as an army to bring down modern civilizationFight Club (novel) – First edition cover
38. Wikipedia community – The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors to the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. Individual contributors are known as Wikipedians, the Oxford English Dictionary added the word Wikipedian in August 2012. With the increased maturity and visibility of Wikipedia, other categories of Wikipedians have emerged, such as Wikipedians in residence, studies of the size of the community of Wikipedia showed an exponential growth in the number of Wikipedia contributors during the early years. In April 2008, writer and lecturer Clay Shirky and computer scientist Martin Wattenberg estimated the time spent creating Wikipedia at roughly 100 million hours. In November 2011, there were approximately 31.7 million registered user accounts across all language editions, of which around 270,000 were active. The English Wikipedia, the largest language edition, currently has 139,716 editors who have performed an edit in the last 30 days, and an unknown number of contributors without an account. About half of the active editors spend at least one hour a day editing, various studies have been done with regard to the motivations of Wikipedia contributors. In a 2003 study of Wikipedia as a community, economics Ph. D, a paper written by Andrea Forte and Amy Bruckman in 2005, called Why Do People Write for Wikipedia. Incentives to Contribute to Open-Content Publishing, discussed the possible motivations of Wikipedia contributors and it applied Latour and Woolgars concept of the cycle of credit to Wikipedia contributors, suggesting that the reason that people write for Wikipedia is to gain recognition within the community. Oded Nov, in his 2007 paper What Motivates Wikipedians, related the motivations of volunteers in general to the motivations of people who contribute to Wikipedia, Nov carried out a survey using the six motivations of volunteers, identified in an earlier paper. g. The Wikimedia Foundation has carried out surveys of Wikipedia contributors and users. In 2008, the Wikimedia Foundation, alongside the Collaborative Creativity Group at UNU-Merit and it was the most comprehensive survey of Wikipedia ever conducted. The results of the survey were published two years later on March 24,2010, the Wikimedia Foundation began a process in 2011 of semi-annual surveys in order to understand Wikipedia editors more and better cater to their needs. A further study in 2014 by Cheng-Yu Lai and Heng-Li Yang explored the reasons why people continue editing Wikipedia content, the study used authors of the English-language version of the site and received 288 valid online survey responses. Editors of Wikipedia have occasionally given personal testimonials of why they contribute to Wikipedia, a common theme of these testimonials is the enjoyment that editors seem to get from contributing to Wikipedia and being part of the Wikipedia community. Also mentioned is the addictive quality of editing Wikipedia. Gina Trapani of Lifehacker said it turns out editing an article isnt scary at all and its easy, surprisingly satisfying and can become obsessively addictive. Jimmy Wales has also commented on the quality of Wikipedia, saying The main thing about Wikipedia. is that it’s funWikipedia community – Wikimania 2012 group photograph