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1. 7 World Trade Center – 7 World Trade Center refers to two buildings that have existed at the same location in the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The current structure is the building to bear that name. The original structure, part of the old World Trade Center, was completed in 1987 and was destroyed in the September 11 attacks, the current building opened in 2006. Both buildings were developed by Larry Silverstein, who holds a lease for the site from the Port Authority of New York. The original 7 World Trade Center was 47 stories tall, clad in red masonry, an elevated walkway connected the building to the World Trade Center plaza. The building was situated above a Consolidated Edison power substation, which imposed unique structural design constraints, when the building opened in 1987, Silverstein had difficulties attracting tenants. In 1988, Salomon Brothers signed a lease, and became the main tenants of the building. On September 11,2001,7 WTC was damaged by debris when the nearby North Tower of the World Trade Center collapsed, the debris also ignited fires, which continued to burn throughout the afternoon on lower floors of the building. Construction of the new 7 World Trade Center began in 2002 and was completed in 2006, the building is 52 stories tall, making it the 28th-tallest in New York. It is built on a smaller footprint than the original, allowing Greenwich Street to be restored from Tribeca through the World Trade Center site, the new building is bounded by Greenwich, Vesey, Washington, and Barclay streets. A small park across Greenwich Street occupies space that was part of the buildings footprint. The current buildings design emphasizes safety, with a concrete core, wider stairways. It also incorporates numerous green design features and it was also one of the first projects accepted to be part of the Councils pilot program for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design – Core and Shell Development. The original 7 World Trade Center was a 47-story building, designed by Emery Roth & Sons, the building was 610 feet tall, with a trapezoidal footprint that was 330 ft long and 140 ft wide. Tishman Realty & Construction managed construction of the building, which began in 1983, in May 1987, the building opened, becoming the seventh structure of the World Trade Center. The building was constructed above a Con Edison substation that had been on the site since 1967, the substation had a caisson foundation designed to carry the weight of a future building of 25 stories containing 600,000 sq ft. The final design for 7 World Trade Center was for a larger building than originally planned when the substation was built. The structural design of 7 World Trade Center therefore included a system of gravity column transfer trusses and girders, existing caissons installed in 1967 were used, along with new ones, to accommodate the building7 World Trade Center – The new 7 World Trade Center from the southeast (2008)
2. Angkor Wat – Angkor Wat is a temple complex in Cambodia and the largest religious monument in the world, with the site measuring 162.6 hectares. It was originally constructed as a Hindu temple of god Vishnu for the Khmer Empire and it was built by the Khmer King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century in Yaśodharapura, the capital of the Khmer Empire, as his state temple and eventual mausoleum. Breaking from the Shaiva tradition of previous kings, Angkor Wat was instead dedicated to Vishnu, as the best-preserved temple at the site, it is the only one to have remained a significant religious centre since its foundation. The temple is at the top of the classical style of Khmer architecture. It has become a symbol of Cambodia, appearing on its national flag, Angkor Wat combines two basic plans of Khmer temple architecture, the temple-mountain and the later galleried temple. It is designed to represent Mount Meru, home of the devas in Hindu mythology, within a moat, at the centre of the temple stands a quincunx of towers. Unlike most Angkorian temples, Angkor Wat is oriented to the west, the temple is admired for the grandeur and harmony of the architecture, its extensive bas-reliefs, and for the numerous devatas adorning its walls. The modern name, Angkor Wat, means Temple City or City of Temples in Khmer, Angkor, meaning city or capital city, is a form of the word nokor. Wat is the Khmer word for temple grounds, also derived from Sanskrit vāṭa, the original name of the temple was Vrah Viṣṇuloka or Brah Bisnulōk which means the sacred dwelling of Vishnu. Angkor Wat lies 5.5 kilometres north of the town of Siem Reap, and a short distance south and slightly east of the previous capital. In an area of Cambodia where there is an important group of ancient structures, according to legend, the construction of Angkor Wat was ordered by Indra to act as a palace for his son Precha Ket Mealea. According to the 13th century Chinese traveller Daguan Zhou, it was believed by some that the temple was constructed in a night by a divine architect. The initial design and construction of the temple took place in the first half of the 12th century, dedicated to Vishnu, it was built as the kings state temple and capital city. Work seems to have ended shortly after the death, leaving some of the bas-relief decoration unfinished. In 1177, approximately 27 years after the death of Suryavarman II, Angkor was sacked by the Chams, thereafter the empire was restored by a new king, Jayavarman VII, who established a new capital and state temple a few kilometres to the north. Towards the end of the 12th century, Angkor Wat gradually transformed from a Hindu centre of worship to Buddhism and it has towers and decoration and all the refinements which the human genius can conceive of. By the 17th century, Angkor Wat was not completely abandoned and functioned as a Buddhist temple, fourteen inscriptions dated from the 17th century discovered in Angkor area testify to Japanese Buddhist pilgrims that had established small settlements alongside Khmer locals. At that time, the temple was thought by the Japanese visitors as the famed Jetavana garden of the Buddha, the best-known inscription tells of Ukondafu Kazufusa, who celebrated the Khmer New Year at Angkor Wat in 1632Angkor Wat – Angkor Wat អង្គរវត្ត
3. Annunciation (Memling) – The Annunciation is an oil-on-oak panel painting attributed to the Early Netherlandish master Hans Memling. 1482, it was transferred to canvas in the 1920s and is today held in the Robert Lehman collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. It shows the Virgin in an interior, two attendant angels, the archangel Gabriel dressed in rich ecclesiastical robes, and a hovering dove. The painting is based and expands upon the Annunciation wing of Rogier van der Weydens c.1455 Saint Columba altarpiece, according to art historian Maryan Ainsworth, the work presents a startlingly original image, rich in connotations for the viewer or worshiper. The simple iconography centers on the Virgins purity, the Incarnation and her swoon foreshadows the Crucifixion of Jesus. In 1847 Gustav Friedrich Waagen described it as one of Memlings finest and most original works, in 1902 it was exhibited in Bruges at the Exposition des primitifs flamands à Bruges, after which it underwent cleaning and restoration. Philip Lehman bought it in 1920 from the Radziwiłł family who may have had it in their family since the 16th century, at that time it had been pierced through with an arrow and required restoration. The Annunciation was a theme in European art, although a difficult scene to paint. In Byzantine art, Annunciation scenes depict the Virgin enthroned and dressed in royal regalia, in later centuries she was shown in enclosed spaces, the temple, the church, the garden. The Annunciation is typically set in interiors in Early Netherlandish art, a style Robert Campin established. Memlings depiction is nearly identical to van der Weydens Columba Altarpiece, the archangel Gabriel appears to Mary to inform her that she shall bear the Son of God. He is shown standing in a three-quarter view wearing a small jeweled diadem and he has a richly embroidered red-and-gold brocade cope, edged with a pattern of gray seraphim and wheels, over a white alb and amice. He holds his staff of office in one hand, and raises the other towards the Virgin and he bends his knees, honoring and acknowledging her as Mother of Christ and Queen of Heaven, and his feet are bare and positioned slightly behind hers. The Virgin is in a view, directly behind her the red-curtained bed acts as a framing device. A purple underdress peeks out at her neck and wrists, indicating her royal status, the Virgin holds an innovative and unusual position. She seems to be rising or swooning as if having lost her balance. Blum believes one may search in vain in other Netherlandish Annunciation panels of the century of a Virgin positioned as she is here. Flanking the Virgin, and holding her, are two attendant angels, the one to the left lifts the Virgins robe while the other gazes at the viewer, soliciting our response, according to AinsworthAnnunciation (Memling) – The Annunciation, 76.5 × 54.6 cm (30 1/8 × 21 1/2 in.), Hans Memling, c. 1480s, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
4. Anthony Roll – The Anthony Roll is a record of ships of the English Tudor navy of the 1540s, named after its creator, Anthony Anthony. It originally consisted of three rolls of vellum, depicting 58 naval vessels along with information on their size, crew, armament, the rolls were presented to King Henry VIII in 1546, and were kept in the royal library. In 1680 Charles II gave two of the rolls to Samuel Pepys, who had cut up and bound as a single volume book. The third roll remained in the collection until it was given by William IV to his daughter, Mary Fox. The Anthony Roll is the only fully illustrated inventory of ships of the English navy in the Tudor period. While the inventories listed in its text have proven to be accurate, most of the ship illustrations are rudimentary. The level of detail of the design, armament and especially rigging has therefore proven to be only approximate. The only known depictions of prominent Tudor era vessels like the Henry Grace à Dieu. Anthonys father was William Anthony a Fleming from Middelburg in Zeeland who migrated to England in 1503, William was a supplier of beer to the army, and Anthony followed in his fathers footsteps. He went into beer exporting no later than 1530 and became a supplier of beer to the navy, in 1533 Anthony was appointed gunner at the Tower of London, a position he retained nominally until his death. He rose to the rank of overseer of the Ordnance Office, the government body responsible for supplying the forces with artillery. In 1549 he was promoted to master surveyor of the ordnance in the Tower, Calais, Boulogne and he continued the work of supplying arms to English forces, and was active in the last month of his life supplying guns for an expedition against Le Havre. In 1939 Dutch historian Nicholas Beets proposed that the Flemish artist, the will of William Anthony did not mention any other sons and Anthonisz. is believed to have been the son of Antonis Egbertson, the daughter of Jacob Corneliszoon van Oostzanen. That Cornelis and Anthony were related is, in the words of Ann Payne, not, presumably, impossible, contemporary maps, or plats, were routinely decorated with detailed pictures of ships, to mark bodies of water as much as to liven up the scenes. Such maps were common at the time, and were embellished by artists if deemed too simple or drab. This painting, recently dated to around 1545, has also suggested as a likely source of inspiration to Anthony for his illustrations. The design of the ships in these paintings, especially that of the Brighton raid and it is not known exactly when work on the rolls began nor when it was finished. It is only certain that it was presented to the king the year it was dated,1546Anthony Roll – The first illustration of the first roll of the Anthony Roll, depicting the Henry Grace à Dieu, the largest ship in the English navy during the reign of King Henry VIII.
5. Beaune Altarpiece – The Beaune Altarpiece, often called The Last Judgement, is a large polyptych altarpiece by the Early Netherlandish artist Rogier van der Weyden. It was painted in oil on oak panels, with parts transferred to canvas. It consists of fifteen paintings on nine panels, six are painted on both sides and it retains some of its original frames. Six outer panels are hinged, when folded they show a view of saints. The inner panels contain scenes from the Last Judgement and are arranged across two registers, the large central panel that spans both registers shows Christ seated on a rainbow in judgement, with his feet resting on a golden globe. Below him the Archangel Michael holds scales as he weighs souls, the panel on Christs far right shows the gates of Heaven, that to his far left the entrance to Hell. The panels of the lower register form a landscape, with figures depicted moving from the central panel to their final destinations after receiving judgement. It is one of van der Weydens most ambitious works, equal to his Prado Deposition and lost Justice of Trajan and it remains in the hospice today, although not in its original position. It is in condition and was moved in the 20th century to shield it from sunlight. It has suffered from extensive paint loss, the wearing and darkening of its colours, in addition, a heavy layer of over-paint was applied during restoration. The two painted sides of the panels have been separated so both can be shown simultaneously, traditionally, the shutters would have been opened only on selected Sundays or church holidays. Nicolas Rolin was appointed Chancellor of Burgundy by Philip the Good in 1422 and his tenure with the duke made him a wealthy man, and he donated a large portion of his fortune for the foundation of the Hôtel-Dieu in Beaune. It is not known why he decided to build in Beaune rather than in his birthplace of Autun and he may have chosen Beaune because it lacked a hospital and an outbreak of the plague decimated the population between 1438 and 1440. The hospice was built after Rolin gained permission from Pope Eugene IV in 1441, in conjunction, Rolin established the religious order of Les sœurs hospitalières de Beaune. In the late 1450s, only a few years before he died, Rolins wife, Guigone de Salins, played a major role in the foundation, as probably did his nephew Jan Rolin. De Salins lived and served at the hospice until her own death in 1470, documents regarding the artworks commissioning survive and, unusually for a Netherlandish altarpiece, the artist, patron, place of installation and date of completion are all known. It was intended as the centrepiece for the chapel, and Rolin approached van der Weyden around 1443, the altarpiece was ready by 1451, the year the chapel was consecrated. Painted in van der Weydens Brussels workshop – most likely with the aid of apprentices – the completed panels were transported to the hospiceBeaune Altarpiece – The Beaune Altarpiece, c. 1445–1450. 220cm x 548cm (excluding frames). Oil on oak, Hospices de Beaune, interior view
6. The Battle of Alexander at Issus – The Battle of Alexander at Issus is a 1529 oil painting by the German artist Albrecht Altdorfer, a pioneer of landscape art and a founding member of the Danube school. It portrays the 333 BC Battle of Issus, in which Alexander the Great secured a victory over Darius III of Persia. Duke William IV of Bavaria commissioned The Battle of Alexander at Issus in 1528 as part of a set of pieces that was to hang in his Munich residence. In particular, the defeat of Suleiman the Magnificent at the Siege of Vienna may have been an inspiration for Altdorfer, the Battle of Alexander at Issus and four others that were part of Williams initial set are in the Alte Pinakothek art museum in Munich. Alexander III of Macedon, best known as Alexander the Great, was an Ancient Greek king of Macedon who reigned from 336 BC until his death and he is widely regarded as one of the greatest military tacticians and strategists in history, and is presumed undefeated in battle. Renowned for his leadership and charisma, he always led his armies personally. By conquering the Persian Empire and unifying Greece, Egypt and Babylon, he forged the largest empire of the ancient world and effected the spread of Hellenism throughout Europe and Northern Africa. Alexander embarked on his expedition to conquer the Persian Empire in the spring of 334 BC, having pacified the warring Greek states and consolidated his military might. During the first months of the Macedonian passage into Persian Asia Minor, the Battle of the Granicus, fought in May, was Persias first major effort to confront the invaders, but resulted in an easy victory for Alexander. Over the next year, Alexander took most of western and coastal Asia Minor by forcing the capitulation of the satrapies in his path and he continued inland, travelling northeast through Phyrgia before turning southeast toward Cilicia. After passing the Cilician Gates in October, Alexander was delayed by fever in Tarsus, Darius meanwhile mustered an army of up to 100,000 and personally directed it over the eastern slopes of the Amanus Mountains. In early November, as Alexander proceeded about the Gulf of Issus from Mallus via Issus and this was decidedly to Darius advantage, now at the rear of Alexander, he was able to prevent retreat and block the supply lines Alexander had established at Issus. It was not until Alexander had encamped at Myriandrus, a seaport on the shores of the Gulf of İskenderun. He immediately retraced his route to the Pinarus River, just south of Issus, Darius initial response was defensive, he immediately stockaded the river bank with stakes to impede the enemys crossing. A group of Persian light infantry was sent to the foothills, as it was suspected that Alexander would make an approach from the right. A mass of cavalry commanded by Nabarsanes occupied the Persian right, Alexander made a cautious and slow advance, intending to base his strategy on the structure of the Persian force. He led a flank of his Companion cavalry on the right, while the Thessalian cavalry were dispatched to the left, as a counter to Nabarsanes mounted unit. Aware of the importance of the foothills to his right, Alexander sent a band of light infantry, archers, the enterprise was successful – those Persians not killed were forced to seek refuge higher in the mountainsThe Battle of Alexander at Issus – The Battle of Alexander at Issus
7. Belton House – Belton House is a Grade I listed country house in Belton near Grantham, Lincolnshire, England. The mansion is surrounded by gardens and a series of avenues leading to follies within a larger wooded park. Belton has been described as a compilation of all that is finest of Carolean architecture, only Brympton dEvercy has been similarly lauded as the perfect English country house. For three hundred years, Belton House was the seat of the Brownlow and Cust family, who had first acquired land in the area in the late 16th century, between 1685 and 1688 Sir John Brownlow and his wife had the present mansion built. Despite great wealth they chose to build a modest country house rather than a grand contemporary Baroque palace, the contemporary, if provincial, Carolean style was the selected choice of design. However, the new house was fitted with the latest innovations such as windows for the principal rooms. Following World War I, the Brownlows, like many of their peers, were faced with mounting financial problems, in 1984 they gave the house away—complete with most of its contents. The recipients of their gift, the National Trust, today fully open Belton to the public and it is in a good state of repair and visited by many thousands of tourists each year. The Brownlow family, a dynasty of lawyers, began accumulating land in the Belton area from approximately 1598, in 1609 they acquired the reversion of the manor of Belton itself from the Pakenham family, who finally sold the manor house to Sir John Brownlow I in 1619. The old house was situated near the church in the garden of the present house and remained largely unoccupied, John Brownlow had married an heiress but was childless. He became attached to two of his more distant blood relations, a great-nephew, also called John Brownlow, and they immediately bought a town house in the newly fashionable Southampton Square in Bloomsbury, and decided to build a new country house at Belton. Work on the new house began in 1685, the assumption popular today, that Winde was the architect, is based on the stylistic similarity between Belton and Coombe Abbey, which was remodelled by Winde between 1682 and 1685. Further evidence is a letter dated 1690, in which Winde recommends a plasterer who worked at Belton to another of his patrons, whoever the architect, Belton follows closely the design of Clarendon House, completed in 1667. This great London town house has one of the most admired buildings of its era due to its elegant symmetry and confident. Sir John Summerson described Clarendon House as the most influential house of its time among those who aimed at the grand manner, John and Alice Brownlow assembled one of the finest teams of craftsmen available at the time to work on the project. This dream team was headed by the master mason William Stanton who oversaw the project, the wrought-ironworker John Warren worked under Stanton at Denham Place, Buckinghamshire, and the fine wrought iron gates and overthrow at Belton may be his. Thus so competent were the builders of Belton that Winde may have little more than provide the original plans and drawings. This theory is demonstrated by the external appearance of the adjoining stable blockBelton House – South (front) facade of Belton House
8. Blakeney Chapel – Blakeney Chapel is a ruined building on the Norfolk coast of England. Despite its name, it is in the parish of Cley next the Sea, not the village of Blakeney. It consisted of two rooms of unequal size, and appears to be intact in a 1586 map. Only the foundations and part of a wall still remain, three archaeological investigations between 1998 and 2005 provided more detail of the construction, and showed two distinct periods of active use. Although it is described as a chapel on several maps, there is no documentary or archaeological evidence to suggest that it had any religious function, a small hearth, probably used for smelting iron, is the only evidence of a specific activity on the site. Much of the material was long ago carried off for reuse in buildings in Cley and Blakeney. The surviving ruins are protected as a monument and Grade II listed building because of their historical importance. The ever-present threat from the sea is likely to accelerate following a realignment of the Glavens course through the marshes. The Blakeney Chapel ruins consist of an east-west rectangular structure 18 m ×7 m in size with a rectangular building,13 m ×5 m built onto the southern side of the main room. Most of the structure is buried, only a 6 m length of a flint, the ruins stand on the highest point of Blakeney Eye at about 2 m above sea level. The Eye is a mound in the marshes that is located inside the sea wall at the point where the River Glaven turns westward towards the sheltered inlet of Blakeney Haven. Cley Eye is a raised area on the east bank of the river. Despite the name, Blakeney Eye, like most of the part of the marshes in this area, is actually part of the parish of Cley next the Sea. The land on which the stands was in the possession of the Calthorpe family until its purchase by banker Charles Rothschild in 1912. Rothschild gave the property to the National Trust, which has managed it since, there is no public access to the site. The ruins are protected as a monument and Grade II listed building because of their historical importance. The SSSI is now additionally protected through Natura 2000, Special Protection Area and RAMSAR listings, the original map disappeared in the 19th century, but a number of copies still exist. In this map, the building on the Eye is shown as intact and roofed, some maps, including Fadens, show a second ruined chapel across the Glaven on Cley Eye, but no other documentation exists for that buildingBlakeney Chapel – No structures are now visible above ground at the site
9. Book of Kells – The Book of Kells is an illuminated manuscript Gospel book in Latin, containing the four Gospels of the New Testament together with various prefatory texts and tables. It was created in a Columban monastery in Ireland or may have had contributions from various Columban institutions from both Britain and Ireland and it is believed to have been created c.800 AD. The text of the Gospels is largely drawn from the Vulgate and it is a masterwork of Western calligraphy and represents the pinnacle of Insular illumination. It is also regarded as Irelands finest national treasure. The illustrations and ornamentation of the Book of Kells surpass that of other Insular Gospel books in extravagance, the decoration combines traditional Christian iconography with the ornate swirling motifs typical of Insular art. Figures of humans, animals and mythical beasts, together with Celtic knots and interlacing patterns in vibrant colours, many of these minor decorative elements are imbued with Christian symbolism and so further emphasise the themes of the major illustrations. The manuscript today comprises 340 folios and, since 1953, has been bound in four volumes, the Insular majuscule script of the text itself appears to be the work of at least three different scribes. The lettering is in iron gall ink, and the colours used were derived from a range of substances. The manuscript takes its name from the Abbey of Kells, which was its home for centuries, today, it is on permanent display at Trinity College Library, Dublin. These manuscripts include the Cathach of St. Columba, the Ambrosiana Orosius, fragmentary Gospel in the Durham Dean and Chapter Library, from the early 8th century come the Durham Gospels, the Echternach Gospels, the Lindisfarne Gospels, and the Lichfield Gospels. Among others, the St. Gall Gospel Book belongs to the late 8th century, scholars place these manuscripts together based on similarities in artistic style, script, and textual traditions. The fully developed style of the ornamentation of the Book of Kells places it late in this series, the Book of Kells follows many of the iconographic and stylistic traditions found in these earlier manuscripts. For example, the form of the letters found in the incipit pages for the Gospels is surprisingly consistent in Insular Gospels. The name Book of Kells is derived from the Abbey of Kells in Kells, County Meath, the manuscripts date and place of production have been the subject of considerable debate. Traditionally, the book was thought to have created in the time of Columba. This tradition has long been discredited on paleographic and stylistic grounds,800, long after St. Columbas death in 597. The proposed dating in the 9th century coincides with Viking raids on Iona, there is another tradition, with some traction among Irish scholars, that suggests the manuscript was created for the 200th anniversary of the saints death. There are at least five competing theories about the place of originBook of Kells – The Book of Kells, (folio 292r), circa 800, showing the lavishly decorated text that opens the Gospel of John
10. Borobudur – The temple consists of nine stacked platforms, six square and three circular, topped by a central dome. The temple is decorated with 2,672 relief panels and 504 Buddha statues, the central dome is surrounded by 72 Buddha statues, each seated inside a perforated stupa. The monument is both a shrine to the Lord Buddha and a place for Buddhist pilgrimage, the monument guides pilgrims through an extensive system of stairways and corridors with 1,460 narrative relief panels on the walls and the balustrades. Borobudur has the largest and most complete ensemble of Buddhist reliefs in the world, evidence suggests Borobudur was constructed in the 9th century and abandoned following the 14th-century decline of Hindu kingdoms in Java and the Javanese conversion to Islam. Worldwide knowledge of its existence was sparked in 1814 by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, then the British ruler of Java, Borobudur has since been preserved through several restorations. The largest restoration project was undertaken between 1975 and 1982 by the Indonesian government and UNESCO, following which the monument was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Borobudur is still used for pilgrimage, once a year, Buddhists in Indonesia celebrate Vesak at the monument, in Indonesian, ancient temples are referred to as candi, thus locals refer to Borobudur Temple as Candi Borobudur. The term candi also loosely describes ancient structures, for example gates, the origins of the name Borobudur, however, are unclear, although the original names of most ancient Indonesian temples are no longer known. The name Borobudur was first written in Sir Thomas Raffless book on Javan history, Raffles wrote about a monument called Borobudur, but there are no older documents suggesting the same name. The only old Javanese manuscript that hints the monument called Budur as a holy Buddhist sanctuary is Nagarakretagama, written by Mpu Prapanca, most candi are named after a nearby village. If it followed Javanese language conventions and was named after the village of Bore. Raffles thought that Budur might correspond to the modern Javanese word Buda —i. e. ancient Boro and he also suggested that the name might derive from boro, meaning great or honourable and Budur for Buddha. However, another archaeologist suggests the second component of the name comes from Javanese term bhudhara, another possible etymology suggests that Borobudur is a corrupted simplified local Javanese pronunciation of Biara Beduhur written in Sanskrit as Vihara Buddha Uhr. This suggests that Borobudur means vihara of Buddha located on a place or on a hill. The construction and inauguration of a sacred Buddhist building—possibly a reference to Borobudur—was mentioned in two inscriptions, both discovered in Kedu, Temanggung Regency, the Karangtengah inscription, dated 824, mentioned a sacred building named Jinalaya, inaugurated by Pramodhawardhani, daughter of Samaratungga. The Tri Tepusan inscription, dated 842, is mentioned in the sima, Kamūlān is from the word mula, which means the place of origin, a sacred building to honor the ancestors, probably those of the Sailendras. Casparis suggested that Bhūmi Sambhāra Bhudhāra, which in Sanskrit means the mountain of combined virtues of the ten stages of Boddhisattvahood, was the name of Borobudur. According to local myth, the known as Kedu Plain is a Javanese sacred place and has been dubbed the garden of Java due to its high agricultural fertilityBorobudur – Borobudur, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
11. Bramshill House – Bramshill House, in Bramshill, northeast Hampshire, England, is one of the largest and most important Jacobean prodigy house mansions in England. It was built in the early 17th century by Baron Edward la Zouche of Harringworth, the design shows the influence of the Italian Renaissance, which became popular in England during the late 16th century. The house was designated a Grade I listed building in 1952, the mansions southern façade is notable for its decorative architecture, which includes at its centre a large oriel window above the principal entrance. Interior features include a great hall displaying 92 coats of arms on a Jacobean screen, a drawing room. Numerous columns and friezes are found throughout the mansion, while several rooms have large tapestries depicting historical figures, the house is set in 262-acre of grounds containing an 18-acre lake. The grounds, which received a Grade II* listing in 1984, are part of a Registered Historic Park that includes about 25 acres of early 17th-century formal gardens near the house, the wider medieval park was landscaped from the 17th to the 20th century and contains woodland. Bramshill appears to have been a sporting and social venue since the 16th century. The cricket ground at the house played host to a match in 1823 when an early Hampshire team played an England XI. During the Second World War, the mansion was used as a Red Cross maternity home, before becoming the residence of the exiled King Michael and it became the location of the Police Staff College in 1960, and was later home to the European Police College. As a result, many buildings have been added to the estate. Owing to escalating maintenance costs the property was sold to the property developers City & Country in August 2014. Among the 14 ghosts reputed to haunt the house is that of a bride who accidentally locked herself in a chest on her night and was not found until 50 years later. Bramshill House is at the centre of a triangular shape formed by Reading, Basingstoke and Farnborough. It lies to the northeast of Hartley Wintney, east of Hazeley off the B3349 road, southeast of the village of Bramshill, which lies on the B3011 road. There is also a lane within the grounds, known as Lower Pool Road. The latitudinal and longitudinal location is 51°1957. 9N 0°5443. 2W or also,51.332759, the 1086 Domesday Book lists one of the two manors of Bromeselle as held by Hugh de Port, whose family were in possession of it for nine generations. The last of the de Port line, William de Port, in the early 14th century, Sir John Foxley, Baron of the Exchequer, built and endowed a chapel in the village of Bramshill. His first wife, Constance de Bramshill, may have been the heiress of the Bramshill family and their son, Thomas Foxley, became MP for Berkshire in 1325, and was appointed constable of Windsor Castle in 1328, soon after the accession of the 14-year-old Edward IIIBramshill House – Bramshill House, south façade with oriel window in centre
12. Brougham Castle – Brougham Castle is a medieval building about 2 miles south-east of Penrith, Cumbria, England. The castle was founded by Robert de Vieuxpont in the early 13th century, the site, near the confluence of the rivers Eamont and Lowther, had been chosen by the Romans for a Roman fort called Brocavum. The castle is scheduled as an Ancient Monument, along with the fort, as Brougham Roman fort, in its earliest form, the castle consisted of a stone keep, with an enclosure protected by an earthen bank and a wooden palisade. When the castle was built, Robert de Vieuxpont was one of only a few lords in the region who were loyal to the king, the Vieuxponts were a powerful land-owning family in North West England and also owned the castles of Appleby and Brough. In 1264, Robert de Vieuxponts grandson, also named Robert, was declared a traitor, Brougham Castle and the other estates were eventually returned to the Vieuxpont family, and stayed in their possession until 1269 when the estates passed to the Clifford family through marriage. With the outbreak of the Wars of Scottish Independence in 1296, Brougham became an important military base for Robert Clifford and he began refortifying the castle, the wooden outer defences were replaced with stronger, more impressive stone walls, and the large stone gatehouse was added. The importance of Brougham and Roger Clifford was such that in 1300 he hosted Edward I at the castle. The second Roger Clifford was executed as a traitor in 1322, the region was often at risk from the Scots, and in 1388 the castle was captured and sacked. Following this, the Cliffords began spending time at their other castles. Brougham descended through several generations of Cliffords, intermittently serving as a residence, however, by 1592 it was in a state of disrepair as George Clifford was spending more time in southern England due to his role as Queens Champion. The castle was restored in the early 17th century to such an extent that James I was entertained there in 1617. In 1643, Lady Anne Clifford inherited the estates, including the castles of Brougham, Appleby and Brough, and set about restoring them. Brougham Castle was kept in good condition for a time after Lady Annes death in 1676, however, the Earl of Thanet. The empty shell was left to decay as it was too costly to maintain, as a ruin, Brougham Castle inspired a painting by J. M. W. The castle was left to the Ministry of Works in the 1930s and is maintained by its successor. The site of Brougham Castle has been fortified since the Romans erected the fort of Brocavum at the intersection of three Roman roads. With the rivers Eamont and Lowther flowing nearby and meeting to the west, the site had natural defences, a civilian settlement grew around the fort. When Angles arrived in the area named the place BroughamBrougham Castle – Brougham Castle seen from the north east, across the River Eamont
13. Buckingham Palace – Buckingham Palace is the London residence and administrative headquarters of the reigning monarch of the United Kingdom. Located in the City of Westminster, the palace is often at the centre of state occasions and it has been a focal point for the British people at times of national rejoicing and mourning. It was acquired by King George III in 1761 as a residence for Queen Charlotte. During the 19th century it was enlarged, principally by architects John Nash and Edward Blore, Buckingham Palace became the London residence of the British monarch on the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837. The palace chapel was destroyed by a German bomb during World War II, the original early 19th-century interior designs, many of which survive, include widespread use of brightly coloured scagliola and blue and pink lapis, on the advice of Sir Charles Long. King Edward VII oversaw a partial redecoration in a Belle Époque cream, many smaller reception rooms are furnished in the Chinese regency style with furniture and fittings brought from the Royal Pavilion at Brighton and from Carlton House. The palace has 775 rooms, and the garden is the largest private garden in London, the state rooms, used for official and state entertaining, are open to the public each year for most of August and September and on some days in winter and spring. In the Middle Ages, the site of the palace formed part of the Manor of Ebury. The marshy ground was watered by the river Tyburn, which flows below the courtyard. Where the river was fordable, the village of Eye Cross grew, ownership of the site changed hands many times, owners included Edward the Confessor and his queen consort Edith of Wessex in late Saxon times, and, after the Norman Conquest, William the Conqueror. William gave the site to Geoffrey de Mandeville, who bequeathed it to the monks of Westminster Abbey, in 1531, King Henry VIII acquired the Hospital of St James from Eton College, and in 1536 he took the Manor of Ebury from Westminster Abbey. These transfers brought the site of Buckingham Palace back into royal hands for the first time since William the Conqueror had given it away almost 500 years earlier, various owners leased it from royal landlords and the freehold was the subject of frenzied speculation during the 17th century. By then, the old village of Eye Cross had long fallen into decay. Needing money, James I sold off part of the Crown freehold, clement Walker in Anarchia Anglicana refers to new-erected sodoms and spintries at the Mulberry Garden at S. Jamess, this suggests it may have been a place of debauchery. Eventually, in the late 17th century, the freehold was inherited from the property tycoon Sir Hugh Audley by the great heiress Mary Davies, possibly the first house erected within the site was that of a Sir William Blake, around 1624. The next owner was Lord Goring, who from 1633 extended Blakes house and he did not, however, obtain the freehold interest in the mulberry garden. Unbeknown to Goring, in 1640 the document failed to pass the Great Seal before King Charles I fled London and it was this critical omission that helped the British royal family regain the freehold under King George III. The improvident Goring defaulted on his rents, Henry Bennet, 1st Earl of Arlington obtained the mansion and was occupying it, now known as Goring House, Arlington House rose on the site—the location of the southern wing of todays palace—the next yearBuckingham Palace – Buckingham Palace. This is the principal façade, the East Front; originally constructed by Edward Blore and completed in 1850. It acquired its present appearance following a remodelling, in 1913, by Sir Aston Webb.
14. Buildings of Jesus College, Oxford – Jesus College was founded in 1571 by Elizabeth I upon the petition of a Welsh clergyman, Hugh Price, who was treasurer of St Davids Cathedral. Her foundation charter gave to the college the land and buildings of White Hall, Price added new buildings to those of White Hall, and construction work continued after his death in 1574. The first of the quadrangles, which includes the hall, chapel. Construction of the quadrangle began in the 1630s, but was interrupted by the English Civil War and was not completed until about 1712. Further buildings were erected in a third quadrangle during the 20th century, including laboratories, a library for undergraduates. In addition to the site, the college owns flats in east and north Oxford. The chapel, which was dedicated in 1621 and extended in 1636, was altered in 1864 under the supervision of the architect George Edmund Street. The alterations have had their supporters and their critics, one historian of the described the work as ill-considered. The halls original hammerbeam roof was hidden by a ceiling in 1741 when rooms were installed in the roofspace. The principals lodgings, the last part of the first quadrangle to be constructed, the Fellows Library in the second quadrangle dates from 1679 and contains 11,000 antiquarian books, it was restored at a cost of £700,000 in 2007. A new Junior Common Room, about twice the size of its predecessor, was completed in the quadrangle in 2002. Further student and teaching rooms were added in Ship Street, opposite the college, eleven parts of the college are listed buildings, including all four sides of the first and second quadrangles. Nine parts, including the chapel, hall, and principals lodgings, have the highest Grade I designation, two other parts have a Grade II designation, given to buildings of national importance and special interest. However, he regarded the early 20th-century additions in the third quadrangle as dull, the college buildings on the main site are arranged in three quadrangles, the first quadrangle containing the oldest college buildings and the third quadrangle the newest. The quadrangles are often referred to as First Quad, Second Quad, as is often the case in Oxford colleges, the rooms in the older buildings are connected to the quadrangles by a series of staircases, rather than horizontally to each other by internal corridors. The staircases are numbered, staircases 1 to 5 are in the first quadrangle, staircases 6 to 13 in the second quadrangle, the charter also gave the buildings of White Hall, one of a number of university halls in this location. Halls provided lodgings and meals for students at the university, and sometimes lectures, as the system of colleges grew, however, halls declined in popularity and their sites and buildings tended to be taken over by colleges. Over time, it seems to have absorbed neighbouring halls, including Little White Hall on Ship Street from about 1450, by 1571, however, White Hall was either completely or virtually deserted by students, making it possible for Price to secure the site for the new collegeBuildings of Jesus College, Oxford – The second quadrangle (built c. 1640–c.1712) of Jesus College, with the large bay window of the hall on the right
15. Buildings of Nuffield College, Oxford – The buildings of Nuffield College, one of the colleges of the University of Oxford, are to the west of the city centre of Oxford, England, and stand on the site of the basin of the Oxford Canal. Nuffield College was founded in 1937 after a donation to the University by the car manufacturer Lord Nuffield, he land for the college, as well as £900,000 to build. The architect Austen Harrison, who had worked in Greece and Palestine, was appointed by the University to design the buildings. His initial design, heavily influenced by Mediterranean architecture, was rejected by Nuffield, Harrison reworked the plans, aiming for something on the lines of Cotswold domestic architecture, as Nuffield wanted. Construction of the design began in 1949 and was finished in 1960. Progress was hampered by post-war building restrictions, and the effects of inflation on Nuffields donation led to various cost-saving changes to the plans, in one change, the tower, which had been planned to be ornamental, was redesigned to hold the colleges library. It was the first tower built in Oxford for 200 years and is about 150 feet tall, the buildings are arranged around two quadrangles, with residential accommodation for students and fellows in one, and the hall, library and administrative offices in the other. The chapel has stained glass designed by John Piper. Reaction to the architecture of the college has been largely unfavourable, in the 1960s, it was described as Oxfords biggest monument to barren reaction. The tower has been described as ungainly, and marred by repetitive windows, the travel writer Jan Morris wrote that the college was a hodge-podge from the start. However, the architectural historian Sir Nikolaus Pevsner, although unimpressed with most of the college, thought that the tower helped the Oxford skyline and predicted it would one day be loved. The writer Simon Jenkins doubted Pevsners prediction, and claimed that vegetation was the best hope for the tower – as well as the rest of the college. The history of Nuffield College dates from 16 November 1937, when the university entered a Deed of Covenant and Trust with Lord Nuffield. Nuffield, known as William Morris before he was raised to the peerage, was an industrialist and the founder of Morris Motors, which was based in Cowley, east Oxford. For the creation of Nuffield College and for his other donations and he donated land on New Road, to the west of the city centre near the mound of Oxford Castle, on the site of the largely disused basin of the Oxford Canal. As well as the land, Nuffield gave £900,000 to build the college, however, although he was persuaded to put the remainder towards a college for social science studies instead, he still felt cheated. He later described the college as that bloody Kremlin, where left-wingers study at my expense, administration of Nuffields donation was the responsibility of the University, as the college did not become an independent body until after the Second World War. A sub-committee, consisting of three heads of Oxford colleges, was appointed to choose the architect, Emden appears to have played the part in the groups workBuildings of Nuffield College, Oxford – Nuffield College, facing New Road, with the library tower topped by a flèche. The main entrance to the college is in the middle of the building to the left of the tower.
16. Capon Chapel – Capon Chapel is one of the oldest existing log churches in Hampshire County, along with Mount Bethel Church and Old Pine Church. A Baptist congregation was gathering at the site of the church by at least 1756. Primitive Baptist minister John Monroe is credited for establishing a place of worship at this site, the land on which Capon Chapel was built originally belonged to William C. Nixon, a member of the Virginia House of Delegates, later, the first documented mention of a church at the Capon Chapel site was in March 1852, when Joseph Pugh allocated the land to three trustees for the construction of a church and cemetery. Capon Chapel was used as a place of worship by Baptists until the late 19th or early 20th century, in the 1890s, Capon Chapel was added as a place of worship on the Capon Bridge Methodist circuit of the Southern Methodist Episcopal Church. As of 2015, Capon Chapel remains a Methodist church, now a part of the United Methodist Church, Capon Chapels cemetery is surrounded by a wrought iron fence made by Stewart Iron Works, and contains the remains of John Monroe, William C. Nixon, West Virginia House of Delegates member Captain David Pugh, American Civil War veterans from the Union and the Confederacy, Capon Chapel is 894 feet east of the Cacapon River, from which the church derives its name. The church and cemetery are situated atop a hill on a 0.96 acres plot of land, at an elevation of 869 feet. The church and cemetery are accessible through a driveway to the north, to the west. Capon Chapel is landscaped with boxwoods on its north and south sides, a single holly on its east side, and forsythias along its west side. The Capon Chapel property consists of the structure, and its associated cemetery. A flagpole stands at the center of the eastern perimeter. One of these seven supporters, Thomas Colepeper, 2nd Baron Colepeper, acquired the area in 1681, his grandson, Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron. Under Lord Fairfaxs ownership, the Cacapon River Valley was predominantly inhabited by English-speaking settlers as early as the late 1730s. The majority of settlers had come from Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The Baptists established the oldest extant churches in Hampshire County, after the end of the American Revolutionary War, Baptist preachers continued their attempt to gain a foothold in what is now the Eastern Panhandle region. During the Baptists early growth in Hampshire County, the best known Baptist ministers were John Monroe, Monroe preached at the North River, Crooked Run, and Pattersons Creek churches during the early 19th century. Monroe probably established a Baptist church on the site of the present-day Capon Chapel, however, other sources claim that a Baptist congregation began gathering at the Capon Chapel site as early as 1756Capon Chapel – Capon Chapel
17. Castell Coch – Castell Coch is a 19th-century Gothic Revival castle built above the village of Tongwynlais in South Wales. The first castle on the site was built by the Normans after 1081, to protect the newly conquered town of Cardiff and this castle was likely destroyed in the native Welsh rebellion of 1314. In 1760, the ruins were acquired by John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute. John Crichton-Stuart, the 3rd Marquess of Bute, inherited the castle in 1848, Burges rebuilt the outside of the castle between 1875 and 1879, before turning to the interior, he died in 1881 and the work was finished by Burgess remaining team in 1891. Bute reintroduced commercial viticulture into Britain, planting a vineyard just below the castle, the Marquess made little use of his new retreat and in 1950 his grandson, the 5th Marquess of Bute, placed it into the care of the state. It is now controlled by the Welsh heritage agency Cadw, Castell Cochs external features and the High Victorian interiors led the historian David McLees to describe it as one of the greatest Victorian triumphs of architectural composition. The interiors were decorated, with specially designed furniture and fittings. The surrounding beech woods contain rare plant species and unusual features and are protected as a Site of Special Scientific Interest. The first castle on the Castell Coch site was built after 1081. It formed one of a string of eight intended to defend the newly conquered town of Cardiff. It took the form of a raised, earth-work motte, about 35 metres across at the base and 25 metres on the top, the first castle was probably abandoned after 1093 when the Norman lordship of Glamorgan was created, changing the line of the frontier. In 1267, Gilbert de Clare, who held the Lordship of Glamorgan, Caerphilly Castle was built to control the new territory and Castell Coch—strategically located between Cardiff and Caerphilly—was reoccupied. A new castle was built in stone around the motte, comprising a shell-wall, a circular tower, a gatehouse. The north-west section of the walls was protected by a talus, further work followed between 1268 and 1277, which added two large towers, a turning-bridge for the gatehouse and further protection to the north-west walls. On Gilberts death, the passed to his widow Joan and around this time it was referred to as Castrum Rubeum, Latin for the Red Castle. Gilberts son, also named Gilbert, inherited the property in 1307 and he died at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, triggering an uprising of the native Welsh in the region. Castell Coch was probably destroyed by the rebels in July 1314, and possibly slighted to put it any further use, it was not rebuilt. Castell Coch remained derelict, the antiquarian John Leland, visiting around 1536, described it as all in ruin, no big thing but highCastell Coch – The main entrance to Castell Coch
18. Chetro Ketl – Chetro Ketl is an Ancestral Puebloan great house and archeological site located in Chaco Culture National Historical Park, New Mexico, United States. Construction on Chetro Ketl began c. 990 and was complete by 1075, with significant remodeling occurring in the early. Following the onset of a drought, most Chacoans emigrated from the canyon by 1140. Edgar L. Hewett, the director of the first archeological field school in the canyon, conducted excavations of Chetro Ketl during 1920 and 1921, and again between 1929 and 1935. Chaco scholars estimate that it required more than 500,000 man-hours,26,000 trees, and 50 million sandstone blocks to erect Chetro Ketl. The great house is a D-shaped structure, its east wall is 280 feet long, and the wall is more than 450 feet, the perimeter is 1,540 feet. Chetro Ketl contained approximately 400 rooms and was the largest great house by area in Chaco Canyon, Chetro Ketl lies 0.4 miles from Pueblo Bonito, in an area that archeologists call downtown Chaco, they theorize that the area may be an ancestral sacred zone. Chetro Ketl contains architectural elements, such as a colonnade and tower kiva, Chetro Ketls purpose is widely debated but many archeologists believe the building was a place of large-scale ceremony that held an important position within the larger Chacoan system. It may have been occupied primarily by groups of priests and, during times of ritual, the building has deteriorated significantly since its rediscovery in the early 19th century, and its usefulness as a source of information about Chacoan culture is slowly diminishing. During the 10th to 8th millennia BCE, the San Juan Basin was occupied by Paleo-Indians known as the Clovis culture, projectile points found in the vicinity of Chaco Canyon suggest that hunters may have been active in the region as early as 10,000. The Oshara occupied portions of northwestern New Mexico, northeastern Arizona, southeastern Utah and they harvested jackrabbits in the basin as early as 5500. Irwin-Williams divided the Oshara Tradition into six phases, and during the Armijo phase the Arroyo Cuervo area east of Chaco Canyon saw the introduction of maize and the use of rock shelters. She hypothesized that this saw the beginning of seasonal gatherings of people from around the San Juan Basin. By 200 BCE, the Basketmaker culture had begun to develop from the Oshara Tradition, during the first four centuries CE, the Basketmaker II people established pit-houses at elevated locations near sources of water and arable land. Brian M. Fagan notes that the development of pottery in the area during the 4th century permitted the boiling of maize and beans for the first time and this period also marked the introduction of the bow and arrow to the region. Parts of the San Juan Basin saw plentiful rainfall during the 5th to 8th centuries and this culture is known as Basketmaker III, and by 500 at least two such settlements had been established in Chaco Canyon. An important phase of Basketmaker III people is known as the La Plata, one of the earliest La Plata phase sites, Shabikeshchee Village, was continuously occupied until the early 8th century, when the canyon was home to a few hundred people. Several clusters of Basketmaker III sites have been identified in the vicinity of Chetro Ketl, as the Basketmaker III people improved their farming techniques during the 8th century, the well-watered areas of the San Juan Basin became densely populatedChetro Ketl – The San Juan Basin (note: U.S. Route 666 has been renumbered Route 491).
19. Clemuel Ricketts Mansion – The Clemuel Ricketts Mansion is a Georgian-style house made of sandstone, built in 1852 or 1855 on the shore of Ganoga Lake in Colley Township, Sullivan County, Pennsylvania in the United States. It was home to generations of the Ricketts family, including R. Bruce Ricketts. Originally built as a lodge, it was also a tavern and post office. After 1903 the house served as the Ricketts familys summer home, the house was included in the Historic American Buildings Survey in 1936 and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. A group of investors bought the lake, surrounding land, and house in 1957 and developed them privately for housing, the house became the Ganoga Lake Associations clubhouse, and is not open to the public. The original mansion is an L-shaped structure, two-and-a-half stories high and it was built in a clearing surrounded by old-growth forest with a view to the lake 900 feet to the east. In 1913 a 2 1⁄2-story wing was added to the side of the house. The house has rooms, four porches, and its original hardware. Dormers and some windows were added in the renovation, and electrical wiring, according to the NRHP nomination form, the Clemuel Ricketts Mansion is a stunning example of Georgian vernacular architecture. The Clemuel Ricketts Mansion is on the southwest shore of Ganoga Lake in Colley Township in the part of Sullivan County. The mansion and lake are on a part of the Allegheny Plateau known as North Mountain, rocks—gray sandstone with conglomerates and some siltstone—of the Mississippian Pocono Formation more than 340 million years old, underlie the house and lake. The lake is in a valley,13 feet deep, which is impounded by glacial till up to 30 feet thick at the southeast end. The earliest recorded inhabitants of the region were the Susquehannocks, who left or died out by 1675, the land then came under the control of the Iroquois, who sold it to the British in the Treaty of Fort Stanwix in 1768. The land on which the house was built was first part of Northumberland County. The lake was known as Long Pond, and the Long Pond Tavern. Sullivan County was formed from Lycoming County in 1847, and two years later Colley Township was formed from Cherry Township. They bought the lake, Long Pond Tavern, and 5,000 acres of surrounding land in the early 1850s, the year 1852 is also carved in stone on the front of the house, which faced the highway. However, according to Tomasaks The Life and Times of Robert Bruce Ricketts, the brothers purchased the lake, tavern, and land on April 13,1853, for $550, according to Ricketts family tradition, Gad Seward built the mansionClemuel Ricketts Mansion – Clemuel Ricketts Mansion
20. Cloud Gate – Cloud Gate is a public sculpture by Indian-born British artist Anish Kapoor, that is the centerpiece of AT&T Plaza at Millennium Park in the Loop community area of Chicago, Illinois. The sculpture and AT&T Plaza are located on top of Park Grill, constructed between 2004 and 2006, the sculpture is nicknamed The Bean because of its shape. Made up of 168 stainless steel welded together, its highly polished exterior has no visible seams. It measures 33 by 66 by 42 feet, and weighs 110 short tons, Kapoors design was inspired by liquid mercury and the sculptures surface reflects and distorts the citys skyline. Visitors are able to walk around and under Cloud Gates 12-foot high arch, on the underside is the omphalos, a concave chamber that warps and multiplies reflections. The sculpture builds upon many of Kapoors artistic themes, and it is popular with tourists as an opportunity for its unique reflective properties. The sculpture was the result of a design competition, after Kapoors design was chosen, numerous technological concerns regarding the designs construction and assembly arose, in addition to concerns regarding the sculptures upkeep and maintenance. Various experts were consulted, some of whom believed the design could not be implemented, eventually, a feasible method was found, but the sculptures construction fell behind schedule. It was unveiled in an incomplete form during the Millennium Park grand opening celebration in 2004, Cloud Gate was formally dedicated on May 15,2006, and has since gained considerable popularity, both domestically and internationally. Lying between Lake Michigan to the east and the Loop to the west, Grant Park has been Chicagos front yard since the mid-19th century, for 2007, the park was Chicagos second largest tourist attraction, trailing only Navy Pier. In 1999, Millennium Park officials and a group of art collectors, curators and architects reviewed the works of 30 different artists. The committee chose the design by internationally acclaimed artist Anish Kapoor. Measuring 33 by 66 by 42 feet and weighing 110 short tons and this mirror-like surface would reflect the Chicago skyline, but its elliptical shape would distort and twist the reflected image. As visitors walk around the structure, its surface acts like a mirror as it distorts their reflections. In the underside of the sculpture is the omphalos, an indentation whose mirrored surface provides multiple reflections of any subject situated beneath it, the apex of the omphalos is 27 feet above the ground. The concave underside allows visitors to walk underneath to see the omphalos, during the grand opening week in July 2004, press reports described the omphalos as the spoon-like underbelly. The stainless steel sculpture was originally envisioned as the centerpiece of the Lurie Garden at the southeast corner of the park, however, Park officials believed the piece was too large for the Lurie Garden and decided to locate it at AT&T Plaza, despite Kapoors objections. Although Kapoor does not draw with computers, computer modeling was essential to the process of analyzing the complex form, the extreme temperature variation between seasons was also feared to weaken the structureCloud Gate – Cloud Gate
21. Cottingley Fairies – The Cottingley Fairies appear in a series of five photographs taken by Elsie Wright and Frances Griffiths, two young cousins who lived in Cottingley, near Bradford in England. In 1917, when the first two photographs were taken, Elsie was 16 years old and Frances was 9, Doyle, as a spiritualist, was enthusiastic about the photographs, and interpreted them as clear and visible evidence of psychic phenomena. Public reaction was mixed, some accepted the images as genuine, interest in the Cottingley Fairies gradually declined after 1921. Both girls married and lived abroad for a time after they grew up, in 1966 a reporter from the Daily Express newspaper traced Elsie, who had by then returned to the UK. Elsie left open the possibility that she believed she had photographed her thoughts, the photographs and two of the cameras used are on display in the National Media Museum in Bradford, England. The two girls often played together beside the beck at the bottom of the garden, much to their mothers annoyance, because they came back with wet feet. Frances and Elsie said they went to the beck to see the fairies, and to prove it, Elsie borrowed her fathers camera. The girls returned about 30 minutes later, triumphant, Elsies father, Arthur, was a keen amateur photographer, and had set up his own darkroom. The picture on the plate he developed showed Frances behind a bush in the foreground. Knowing his daughters artistic ability, and that she had spent some time working in a photographers studio, two months later the girls borrowed his camera again, and this time returned with a photograph of Elsie sitting on the lawn holding out her hand to a 1-foot-tall gnome. Exasperated by what he believed to be nothing but a prank and his wife Polly, however, believed the photographs to be authentic. On the back she wrote It is funny, I never used to see them in Africa and it must be too hot for them there. The photographs became public in mid-1919, after Elsies mother attended a meeting of the Theosophical Society in Bradford. The lecture that evening was on life, and at the end of the meeting Polly Wright showed the two fairy photographs taken by her daughter and niece to the speaker. As a result, the photographs were displayed at the annual conference in Harrogate. There they came to the attention of a member of the society. Gardner sent the prints along with the original negatives to Harold Snelling. Snellings opinion was that the two negatives are entirely genuine, unfaked photographs, no trace whatsoever of studio work involving card or paper modelsCottingley Fairies – The first of the five photographs, taken by Elsie Wright in 1917, shows Frances Griffiths with the alleged fairies.
22. Crucifix (Cimabue, Santa Croce) – Crucifix is a wooden crucifix, painted in distemper, attributed to the Florentine painter and mosaicist Cimabue, one of two large crucifixes attributed to him. The work was commissioned by the Franciscan friars of Santa Croce and is built from an arrangement of five main. It is one the first Italian artworks to break from the late medieval Byzantine style and is renowned for its technical innovations, the gilding and monumentality of the cross links it to the Byzantine tradition. Christs static pose is reflective of this style, while the work overall incorporates newer, the work presents a lifelike and physically imposing depiction of the passion at Calvary. Christ is shown naked, his eyes are closed, his face lifeless. His body slumps in a position contorted by prolonged agony and pain, a graphic portrayal of human suffering, the painting is of seminal importance in art history and has influenced painters from Michelangelo, Caravaggio and Velasquez to Francis Bacon. The work has been in the Basilica di Santa Croce, Florence, since the thirteenth century. It remains in poor condition despite conservation efforts, both of Cimabues surviving crucifixes were commissioned by the Franciscan order. Founded by Saint Francis of Assisi, their reformist, religious, the son of a wealthy cloth merchant, Francis abandoned his inheritance to take up preaching in his mid-twenties. He venerated poverty and developed an appreciation for the beauty of nature. Byzantine depictions tended to show Christ as invincible, even in death, imagery based on Franciscan ideals in the 13th century generally reinforce his veneration of simplicity and naturalism, infusing the paintings with the new values of humanism. The church at Santa Croce was the third that the Franciscans constructed at the site, the first was begun in 1295, and is where Cimabues Crucifix probably hung, given its large size, above the rood screen. It was later positioned at the transept, in the sacristy. Cimabue achieves a masterful handling of colour, medieval churches tended to be colourful, with frescoed walls, painted capitals. Compared to earlier works of this type, Christs body is more physically corporeal and his hands and feet seem to extend beyond the pictorial space, which is delineated by the flat, coloured borders of the cross, in turn made up of at least six boards. Both Christs body and his semi-circular nimbus are placed at angles which rise outwards and his body arches, forcing his torso to raise against the cross. Blood pours from the wounds in his hands as his head falls to the side from fatigue and his body is naked except for a sheer and transparent loincloth that only just covers his thighs and buttocks. The choice of a white, veil-like loincloth, dramatically more modest than the red garment in the Arezzo work and his nakedness highlights his vulnerability and sufferingCrucifix (Cimabue, Santa Croce) – Crucifix, 1287-1288. Distemper on wood panel, 448 cm × 390 cm (176.4 in × 153.5 in). Basilica di Santa Croce, Florence
23. Crucifixion and Last Judgement diptych – It was executed in a miniature format, the panels are just 56.5 cm high by 19.7 cm wide. The diptych was probably commissioned for private devotion, the left-hand wing depicts the Crucifixion. It shows Christs followers grieving in the foreground, soldiers and spectators milling about in the mid-ground, the scene is framed against an azure sky with a view of Jerusalem in the distance. Portions of the work contain Greek, Latin and Hebrew inscriptions, the original gilt frames contain Biblical passages in Latin drawn from the books of Isaiah, Deuteronomy and Revelation. According to a written in Russian on their reverse, the panels were transferred to canvas supports in 1867. The earliest surviving mention of the work appears in 1841, when scholars believed the two panels were wings of a lost triptych, the Metropolitan Museum of Art acquired the diptych in 1933. At that time, the work was attributed to Jans brother Hubert because key areas formally resembled pages of the Turin-Milan Hours, other art historians hold that van Eyck painted the panels around the early 1420s and attribute the weaker passages to a younger van Eycks relative inexperience. Along with Robert Campin and later Rogier van der Weyden, Van Eyck revolutionised the approach towards naturalism and realism in Northern European painting during the early to mid 15th century. He was the first to manipulate oils to give the close detailing that infused his figures with the degree of realism. He coupled this with a mastery of glaze to create surfaces with a deep perspective—most noticeable in the upper portion of the Crucifixion panel—which had not been achieved before. By contrast, depictions of the Crucifixion were usually presented in a horizontal format, Art historian Otto Pächt says it is the whole world in one painting, an Orbis Pictus. In the Crucifixion panel, van Eyck follows the early 14th-century tradition of presenting the biblical episodes using a narrative technique, according to art historian Jeffrey Chipps Smith, the episodes appear as simultaneous, not sequential events. Van Eyck condenses key episodes from the gospels into a single composition and this device allowed van Eyck to create a greater illusion of depth with more complex and unusual spatial arrangements. In the Crucifixion panel, he uses different indicators to show the relative closeness of particular groupings of figures to Jesus, in the Last Judgement the damned are placed in hell in the lower mid-ground while the saints and angels are positioned higher in the upper foreground. Pächt writes of this panel that the scene is assimilated into a single spatial cosmos, Art historians are unsure as to whether the panels were meant to be a diptych or a triptych. It is now unlikely that a lost panel could be the postulated original companion to the outer wings. It has also proposed that a central piece was added later, or as Albert Châtelet writes. Art historian Erwin Panofsky believed the Crucifixion and Last Judgement panels were intended as a diptych and he argued that it would have been unusual for mere outer wings to have been given the sumptuous treatment afforded these two panelsCrucifixion and Last Judgement diptych – Jan van Eyck, Crucifixion and Last Judgement diptych, c. 1430–40. Oil on canvas, transferred from wood. Each 56.5 cm × 19.7 cm (22.25 in × 7.75 in); Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
24. The Dawn of Love (painting) – Loosely based on a passage from John Miltons 1634 masque Comus, it shows a nude Venus leaning across to wake the sleeping Love by stroking his wings. While Etty often included nude figures in his work he rarely depicted physical intimacy, the open sensuality of the work was intended to present a challenge to the viewer mirroring the plot of Comus, in which the heroine is tempted by desire but remains rational and detached. While a few critics praised elements of its composition and execution, the Dawn of Love was not among the 133 paintings exhibited in the major 1849 retrospective exhibition of Ettys works, and its exhibition in Glasgow in 1899 drew complaints for its supposed obscenity. In 1889 it was bought by Sir Merton Russell-Cotes, and has remained in the collection of the Russell-Cotes Art Gallery & Museum ever since, william Etty was born in 1787, the son of a York baker and miller. He began as a printer in Hull. In 1821 the Royal Academy accepted and exhibited one of Ettys works in the Summer Exhibition and this painting was extremely well received, and many of Ettys fellow artists greatly admired him. He became well respected for his ability to capture flesh tones accurately in painting, following the exhibition of Cleopatra, over the next decade Etty tried to replicate its success by painting nude figures in biblical, literary and mythological settings. Etty was the first British artist to specialise in the nude, many critics condemned his repeated depictions of female nudity as indecent, although his portraits of male nudes were generally well received. The Dawn of Love illustrates a passage from Comus, a 1634 masque by John Milton. Comus is a morality tale in which the female protagonist, referred to only as The Lady and she encounters the debauched magician Comus who captures and imprisons her, and uses all the means at his disposal to try to inflame her sexual desires. The Lady resists all temptation, and using her reason and sense of morals resists Comuss efforts to draw her into intemperance or surrender to desire, Ettys painting is not a direct illustration of a scene from Comus. Night hath better sweets to prove, Venus now wakes, Ettys painting shows the nude Venus, as Goddess of nocturnal sport, reaching across to wake the sleeping Love by stroking his wings. The Dawn of Love intentionally presents a dilemma to viewers. By his open depiction of nudity and sensuality, Etty makes the argument as that presented by Comus. Etty exhibited the painting in February 1828 at the British Institution under the title of Venus Now Wakes, the Monthly Magazine complained of Venuss sullen colour and corpulent shape, as well as Ettys excessive exposure of figure. The harshest criticism came from a reviewer in The London Magazine. Mr. Etty seems conscious of the coldness of his flesh-colour and they are any thing but voluptuous or alluring. We would recommend to our artist to leave these small unfinished vignettes and his firm, broad, manly pencil, requires wider scope and a different subjectThe Dawn of Love (painting) – The Dawn of Love, 1828, 88.8 by 96 cm (35.0 by 37.8 in)
25. Dresden Triptych – The Dresden Triptych is a very small hinged-triptych altarpiece by the Early Netherlandish painter Jan van Eyck. It consists of five individual panel paintings, an inner panel. It is signed and dated 1437, and in the permanent collection of the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden, with the panels still in their original frames. The only extant triptych attributed to van Eyck, and the only signed with his personal motto. Elisabeth Dhanens describes it as the most charming, delicate and appealing work by Jan van Eyck that has survived, the paintings on the two outer wings become visible when the triptych is closed. They show the Virgin Mary and Archangel Gabriel in an Annunciation scene painted in grisaille, the three inner panels are set in an ecclesiastical interior. In the central inner panel Mary is seated and holds the Christ Child on her lap, on the left hand wing Archangel Michael presents a kneeling donor, while on the right St. Catherine of Alexandria stands reading a prayer book. The interior panels are outlined with two layers of painted bronze frames, inscribed with mostly Latin lettering, the work may have been intended for private devotion, perhaps as a portable altarpiece for a migrant cleric. That the frames are so richly decorated with Latin inscriptions indicates that the donor, the Dresden Triptych was probably in the possession of the Giustiniani family in the mid- to late-15th century. It is mentioned in a May 10,1597 record of a purchase by Vincenzo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, after Charless fall and execution, the painting went to Paris and was owned by Eberhard Jabach, the Cologne-based banker and art dealer for Louis XIV and Cardinal Mazarin. In the mid-19th century the Dresden catalogues first attribute it to Hubert van Eyck and this view is reinforced by the fact that it is the only non-portrait to contain van Eycks motto, ALC IXH XAN. Until the discovery of the signature the piece was dated to an early piece from the 1420s to his later period in the late 1430s. The central panel has often compared to his unsigned and undated Lucca Madonna of c. The Lucca Madonna is thought to be a portrait of the much younger wife. The work measures 33 by 27.5 centimetres including the frames, given this miniaturist scale, the triptych probably functioned as a portable devotional piece, or altare portabile. Members of the upper-classes and nobility acquired these through papal dispensation, to use during travel, van Eycks patron and employer Philip the Good owned at least one portable triptych of which fragments survive. In his earlier paintings, subtle iconographical features – referred to as disguised symbolism – are typically woven into the work, as small, in the background. These elements include the apparition of the Virgin before the donor, in his religious panels after 1436, van Eycks reliance on iconographical or symbolic elements is greatly reducedDresden Triptych – View of the inner wings. The two outer wings contain an Annunciation scene in grisaille. Oil on oak panel, 1437. Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden. 33.1cm × 13.6cm; 33.1cm × 27.5cm; 33.1cm × 13.6cm
26. An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump – An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump is a 1768 oil-on-canvas painting by Joseph Wright of Derby, one of a number of candlelit scenes that Wright painted during the 1760s. The painting departed from convention of the time by depicting a subject in the reverential manner formerly reserved for scenes of historical or religious significance. The picture has been owned by the National Gallery, London since 1863 and is regarded as a masterpiece of British art. In June 2015 it was on loan to Tate Britain, the group exhibits a variety of reactions, but for most of the audience scientific curiosity overcomes concern for the bird. The central figure looks out of the picture as if inviting the participation in the outcome. In 1659, Robert Boyle commissioned the construction of an air pump, then described as a pneumatic engine, the air pump was invented by Otto von Guericke in 1650, though its cost deterred most contemporary scientists from constructing the apparatus. Boyles pump, which was designed to Boyles specifications and constructed by Robert Hooke, was complicated, temperamental. Many demonstrations could only be performed with Hooke on hand, in the book, he described in great detail 43 experiments he conducted, on occasion assisted by Hooke, on the effect of air on various phenomena. Boyle tested the effects of rarified air on combustion, magnetism, sound, and barometers, one of the most notable and respectable of the travelling lecturers was James Ferguson FRS, a Scottish astronomer and probable acquaintance of Joseph Wright. The full moon in the picture is significant as Lunar Circle meetings were timed to make use of its light when travelling, Darwins study in his original house survives at Beacon St, Lichfield WS13 7AD, and is recognisable as the site of the painting. The eight paned window is unchanged, the position remains as depicted in the painting. A full moon can be seen from this room at the bearing and inclination as in the painting. Darwins philosophical feasts that started with the meal often carried on throughout the night. Wright met Darwin in the early 1760s, probably through their common connection of John Whitehurst, first consulting Darwin about ill health in 1767 when he stayed in the Darwin household for a week, the energy and vivacity of both Erasmus and Mary Darwin impressed Wright. In the 1980s Eric Evans suggested that Darwin is the figure in the foreground who holds a watch. As this composed timekeeper is not consistent with Darwins flamboyant character, the attention to timekeeping fits with Dr Smalls role as the social secretary for the Lunar circle. Small returned from Virginia in 1764 and established his practice in Birmingham in 1765, the profile and wig of this figure are consistent with a contemporary portrait of Small by Tilly Kettle. During his apprenticeship and early career Wright concentrated on portraiture, by 1762, he was an accomplished portrait artist, and his 1764 group portrait James Shuttleworth, his Wife and Daughter is acknowledged as his first true masterpieceAn Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump – An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump
27. The Four Stages of Cruelty – The Four Stages of Cruelty is a series of four printed engravings published by English artist William Hogarth in 1751. Each print depicts a different stage in the life of the fictional Tom Nero, the prints were intended as a form of moral instruction, Hogarth was dismayed by the routine acts of cruelty he witnessed on the streets of London. Issued on cheap paper, the prints were destined for the lower classes, nevertheless, the pictures still carry the wealth of detail and subtle references that are characteristic of Hogarth. His aim was to correct that barbarous treatment of animals, the sight of which renders the streets of our metropolis so distressing to every feeling mind. Hogarth loved animals, picturing himself with his pug in a self-portrait, Hogarth deliberately portrayed the subjects of the engravings with little subtlety since he meant the prints to be understood by men of the lowest rank when seen on the walls of workshops or taverns. The images themselves, as with Beer Street and Gin Lane, were roughly drawn, to ensure that the prints were priced within reach of the intended audience, Hogarth originally commissioned the block-cutter J. Bell to produce the four designs as woodcuts. This proved more expensive than expected, so only the last two of the four images were cut and were not issued commercially at the time. The prints themselves were published on 21 February 1751 and each was accompanied by a commentary, written by the Rev. James Townley. As with earlier engravings, such as Industry and Idleness, individual prints were sold on paper for 1s. Cheap enough to be purchased by the classes as a means of moral instruction. Fine versions were available on superior paper for 1s. In the first print Hogarth introduces Tom Nero, whose surname may have inspired by the Roman Emperor of the same name or a contraction of No hero. An initialled badge on the shoulder of his light-hued and ragged coat shows him to be a pupil of the charity school of the parish of St Giles. Hogarth used this notorious slum area as the background for many of his works including Gin Lane and Noon, a more tender-hearted boy, perhaps the dogs owner, pleads with Nero to stop tormenting the frightened animal, even offering food in an attempt to appease him. This boy supposedly represents a young George III, in a foreshadowing of his ultimate fate, Tom Neros name is written under the chalk drawing of a man hanging from the gallows, the meaning is made clear by the schoolboy artist pointing towards Tom. Below the text the authorship is established, Designed by W. Hogarth,1 Feb.1751 The Act of Parliament referred to is the Engraving Copyright Act 1734. Hogarth had been so instrumental in pushing the Bill through Parliament that on passing it became known as the Hogarth Act, in the second plate, the scene is Thavies Inn Gate, one of the Inns of Chancery which housed associations of lawyers in London. Tom Nero has grown up and become a hackney coachman, Toms horse, worn out from years of mistreatment and overloading, has collapsed, breaking its leg and upsetting the carriageThe Four Stages of Cruelty – William Hogarth
28. Four Times of the Day – Four Times of the Day is a series of four paintings by English artist William Hogarth. Completed in 1736, they were reproduced as a series of four published in 1738. They are humorous depictions of life in the streets of London, the vagaries of fashion, the four pictures depict scenes of daily life in various locations in London as the day progresses. Four Times of the Day was the first set of prints that Hogarth published after his two great successes, A Harlots Progress and A Rakes Progress. It was among the first of his prints to be published after the Engraving Copyright Act 1734, unlike Harlot and Rake, the four prints in Times of the Day do not form a consecutive narrative, and none of the characters appears in more than one scene. Hogarth conceived of the series as representing in a manner, morning, noon, evening. Hogarth designed the series for a commission by Jonathan Tyers in 1736 in which he requested a number of paintings to decorate supper boxes at Vauxhall Gardens. The engravings are mirror images of the paintings, which leads to problems ascertaining the times shown on the clocks in some of the scenes, often the theme is one of over-orderliness versus chaos. The four plates depict four times of day, but they move through the seasons, Morning is set in winter, Noon in spring. However, Night—sometimes misidentified as being in September—takes place on Oak Apple Day in May rather than in the autumn. Evening was engraved by Bernard Baron, a French engraver who was living in London, the prints, along with a fifth picture, Strolling Actresses Dressing in a Barn from 1738, were sold by subscription for one guinea, half payable on ordering and half on delivery. After subscription the price rose to five shillings per print, making the five print set four shillings dearer overall, representations of Aurora and Diana also appear in both. Hogarth advertised the prints for sale in May 1737, again in January 1738, the paintings were sold individually at an auction on 25 January 1745, along with the original paintings for A Harlots Progress, A Rakes Progress and Strolling Actresses Dressing in a Barn. Sir William Heathcote purchased Morning and Night for 20 guineas and £20 6s respectively, a further preliminary sketch for Morning with some differences to the final painting was sold in a later auction for £21. In Morning, a lady makes her way to church, shielding herself with her fan from the view of two men pawing at the market girls. Henry Fielding mentions the house in both The Covent Garden Tragedy and Pasquin. At the time Hogarth produced this picture, the house was being run by Toms widow, Moll King. Moll opened the doors once those of the taverns had shut, the Mansion House with columned portico visible in the centre of the picture, No.43 King Street, is attributed to architect Thomas Archer and occupied by him at the date of Hogarths worksFour Times of the Day – The paintings of Four Times of the Day (clockwise from top left: Morning, Noon, Night, and Evening)
29. Freedom from Want (painting) – Freedom from Want, also known as The Thanksgiving Picture or Ill Be Home for Christmas, is the third of the Four Freedoms series of four oil paintings by American artist Norman Rockwell. The works were inspired by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelts 1941 State of the Union Address, the painting was created in November 1942 and published in the March 6,1943 issue of The Saturday Evening Post. All of the people in the picture were friends and family of Rockwell in Arlington, Vermont, the work depicts a group of people gathered around a dinner table for a holiday meal. Having been partially created on Thanksgiving Day to depict the celebration, it has become a representation of the Thanksgiving holiday. The Post published Freedom from Want with an essay by Carlos Bulosan as part of the Four Freedoms series. Despite many who endured sociopolitical hardships abroad, Bulosans essay spoke on behalf of those enduring the socioeconomic hardships domestically, the painting has had a wide array of adaptations, parodies, and other uses, such as for the cover for the 1946 book Norman Rockwell, Illustrator. Although the image was popular at the time in the United States and remains so, artistically, the work is highly regarded as an example of mastery of the challenges of white-on-white painting and as one of Rockwells most famous works. Freedom from Want is the third in a series of four oil paintings entitled Four Freedoms by Norman Rockwell and they were inspired by Franklin D. Roosevelts State of the Union Address, known as Four Freedoms, delivered to the 77th United States Congress on January 6,1941. In the early 1940s, Roosevelts Four Freedoms themes were still vague and abstract to many, the Four Freedoms theme was eventually incorporated into the Atlantic Charter, and it became part of the charter of the United Nations. Eventually, the series was distributed in poster form and became instrumental in the U. S. Government War Bond Drive. The illustration is an oil painting on canvas, measuring 45.75 by 35.5 inches, the Norman Rockwell Museum describes it as a story illustration for The Saturday Evening Post, complementary to the theme, but the image is also an autonomous visual expression. The painting shows an aproned matriarch presenting a roasted turkey to a family of several generations, the patriarch looks on with fondness and approval from the head of the table, which is the central element of the painting. Its creased tablecloth shows that this is an occasion for sharing what we have with those we love. The table has a bowl of fruit, celery, pickles, there is a covered silver serving dish that would traditionally hold potatoes, according to Richard Halpern, but Bennett describes this as a covered casserole dish. The servings are less prominent than the presentation of white linen, white plates, the people in the painting are not yet eating, and the painting contrasts the empty plates and vacant space in their midst with images of overabundance. In mid-June Rockwell sketched in charcoal the Four Freedoms and sought commission from the Office of War Information and he was rebuffed by an official who said, The last war, you illustrators did the posters. This war, were going to use fine arts men, real artists, however, Saturday Evening Post editor, Ben Hibbs, recognized the potential of the set and encouraged Rockwell to produce them right away. By early fall, the authors for the Four Freedoms had submitted their essays, Rockwell was concerned that Freedom from Want did not match Bulosans textFreedom from Want (painting) – Freedom from Want
30. Freedom of Worship (painting) – Freedom of Worship or Freedom to Worship is the second of the Four Freedoms oil paintings produced by the American artist Norman Rockwell. Rockwell considered this painting and Freedom of Speech the most successful of the series, Freedom of Worship was published in the February 27,1943, issue of The Saturday Evening Post alongside an essay by philosopher Will Durant. Freedom of Worship is the second of a series of four oil paintings by Norman Rockwell entitled Four Freedoms. The works were inspired by President Franklin D. Roosevelts State of the Union Address delivered to the 77th United States Congress on January 6,1941, of the Four Freedoms, the only two described in the United States Constitution are freedom of speech and freedom of religion. The Four Freedoms theme was incorporated into the Allies World War II policy statement, the Atlantic Charter. For the essay accompanying Freedom of Worship, Post editor Ben Hibbs chose Durant, at the time, Durant was in the midst of working on his ten-volume The Story of Civilization, coauthored with his wife, Ariel Durant. Will Durant also lectured on history and philosophy, eventually, the series of paintings became widely distributed in poster form and became instrumental in the U. S. Government War Bond Drive. The painting shows the profiles of eight heads in a modest space, the various figures represent people of different faiths in a moment of prayer. In 1966, Rockwell used Freedom of Worship to show his admiration for John F. Kennedy in a Look story illustration entitled JFKs Bold Legacy, the work depicts Kennedy in profile in a composition similar to Freedom of Worship along with Peace Corps volunteers. The original version of the painting was set in a barbershop with patrons of a variety of religions and his first workup was a 41-by-33-inch oil on canvas depicting tolerance as the basis for a democracys religious diversity. It included a Jew being served by a Protestant barber as a black man, the problem was painting easily recognizable depictions of different religions and races because there was little agreement on what a person of a certain religion should look like. However, as he attempted to clarify the characters depictions he found himself resorting to offensive overexaggeration, Rockwells intended theme was religious tolerance, but he felt the original composition did not successfully make this point. In June 1942, Post editor Ben Hibbs became supportive of Rockwells Four Freedoms sketches, by October, the Post was worried about Rockwells progress on the Four Freedoms and sent their art editor to Arlington to evaluate. At that time Rockwell was working on Freedom of Worship, his painting in the series. Rockwell spent two months on this work, that was inspired by the phrase Each according to the dictates of his own conscience, other models were a Mrs. Harrington, Rockwells carpenter Walter Squires, Squires wife Clara Squires, Winfield Secoy, and Jim Martin. His final version relied on visual clues, including a rosary. The work had dark-skinned black worshipers juxtaposed on the edges and this placement did not rock the boat with The Post who had not yet featured blacks prominently on its pages. Rockwell said he made these ethnics palatable by furtively painting the face of the woman at the topFreedom of Worship (painting) – Freedom of Worship
31. Funerary Monument to Sir John Hawkwood – The Funerary Monument to Sir John Hawkwood is a fresco by Paolo Uccello, commemorating English condottiero John Hawkwood, commissioned in 1436 for Florences Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore. The fresco is an important example of art commemorating a soldier-for-hire who fought in the Italian peninsula and is a work in the development of perspective. The politics of the commissioning and recommissioning of the fresco have been analyzed and debated by historians, the fresco is the oldest extant and authenticated work of Uccello, from a relatively well-known aspect of his career compared to the periods before and after its creation. The fresco has been restored and is now detached from the wall, Hawkwood had a long military career and a complicated relationship with Florence. He fought for England during the Hundred Years War and then with the Great Company which had harassed the Avignon Papacy, Hawkwood and the White Company remained in Italy, accepting money from many city-states, both to wage war and to refrain from it. Hawkwood also received a 600 florin annual salary for the five years. Hawkwood married Donnina, the daughter of Bernabò Visconti, in 1377. In that same year he defected to Florence, Hawkwoods 1377 massacre at Cesena during the twilight of his papal employment in the War of the Eight Saints continues to tarnish his legacy. However, Hawkwood was the de facto commander-in-chief of Florences military from 1377 until immediately prior to his death in 1394, Hawkwood, now in his seventies, made preparations to return to England, where he had been sending money to acquire land, and set up a chantry. Just as he was liquidating his affairs in Italy, he died, Florence acquiesced to Richard IIs request in a June 3,1395 letter, Our devotion can deny nothing to the eminence of your highness. We will leave nothing undone that is possible to do, so that we may fulfill your good pleasure, nevertheless, according to the tenor of your request, we freely concede permission that his remains shall return to their native land. In any case, the monument would have run into difficulty. In the Quattrocento, it was traditional for condottieri like Hawkwood to be buried in major public churches, tibertino Brandolino was interred at San Francesco in Venice, Jacopo de Cavalli at SS. Holding ever more lavish funeral ceremonies for fallen condottieri was only one way in which Italian city-states competed with other to attract the services of the most skilled mercenaries. Hawkwoods funeral was sandwiched between the funerals in Siena of Giovanni dAzzo degli Ubaldini—who had been poisoned by the Florentines in the Visconti wars—and Giovanni Tedesco da Pietramala and it was unprecedented for the Signoria to vote to erect a monument to a living person in the cathedral. The ambiguous plans of the Signoria—which likely was aware of Hawkwoods health status—might well have been for a rather than a cenotaph, Hawkwood died soon after. Painters Agnolo Gaddi and Giuliano Arrighi were selected by a committee to directly onto the Duomo wall models for the Hawkwood. Although neither tomb was realized, documentary evidence suggests that a painting of Hawkwood—with a figure of Hawkwood by Gaddi, the fresco probably came to replace the tomb, maybe for reasons of expedience and frugality, although there is little documentary evidence on this regardFunerary Monument to Sir John Hawkwood – Funerary Monument to Sir John Hawkwood: the fresco measures 732 x 404 cm (288 x 159 in); with Trompe-l'œil frame added in the 16th century, 820 x 515 cm (323 x 203 in).
32. The Garden of Earthly Delights – The Garden of Earthly Delights is the modern title given to a triptych painted by the Early Netherlandish master Hieronymus Bosch, housed in the Museo del Prado in Madrid since 1939. It dates from between 1490 and 1510, when Bosch was between about 40 and 60 years old, and is his best-known and most ambitious surviving work. The triptych is painted in oil on oak and is composed of a square middle panel flanked by two other oak rectangular wings that close over the center as shutters, the outer wings, when folded, show a grisaille painting of the earth during the biblical narrative of Creation. The three scenes of the triptych are probably intended to be read chronologically from left to right. The left panel depicts God presenting Eve to Adam, the panel is a broad panorama of socially engaged nude figures, fantastical animals, oversized fruit. The right panel is a hellscape and portrays the torments of damnation, art historians frequently interpret the painting as a didactic warning on the perils of lifes temptations. However, the intricacy of its symbolism, particularly that of the panel, has led to a wide range of scholarly interpretations over the centuries. Twentieth-century art historians are divided as to whether the central panel is a moral warning or a panorama of paradise lost. American writer Peter S. Beagle describes it as an erotic derangement that turns us all into voyeurs, Bosch painted three large triptychs that can be read from left to right and in which each panel was essential to the meaning of the whole. Each of these three works presents distinct yet linked themes addressing history and faith, when the triptychs wings are closed, the design of the outer panels becomes visible. It was common for the panels of Netherlandish altarpieces to be in grisaille. The outer panels are thought to depict the creation of the world. God, wearing a similar to a papal tiara, is visible as a tiny figure at the upper left. Bosch shows God as the father sitting with a Bible on his lap, above him is inscribed a quote from Psalm 33 reading Ipse dixit, et facta sunt, ipse mandāvit, et creāta sunt—For he spake and it was done, he commanded, and it stood fast. The Earth is encapsulated in a transparent sphere recalling the traditional depiction of the world as a crystal sphere held by God or Christ. It hangs suspended in the cosmos, which is shown as an impermeable darkness, despite the presence of vegetation, the earth does not yet contain human or animal life, indicating that the scene represents the events of the biblical Third Day. Surrounding the interior of the globe is the sea, partially illuminated by beams of light shining through clouds, the exterior wings have a clear position within the sequential narrative of the work as a whole. They show an unpopulated earth composed solely of rock and plants, as with Boschs Haywain triptych, the inner centerpiece is flanked by heavenly and hellish imageryThe Garden of Earthly Delights – Hieronymus Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights, oil on oak panels, 220 x 389 cm, Museo del Prado, Madrid
33. Head VI – Head VI is an oil-on-canvas painting by the Irish-born English figurative artist Francis Bacon, the last of six panels making up his 1949 Head series. This gives the effect of a man trapped and suffocated by his surroundings, Head VI contains many motifs that were to reappear in Bacons work. The hanging object, which may be a switch or curtain tassel. The geometric cage is a motif that appears as late as his 1985–86 masterpiece, Head VI was first exhibited in November 1949 at the Hanover Gallery in London, in a showing organised by one of the artists early champions, Erica Brausen. At the time, Bacon was a controversial but respected artist, best known for his 1944 Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion. In 1989 Lawrence Gowing wrote that the shock of the picture, the paradoxical appearance at once of pastiche and iconoclasm was indeed one of Bacons most original strokes. Art critic and curator David Sylvester described it as a piece from Bacons unusually productive 1949–50 period. Bacons output is characterised by sequences of images and he told Sylvester that his imagination was stimulated by sequences and that images breed other images in me. His series were not always planned or painted in sequence, sometimes paintings are grouped for convenience but vary in execution, the idea for the head series came after he returned penniless, late in 1948, from a stay in Tangier. In the previous three years he had unable to find a voice, the last surviving canvas from this period is his Painting. Although he continued to paint, he was a ruthless self critic, given to slashing canvases with blades, gallerist Erica Brausen offered Bacon the opportunity of a solo show for the opening of her new Hanover Gallery. He agreed, but had nothing in reserve to hang, already 40 years old, Bacon viewed the exhibition as his last chance and applied himself to the task with determination. Because he had destroyed all his out of the last three years, he had little choice but to present new works, the paintings depict isolated figures enclosed in spaces that are undefined, overwhelmingly claustrophobic, reductive and eerie. Coming early in Bacons career, they are uneven in quality, Head I and Head II show formless pieces of flesh that broadly resemble human heads, they have half-open eyes and a pharynx, though it is positioned much higher than would be expected in a human. Heads III, IV and V show fully formed busts recognisable as men and these two broad ideas coalesce in Head VI, which is as physiologically tortured as the first two paintings, and as spectral as the middle three. Bacon said that played a significant role in his work. This was especially the case in the mid to late 1940s, the following morning he would often approach his canvas in a bad mood of drinking. Under tremendous hangovers and drink, I sometimes hardly knew what I was doing and he incorporated his appetite for chance into his work, an image often would morph mid-way through into something quite different from what he had first intendedHead VI – Head VI, 1949. 93.2 × 76.5 cm (36.7 × 30.1 in), Arts Council collection, Hayward Gallery, London
34. Heian Palace – The Heian Palace or Daidairi was the original imperial palace of Heian-kyō, the capital of Japan, from 794 to 1227. The palace consisted of a rectangular walled enclosure, which contained several ceremonial. Inside this enclosure was the walled residential compound of the emperor or the Inner Palace. The original role of the palace was to manifest the centralised government model adopted by Japan from China in the 7th century—the Daijō-kan, the palace was designed to provide an appropriate setting for the emperors residence, the conduct of great affairs of state, and the accompanying ceremonies. While the residential function of the palace continued until the 12th century and this was due to both the abandonment of several statutory ceremonies and procedures and the transfer of several remaining ceremonies into the smaller-scale setting of the Inner Palace. From the mid-Heian period, the palace suffered several fires and other disasters, during reconstructions, emperors and some of the office functions resided outside the palace. This, along with the loss of political power of the court. Finally in 1227 the palace burned down and was never rebuilt, the site was built over so that almost no trace of it remains. Knowledge of the palace is based on contemporary literary sources, surviving diagrams and paintings. The palace was located at the centre of the rectangular Heian-kyō, following the Chinese model adopted already for the Heijō Palace in the earlier capital Heijō-kyō. The south-eastern corner of the Greater Palace was located in the middle of the present-day Nijō Castle, the main entrance to the palace was the gate Suzakumon, which formed the northern terminus of the great Suzaku Avenue that ran through the centre of the city from the gate Rashōmon. The palace thus faced south and presided over the urban plan of Heian-kyō. In addition to the Suzakumon, the palace had 13 other gates located symmetrically along the side walls. A major avenue led to each of the gates, except for the three along the side of the palace, which was coterminous with the northern boundary of the city itself. The palace was the first and most important structure to be erected at the new capital of Heian-kyō, where the court moved in 794 following Emperor Kanmus order. The palace was not completely ready by the time of the move, however—the Daigokuden was completed only in 795, in parallel with the concentration of activity within the Dairi, the Greater Palace began to be regarded as increasingly unsafe, especially by night. One reason may be the prevalent superstition of the period, uninhabited buildings were avoided for fear of spirits and ghosts, and even the great Buraku-in compound was thought to be haunted. In addition, the level of actual security maintained at the palace went into decline, and by the early 11th century only one palace gate, hence burglary and even violent crime became a problem within the palace by the first half of 11th centuryHeian Palace – Memorial stone at the site of the Daigokuden hall of the palace.
35. Hoxne Hoard – The objects are now in the British Museum in London, where the most important pieces and a selection of the rest are on permanent display. In 1993, the Treasure Valuation Committee valued the hoard at £1.75 million. The hoard was buried as an oak box or small chest filled with items in metal, sorted mostly by type with some in smaller wooden boxes. Remnants of the chest, and of such as hinges. The coins of the date it after AD407, which coincides with the end of Britain as a Roman province. The owners and reasons for burial of the hoard are unknown, but it was carefully packed and the contents appear consistent with what a single very wealthy family might have owned. Given the lack of large silver serving vessels and of some of the most common types of jewellery, the Hoxne Hoard contains several rare and important objects, including a gold body-chain and silver-gilt pepper-pots, including the Empress pepper pot. The Hoxne Hoard is also of archaeological significance because it was excavated by professional archaeologists with the items largely undisturbed. The find helped to improve the relationship between metal detectorists and archaeologists, and influenced a change in English law regarding finds of treasure. The hoard was discovered in a field of a farm, about 2.4 kilometres southwest of the village of Hoxne in Suffolk, on 16 November 1992. Peter Whatling, the tenant farmer, had lost a hammer and asked his friend Eric Lawes, while searching the field with his metal detector, Lawes discovered silver spoons, gold jewellery and numerous gold and silver coins. After retrieving a few items, he and Whatling notified the landowners, the following day, a team of archaeologists from the Suffolk Archaeological Unit carried out an emergency excavation of the site. The entire hoard was excavated in a day, with the removal of several large blocks of unbroken material for laboratory excavation. The area within a radius of 30 metres from the spot was searched using metal detectors. Peter Whatlings missing hammer was also recovered and donated to the British Museum, the hoard was concentrated in a single location, within the completely decayed remains of a wooden chest. Some items had been disturbed by burrowing animals and ploughing, the excavated hoard was taken to the British Museum. The discovery was leaked to the press, and on 19 November, although the full contents of the hoard and its value were still unknown, the newspaper article claimed that the hoard was worth £10 million. In response to the publicity, the British Museum held a press conference at the museum on 20 November to announce the discoveryHoxne Hoard – Display case reconstructing the arrangement of the hoard treasure when excavated.
36. Icelandic Phallological Museum – The Icelandic Phallological Museum, located in Reykjavík, Iceland, houses the worlds largest display of penises and penile parts. The collection of 280 specimens from 93 species of animals includes 55 penises taken from whales,36 from seals and 118 from land mammals, allegedly including Huldufólk, in July 2011, the museum obtained its first human penis, one of four promised by would-be donors. Its detachment from the body did not go according to plan. The museum continues to search for a younger and a bigger and better one, the museum claims that its collection includes the penises of elves and trolls, though, as Icelandic folklore portrays such creatures as being invisible, they cannot be seen. The collection also features art and crafts such as lampshades made from the scrotums of bulls. According to its statement, the museum aims to enable individuals to undertake serious study into the field of phallology in an organized. The museums founder Sigurður Hjartarson worked as a teacher and principal for 37 years, teaching history, as a child, he owned a bulls pizzle, which was given to him to use as a cattle whip. He began collecting penises after a friend heard the story of the penis in 1974 and gave him four new ones. Acquaintances at whaling stations began bringing him whale penises as well, the organs of farm animals came from slaughterhouses, while fishermen supplied those of pinnipeds and the smaller whales. The penises of larger whales came from commercial whaling stations, although this source dried up after the International Whaling Commission implemented a ban on commercial whaling in 1986. Sigurður was able to continue to collect whale penises by harvesting them from the 12–16 whales that fall victim to stranding on the Icelandic coast each year and he also obtained the penis of a polar bear shot by fishermen who found the animal drifting on drift ice off the Westfjords. Sigurður was assisted by his family, though not without some occasional embarrassment and his daughter Þorgerður recalls that she was once sent to a slaughterhouse to collect a specimen but arrived just as the workers were taking a lunch break, Someone asked, Whats in the basket. I had to say, Im collecting a frozen goat penis, after that I said, I will never collect for you again. According to Sigurður, Collecting penises is like collecting anything and you can never stop, you can never catch up, you can always get a new one, a better one. The collection was at first housed in Sigurðurs office at the college until he retired from his teaching job. He decided, more as a hobby than a job, to put it on display in Reykjavík and was awarded a grant from the city council of ISK200,000 to support the opening of a museum in August 1997. By 2003, it was attracting 5,200 visitors a year and he put the museum up for sale in 2003, but also offered it to the city of Reykjavík as a gift. However, he was unsuccessful in obtaining support from the state or cityIcelandic Phallological Museum – Sigurður Hjartarson, founder of the Icelandic Phallological Museum
37. IG Farben Building – The IG Farben Building, officially known as the Poelzig Building, is a building complex in Frankfurt, Germany, which currently serves as the main campus of the University of Frankfurt. It was built from 1928 to 1930 as the headquarters of the IG Farben conglomerate, then the worlds largest chemical company. The buildings original design in the modernist New Objectivity style was the subject of a competition which was won by the architect Hans Poelzig. On its completion, the complex was the largest office building in Europe, the IG Farben Buildings six square wings retain a modern, spare elegance, despite its mammoth size. It is also notable for its paternoster elevators, notably IG Farben scientists discovered the first antibiotic, fundamentally reformed medical research and opened a new era in medicine. After World War II, the IG Farben Building served as the headquarters for the Supreme Allied Command and it became the principal location for implementing the Marshall Plan, which supported the post-war reconstruction of Europe. The 1948 Frankfurt Documents, which led to the creation of a West German state allied with the powers, were signed in the building. The IG Farben Building served as the headquarters for the US Armys V Corps, the US Army renamed the building the General Creighton W. Abrams Building in 1975. In 1995, the US Army transferred the IG Farben Building to the German government, the building underwent a restoration and was opened as part of the university in 2001. The IG Farben Building was developed on land known as the Grüneburggelände in Frankfurts Westend District, in 1837, the property belonged to the Rothschild family. In 1864, the psychiatric hospital known as Affenfelsen or Affenstein, was erected on the site. The name Affenstein derives from an ancient Christian memorial that once stood here on the road outside Frankfurt and it was known as the Avestein as in Ave Maria but in the local Frankfurt dialect it was called the Affe Stein. Here, Dr Heinrich Hoffman hired Alois Alzheimer to work in the hospital, the Grüneburgpark was established in 1880 on the larger western part of the site. IG Farben acquired the property in 1927 to establish its headquarters there, in the 1920s, IG Farben was the worlds largest drug, chemical and dye conglomerate. Frankfurt was chosen because of its centrality and its accessibility by air, in August 1928, Professor Hans Poelzig won a limited competition to design the building, among five selected architects, notably beating Ernst May, the then Head of Urban Design for Frankfurt. Work on the began in late 1928, and in mid-1929 construction started on the steel frame. The building was completed in 1930 after only 24 months, by employing rapid-setting concrete, new construction materials, later in 1930, the Frankfurt director of horticulture Max Bromme and the artists group Bornimer Kreis developed designs for the 14 hectares of parkland that surrounded the building. The grounds, and the complex as a whole, were completed in 1931 at a total cost of 24 million Reichsmark, IG Farben subsequently became an indispensable part of the Nazi industrial baseIG Farben Building – South façade of the Poelzig Building showing the main entrance
38. Kona Lanes – Kona Lanes was a bowling center in Costa Mesa, California, that opened in 1958 and closed in 2003 after 45 years in business. Known for its design, it featured 40 wood-floor bowling lanes, a game room, a lounge. When Kona Lanes was demolished in 2003, it was one of the last remaining examples of the Googie style in the region, its sister center, Java Lanes in Long Beach, was razed in 2004. Much of Konas equipment was sold prior to the demolition, a portion of the sign was saved and sent to Cincinnati, Ohio. Costa Mesas planning commission approved a proposal to build a department store on the site, following public outcry, in 2010, the still-vacant land was rezoned for senior citizens apartments and commercial development. Construction on the apartments began ten years after Kona Lanes was demolished, Kona Lanes opened in 1958, featuring the Tiki-inspired signage and architecture that became popular following World War II. Author Andrew Hurley called them expensive and attractive buildings that screamed, Have fun here and its massive neon-lit street sign remained for the life of the building, and Kona was the only bowling establishment in the area to reject automatic scoring equipment throughout its existence. Kona Lanes hosted the Southern California PBA Open twice in 1964, Billy Hardwick won in April, when Stoeffler rolled back-to-back 300 games in one league session at Kona in 1968, he was one of only four men in the country to have managed the feat. Kona Lanes and Tustin Lanes hosted nearly 10,000 teams of five players each taking part in the United States Bowling Congress Womens Championships in 1986. Under Dick Stoefflers management, Kona Lanes kept busy 24 hours a day, Stoeffler met his future wife there, and other couples had similar experiences. Kona was often so busy that customers had to make reservations to get a lane during open bowling hours, at its peak, Kona Lanes averaged more than 80 lines on each of its 40 lanes. Jack Mann bought Kona Lanes in 1980 and re-branded it New Kona Lanes the following year, manns family owned several bowling centers in the region, he was behind the creation of Fountain Bowl in 1973 and the short-lived Regal Lanes in Orange in 1974. He also owned Tustin Lanes before selling it to his youngest son, Mann bought Kona not because he loved bowling, but because it would continue to pay dividends if he was no longer able to work. He later sold Kona to his son Jack Jr, the centers lounge, known as the Outrigger Room, hosted many local artists over the years. Jazz quintet The Redd Foxx Bbq released four songs recorded there, in later years, much of the bowlers area was taped off for rock concerts and weekend promotions like Club Crush, which proved popular among teenagers and also led to album recordings. The idea backfired at least once, Kona Lanes was hit with some publicity when a planned event featuring a local punk rock group was shut down by the Costa Mesa Police Department. Eventually, the property became more valuable than the business, the landowners, C. J. Segerstrom & Sons, gave Jack Mann Jr. a choice, spend $10–20 million to update the center, or give it up. Mann chose the rather than spend such a sum on a site without a long-term leaseKona Lanes – The KONA LANES BOWL roadside sign in 2002
39. Kronan (ship) – Kronan, also called Stora Kronan, was a Swedish warship that served as the flagship of the Swedish navy in the Baltic Sea in the 1670s. When built, she was one of the largest seagoing vessels in the world, the construction of Kronan lasted from 1668 to 1672 and was delayed by difficulties with financing and conflicts between the shipwright Francis Sheldon and the Swedish admiralty. Kronan sank quickly, taking about 800 men and more than 100 guns with her, along with military equipment, weapons, personal items. The loss of Kronan was a blow for Sweden during the Scanian War. Besides being the largest and most heavily armed ship in the Swedish navy, along with Kronan, the navy lost a sizeable proportion of its best manpower, acting supreme commander Lorentz Creutz, numerous high-ranking fleet officers, and the chief of the navy medical staff. A commission was set up to investigate whether any individuals could be responsible for the Swedish fiasco at the Battle of Öland. Although no one was held accountable, Creutz has been blamed by many historians for the sinking of Kronan because of his naval. Recent research has provided a more nuanced picture, and points to Swedens general lack of a well-developed naval organization, most of the guns that sank with Kronan were salvaged in the 1680s, but eventually the wreck fell into obscurity. Its exact position was rediscovered in 1980 by the amateur researcher Anders Franzén, yearly diving operations have since surveyed and excavated the wreck site and salvaged artifacts, and Kronan has become the most widely publicized shipwreck in the Baltic after Vasa. More than 30,000 artifacts have been recovered, and many have been conserved, the museum is responsible for the maritime archaeological operations and the permanent exhibitions on Kronan. In the 1660s, Sweden was at its height as a European great power and it had defeated Denmark, one of its main competitors for hegemony in the Baltic, in both the Torstenson War and the Dano-Swedish War. At the Treaties of Brömsebro and Roskilde, Denmark had been forced to cede the islands of Gotland and Ösel, all of its territories on the Scandinavian Peninsula. In a third war, from 1658 to 1660, King Charles X of Sweden attempted to finish off Denmark for good, the move was bold royal ambition in an already highly militarized society geared for warfare, a fiscal-military state. Disbanding its armies would have required paying outstanding wages, so there was an incentive to keep hostilities alive and let soldiers live off enemy lands. The renewed attack on Denmark threatened the interests of the leading shipping nations of England and the Dutch Republic, the Dutch intervened in 1658 by sending a fleet to stop the attempt to crush Denmark. England also sent a fleet in November the same year, to assist Sweden in keeping the Sound Toll out of Danish and Dutch control. The English expedition failed as a result of winter weather and the political turmoil that ended the Protectorate. Charles X died in February 1660, three months later, the Treaty of Copenhagen ended the warKronan (ship) – Reconstruction by Jacob Hägg, 1909
40. Las Meninas – Las Meninas is a 1656 painting in the Museo del Prado in Madrid, by Diego Velázquez, the leading artist of the Spanish Golden Age. Its complex and enigmatic composition raises questions about reality and illusion, because of these complexities, Las Meninas has been one of the most widely analyzed works in Western painting. Some look out of the canvas towards the viewer, while others interact among themselves, the young Infanta Margaret Theresa is surrounded by her entourage of maids of honour, chaperone, bodyguard, two dwarfs and a dog. Just behind them, Velázquez portrays himself working at a large canvas, Velázquez looks outwards, beyond the pictorial space to where a viewer of the painting would stand. In the background there is a mirror that reflects the upper bodies of the king, Las Meninas has long been recognised as one of the most important paintings in Western art history. In 17th-century Spain, painters rarely enjoyed high social status, Painting was regarded as a craft, not an art such as poetry or music. Nonetheless, Velázquez worked his way up through the ranks of the court of Philip IV, the post brought him status and material reward, but its duties made heavy demands on his time. During the remaining eight years of his life, he painted only a few works, when he painted Las Meninas, he had been with the royal household for 33 years. Philip IVs first wife, Elizabeth of France, died in 1644, lacking an heir, Philip married Mariana of Austria in 1649, and Margaret Theresa was their first child, and their only one at the time of the painting. Subsequently, she had a short-lived brother Philip Prospero, and then Charles arrived, Velázquez painted portraits of Mariana and her children, and although Philip himself resisted being portrayed in his old age he did allow Velázquez to include him in Las Meninas. In the early 1650s he gave Velázquez the Pieza Principal of the late Balthasar Charless living quarters, by serving as the palace museum. It is here that Las Meninas is set, Philip had his own chair in the studio and would often sit and watch Velázquez at work. Although constrained by rigid etiquette, the king seems to have had an unusually close relationship with the painter. After Velázquezs death, Philip wrote I am crushed in the margin of a memorandum on the choice of his successor, during the 1640s and 1650s, Velázquez served as both court painter and curator of Philip IVs expanding collection of European art. He seems to have given an unusual degree of freedom in the role. He supervised the decoration and interior design of the holding the most valued paintings, adding mirrors. He was also responsible for the sourcing, attribution, hanging, by the early 1650s, Velázquez was widely respected in Spain as a connoisseur. Much of the collection of the Prado today—including works by Titian, Raphael, the painting was referred to in the earliest inventories as La FamiliaLas Meninas – Las Meninas
41. Literary Hall – Literary Hall is a mid-19th-century brick library building and museum in Romney, West Virginia. It is located at the intersection of North High Street and West Main Street, Literary Hall was constructed between 1869 and 1870 by the Romney Literary Society. Founded in 1819, the Romney Literary Society was the first literary organization of its kind in the state of West Virginia. In 1846, the society constructed a building housed the Romney Classical Institute. The Romney Literary Society and the Romney Classical Institute both flourished and continued to grow in importance and influence until the onset of the American Civil War in 1861. During the war, the contents of the library were plundered by Union Army forces. After a reorganization in 1869, the society commenced construction of the present Literary Hall in downtown Romney, the Romney Literary Societys last meeting was held at Literary Hall in 1886. From 1886 to 1973 the building was used as a space by the Clinton Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons. In 1973, the building was purchased by prominent Romney lawyer Ralph Haines, from 1937 to the early 1940s the building also housed a community library. Literary Hall was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on May 29,1979, Literary Halls basic design incorporates Federal and Greek Revival styles along with Victorian details. Architectural historian Michael J. Pauley described Literary Hall as one of Romneys and Hampshire Countys most notable landmarks, and one in which this community is justifiably proud. Literary Hall is located in the center of downtown Romney, West Virginia, at the intersection of North High Street, the Hampshire County Courthouse is immediately to its east across North High Street and the Romney First United Methodist Church is situated immediately to the buildings north. The Old National Building is located to the south of Literary Hall across West Main Street. Literary Hall stands at an elevation of 820.3 feet above sea level, one of these seven supporters, Thomas Colepeper, 2nd Baron Colepeper, acquired the entire area in 1681, his grandson, Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, inherited it in 1719. Literary Hall was built upon a land lot designated Lot 56 to the immediate west of the square of Romney. In 1790, the trustees of the Town of Romney commissioned John Mitchel to draft a cadastral map of Romney. Prior to this survey, Lord Fairfax had commissioned a similar survey of Romney sometime before the towns incorporation on December 23,1762. The Romney Literary Society, which built Literary Hall between 1869 and 1870, was organized by nine prominent men in Romney on January 30,1819Literary Hall – Literary Hall
42. Little Moreton Hall – Little Moreton Hall, also known as Old Moreton Hall, is a moated half-timbered manor house 4 miles southwest of Congleton in Cheshire, England. The building is irregular, with three asymmetrical ranges forming a small, rectangular cobbled courtyard. A National Trust guidebook describes Little Moreton Hall as being lifted straight from a fairy story, the houses top-heavy appearance, like a stranded Noahs Ark, is due to the Long Gallery that runs the length of the south ranges upper floor. The house remained in the possession of the Moreton family for almost 450 years, the house has been fully restored and is open to the public from April to December each year. The gardens lay abandoned until their 20th-century re-creation, as there were no surviving records of the layout of the original knot garden it was replanted according to a pattern published in the 17th century. The name Moreton probably derives from the Old English mor meaning marshland and tune, meaning farm, the area where Little Moreton Hall stands today was named Little Moreton to distinguish it from the nearby township of Moreton-cum-Alcumlow, or Greater Moreton. Gralam de Lostocks grandson, Gralam de Moreton, acquired land from his marriages to Alice de Lymme. Another grandson, John de Moreton, married heiress Margaret de Macclesfield in 1329, the family also purchased land cheaply after the Black Death epidemic of 1348. Little Moreton Hall first appears in the record in 1271. The north range is the earliest part of the house, built between 1504 and 1508 for William Moreton, it comprises the Great Hall and the northern part of the east wing. A service wing to the west, built at the time but subsequently replaced. The east range was extended to the south in about 1508 to provide living quarters, as well as housing the Chapel. The south wing was added in about 1560–62 by William Moreton IIs son John and it includes the Gatehouse and a third storey containing a 68-foot Long Gallery, which appears to have been an afterthought added on after construction work had begun. A small kitchen and Brew-house block was added to the wing in about 1610. The fortunes of the Moreton family declined during the English Civil War, as supporters of the Royalist cause, they found themselves isolated in a community of Parliamentarians. Little Moreton Hall was requisitioned by the Parliamentarians in 1643 and used to billet Parliamentary soldiers, the family successfully petitioned for its restitution, and survived the Civil War with their ownership of Little Moreton Hall intact, but financially they were crippled. They tried to sell the estate, but could only dispose of several parcels of land. William Moreton died in 1654 leaving debts of £3, 000–£4,000, the familys fortunes never fully recovered, and by the late 1670s they no longer lived in Little Moreton Hall, renting it out instead to a series of tenant farmersLittle Moreton Hall – Little Moreton Hall's south range, constructed in the mid-16th century. The weight of the third-storey glazed gallery, possibly added at a late stage of construction, has caused the lower floors to bow and warp.
43. Madonna in the Church – Madonna in the Church is a small oil panel by the early Netherlandish painter Jan van Eyck. 1438–40, it depicts the Virgin Mary holding the Child Jesus in a Gothic cathedral. Tracery in the arch at the rear of the nave contains wooden carvings depicting episodes from Marys life, Erwin Panofsky sees the painting composed as if the main figures in the panel are intended to be the sculptures come to life. In a doorway to the right, two angels sing psalms from a hymn book, like other Byzantine depictions of the Madonna, van Eyck depicts a monumental Mary, unrealistically large compared to her surroundings. The panel contains closely observed beams of light flooding through the cathedrals windows and it illuminates the interior before culminating in two pools on the floor. The light has symbolic significance, alluding simultaneously to Marys virginal purity, most art historians see the panel as the left wing of a dismantled diptych, presumably its opposite wing was a votive portrait. Madonna in the Church was first documented in 1851, since then its dating and attribution have been widely debated amongst scholars. The panel was acquired for the Berlin Gemäldegalerie in 1874 and it was stolen in 1877 and soon returned, but without its original inscribed frame, which was never recovered. Today Madonna in the Church is widely considered one of van Eycks finest, Millard Meiss wrote that its splendor, the attribution of the panel reflects the progression and trends of 19th and 20th-century scholarship on Early Netherlandish art. It is now thought to have completed c. 1438–40, but there are arguments for dates as early as 1424–29. This is no longer considered credible and Hubert, today, is credited with very few works, by 1912 the painting had been definitively attributed to Jan in the museum catalogue. Attempts to date it have undergone similar shifts of opinion, in the 19th century the panel was believed to be an early work by Jan completed as early as c. 1410, although this changed as scholarship progressed. In the early 20th century, Ludwig von Baldass placed it around 1424–29, Erwin Panofsky provided the first detailed treatise on the work and placed it around 1432–34. However, following research from Meyer Schapiro, he revised his opinion to the late 1430s in the 1953 edition of his Early Netherlandish Painting, a 1970s comparative study of van Eycks 1437 Saint Barbara concluded that Madonna in the Church was completed after c. In the 1990s, Otto Pächt judged the work as probably a late van Eyck, in the early 21st century, Jeffrey Chipps Smith and John Oliver Hand placed it between 1426 and 1428, claiming it as perhaps the earliest extant signed work confirmed as by Jan. At 31 cm ×14 cm, the dimensions are small enough to be almost considered miniatureMadonna in the Church – Jan van Eyck, Madonna in the Church (c. 1438–40). Oil on oak panel, 31 × 14 cm (12.25 × 5.5 in). Gemäldegalerie, Berlin
44. Maiden Castle, Dorset – Maiden Castle is an Iron Age hill fort 2.5 kilometres south west of Dorchester, in the English county of Dorset. Hill forts were fortified hill-top settlements constructed across Britain during the Iron Age, the earliest archaeological evidence of human activity on the site consists of a Neolithic causewayed enclosure and bank barrow. In about 1800 BC, during the Bronze Age, the site was used for growing crops before being abandoned. Maiden Castle itself was built in about 600 BC, the phase was a simple and unremarkable site, similar to many other hill forts in Britain. At the same time, Maiden Castles defences were more complex with the addition of further ramparts. Around 100 BC habitation at the fort went into decline. It was occupied until at least the Roman period, by time it was in the territory of the Durotriges. After the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century AD, Maiden Castle appears to have been abandoned, in the late 4th century AD, a temple and ancillary buildings were constructed. In the 6th century AD the hill top was entirely abandoned and was used only for agriculture during the medieval period, Maiden Castle has provided inspiration for composer John Ireland and authors Thomas Hardy and John Cowper Powys. The study of hill forts was popularised in the 19th century by archaeologist Augustus Pitt Rivers, in the 1930s, archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler and Tessa Verney Wheeler undertook the first archaeological excavations at Maiden Castle, raising its profile among the public. Further excavations were carried out under Niall Sharples, which added to an understanding of the site, today the site is protected as a Scheduled Ancient Monument and is maintained by English Heritage. Before the hill fort was built, a Neolithic causewayed enclosure was constructed on the site. Dating from around 4000 BC, it was an area enclosed by two ditches, It is called a causewayed enclosure because the way the ditches were dug meant that there would originally have been gaps. These gaps, and the bank being only 17 centimetres high, instead the ditches may have been symbolic, separating the interior of the enclosure and its activities from the outside. Archaeologist Niall Sharples, who was involved in excavating the fort in the 1980s, has identified the hilltop views of the surrounding landscape as a likely factor for the enclosures position. The interior of the enclosure has been disturbed by later habitation, the site does not appear to have been inhabited, although a grave containing the remains of two children, aged 6–7, has been discovered. The enclosure is the earliest evidence of activity on the site. The purpose of Neolithic causewayed enclosures is unclear, and they probably had a variety of functions, radiocarbon dating indicates that the enclosure was abandoned around 3,400 BCMaiden Castle, Dorset – Maiden Castle in 1934
45. Maya stelae – Maya stelae are monuments that were fashioned by the Maya civilization of ancient Mesoamerica. They consist of tall sculpted stone shafts and are associated with low circular stones referred to as altars. Many stelae were sculpted in low relief, although plain monuments are found throughout the Maya region, the earliest dated stela to have been found in situ in the Maya lowlands was recovered from the great city of Tikal in Guatemala. During the Classic Period almost every Maya kingdom in the southern lowlands raised stelae in its ceremonial centre, stelae became closely associated with the concept of divine kingship and declined at the same time as this institution. The production of stelae by the Maya had its origin around 400 BC and continued through to the end of the Classic Period, around 900, although some monuments were reused in the Postclassic. The major city of Calakmul in Mexico raised the greatest number of stelae known from any Maya city, at least 166, hundreds of stelae have been recorded in the Maya region, displaying a wide stylistic variation. Many are upright slabs of limestone sculpted on one or more faces, with available surfaces sculpted with figures carved in relief, stelae in a few sites display a much more three-dimensional appearance where locally available stone permits, such as at Copán and Toniná. Plain stelae do not appear to have been painted nor overlaid with stucco decoration, stelae were essentially stone banners raised to glorify the king and record his deeds, although the earliest examples depict mythological scenes. This influence receded in the 5th century although some minor Teotihuacan references continued to be used, in the late 5th century, Maya kings began to use stelae to mark the end of calendrical cycles. In the Late Classic, imagery linked to the Mesoamerican ballgame was introduced, by the Terminal Classic, the institution of divine kingship declined, and Maya kings began to be depicted with their subordinate lords. As the Classic Period came to an end, stelae ceased to be erected, the function of the Maya stela was central to the ideology of Maya kingship from the very beginning of the Classic Period through to the very end of the Terminal Classic. According to Stuart this may refer to the stelae as stone versions of standards that once stood in prominent places in Maya city centres. The name of the modern Lacandon Maya is likely to be a Colonial corruption of this word, Maya stelae were often arranged to impress the viewer, forming lines or other arrangements within the ceremonial centre of the city. An alternative interpretation of these altars is that they were in fact thrones that were used by rulers during ceremonial events, archaeologists believe that they probably also served as ritual pedestals for incense burners, ceremonial fires and other offerings. The core purpose of a stela was to glorify the king, many Maya stelae depict only the king of the city, and describe his actions with hieroglyphic script. Even when the individual depicted is not the king himself, the text or scene usually relates the subject to the king. Openly declaring the importance and power of the king to the community, the stela portrayed his wealth, prestige and ancestry, and depicted him wielding the symbols of military and divine power. Stelae were raised to commemorate important events, especially at the end of a katun 20-year cycle of the Maya calendar, the stela did not just mark off a period of time, it has been argued that it physically embodied that period of timeMaya stelae – Stela 51 from Calakmul, dating to 731, is the best preserved monument from the city. It depicts the king Yuknoom Took' K'awiil.
46. Melbourne Castle – Melbourne Castle was a medieval castle in Melbourne, Derbyshire. It was built on the site of a royal manor house that had provided accommodation for noblemen hunting in a nearby royal park in the reign of King John. Construction of the castle was started in 1311 by Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, and continued until 1322, shortly before his execution, from the early fourteenth century, Melbourne Castle was mainly in the possession of the Earls and Dukes of Lancaster or the crown. Improvements and repairs were made, notably by John of Gaunt, the castle was in decline by the end of the reign of Elizabeth I. Although the stonework was sound, minimal maintenance had led to significant deterioration of other parts of the structure, the manor was purchased in 1604 by Henry Hastings, 5th Earl of Huntingdon, who had his own castle in nearby Ashby-de-la-Zouch. The Melbourne property was demolished and used as a source for building materials. All that remains of Melbourne Castle today is a section of wall about 15 m long and 4 m high and some foundations, the ruins are grade II listed and the site is a scheduled monument. There is no access to the site. Melbourne is a town in South Derbyshire close to the River Trent, as recorded in the Domesday Book, the manor of Melbourne and its lands were the property of King Edward the Confessor prior to the Norman Conquest. The property then passed into the hands of William I of England, after creating the Diocese of Carlisle in 1133, Henry I gave the manor for life to Æthelwold, the first bishop. Some time later, the built an palace nearby on the site of what is now Melbourne Hall. When Bishop Æthelwold died in about 1156, the manor reverted to the crown, a royal hunting park close to Melbourne was probably created by King John around 1200, and the King is known to have stayed at the manor house on at least five occasions. John gave the manor and its lands to Hugh Beauchamp, although appear to have soon reverted to the crown. The estate returned to the crown on the death in 1248. At some later date, the manor appears to have granted to a Philip Marc, before passing to Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster. This was in 1298 when he came of age, his father having died two years earlier, early references to the house itself are rare, but there are records of repairs to the gutters in 1246 and to the roof of the Kings Chamber in 1248. The castle was built to the east of the town on a slightly raised location. The area enclosed within the outer walls was about 2.8 ha, but with outbuildings, other ancillary constructions and orchardsMelbourne Castle – 1733 print of a drawing from around 1580
47. Michigan State Capitol – The Michigan State Capitol is the building that houses the legislative branch of the government of the U. S. state of Michigan. It is in the portion of the capital of Lansing which lies in Ingham County. Historically, this is the building to house the Michigan government. On July 13,1787, the Second Continental Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance, in 1805, the U. S. Congress created the Michigan Territory, with Detroit as its territorial capital. Michigan first applied for statehood as early as 1832, though it was rebuffed due to a dispute with Ohio over the Toledo Strip, by 1835, Michigan had formed a state government without receiving authorization from Congress to do so. The states boundaries1included the contested area, the dispute culminated in what has become known as the Toledo War, as Michigan and Ohio militia took up arms in the area. As a condition for entering the Union, Michigan was forced to accept the western three-quarters of the Upper Peninsula in exchange for ceding its claim to the Toledo Strip, the first building to serve as the State Capitol was built in 1832 as the Territorial Courthouse. The court house was on the corner of Griswold Street and State Street and this brick structure was one of Michigans earliest Greek revival buildings, with a portico of Ionic columns and a central tower of 140 feet. The Detroit building then became a school and library until it burned in 1893. Proponents of moving the capitol also sought to promote settlement and the economy in the interior, contenders seeking designation as the new Capitol included Ann Arbor, Jackson, Grand Rapids, and Shiawassee Township in Shiawassee County. At one point during the debate, Marshall officials were so certain of its selection that they built a governors mansion, after extensive debate, State Senator Joseph H. Kilbourne of Ingham County proposed that the nearly uninhabited Lansing Township be made the seat of government. The legislature agreed, with the north of Ann Arbor, west of Detroit. The legislature renamed it as the Town of Michigan, though by 1848 the original name of Lansing was restored. Construction began in 1847 on the capitol building in Lansing, a temporary structure on the block bordered by Washington Avenue, Capitol Avenue, Allegan Street. It was a simple wood frame structure, painted white with green wooden shutters. The total cost for construction was $22,952.01, the building was sold when the permanent capitol building opened in 1879. It was then used as a factory until, like the first capitol, in the early 1870s, Governor Henry P. Baldwin urged the legislature to fund a new, permanent capitol. On March 31,1871, a bill was adopted for the erection of a new capitolMichigan State Capitol – A statue of Austin Blair stands in the foreground
48. Millennium Park – Millennium Park is a public park located in the Loop community area of Chicago in Illinois, US, and originally intended to celebrate the second millennium. It is a prominent civic center near the citys Lake Michigan shoreline that covers a 24. 5-acre section of northwestern Grant Park, the area was previously occupied by parkland, Illinois Central rail yards, and parking lots. The park, which is bounded by Michigan Avenue, Randolph Street, Columbus Drive and East Monroe Drive, as of 2009, Millennium Park trailed only Navy Pier as a Chicago tourist attraction. In 2015, the became the location of the citys annual Christmas tree lighting. Planning of the began in October 1997. Construction began in October 1998, and Millennium Park was opened in a ceremony on July 16,2004, the three-day opening celebrations were attended by some 300,000 people and included an inaugural concert by the Grant Park Orchestra and Chorus. The park has received awards for its accessibility and green design, Millennium Park has free admission, and features the Jay Pritzker Pavilion, Cloud Gate, the Crown Fountain, the Lurie Garden, and various other attractions. The park is connected by the BP Pedestrian Bridge and the Nichols Bridgeway to other parts of Grant Park, because the park sits atop a parking garage and the commuter rail Millennium Station, it is considered the worlds largest rooftop garden. Some observers consider Millennium Park to be the citys most important project since the Worlds Columbian Exposition of 1893 and it far exceeded its originally proposed budget of $150 million. The final cost of $475 million was borne by Chicago taxpayers, the city paid $270 million, private donors paid the rest, and assumed roughly half of the financial responsibility for the cost overruns. The construction delays and cost overruns were attributed to planning, many design changes. Many critics have praised the completed park, in 2017, Millennium Park became the top tourist destination in Chicago, the Midwest, and placed among the top ten in the United States with 25 million annual visitors. From 1852 until 1997, the Illinois Central Railroad owned a right of way between downtown Chicago and Lake Michigan, in the area that became Grant Park and used it for railroad tracks. Lake Front Park, the White Stockings new ball grounds, was built in 1878 with a right field due to the railroad tracks. Daniel Burnham planned Grant Park around the Illinois Central Railroad property in his 1909 Plan of Chicago, in 1997, when the city gained airspace rights over the tracks, it decided to build a parking facility over them in the northwestern corner of Grant Park. Eventually, the city realized that a civic amenity might lure private dollars in a way that a municipal improvement would not. The park was planned under the name Lakefront Millennium Park. The park was conceived as a 16-acre landscape-covered bridge over a parking structure to be built on top of the Metra/Illinois Central Railroad tracks in Grant ParkMillennium Park – Millennium Park as seen from the north in 2005
49. Nativity (Christus) – The Nativity is a devotional mid-1450s oil-on-wood panel painting by the Early Netherlandish painter Petrus Christus. It shows a nativity scene with grisaille archways and trompe-lœil sculptured reliefs, placing archways as a framing device is a typical van der Weyden device, and here likely borrowed from that artists Altar of Saint John and Miraflores Altarpiece. It shows his usual harmonious composition and employment of one-point-perspective, especially evident in the forms of the sheds roof. It is one of Christuss most important works, max Friedländer definitely attributed the panel to Christus in 1930, concluding that in scope and importance, is superior to all other known creations of this master. The overall atmosphere is one of simplicity, serenity and understated sophistication and it is reflective of the 14th-century Devotio Moderna movement, and contains complex Christian symbolism, subtly juxtaposing Old and New Testament iconography. The sculpted figures in the archway depict biblical scenes of sin and punishment, signaling the advent of Christs sacrifice, with a message of the Fall. Inside the archway, surrounded by four angels, is the Holy Family, beyond, Art historians have suggested completion dates ranging from the early 1440s to the early 1460s, with c.1455 seen as probable. The panel was acquired by Andrew Mellon in the 1930s, and was one of hundreds from his personal collection donated to the National Gallery of Art in Washington. It has suffered damage and was restored in the early 1990s for an exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the panel measures 127.6 cm ×94.9 cm, unusually large for a 15th-century Early Netherlandish single-panel painting. Although there is no evidence of missing wing panels, its size suggests it was an altarpiece of a large triptych. Art historian Joel Upton writes that with its size, style, tone and composition, Christus painted an Andachtsbild, given monumental, the distinction between the figures and the space around them is characteristic of Christus, as is its one-point perspective. The background landscape is typically serene, as are what Upton describes as the charming, the panel is set in a shed enclosed by two pillars and an archway, rendered in sculpture-like grisaille. Each pillar is supported by a relief hunched figure at the base, on each pillar stand statues of Adam and Eve – Adam on the left and Eve to the right. A marble threshold connects the two structures, on the top corners of the arch are two spandrels, the archivolts contain six biblical scenes in relief from the Book of Genesis, depicting the Fall of Man. Two are of Adam and Eve, their expulsion from paradise, the others are of Cain and Abel, their sacrifice to God, Cain slaying Abel, God appearing to Abel, Cain expelled to the Land of Nod. In the shed Mary and Joseph share a private moment before the Annunciation to the shepherds of the Christ childs birth to the shepherds. They are rendered in bright colors, Mary wears a long flowing blue robe, Joseph a green-lined red cape over a brown robe. He holds his hat in hand, and his pattens are respectfully removed and they gaze reverently at the newborn figure of Jesus who lies on Marys robeNativity (Christus) – Nativity, c. mid-1450s. Oil on wood, 127.6 cm × 94.9 cm (50.2 in × 37.4 in), National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
50. Nine Stones, Winterbourne Abbas – Archaeologists believe that it was likely erected during the Bronze Age. A number of circles were constructed near modern Dorset, typically from sarsen stone. The Nine Stones circle has a diameter of 9.1 metres by 7.8 metres, two of the stones on the north-western side of the monument are considerably larger than the others. Antiquarians like John Aubrey and William Stukeley first took an interest in the site during the 18th century and it later received archaeological attention, although it has not been excavated. Local folklore has grown up around the circle, associating it with the Devil, the Nine Stones are regarded as a sacred site by local Druids, who perform religious ceremonies there. The circle is adjacent to the A35 road and encircled by trees, the site is owned by English Heritage and is open without charge to visitors. The Nine Stones circle is positioned at the grid reference 36100904, on the western edge of the village of Winterbourne Abbas in Dorset. Enclosed within iron railings, it is surrounded on three sides by trees and on the side by the A35 road. The roots of a tree have engulfed two of the megaliths in the circle. The archaeologist Aubrey Burl noted that while this petite ring should be a delight to see and he noted that it was difficult to take clear photographs of the site because of the surrounding trees. These include earthen henges, timber circles, and stone circles and these stone rings are found in most areas of Britain where stone is available, with the exception of the islands south-eastern corner. Stone circles are most densely concentrated in south-western Britain and on the horn of Scotland. These stone circles typically show little evidence of human visitation during the period immediately following their creation. The archaeologist Mike Parker Pearson suggested that in Neolithic Britain, stone was associated with the dead, other archaeologists have suggested that the stone might not represent ancestors, but rather other supernatural entities, such as deities. Burl described modern Dorset as having a thin scatter of stone circles, the archaeologist John Gale described these as a small but significant group of such monuments, and all are located within five miles of the sea. All but one—Rempstone Stone Circle on the Isle of Purbeck—are located on the hills west of Dorchester. The Dorset circles have a simplistic typology and are of a small size in comparison to other British stone circles. All are oval in shape, although perhaps have been altered from their original formNine Stones, Winterbourne Abbas – Nine Stones
51. Old Pine Church – Old Pine Church, also historically known as Mill Church, Nicholas Church, and Pine Church, is a mid-19th century church located near to Purgitsville, West Virginia, United States. It is among the earliest extant log churches in Hampshire County, along with Capon Chapel, the church was constructed in 1838 to serve as a nondenominational union church. The church is believed to have also been a place for German Methodist settlers. By 1870, the church was used by the Brethren denomination, and in 1878. Both congregations continued to use the church until 1907, Old Pine Church reportedly housed a school in the early 20th century while still serving as a center for worship. In 1968, residents of the Purgitsville community raised the funds to perform a restoration of the church. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on December 12,2012, the church is a large, one-story, gablefront log building sheathed in brown-painted wooden German siding. The original hewn log beams are visible beneath the church, with some remaining on the logs. The churchs interior ceiling measures approximately 15 feet in height and is clad in pressed metal panels, several of its pews date from 1857. In the churchs adjoining cemetery, the earliest extant gravestone dates from 1834, according to architectural historian Sandra Scaffidi, Old Pine Church and cemetery is an excellent example of one of the areas early rural church complexes. Old Pine Church and its cemetery are located along the steeply sloped Old Pine Church Road, the church and cemetery are situated on 2.3 acres atop a bluff to the west of United States Route 220, at an elevation of 1,129 feet. The property is surrounded by old-growth forests, the church is in a rural area of southwestern Hampshire County within the Mill Creek valley. The Trough on the South Branch Potomac River is located across Mill Creek Mountain, one of these seven supporters, Thomas Colepeper, 2nd Baron Colepeper, acquired the entire area in 1681, his grandson, Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, inherited it in 1719. The church is in the Mill Creek valley, as tensions with Native Americans were beginning to ease, Lord Fairfax sought to entice white settlers to the sparsely settled lands of his Northern Neck Proprietary. The valley was one of the first parts of present-day Hampshire County to be settled by whites, settlers were drawn by the valleys fertility. Purgitsville continued to develop throughout the course of the 19th century, during time it grew to include a small store, a post office. The dates of the earliest church cannot be verified, but a building may have been constructed at the site of Old Pine Church as early as around 1814. While the deed mentioned a meeting house on the siteOld Pine Church – Old Pine Church
52. Oregon State Capitol – The Oregon State Capitol is the building housing the state legislature and the offices of the governor, secretary of state, and treasurer of the U. S. state of Oregon. It is located in the capital, Salem. The current building, constructed from 1936 to 1938, and expanded in 1977, is the third to house the Oregon state government in Salem, two former capitol buildings were destroyed by fire, one in 1855 and the other in 1935. New York architects Trowbridge & Livingston conceived the current structures Art Deco, stripped classical design, much of the interior and exterior is made of marble. The Oregon State Capitol was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1988, the Public Works Administration, part of the U. S. government, partially financed construction, which was completed during the Great Depression, in 1938. The building was erected at a cost of $2.5 million for the portion of the building. The wings, which doubled the space of the building to about 233,750 square feet, were added later for $12.5 million. The grounds outside the building contain artwork, fountains, and flora, including the state tree. Before the creation of the Oregon Territory in 1848, the Oregon Country provisional government, through legislation on June 27,1844 and December 19,1845, thus Oregons first capitol was in Oregon City. One of the buildings used by this government was constructed by John L. Morrison in 1850. The designation of Oregon City as the seat of power was by proclamation of Governor Joseph Lane, in 1850, the legislature passed an act designating Salem the capital. However, Governor John P. Gaines refused to relocate and remained in Oregon City along with the Oregon Supreme Court until an act of Congress on May 14,1852 settled the matter in Salems favor. On January 13,1855, the Oregon Territorial Legislature passed a bill moving the seat of government from Salem to Corvallis, Governor George Law Curry and many others objected to the move, since public buildings in Salem were already under construction. Curry sent the matter to the Secretary of the Treasury in Washington, thereafter, Curry and Oregon Secretary of State Benjamin Harding moved back to Salem. On December 3,1855, the legislature convened in Corvallis and this bill passed on December 15,1855. Three days later, the legislature re-convened in Salem, however, the statehouse burned down on the 29th, and the legislature re-opened debate about where to seat the capital. They decided to ask the people of the territory to vote on the question, a vote was to be held in June 1856, after which the two cities receiving the most votes would have a runoff. The initial vote set up a runoff between Eugene and Corvallis, but after some ballots were invalidated due to not being cast in accordance with the law, an October runoff gave Eugene the most votes, but the earlier vote-tossing led to a low turnoutOregon State Capitol – Oregon State Capitol
53. Palladian architecture – Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from and inspired by the designs of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio. That which is recognised as Palladian architecture today is an evolution of Palladios original concepts, Palladios work was strongly based on the symmetry, perspec