Featured articles in Wikipedia
Featured articles are considered to be the best articles Wikipedia has to offer, as determined by Wikipedia's editors. They are used by editors as examples for writing other articles. Before being listed here, articles are reviewed as featured article candidates for accuracy, neutrality, completeness, and style according to our featured article criteria. There are 4,950 featured articles out of 5,346,708 articles on the English Wikipedia (~0.1% are featured). Thus, about one in 1,080 articles is listed here. Articles that no longer meet the criteria can be proposed for improvement or removal at featured article review.
On non-mobile versions of our website, a small bronze star icon () on the top right corner of an article's page indicates that the article is featured. Additionally, if the current article is featured in another language, a star will appear next to the corresponding entry in the Languages list in the sidebar (a user preference allows toggling this on/off under Gadgets > Appearance).
Today's featured article (TFA):
Featured article tools:
Biographies are in sub-topics according to the larger topics
Art, architecture, and archaeology
Art, architecture, and archaeology biographies
Reptiles and amphibians
Business, economics, and finance
Business, economics, and finance biographies
Chemistry and mineralogy
Chemistry and mineralogy biographies
Culture and society
Engineering and technology
Engineers and inventors
Food and drink
Geography and places
Geology and geophysics
Health and medicine
Heraldry, honors, and vexillology
Language and linguistics
Literature and theatre
Literature and theatre biographies
Biographies of mathematicians
Philosophy and psychology
Physics and astronomy
Physics and astronomy biographies
Politics and government
Politics and government biographies
Religion, mysticism and mythology
Religion, mysticism and mythology biographies
Royalty and nobility
Royalty and nobility biographies
Sport and recreation
Sport and recreation biographies
Wars, battles and events
1. 7 World Trade Center – The current structure is the second building to address in the World Trade Center. Part of the old World Trade Center, was completed in 1987 and was destroyed in the September 11 attacks. The current building opened in 2006. Both buildings were developed by Larry Silverstein, who holds a lease for the site from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. The original 7 World Trade Center occupied a trapezoidal footprint. An elevated walkway connected the building to the World Trade Center plaza. The building was situated above a Consolidated Edison substation, which imposed unique structural design constraints. When the building opened in 1987, Silverstein had difficulties attracting tenants. In 1988, Salomon Brothers became the main tenants of the building. On September 2001, 7 WTC was damaged by debris when the nearby North Tower of the World Trade Center collapsed. The debris also ignited fires, which continued to burn throughout the afternoon on lower floors of the building. Construction of the new 7 World Trade Center was completed in 2006. The building making it the 28th-tallest in New York. The new building is bounded by Greenwich, Vesey, Washington, Barclay streets. A small park across Greenwich Street occupies space, part of the original building's footprint.7 World Trade Center – The new 7 World Trade Center from the southeast (2008)
2. Acra (fortress) – The fortress played a significant role in the events surrounding the Maccabean Revolt and the formation of the Hasmonean Kingdom. It was destroyed during this struggle. The exact location of the Acra, critical to understanding Hellenistic Jerusalem, had been a matter of lengthy discussions. Archaeologists had proposed various sites around Jerusalem, relying mainly on conclusions drawn from literary evidence. This approach began to change in the light of excavations which commenced in the late 1960s. New discoveries had prompted reassessments of the ancient literary sources, previously discovered artifacts. Yoram Tsafrir had interpreted a masonry joint in the southeastern corner of the Temple Mount platform to the Acra's possible position. The Greek term acra was used to describe other fortified structures during the Hellenistic period. Following Alexander the Great's death in 323 BCE, the Seleucid Empire based in Syria and Mesopotamia. Seleucid emperor Antiochus III's victory over Egypt in the Battle of Panium brought Judea under Seleucid control. The Jewish population of Jerusalem had aided Antiochus during his siege of the fortified base of Jerusalem's Egyptian garrison. Despite being allowed religious freedom, many Jews were adopted elements of the prestigious and influential Greek lifestyle. This led to the formation of Hellenistic elites among the Jewish population. Hellenization produced their brethren who had assimilated Greek culture. Antiochus IV Epiphanes ascended the Seleucid throne in 175 BCE.Acra (fortress) – The Givati parking lot dig and proposed remnants of the Acra.
3. Angkor Wat – Angkor Wat is a temple complex in Cambodia and the largest religious monument in the world, with the site measuring 162.6 hectares. Breaking from the Shaiva tradition of previous kings, Angkor Wat was instead dedicated to Vishnu. As the best-preserved temple at the site, it is the only one to have remained a significant religious center since its foundation. The temple is at the top of the high classical style of Khmer architecture. It has become a symbol of Cambodia, appearing on its national flag, it is the country's prime attraction for visitors. Angkor Wat combines two basic plans of Khmer temple architecture: the temple-mountain and the later galleried temple. At the centre of the temple stands a quincunx of towers. Unlike most Angkorian temples, Angkor Wat is oriented to the west; scholars are divided as to the significance of this. The temple is admired for the grandeur and harmony of the architecture, its extensive bas-reliefs, for the numerous devatas adorning its walls. Wat is the Khmer word for "temple grounds", also derived from Sanskrit vāṭa, meaning "enclosure". The original name of the temple was Vrah Viṣṇuloka or Brah Bisnulōk which means the sacred dwelling of Vishnu. In an area of Cambodia where there is an important group of ancient structures, it is the southernmost of Angkor's main sites. According to legend, the construction of Angkor Wat was ordered by Indra to act as a palace for his son Precha Ket Mealea. The initial design and construction of the temple took place in the first half of the 12th century, during the reign of Suryavarman II. Dedicated to Vishnu, it was built as the king's city.Angkor Wat – Angkor Wat អង្គរវត្ត
4. Annunciation (Memling) – The Annunciation is an oil-on-oak panel painting attributed to the Early Netherlandish master Hans Memling. Completed c. A hovering dove. The painting expands upon the Annunciation wing of Rogier van der Weyden's c. 1455 Saint Columba altarpiece. According to historian Maryan Ainsworth, the work presents a "startlingly original image, rich in connotations for the viewer or worshiper." The simple iconography centers on the Virgin's purity; the Incarnation, the Virgin as mother and her role as bride and Queen of Heaven. Her swoon foreshadows the Crucifixion of Jesus. In 1847 Gustav Friedrich Waagen described it as one of Memling's "most original works". In 1902 it was exhibited in Bruges at the Exposition des primitifs flamands à Bruges, after which it underwent cleaning and restoration. At that time it had been pierced with an arrow and required restoration. In Byzantine art, Annunciation scenes depict the Virgin dressed in royal regalia. In later centuries she was shown in enclosed spaces: the temple, the garden. Memling's depiction is nearly identical to van der Weyden's Columba Altarpiece. The archangel Gabriel appears to Mary to inform her that she shall bear the Son of God. He is dressed in vestments.Annunciation (Memling) – The Annunciation, 76.5 × 54.6 cm (30 1/8 × 21 1/2 in.), Hans Memling, c. 1480s, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
5. Anthony Roll – The Anthony Roll is a record of ships of the English Tudor navy of the 1540s, named after its creator, Anthony Anthony. It originally consisted of three rolls of vellum, depicting 58 naval vessels along with information on their size, crew, basic equipment. The rolls were kept in the royal library. The Anthony Roll is the fully illustrated inventory of ships of the English navy in the Tudor period. The level of detail of the design, armament and especially rigging has therefore proven to be only approximate. The only known contemporary depictions of prominent Tudor era vessels like the Mary Rose are contained in the Anthony Roll. Anthony's father was William Anthony a Fleming from Middelburg in Zeeland who migrated in 1503. Anthony followed in his father's footsteps. He became a supplier of beer to the navy. In 1533 Anthony was appointed gunner at the Tower of a position he retained nominally until his death. In 1549 he was promoted to master surveyor of the ordnance in the Tower, Calais, elsewhere for life. In 1939 Dutch historian Nicholas Beets proposed that cartographer Cornelis Antoniszoon could have been Anthony Anthony's brother. "plats", were routinely decorated with detailed pictures of ships, to mark bodies of water as much as to liven up the scenes. Such maps were even embellished by artists if deemed too simple or drab. This painting, recently dated to around 1545, has also been suggested to Anthony for his illustrations.Anthony Roll – The first illustration of the first roll of the Anthony Roll, depicting the Henry Grace à Dieu, the largest ship in the English navy during the reign of King Henry VIII.
6. Beaune Altarpiece – The Beaune Altarpiece, often called The Last Judgement, is a large polyptych altarpiece by the Flemish artist Rogier van der Weyden. It was painted in oil with parts later transferred to canvas. It consists of fifteen paintings on nine panels; six are painted on both sides. It retains some of its original frames. Six outer panels are hinged, when folded they show an view of saints and the donors. The inner panels are arranged across two registers. The central panel that spans both registers shows Christ seated on a rainbow in judgement, with his feet resting on a golden globe. Below him the Archangel Michael holds scales as he weighs souls. The panel on Christ's right shows the gates of Heaven, that to his far left the entrance to Hell. The panels of the lower register form a continuous landscape, with figures depicted moving from the central panel after receiving judgement. It is one of van der Weyden's most ambitious works, lost Justice of Trajan and Herkinbald. It remains in the hospice today, although not in its original position. It has suffered from the wearing and darkening of its colours, an accumulation of dirt. In addition, a heavy layer of over-paint was applied during restoration. Nicolas Rolin was appointed Chancellor of Burgundy by Philip the Good in 1422, a position he held for the next 33 years.Beaune Altarpiece – The Beaune Altarpiece, c. 1445–1450. 220cm x 548cm (excluding frames). Oil on oak, Hospices de Beaune, interior view
7. The Battle of Alexander at Issus – In particular, the defeat of Suleiman the Magnificent at the Siege of Vienna may have been an inspiration for Altdorfer. The Battle of four others that were part of William's initial set are in the Alte Pinakothek art museum in Munich. Alexander III of Macedon, best known as Alexander the Great, was an Greek king of Macedon who reigned from 336 BC until his death. He is presumed undefeated in battle. Renowned for his military charisma, he always led his armies personally and took to the front ranks of battle. The Battle of the Granicus, fought in May, resulted in an easy victory for Alexander. Over the next year, Alexander took most of coastal Asia Minor by forcing the capitulation of the satrapies in his path. He continued inland, travelling northeast through Phyrgia before turning southeast toward Cilicia. After passing the Cilician Gates in October, Alexander was delayed by fever in Tarsus. Darius meanwhile personally directed it over the eastern slopes of the Amanus Mountains. He immediately retraced his route to the Pinarus River, south of Issus, to find Darius' force assembled along the northern bank. The Battle of Issus ensued. Darius' initial response was defensive: he immediately stockaded the bank with stakes to impede the enemy's crossing. A mass of cavalry commanded by Nabarsanes occupied the Persian right. Alexander made a slow advance, intending to base his strategy on the structure of the Persian force.The Battle of Alexander at Issus – The Battle of Alexander at Issus
8. Belton House – Belton House is a Grade I listed country house in Belton near Grantham, Lincolnshire, England. The mansion is surrounded by a series of avenues leading to follies within a larger wooded park. Only Brympton d'Evercy has been similarly lauded as the English country house. Between 1688 Sir John Brownlow and his wife had the present mansion built. Despite great wealth they chose to build a modest house rather than a grand contemporary Baroque palace. The contemporary, if provincial, Carolean style was the selected choice of design. Following I, the Brownlows, like many of their peers, were faced with mounting financial problems. In 1984 they gave the house away—complete with most of its contents. Today fully open Belton to the public. It visited by many thousands of tourists each year. A dynasty of lawyers, began accumulating land in the Belton area from approximately 1598. John Brownlow was childless. He became attached to two of his more distant blood relations: a great-nephew, also called John Brownlow, a great-niece, Alice Sherard. They immediately decided to build a new country house at Belton. Work on the new house began in 1685.Belton House – South (front) facade of Belton House
9. Blakeney Chapel – Blakeney Chapel is a ruined building on the Norfolk coast of England. Despite its name, it was probably not a chapel. It consisted of two rectangular rooms of unequal size, is shown as ruins in later charts. Part of a wall still remain. Three archaeological investigations between 2005 provided more detail of the construction, showed two distinct periods of active use. Although it is described as a chapel on several maps, there is archaeological evidence to suggest that it had any religious function. A small hearth, probably used for smelting iron, is the only evidence of a specific activity on the site. Much of the structural material was ago carried off for reuse in buildings in Cley and Blakeney. There is no active management. The ruins stand above sea level. Cley Eye is a similar raised area on the east bank of the river. The land on which the building stands was in the possession of the Calthorpe family by banker Charles Rothschild in 1912. Rothschild gave the property to the National Trust, which has managed it since. There is no public access to the site. The ruins are protected as Grade II listed building because of their historical importance.Blakeney Chapel – No structures are now visible above ground at the site
10. The Blind Leading the Blind – Abiding in the midst of ignorance, thinking themselves wise and learned, fools go aimlessly hither and thither, like blind led by the blind. The expression appears in Horace: Caecus caeco dux. Leave them; they are blind guides. If a blind man leads a blind man, both will fall into a pit." "Can a blind man lead a blind man? Will they not both fall into a pit? Everyone, fully trained will be like his teacher." "Blind leading the blind" was a song written by Mick Jagger, performed for the soundtrack of the 2004 film Alfie. Hungarian MetaphorThe Blind Leading the Blind – The Blind Leading the Blind, Pieter van der Heyden after Hieronymus Bosch, c. 1561.
11. Bodiam Castle – Bodiam Castle is a 14th-century moated castle near Robertsbridge in East Sussex, England. Of plan, Bodiam Castle has no keep, having its various chambers built around the outer defensive walls and inner courts. Entrance are marked by towers, topped by crenellations. Its structure, situation in an artificial watery landscape indicate that display was an important aspect of the castle's design as well as defence. It was the centre of the manor of Bodiam. Possession of Bodiam Castle passed through several generations of Dalyngrigges, until their line became extinct, when the castle passed to the Lewknor family. It is thought that Bodiam was surrendered without much resistance. The castle was returned to the Lewknors when Henry VII of the House of Lancaster became king in 1485. Descendants of the Lewknors owned the castle until at least the 16th century. By the start of the English Civil War in 1641, Bodiam Castle was in the possession of Lord Thanet. He sold the castle to help pay fines levied against him by Parliament. The castle was left as a picturesque ruin until its purchase by John Fuller in 1829. The castle is protected as Scheduled Monument. It has been owned by The National Trust since 1925, is open to the public. Edward Dalyngrigge was a younger son and thus deprived through the practice of primogeniture hence he had to make his own fortunes.Bodiam Castle – Bodiam Castle from the northwest
12. Book of Kells – It may have had contributions from various Columban institutions from both Britain and Ireland. It is believed to have been created 800. 800. It represents the pinnacle of Insular illumination. It is also widely regarded as Ireland's finest national treasure. The ornamentation of the Book of Kells surpass that of other Insular Gospel books in extravagance and complexity. The decoration combines Christian iconography with the ornate swirling motifs typical of Insular art. Figures of humans, mythical beasts, together with Celtic knots and interlacing patterns in vibrant colours, enliven the manuscript's pages. Many of these decorative elements are imbued with Christian symbolism and so further emphasise the themes of the major illustrations. Today comprises 340 folios and, since 1953, has been bound in four volumes. Itself appears to be the work of at least three different scribes. The manuscript takes its name from the Abbey of Kells, its home for centuries. It is on permanent display at Trinity College Library, Dublin. These manuscripts include the Cathach of St. Columba, the Book of Durrow. From the early 8th century come the Durham Gospels, the Echternach Gospels, the Lindisfarne Gospels, the Lichfield Gospels.Book of Kells – The Book of Kells, (folio 292r), circa 800, showing the lavishly decorated text that opens the Gospel of John
13. Borobudur – The temple consists of nine stacked platforms, six square and three circular, topped by a central dome. The temple is decorated with 2,672 relief panels and 504 Buddha statues. The central dome is surrounded by 72 Buddha statues, each seated inside a perforated stupa. The monument is both a shrine to the Lord Buddha and a place for Buddhist pilgrimage. The monument guides pilgrims with 1,460 relief panels on the balustrades. Borobudur has the largest and most complete ensemble of Buddhist reliefs in the world. Evidence suggests Borobudur was constructed in the 9th century and abandoned following the 14th-century decline of Hindu kingdoms in Java and the Javanese conversion to Islam. Borobudur has since been preserved through several restorations. Borobudur is still used for pilgrimage; once a year, Buddhists in Indonesia celebrate Vesak at the monument, Borobudur is Indonesia's single most visited tourist attraction. In Indonesian, ancient temples are referred to as candi; thus locals refer to "Borobudur Temple" as Candi Borobudur. The term candi also loosely describes ancient structures, for example gates and baths. The origins of the name Borobudur, however, are unclear, although the original names of most ancient Indonesian temples are no longer known. The name Borobudur was first written in Sir Thomas Raffles's book on Javan history. Raffles wrote about a monument called Borobudur, but there are no older documents suggesting the same name. Most candi are named after a nearby village.Borobudur – Borobudur, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
14. Boydell Shakespeare Gallery – During the 1790s the London gallery that showed the original paintings emerged as the project's most popular element. The works of William Shakespeare enjoyed a renewed popularity in 18th-century Britain. Capitalising on this interest, Boydell decided to publish a illustrated edition of Shakespeare's plays that would showcase the talents of British painters and engravers. He chose Shakespeare editor George Steevens to oversee the edition, released between 1791 and 1803. The press reported weekly on the building of Boydell's gallery, designed by George Dance the Younger, on a site in Pall Mall. The folio of engravings proved the enterprise's most lasting legacy. However, the long delay in publishing the illustrated edition prompted criticism. Because many illustrations had to be done by lesser artists, the final products of Boydell's venture were judged to be disappointing. They were forced to sell the gallery at a lottery. In the 18th century, Boydell tapped into the same mood that many other entrepreneurs were exploiting. The mid-century theatrical revival was probably most responsible for reintroducing the British public to Shakespeare. Shakespeare's plays were integral at this time. Despite the upsurge in theatre-going, thus few good tragedies were written. His reputation grew as a result. By the end of the 18th century, one out of every six plays performed in London was by Shakespeare.Boydell Shakespeare Gallery – Joshua Reynolds ' Puck (1789), painted for Boydell 's Shakespeare Gallery, is modelled after Parmigianino 's Madonna with St. Zachary, the Magdalen, and St. John
15. Bramall Hall – Bramall Hall is a Tudor manor house in Bramhall, within the Metropolitan Borough of Stockport, Greater Manchester, England. It is the oldest parts of which date from the 14th century, with later additions from the 16th and 19th centuries. Gardens are open to the public. Dating back to Anglo-Saxon England, the manor of Bramall was first described in the Domesday Book in 1086, when it was held by the Masseys. A residual park of over 50 acres was sold on by the Freeholders to the Nevill family of successful industrialists. The manor of Bramall dates from the Anglo-Saxon period, when it was held as two separate estates owned by Hacun. The manor was devastated during William the Conqueror's Harrying of the North. After William subdued the north-west of England, Bramall was given to Hamon de Massey in around 1070. The earliest reference to Bramall was recorded as "Bramale" at which time the manor was part of the Hamestan Hundred in Cheshire. With Cheadle and Norbury, Bramall was one of three places described in the Domesday Book that today lie within the modern-day Metropolitan Borough of Stockport. While its value was 32 shillings before 1066, it was worth only 5 shillings by 1086. In the first part of the 12th century, the manor passed to Matthew de Bromale. He may have also held the manor at some point. The family name was changed. The Davenports were a family of significant landowners in the north-west of England whose antecedents can be traced back to the time of the Norman conquest.Bramall Hall – Bramall Hall from the west, the side of the main entrance, showing the courtyard and the north and south wings. The Great Hall is in the centre.
16. Bramshill House – Bramshill House, in Bramshill, northeast Hampshire, England, is one of the largest and most important Jacobean prodigy house mansions in England. It was partly destroyed by fire a few years later. The design shows the influence of the Italian Renaissance, which became popular in England during the 16th century. The house was designated a Grade I listed building in 1952. The mansion's southern façade is notable for its decorative architecture, which includes at its centre a oriel window above the principal entrance. Numerous friezes are found throughout the mansion, while several rooms have large tapestries depicting historical figures and events on their panelled walls. The house is set in 262-acre of grounds containing an 18-acre lake. The wider park was landscaped from the 17th to the 20th century and contains woodland. Bramshill appears to have been social venue since the 16th century. It was later home to the European Police College. As a result, many campus buildings have been added to the estate. Owing to escalating maintenance costs the property was sold to the property developers City & Country in August 2014. Bramshill House is at the approximate centre of a shape formed by Reading, Basingstoke and Farnborough, about 47 miles by road southwest of central London. The longitudinal location is 51 ° 19' 57.9 "N 0 ° 54' 43.2 "W or also, 51.332759, -0.911991. William de Port, died in 1346 without leaving a male heir.Bramshill House – Bramshill House, south façade with oriel window in centre
17. Britomart Redeems Faire Amoret – Britomart Redeems Faire Amoret is an oil painting on canvas by English artist William Etty, first exhibited in 1833 and now in Tate Britain. It remains in the collection of Tate Britain. William Etty was born in 1787, the son of a miller and baker. Etty gained acceptance in early 1807. After a year spent studying under renowned painter Thomas Lawrence, Etty returned to the Royal Academy, drawing at the life class and copying other paintings. In 1821 the Royal Academy exhibited The Arrival of Cleopatra in Cilicia. Many of Etty's fellow artists greatly admired him. He was elected a full Royal Academician in 1828, ahead of John Constable. He became well respected for his fascination with contrasts in skin tones. Following the exhibition of Cleopatra, Etty attempted concentrating on painting further history paintings containing nude figures. All but one contained at least one nude figure. The supposed reaction of the lower classes to his nude paintings caused concern throughout the 19th century. Many critics condemned his repeated depictions of female nudity as indecent, although his portraits of male nudes were generally well received. Britomart Redeems Faire Amoret was intended by Etty to illustrate the virtues of honour. It shows the moment in which Busirane is interrupted by Britomart as he prepares to kill Amoret.Britomart Redeems Faire Amoret – Britomart Redeems Faire Amoret, 1833, 90.8 by 66 cm (35.7 by 26.0 in)
18. Brougham Castle – Brougham Castle is a medieval building about 2 miles south-east of Penrith, Cumbria, England. The castle was founded by Robert de Vieuxpont in the 13th century. The site, near the confluence of the rivers Eamont and Lowther, had been chosen by the Romans for a Roman fort called Brocavum. The castle is scheduled as an Ancient Monument, along with the fort, as "Brougham Roman fort and Brougham Castle". In its earliest form, the castle consisted with an enclosure protected by an earthen bank and a wooden palisade. When the castle was built, Robert de Vieuxpont was one of only a few lords loyal to the king in the region. The Vieuxponts also owned the castles of Appleby and Brough. In 1264 his property was confiscated by Henry III. With the outbreak of the Anglo-Scottish Wars in 1296, Brougham became an military base for Robert Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford. He began refortifying the castle: the large stone gatehouse was added. The importance of Brougham and Roger Clifford was such that in 1300 he hosted Edward I at the castle. In 1388 the castle was captured and sacked. Following this, the Cliffords began spending more time in Yorkshire. Brougham descended through several generations of Cliffords, intermittently serving as a residence. The castle was briefly restored to such an extent that James I was entertained there in 1617.Brougham Castle – Brougham Castle seen from the north east, across the River Eamont
19. Buildings and architecture of Bristol – Bristol, the largest city in South West England, has an eclectic combination of architectural styles, ranging from the medieval to 20th century brutalism and beyond. During the mid-19th century, several examples have survived. Buildings from most of the architectural periods of the United Kingdom can be seen throughout Bristol. Parts of the fortified city and date back to the medieval era, as do some churches dating from the 12th century onwards. Outside the historical centre there are several large Tudor mansions built for wealthy merchants. Public houses of the same period survive, intermingled with areas of more recent development. Georgian-era squares were laid out for the enjoyment of the middle class. As the city grew, it merged with its surrounding villages, each with its own centre, often clustered around a parish church. The 20th century saw further expansion of the city, the arrival of the aircraft industry. During World War II, the centre was extensively bombed in the Bristol Blitz. The redevelopment of shopping centres, the harbourside continues to this day. The city was defended by Bristol Castle, a Norman fortification built on the site of a wooden predecessor. The castle played a key role in the civil wars that followed the death of Henry I. Stephen of Blois reconnoitred Bristol in 1138 and claimed that the town was impregnable. In 1141, he was imprisoned in the castle.Buildings and architecture of Bristol – St. Mary Redcliffe from the northwest
20. Buildings of Jesus College, Oxford – Jesus College was founded by Elizabeth I upon the petition of Hugh Price, treasurer of St David's Cathedral. Her charter gave to the college the land and buildings of a university hall that had experienced a decline in student numbers. Work continued after his death in 1574. Principal's lodgings was completed between 1630. Construction of the second quadrangle was not completed until about 1712. Further buildings were erected including science laboratories, a library for undergraduates, additional accommodation for students and fellows. In addition to the main site, the college owns flats in east and north Oxford, a sports ground. The chapel, extended in 1636, was extensively altered under the supervision of the architect George Edmund Street. The alterations have had their supporters and their critics; one historian of the college described the work as "ill-considered". The hall's original roof was hidden by a ceiling in 1741 when rooms were installed in the roofspace. The last part of the first quadrangle to be constructed, contain wooden panelling from the 17th century. The Fellows' Library in the second quadrangle dates from 1679 and contains 11,000 antiquarian books; it was restored at a cost of £700,000 in 2007. A new Junior Common Room, about twice the size of its predecessor, was completed in the third quadrangle in 2002. Further teaching rooms were added in Ship Street, in 2010. Eleven parts of the college are listed buildings, including all four sides of the first and second quadrangles.Buildings of Jesus College, Oxford – The second quadrangle (built c. 1640–c.1712) of Jesus College, with the large bay window of the hall on the right
21. Buildings of Nuffield College, Oxford – The architect Austen Harrison, who had worked in Greece and Palestine, was appointed by the University to design the buildings. Harrison reworked the plans, aiming for "something on the lines of Cotswold domestic architecture", as Nuffield wanted. Construction of the second design began in 1949 and was finished in 1960. The effects of inflation on Nuffield's donation led to the plans. In one change, the tower, planned to be ornamental, was redesigned to hold the college's library. It was the first tower built in Oxford for 200 years and is about 150 feet tall, including the flèche on top. The buildings are arranged around two quadrangles, with residential accommodation for students and fellows in one, the hall, library and administrative offices in the other. The chapel has stained glass windows designed by John Piper. Reaction to the architecture of the college has been largely unfavourable. In the 1960s, it was described as "Oxford's biggest monument to barren reaction". The tower has been described as "ungainly", marred by repetitive windows. The travel writer Jan Morris wrote that the college was "a hodge-podge from the start". The history of Nuffield College dates from 16 November 1937, when the university entered a Deed of Covenant and Trust with Lord Nuffield. As well as the land, Nuffield gave # 900,000 to provide it with an fund. However, although he was persuaded to put the remainder towards a college for social science studies instead, he still felt "cheated".Buildings of Nuffield College, Oxford – Nuffield College, facing New Road, with the library tower topped by a flèche. The main entrance to the college is in the middle of the building to the left of the tower.
22. Bruce Castle – Bruce Castle is a Grade I listed 16th-century manor house in Lordship Lane, Tottenham, London. It is named after the House of Bruce who formerly owned the land on which it is built. It was remodelled in the 17th, 19th centuries. The house has been home among others. The building also houses the archives of the London Borough of Haringey. Since 1892 the grounds have been Tottenham's oldest. The name Bruce Castle is derived from the House of Bruce, who had historically owned a third of the manor of Tottenham. However, it is unlikely that the family lived nearby. The former Bruce land in Tottenham was granted to Thomas Hethe. The three parts of the manor of Tottenham have remained united since. In all early records, the building is referred to as the Lordship House. The tower is 21 feet tall, with walls 3 feet thick. In 2006, excavations revealed that it continues below the current ground level. It was described as being over a deep well, being used as a dairy. No records survive of its construction.Bruce Castle – Bruce Castle's south facade
23. Buckingham Palace – Buckingham Palace is the London residence and administrative headquarters of the reigning monarch of the United Kingdom. Located in the City of Westminster, the palace is often at the centre of royal hospitality. It has been a focal point for the British people at times of national mourning. It became known as The Queen's House. During the 19th century it was enlarged, principally by architects John Nash and Edward Blore, who constructed three wings around a central courtyard. Buckingham Palace became the London residence of the British monarch on the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837. King Edward VII oversaw a partial redecoration in a Belle Époque cream and gold scheme. Many smaller reception rooms are furnished in the Chinese style with furniture and fittings brought from the Royal Pavilion at Brighton and from Carlton House. The garden is the largest private garden in London. In the Middle Ages, the site of the future palace formed part of the Manor of Ebury. The marshy ground was watered by the Tyburn, which still flows below the courtyard and south wing of the palace. Where the river was fordable, the village of Eye Cross grew. William gave the site to Geoffrey de Mandeville, who bequeathed it to the monks of Westminster Abbey. In 1531, in 1536 he took the Manor of Ebury from Westminster Abbey. The freehold was the subject of frenzied speculation during the 17th century.Buckingham Palace – Buckingham Palace. This is the principal façade, the East Front; originally constructed by Edward Blore and completed in 1850. It acquired its present appearance following a remodelling, in 1913, by Sir Aston Webb.
24. Campbell's Soup Cans – Campbell's Soup Cans, sometimes referred to as 32 Campbell's Soup Cans, is a work of art produced in 1962 by Andy Warhol. The individual paintings were produced by a printmaking method -- the semi-mechanized process, using a non-painterly style. Campbell's Soup Cans' reliance on themes from popular culture helped to usher as a major movement in the United States. The exhibition marked the West Coast debut of pop art. This controversy led about the ethics of such work. Warhol's motives as an artist were questioned, they continue to be topical to this day. Although commercial demand for his paintings was not immediate, Warhol's association with the subject led to his name becoming synonymous with the Campbell's Soup Can paintings. Warhol arrived in New York City in 1949, directly from the School of Fine Arts at Carnegie Institute of Technology. He quickly achieved success as a commercial illustrator, his first published drawing appeared in the Summer 1949 issue of Glamour Magazine. In 1952, he had his first show at the Bodley Gallery with a display of Truman Capote-inspired works. His process, which foreshadowed his later work, involved pressing wet ink illustrations against adjoining paper. During the 1950s, he had regular showings of his drawings, exhibited at the Museum of Modern Art. In 1960, Warhol began producing his first canvases, which he based on comic strip subjects. In late 1961, he learned the process of silkscreening from Floriano Vecchi, who had run the Tiber Press since 1953. Though the process generally begins with a stencil drawing, it often evolves from a blown up photograph, then transferred with glue onto silk.Campbell's Soup Cans – Campbell's Soup Cans
25. Capon Chapel – Capon Chapel is one of the oldest existing log churches in Hampshire County, along with Old Pine Church. A Baptist congregation was gathering by at least 1756. Primitive Baptist minister John Monroe is credited for establishing a place of worship at this site; he is interred in the church's cemetery. Capon Chapel was used as a place of worship until the late 19th or early 20th century. In the 1890s, Capon Chapel was added on the Capon Bridge Methodist circuit of the Southern Methodist Episcopal Church. As of 2015, Capon Chapel remains a Methodist church, now a part of the United Methodist Church, holding twice a month. Capon Chapel's cemetery is surrounded by a wrought iron fence made by Stewart Iron Works, contains the remains of John Monroe, William C. Nixon, West Virginia House of Delegates member Captain David Pugh, American Civil War veterans from the Union and the Confederacy, free and enslaved African Americans. Capon Chapel is 894 feet east of the Cacapon River, from which the church derives its name. Capon Chapel is landscaped with boxwoods on its north and south sides, forsythias along its west side. A flagpole stands at the center of the cemetery's eastern perimeter. Under Lord Fairfax's ownership, the Cacapon River Valley was predominantly inhabited by English-speaking settlers early as the late 1730s. The Baptists established the oldest extant churches in Hampshire County. After the end of the American Revolutionary War, Baptist preachers continued their attempt to gain a foothold in what is now the Eastern Panhandle region. During the Baptists' early growth in Hampshire County, the best known Baptist ministers were Benjamin Stone.Capon Chapel – Capon Chapel
26. Castell Coch – Castell Coch is a 19th-century Gothic Revival castle built above the village of Tongwynlais in South Wales. This castle was likely destroyed in the native Welsh rebellion of 1314. The 3rd Marquess of Bute, inherited the castle in 1848. Wine production continued until the First World War. It is now controlled by the Welsh heritage Cadw. The interiors were elaborately decorated, with fittings; the designs include extensive use of symbolism drawing on classical and legendary themes. The surrounding beech woods are protected as a Site of Special Scientific Interest. The first castle on the Castell Coch site was probably built during the Norman invasion of Wales. It formed one of a string of eight fortifications intended to control the route along the Taff Gorge. The first castle was probably abandoned after 1093 when the Norman lordship of Glamorgan was created, changing the line of the frontier. Castell Coch -- strategically located between Cardiff and Caerphilly -- was reoccupied. A new castle was built around the motte comprising a shell-wall, a projecting circular tower, a gatehouse and a square hall above an undercroft. Further work followed between 1277, which added two large towers, a turning-bridge for the gatehouse and further protection to the north-west walls. Gilbert's son, also named Gilbert, inherited the property in 1307. He died in 1314 triggering an uprising of the native Welsh in the region.Castell Coch – The main entrance to Castell Coch
27. Castle – A castle is a type of fortified structure built in Europe and the Middle East during the Middle Ages by nobility. Usually consider it to be the private fortified residence of a lord or noble. Usage of the term has been applied to structures as diverse as hill forts and country houses. Although their military origins are often emphasised in castle studies, the structures also served as symbols of power. Many castles were originally built from timber, but had their defences replaced later by stone. Early castles often exploited natural defences, relying on a central keep. In the late early 13th centuries, a scientific approach to castle defence emerged. This led with an emphasis on flanking fire. Some grand castles had long winding approaches intended to dominate their landscape. As a result, true castles were replaced by artillery forts with no role in civil administration, country houses that were indefensible. The castle is derived from the Latin word castellum, a diminutive of the word castrum, meaning "fortified place". The castle was introduced into English shortly before the Norman Conquest to denote this type of building, then new to England. In its simplest terms, the definition of a castle accepted amongst academics is "a fortified residence". Castles served a range of purposes, the most important of which were military, domestic. As well as defensive structures, castles were also offensive tools which could be used as a base of operations in territory.Castle – The Alcázar of Segovia in Spain overlooking the city
28. Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception (Moscow) – Located in the Central Administrative Okrug, it is one of the largest in Russia. The construction of the cathedral was proposed in 1894. Groundbreaking was in 1899; work began in 1901 and was completed ten years later. Built from red brick, the cathedral is based on a design by architect Tomasz Bohdanowicz-Dworzecki. The style was influenced by Milan Cathedral. Because the promotion of atheism was a part of Marxist -- Leninist ideology, the government ordered many churches closed; the cathedral was closed in 1938. During World War II, it was used after the war for civil purposes, as a warehouse and then a hostel. Following the fall of communism in 1991, it returned to being a church in 1996. In 2002 it was elevated to the status of cathedral. Following an costly programme of reconstruction and refurbishment, the cathedral was reconsecrated in 2005. The third since the cathedral's construction, was donated by the Basel Münster. The cathedral is a protected monument. As the congregation for the Polish church had increased to around 30,000 members, the existing buildings were too small. Following the submission of a petition to the Governor-General of Moscow, the local council voted in 1894. The purchase of the land cost 10,000 rubles in gold.Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception (Moscow) – Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of the Holy Virgin Mary Собор Непорочного Зачатия Пресвятой Девы Марии
29. Catherine de' Medici's building projects – She grew up under the wing of the Medici popes, Leo X and Clement VII. At the age of fourteen, she left Italy and married Henry, the second son of Francis I and Queen Claude of France. On doing so, she entered the greatest Renaissance court in northern Europe. King Francis set his daughter-in-law an example of kingship and artistic patronage that she never forgot. She witnessed his architectural schemes at Chambord and Fontainebleau. She saw French craftsmen at work together, forging the style that became known as the first School of Fontainebleau. Catherine became queen consort of France. Over the next three decades, she launched a series of costly building projects aimed at enhancing the grandeur of the monarchy. During the same period, however, civil war gripped the country and brought the prestige of the monarchy to a dangerously low ebb. Catherine loved to supervise each project personally. The architects of the day dedicated books to her, knowing that she would read them. The sculptures she commissioned for the Valois chapel are lost, or scattered, often damaged or incomplete, in museums and churches. Catherine de' Medici's reputation as a sponsor of buildings rests instead on the treatises of her architects. These testify under her patronage. Historians often assume that Catherine's love for the arts stemmed from her Medici heritage.Catherine de' Medici's building projects – Catherine de' Medici, by François Clouet
30. Chetro Ketl – Chetro Ketl is an Ancestral Puebloan great house and archeological site located in Chaco Culture National Historical Park, New Mexico, United States. Construction on Chetro Ketl was largely complete by 1075, with significant remodeling occurring in the early and mid-1110s. Following the onset of a severe drought, most Chacoans emigrated by 1140; by 1250 Chetro Ketl's last inhabitants had vacated the structure. Chaco scholars estimate that it required 50 million sandstone blocks to erect Chetro Ketl. Chetro Ketl was the largest great house by area in Chaco Canyon, covering nearly 3 acres. Chetro Ketl contains architectural elements, such as a colonnade and kiva, that appear to reflect a Mesoamerican influence. It may have been occupied primarily by groups of priests and, during times of ritual, pilgrims from outlying communities. During the 10th to 8th millennia BCE, the San Juan Basin was occupied by Paleo-Indians known as the Folsom tradition. Projectile points found in the vicinity of Chaco Canyon suggest that hunters may have been active in the region early as 10,000. The Oshara occupied portions of northwestern New Mexico, northeastern Arizona, central and southwestern Colorado. They harvested jackrabbits as early as 5500. By 200 BCE, the Basketmaker culture had begun to develop from the Oshara Tradition. During the first four centuries CE, the Basketmaker II people established pit-houses near sources of water and arable land. This period also marked the introduction of the arrow to the region. Parts of the San Juan Basin saw plentiful rainfall to 8th centuries leading to significant expansion of pit-house communities.Chetro Ketl – The San Juan Basin (note: U.S. Route 666 has been renumbered Route 491).
31. Chicago Board of Trade Building – The Chicago Board of Trade Building is a skyscraper located in Chicago, Illinois, United States. It stands in the Loop community area in Cook County. First designated a Chicago Landmark on May 4, 1977, the building was listed as a National Historic Landmark on June 2, 1978. It was added on June 16, 1978. In 2012, the CME Group sold the CBOT Building including GlenStar Properties LLC and USAA Real Estate Company. The current structure is known for its art deco architecture, large-scale stone carving, as well as large trading floors. Three-story art deco statue of Ceres, goddess of agriculture, caps the building. On April 1848, the Board of Trade opened for business at 101 South Water Street. When 122 members were added in 1856, it was moved to the corner of South Water and LaSalle Streets. In 1871, the Great Chicago Fire destroyed this building. In 1882 construction began of the CBOT's new home, which opened on May 1, 1885. The building was designed by best known today for his work on the Chicago Water Tower. The interiors were finished in frescoed. Construction cost $ million. It was also the first building at the time was the tallest building in Chicago.Chicago Board of Trade Building – Chicago Board of Trade Building
32. Clemuel Ricketts Mansion – It was home including R. Bruce Ricketts and William Reynolds Ricketts. The house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. A group of investors developed them privately for housing and recreation. The house is not open to the public. The original mansion is an L-shaped structure, two-and-a-half stories high, with stone walls 2 feet thick. It was built in a clearing surrounded by old-growth forest to the lake 900 feet to the east. The original structure was renovated. The house has twenty-eight rooms, its original hardware and woodwork. Electrical wiring and modern plumbing have been added since. According to the NRHP form, the Clemuel Ricketts Mansion "is a stunning example of Georgian vernacular architecture". The Clemuel Ricketts Mansion is on the southwest shore of Ganoga Lake in Colley Township in the southeastern part of Sullivan County. Rocks—gray sandstone with conglomerates and some siltstone—of the Mississippian Pocono Formation more than 340 million years old, underlie the house and lake. The earliest recorded inhabitants of the region were the Susquehannocks, who died out by 1675. The land then came under the control of the Iroquois, who sold it in the Treaty of Fort Stanwix in 1768. The land on which the house was later built was first part of Northumberland County, then became part of Lycoming County in 1795.Clemuel Ricketts Mansion – Clemuel Ricketts Mansion
33. Cloud Gate – The sculpture and AT&T Plaza are located on top of Park Grill, between the Chase Promenade and McCormick Tribune Plaza & Ice Rink. Constructed between 2006, the sculpture is nicknamed The Bean because of its shape. Made up of 168 stainless steel plates welded together, its highly polished exterior has no visible seams. It weighs 110 short tons. The sculpture's surface reflects and distorts the city's skyline. Visitors are able to walk under Cloud Gate's 12-foot high arch. On the underside is the "omphalos", a concave chamber that warps and multiplies reflections. It is popular with tourists as a photo-taking opportunity for its unique reflective properties. The sculpture was the result of a competition. After Kapoor's design was chosen, technological concerns regarding the design's construction and assembly arose, in addition to concerns regarding the sculpture's upkeep and maintenance. Various experts were consulted, some of whom believed the design could not be implemented. The sculpture's construction fell behind schedule. It was unveiled in an incomplete form before being concealed again while it was completed. Cloud Gate has since gained considerable popularity, both domestically and internationally. Lying to the west, Grant Park has been Chicago's front yard since the mid-19th century.Cloud Gate – Cloud Gate
34. The Combat: Woman Pleading for the Vanquished – A woman, also near-nude, clutches the victorious warrior to beg him for mercy. Nevertheless, it failed to find a buyer at the Summer Exhibition, was instead bought by fellow artist John Martin. The painting proved too large for Martin's house, in 1831 he sold it on to the Royal Scottish Academy. It was transferred in 1910 to the National Gallery of Scotland, where it remains. William Etty was born in miller. He began as an apprentice printer in Hull. In 1821 the Royal Academy exhibited The Arrival of Cleopatra in Cilicia. The painting was extremely well received, many of Etty's fellow artists greatly admired him. Pandora Crowned by the Seasons secured the position of Associate at the Royal Academy of Arts. Many critics condemned his repeated depictions of female nudity as indecent, although his portraits of male nudes were generally well received. The Combat: Woman Pleading for the Vanquished is a large painting, 399 cm across. It depicts a defeated soldier, kneeling in front of another soldier. The defeated fighter strains to free himself from the grip of the victorious warrior, who stands, raising a sword. A kneeling woman clutches the waist of the victorious soldier, raising her face to him to beg him to spare his defeated foe. The vanquished soldier's sword lies on the ground.The Combat: Woman Pleading for the Vanquished – The Combat: Woman Pleading for the Vanquished, William Etty (1825), 304 by 399 cm (10 ft by 13 ft 1 in)
35. Cottingley Fairies – In 1917, Frances was 9. Doyle, as a spiritualist, interpreted them as clear and visible evidence of psychic phenomena. Public reaction was mixed; others believed they had been faked. Interest in the Cottingley Fairies gradually declined after 1921. The photographs continued to hold the public imagination. In 1966 a reporter from the Daily Express newspaper traced Elsie, who had by then returned to the UK. The media once again became interested in the story. Two of the cameras used are on display in the National Media Museum in Bradford, England. Frances and Elsie said they only went to the beck to prove it, Elsie borrowed her father's camera, a Midg quarter-plate. The girls returned about 30 minutes later, "triumphant". Arthur, was a keen amateur photographer, had set up his own darkroom. The picture on the photographic plate he developed showed Frances behind a bush in the foreground, on which four fairies appeared to be dancing. That she had spent some time working in a photographer's studio, he dismissed the figures as cardboard cutouts. His wife Polly, however, believed the photographs to be authentic. On the back she wrote "It is funny, I never used to see them in Africa.Cottingley Fairies – The first of the five photographs, taken by Elsie Wright in 1917, shows Frances Griffiths with the alleged fairies.
36. Crown Fountain – Crown Fountain is an interactive work of public art and video sculpture featured in Chicago's Millennium Park, located in the Loop community area. Executed by Krueck and Sexton Architects, it opened in July 2004. The fountain is composed of a black granite reflecting pool placed between a pair of brick towers. They use light-emitting diodes to display digital videos on their inward faces. Design of the Crown Fountain cost $17 million. The water operates to October intermittently cascading down the two towers and spouting through a nozzle on each tower's front face. Critics have praised the fountain for its artistic and entertainment features. It highlights Plensa's themes of dualism, water, extending the use of video technology from his prior works. Its use of water is unique among Chicago's many fountains, in that it promotes physical interaction between the water. Both Millennium Park are highly accessible because of their universal design. Crown Fountain has been one of the most controversial of all the Millennium Park features. Before it was even built, some were concerned that the sculpture's height violated the aesthetic tradition of the park. After construction, surveillance cameras were installed atop the fountain, which led to a public outcry. However, the fountain has survived its contentious beginnings to find its way into Chicago culture. It is a popular subject for a common gathering place.Crown Fountain – Crown Fountain spouting water on visitors
37. Crucifix (Cimabue, Santa Croce) – Crucifix is a wooden crucifix, painted in distemper, attributed to the Florentine painter and mosaicist Cimabue. It is one of two large crucifixes attributed to him. The work is built from a complex arrangement of five main and eight ancillary timber boards. It is renowned for its technical innovations and humanistic iconography. The monumentality of the cross links it to the Byzantine tradition. Christ's static pose is reflective of this style, while the work overall incorporates more naturalistic aspects. The work presents a physically imposing depiction of the passion at Calvary. Christ is shown nearly naked: his eyes are closed, his face defeated. His body slumps in a position contorted by prolonged pain. It remains despite conservation efforts. Both of Cimabue's surviving crucifixes were commissioned by the Franciscan order. Founded by Saint Francis of their reformist, religious and social views had a profound effect on the visual arts in the century after his death. The son of Francis abandoned his inheritance to take up preaching in his mid-twenties. He developed a deep appreciation for the beauty of nature. Byzantine depictions tended to show Christ as invincible, even in death.Crucifix (Cimabue, Santa Croce) – Crucifix, 1287-1288. Distemper on wood panel, 448 cm × 390 cm (176.4 in × 153.5 in). Basilica di Santa Croce, Florence
38. Crucifixion and Last Judgement diptych – It was executed in a miniature format; the panels are just 56.5 cm high by 19.7 cm wide. The diptych was probably commissioned for private devotion. The left-hand wing depicts the Crucifixion. It shows Christ's followers grieving in soldiers and spectators milling about in the mid-ground and a portrayal of three crucified bodies in the upper-ground. The scene is framed in the distance. Portions of the work contain Greek, Latin and Hebrew inscriptions. The gilt frames contain Biblical passages in Latin drawn from the books of Isaiah, Deuteronomy and Revelation. According to a date written on their reverse, the panels were transferred to canvas supports in 1867. The earliest surviving mention of the work appears in 1841, when scholars believed the two panels were wings of a lost triptych. The Metropolitan Museum of Art acquired the diptych in 1933. Other art historians hold that van Eyck attribute the weaker passages to a younger van Eyck's relative inexperience. By contrast, depictions of the Crucifixion were usually presented in a horizontal format. Art historian Otto Pächt says it "is the whole world in an Orbis Pictus". In the Crucifixion panel, van Eyck follows the 14th-century tradition of presenting the biblical episodes using a narrative technique. According to historian Jeffrey Chipps Smith, the episodes appear as "simultaneous, not sequential" events.Crucifixion and Last Judgement diptych – Jan van Eyck, Crucifixion and Last Judgement diptych, c. 1430–40. Oil on canvas, transferred from wood. Each 56.5 cm × 19.7 cm (22.25 in × 7.75 in); Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
39. The Dawn of Love (painting) – While a few critics praised elements of its composition and execution, The Dawn of Love was very poorly received when first exhibited. In 1889 it has remained in the collection of the Russell-Cotes Art Gallery & Museum ever since. William Etty was born in 1787, miller. He began in Hull. In 1821 the Royal Academy exhibited one of Etty's works in the Summer Exhibition, The Arrival of Cleopatra in Cilicia. Many of Etty's fellow artists greatly admired him. He became well respected for his ability to capture flesh tones accurately for his fascination with contrasts in skin tones. Following the exhibition over the next decade Etty tried to replicate its success by painting nude figures in biblical, literary and mythological settings. Many critics condemned his repeated depictions of female nudity as indecent, although his portraits of male nudes were generally well received. The Dawn of Love illustrates an early passage from a 1634 masque by John Milton. Comus is a tale in which the female protagonist, referred to only as "The Lady", becomes separated from her family. She encounters the debauched magician Comus who uses all the means at his disposal to try to inflame her sexual desires. Using her reason and sense of morals resists Comus's efforts to draw her into intemperance or surrender to desire. Etty's painting is not a direct illustration of a scene from Comus. Night hath better sweets to prove, Venus now wakens Love".The Dawn of Love (painting) – The Dawn of Love, 1828, 88.8 by 96 cm (35.0 by 37.8 in)
40. Denbies – Denbies is a large estate to the northwest of Dorking in Surrey, England. It was still a substantial building though, with almost 100 rooms on three storeys. What remained of the estate -- about 635 acres -- was bought by Biwater, a water-treatment company. Two years later the company chairman Alan White established Denbies Wine Estate, using 268 acres to plant vines. A farmhouse originally owned by John Denby in the mid-16th century, after whom the estate is named, stood at the heart of Denbies. The lands were sold to Jonathan Tyers in 1734 to be developed as a weekend retreat. A two-storey house in the Georgian style was built by converting some of the old farm buildings. Set on top of a hillside about two miles northwest of Dorking, the house backed onto Ranmore Common. On that day it contained water to a depth of twenty-two feet supplied from a spring. Scant information is available about it; the garden established by Tyers, however, gained notoriety. In contrast to the cheerful, lit atmosphere of Vauxhall, the garden Tyers developed at Denbies was of a more Gothic nature. The development was given the name of "The Valley of the Shadow of Death". Just outside the entrance to the wood was a small hermitage known as The Temple of Death. At the end of the temple farthest from the door was a substantial monument to a renowned 18th-century horticulturist. The iron gate was mounted between two upended stone coffins supporting the portico, each one topped by a human skull, one male one female.Denbies – The mansion on the estate in about 1840, when it was owned by the Denison family
41. The Disasters of War – The Disasters of War is a series of 82 prints created between 1810 and 1820 by the Spanish painter and printmaker Francisco Goya. Although deeply affected by the war, he kept private his thoughts on the art he produced to the conflict and its aftermath. He was in almost deaf when, at 62, he began work on the prints. They were not published after his death. It is likely that only then was it considered politically safe to distribute a sequence of artworks criticising restored Bourbons. The name by which the series is known today is not Goya's own. His handwritten title on an album of proofs given to a friend reads: Fatal consequences with Bonaparte and other emphatic caprices. Aside from the captions given to each print, these are Goya's only known words on the series. With these works, he breaks from a number of painterly traditions. He rejects the bombastic heroics of previous Spanish war art to show the effect of conflict on individuals. In addition he abandons colour in favour of a more direct truth he found in shade. As with other Goya prints, they are sometimes referred to as aquatints, but more often as etchings. The series is usually considered in three groups which broadly mirror the order of their creation. The first 47 show the consequences of the conflict on individual soldiers and civilians. The middle series record the effects of the famine that hit Madrid in 1811–12, before the city was liberated from the French.The Disasters of War – Plate 3: Lo mismo (The same). A man about to cut off the head of a soldier with an axe.
42. Dresden Triptych – The Dresden Triptych is a very small hinged-triptych altarpiece by the Early Netherlandish painter Jan van Eyck. It consists of five individual panel paintings: two double-sided wings. It is in the permanent collection of the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden, with the panels still in their original frames. The only non-portrait signed with his personal motto, ALC IXH XAN. The triptych can be placed at the midpoint of his known works. Elisabeth Dhanens describes it as "the delicate and appealing work by Jan van Eyck that has survived". The paintings on the two outer wings become visible when the triptych is closed. The three inner panels are set in an ecclesiastical interior. In the inner panel Mary is seated and holds the Christ Child on her lap. On the left wing Archangel Michael presents a kneeling donor, while on the right St. Catherine of Alexandria stands reading a prayer book. The interior panels are outlined with two layers of painted bronze frames, inscribed with mostly Latin lettering. The work may have been intended for private devotion, perhaps as a portable altarpiece for a migrant cleric. That the frames are so richly decorated with Latin inscriptions indicates that the donor, whose identity is lost, was cultured. The Dresden Triptych was probably in the possession of the Giustiniani family in the mid- to late-15th century. In the mid-19th century the Dresden catalogues first attribute it a few years later to Jan..Dresden Triptych – View of the inner wings. The two outer wings contain an Annunciation scene in grisaille. Oil on oak panel, 1437. Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden. 33.1cm × 13.6cm; 33.1cm × 27.5cm; 33.1cm × 13.6cm
43. Drowning Girl – Drowning Girl is a 1963 painting in oil and synthetic polymer paint on canvas by Roy Lichtenstein. It is part of the Museum of Modern Art's permanent collection since 1971. The painting is considered among Lichtenstein's most significant works, perhaps on a par with his acclaimed 1963 Whaam!. The painting shows a teary-eyed woman on a turbulent sea. She is emotionally distressed, seemingly from a romance. A bubble reads: "I Don't Care! I'd Rather Sink -- For Help!" This element highlights the clichéd melodrama, while its graphics reiterate Lichtenstein's theme of painterly work imitating mechanized reproduction. It is one of several Lichtenstein works that mention a character named Brad, absent from the picture. Both the graphical and narrative elements of the work are cropped from the image. During early 1960s a number of American painters began to adapt the imagery and motifs of comic strips. Roy Lichtenstein made drawings of comic strip characters in 1958. Andy Warhol produced his earliest paintings in 1960. Lichtenstein, unaware of Warhol's work, produced Look Mickey and Popeye in 1961. Lichtenstein parodied four Picassos between 1963.Drowning Girl – Drowning Girl
44. Early Netherlandish painting – Their work follows the International Gothic style and begins approximately with Robert Campin and Jan van Eyck in the early 1420s. The major Netherlandish painters include Campin, Hieronymus Bosch. These artists made significant advances in natural representation and illusionism, their work typically features complex iconography. Their subjects are usually religious scenes or small portraits, with narrative painting or mythological subjects being relatively rare. Landscape is often richly described but relegated as a background detail before the early 16th century. The period is also noted for its sculpture, tapestries, illuminated manuscripts, stained glass and carved retables. Assisted by the workshop system, panels and a variety of crafts were sold to foreign princes or merchants through private engagement or market stalls. A majority were destroyed during waves of iconoclasm in the 16th and 17th centuries; today only a few thousand examples survive. Art historians spent almost another century determining attributions, studying iconography, establishing bare outlines of even the major artists' lives. Attribution of some of the most significant works is still debated. These artists became an early driving force behind the Northern Renaissance and the move away from the Gothic style. In this political and art-historical context, the north follows the Burgundian lands which straddled areas that encompass parts of modern France, Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands. The Netherlandish artists have been known by a variety of terms. "Late Gothic" is an early designation which emphasises continuity with the art of the Middle Ages. In the early 20th century, the artists were variously referred to in English as the "Ghent-Bruges school" or the "Old Netherlandish school".Early Netherlandish painting – Jan van Eyck, The Arnolfini Portrait, 1434, National Gallery, London. This work is considered one of the more original and complex paintings in Western art because of its iconography and geometric orthogonal perspective.
45. Elgin Cathedral – Elgin Cathedral is a historic ruin in Elgin, Moray, north-east Scotland. It replaced the cathedral to the north, served by a small chapter of eight clerics. The new and bigger cathedral was then increased to 23 by 1242. After a damaging fire in 1270, a programme greatly enlarged the building. In 1402 the precinct again suffered an incendiary attack by the followers of the Lord of the Isles. The number of clerics required to staff the cathedral continued to grow, as surrounds. After the removal of the lead that waterproofed the roof in 1567, the cathedral steadily fell into decay. Its deterioration was arrested in the 19th century, by which time the building was in a substantially ruinous condition. These walls are at full height in places and at foundation level in others yet the overall cruciform shape is still discernible. A mostly intact octagonal house dates from the major enlargement after the fire of 1270. The gable wall above the double entrance that links the west towers is nearly complete and was rebuilt following the fire of 1390. Fragments of a large rose window. The homes of manses, stood in the chanonry and were destroyed by fire on three occasions: in 1270, 1390 and 1402. The two towers of the west front were part of the first phase of construction. Only the precentor's manse is substantially intact; two others have been incorporated into private buildings.Elgin Cathedral – Elgin Cathedral
46. The Entombment (Bouts) – The Entombment is a glue-size painting on linen attributed to the Early Netherlandish painter Dieric Bouts. The smaller panels would have been paired in a format similar to Bouts' 1464–67 Altar of the Holy Sacrament. The larger work was probably commissioned for export possibly to a Venetian patron whose identity is lost. The painting is an affecting portrayal of sorrow and grief. It shows four female and three male mourners grieving over the body of Christ. They are, to right, Nicodemus, Mary Salome, Mary of Clopas, Mary, the mother of Jesus, John the Evangelist, Mary Magdalene and Joseph of Arimathea. It is one of the few 15th-century paintings created using glue-size, an extremely fragile medium lacking durability. The Entombment is in relatively poor condition compared to panel paintings of similar age. A strip at the top has been less affected than the rest because it was protected by a frame. He is attended by seven mourners dressed in contemporary clothing. The background contains a wide landscape with a broad river before a more distant vista of trees and hills. Bouts is considered an innovative painter of landscapes, even in his portrait work where they are included as distant views seen through open windows. The vista in The Entombment is typically composed of distant brown and green hills against a blue sky. She is supported by John the Evangelist, who wears a red robe. Dressed in green robes, Mary Salome stands to the Virgin's left, wiping tears with the fold of her white headdress.The Entombment (Bouts) – Dirk Bouts, The Entombment, probably 1450s. Glue-size tempera on linen, 87.5 × 73.6 cm (34.4 × 29 in). National Gallery, London.
47. Egyptian temple – Egyptian temples were built for the official worship of the gods and in commemoration of the pharaohs in ancient Egypt and regions under Egyptian control. Temples were seen to whom they were dedicated. These rituals were seen as necessary for the gods to continue to uphold the divine order of the universe. Caring for the gods were the obligations of pharaohs, who therefore dedicated prodigious resources to temple construction and maintenance. The most important part of the temple was the sanctuary, which typically contained a statue of its god. These edifices are with their elements arranged and decorated according to complex patterns of religious symbolism. Their typical design consisted of a series of enclosed halls, massive entrance pylons aligned along the path used for festival processions. Beyond the temple proper was an outer wall enclosing a wide variety of secondary buildings. A large temple also employed thousands of laymen to supply its needs. Temples were therefore economic as well as religious centers. Temple-building in Egypt continued to the Roman Empire. With the coming of Christianity, the last temple was closed in AD 550. For centuries, the ancient buildings suffered neglect. Some have become world-famous tourist attractions that contribute significantly to the modern Egyptian economy. Egyptologists continue to study the remains of destroyed ones, as they are invaluable sources of information about ancient Egyptian society.Egyptian temple – The Temple of Isis at Philae, with pylons and an enclosed court on the left and the inner building at right
48. Exelon Pavilions – The Northeast Exelon Pavilion and Northwest Exelon Pavilion are located on the northern edge of the park along Randolph Street, flank the Harris Theater. The Southeast Exelon Pavilion and Southwest Exelon Pavilion are located on the southern edge of the park along Monroe Street, flank the Lurie Garden. Together the pavilions generate 19,840 kilowatt-hours of electricity annually, worth about $2,350 per year. The four pavilions, which cost $7 million, were designed in January 2001; construction began in January 2004. A company that generates the electricity transmitted by Commonwealth Edison, donated $5.5 million for the pavilions. Chicago Tribune critic Blair Kamin criticized the North Pavilions as "nearly all black and impenetrable". Lying between Lake Michigan to the east and the Loop to the west, Grant Park has been Chicago's front yard since the mid-19th century. As of 2009, Millennium Park trailed only Navy Pier as a Chicago tourist attraction. In 1836, a year before Chicago was incorporated, the Board of Canal Commissioners held public auctions for the city's first lots. Grant Park has been "free" since, protected by legislation, affirmed by four previous Illinois Supreme Court rulings. In 1890, arguing that Michigan Avenue property owners held easements on the park land, Ward commenced legal actions to keep the park free of new buildings. In 1900, the Illinois Supreme Court concluded that all landfill east of Michigan Avenue was subject to dedications and easements. Shorter structures do not run afoul of the height restrictions. The Harris Theater, which lies between the North Pavilions, was built mostly underground to avoid the restrictions. Tallest of the four, is three stories high; the South Pavilions are each one story.Exelon Pavilions – The Northwest Exelon Pavilion is the Millennium Park Welcome Center and houses the park's office.
49. An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump – The painting departed by depicting a scientific subject in the reverential manner formerly reserved for scenes of religious significance. The picture has been owned by the National Gallery, London since 1863 and is still regarded as a masterpiece of British art. In June 2015 it was on loan to Tate Britain. The group exhibits a variety of reactions, but for most of the audience scientific curiosity overcomes concern for the bird. The central figure looks out of the picture as if inviting the viewer's participation in the outcome. In 1659, Robert Boyle commissioned the construction of an pump, then described as a "pneumatic engine", known today as a pump. The air pump was invented by Otto von Guericke in 1650, though its cost deterred most contemporary scientists from constructing the apparatus. Boyle's pump, largely constructed by Robert Hooke, was complicated, problematic to operate. Boyle frequently left public displays solely to Hooke -- whose dramatic flair matched his technical skill. In the book, he described in great detail 43 experiments he conducted, on various phenomena. Boyle examined the effects of increased pressure on various substances. One of the most respectable of the travelling lecturers was James Ferguson FRS, probable acquaintance of Joseph Wright. The full moon in the picture is significant as Lunar Circle meetings were timed to make use of its light when travelling. Darwin's study in his original house survives at Beacon St, Lichfield WS13 7AD, is recognisable as the site of the painting. The eight window is unchanged; the position remains as depicted in the painting, though the architrave is missing.An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump – An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump
50. Fort Ticonderoga – It was of strategic importance during the 18th-century colonial conflicts between Great Britain and France, again played an important role during the American Revolutionary War. The terrain amplified the importance of the site. The name "Ticonderoga" comes from the Iroquois word: ken, meaning "it is at the junction of two waterways". During the 1758 Battle of Carillon, 4,000 French defenders were able to repel an attack by 16,000 British troops near the fort. In 1759, the British drove a token French garrison from the fort. Cannons captured were transported to Boston where their deployment forced the British to abandon the city in March 1776. It ceased to be of military value after 1781. It fell into leading people to strip it of some of its usable stone, metal, woodwork. It became a stop in the 19th century. Its private owners restored the fort early in the 20th century. A foundation now operates the fort as a tourist attraction, museum, center. The route was relatively free of obstacles with only a few portages. Although the site provides commanding views of the southern extent of Lake Champlain, Mount Defiance, at 853 ft, two other hills overlook the area. Indians had occupied the area for centuries before French explorer Samuel de Champlain first arrived there in 1609. Champlain recounted that the Algonquins, with whom he was traveling, battled a group of Iroquois nearby.Fort Ticonderoga – Fort Ticonderoga
51. Fountain of Time – This location is in the Washington Park area on Chicago's South Side. Although the fountain's water began running in 1920, the sculpture was not dedicated until 1922. The sculpture is a contributing structure to the Washington Park United States Registered Historic District, a National Register of Historic Places listing. It was said to be the first of any kind of finished work of art made of concrete. Before the completion of Millennium Park in 2004, it was considered the most important installation in the Chicago Park District. Time is one of art funded by Benjamin Ferguson's trust fund. Time has undergone several restorations because of decline caused by natural and urban elements. In 1907, Taft had won the first commission from the Ferguson Fund to create the Fountain of the Great Lakes at the Art Institute of Chicago. Afterwards inspired by Daniel Burnham's "Make no little plans" quote, he begin lobbying for a grand Midway beautification plan. In 1912, Art Institute Trustee Frank G. Logan formally presented Taft's plans at the Art Institute of Chicago. Taft's proposed Plaisance beautification plan included two possible commemoration themes. His first choice was to honor the memory of the World's Columbian Exposition, held in Jackson Park in 1893. His alternative was to commemorate the centennial of the 1814 Treaty of Ghent "marking a century of perfect understanding between England and America". Contemporary newspaper accounts anticipated that Taft's Midway beautification plan would be approved easily. This would enable the model to be evaluated in 1918.Fountain of Time
52. Four Freedoms (Norman Rockwell) – The Four Freedoms is a series of four 1943 oil paintings by the American artist Norman Rockwell. The theme became part of the charter of the United Nations. The paintings were reproduced in The Saturday Evening Post alongside essays by prominent thinkers of the day. They became the highlight of a exhibition sponsored by The Post and the U.S. Department of the Treasury. The accompanying sales drives of war bonds raised over $132 million. These by some accounts became the most widely distributed paintings. At one time they were commonly displayed in post offices, schools, clubs, a variety of public and semi-public buildings. Critical review of these images, like most of Rockwell's work, has not been entirely positive. Rockwell's nostalgic approach to regionalism made him a popular illustrator but a lightly regarded fine artist during his lifetime, a view still prevalent today. However, he has created an enduring niche from Want emblematic of what is now known as the "Norman Rockwell Thanksgiving". Throughout his political career Roosevelt championed the cause of human rights. To put another way, FDR's speech was known for "identifying the objectives of the war and revealing his hopeful view of the postwar world." Of the Four Freedoms, the only two described in the United States Constitution were freedom of worship. Unfettered by Lorimer's restrictions, Rockwell saw the opportunity to illustrate the Four Freedoms as the chance of a lifetime. Rockwell's covers highlighted the human aspect of the American effort.Four Freedoms (Norman Rockwell) – Freedom of Speech
53. The Four Stages of Cruelty – The Four Stages of Cruelty is a series of four printed engravings published by English artist William Hogarth in 1751. Each print depicts a different stage in the life of the fictional Tom Nero. The prints were intended as a form of moral instruction; Hogarth was dismayed by the routine acts of cruelty he witnessed on the streets of London. Issued on cheap paper, the prints were destined for the lower classes. Nevertheless, the pictures still carry the wealth of detail and subtle references that are characteristic of Hogarth. Hogarth loved animals, marking the graves of his dogs and birds at his home in Chiswick. The images themselves, as with Beer Street and Gin Lane, were roughly drawn, lacking the finer lines of some of his other works. This proved more expensive than expected, so only the last two of the four images were not issued commercially at the time. As with earlier engravings, such as Industry and Idleness, individual prints were sold on "ordinary" paper for 1s. , cheap enough to be purchased by the lower classes as a means of moral instruction. "Fine" versions were also available on "superior" paper for 1s. 6d. for collectors. A more tender-hearted boy, perhaps the dog's owner, pleads with Nero to stop tormenting the animal, even offering food in an attempt to appease him. This boy supposedly represents a young George III. Below the text the authorship is established: Designed by W. Hogarth, Published according to Act of Parliament.The Four Stages of Cruelty – William Hogarth
54. Four Times of the Day – Four Times of the Day is a series of four paintings by English artist William Hogarth. Completed in 1736, they were reproduced as a series of four engravings published in 1738. They are humorous depictions of life in the streets of London, the interactions between the rich and poor. The four pictures depict scenes of daily life in various locations in London as the day progresses. Four Times of the Day was the first set of prints that Hogarth published after his two great successes, A Rake's Progress. Hogarth conceived of the series as "representing in a humorous manner, morning, noon, night". The engravings are mirror images of the paintings, which leads to problems ascertaining the times shown on the clocks in some of the scenes. Often the theme is one of over-orderliness versus chaos. However, Night—sometimes misidentified as being in September—takes place on Oak Apple Day in May rather than in the autumn. After subscription the price rose to five shillings per print, making the five print set four shillings dearer overall. Representations of Aurora and Diana also appear in both. Hogarth advertised the prints for sale in May 1737, again in January 1738, finally announced the plates were ready on 26 April 1738. A preliminary sketch for Morning with some differences to the final painting was sold in a later auction for # 21. In Morning, a lady makes her way to church, shielding herself from the shocking view of two men pawing at the market girls. Henry Fielding mentions the house in both The Covent Garden Tragedy and Pasquin.Four Times of the Day – The paintings of Four Times of the Day (clockwise from top left: Morning, Noon, Night, and Evening)
55. Freedom from Want (painting) – The works were inspired by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt's 1941 State of the Union Address, known as Four Freedoms. The painting was published in the March 6, 1943 issue of The Saturday Evening Post. All of the people in the picture were friends and family of Rockwell in Arlington, Vermont, who were painted into the scene. The work depicts a group of people gathered around a table for a holiday meal. The Post published Freedom by Carlos Bulosan as part of the Four Freedoms series. Despite many who endured sociopolitical hardships abroad, it thrust him into prominence. The painting has had Norman Rockwell, Illustrator. Artistically, the work is highly regarded as an example of mastery of as one of Rockwell's most famous works. Freedom from Want is the third in a series of four oil paintings entitled Four Freedoms by Norman Rockwell. The government used them to help boost patriotism. The Four Freedoms' theme was eventually incorporated into the Atlantic Charter, it became part of the charter of the United Nations. Eventually, the series became instrumental in the U.S. Government War Bond Drive. The illustration is an painting on canvas, measuring 45.75 by 35.5 inches. The painting shows an aproned matriarch presenting a roasted turkey to a family of several generations, in Rockwell's idealistic presentation of family values. The patriarch looks on from the head of the table, the central element of the painting.Freedom from Want (painting) – Freedom from Want
56. Freedom Monument – The Freedom Monument is a memorial located in Riga, Latvia, honouring soldiers killed during the Latvian War of Independence. It is considered an important symbol of the freedom, sovereignty of Latvia. Unveiled in 1935, the high monument of granite, travertine, copper often serves as the focal point of public gatherings and official ceremonies in Riga. The bas-reliefs of the monument, arranged in thirteen groups, depict Latvian culture and history. After several contests the monument was finally built according to the scheme "Shine like a star!" Submitted by Latvian sculptor Kārlis Zāle. Construction works were financed by private donations. Soviet sculptor Vera Mukhina is sometimes credited for rescuing the monument, because she considered it to be of artistic value. Indeed, on June 1987, about 5,000 people gathered at the monument to commemorate the victims of the Soviet regime and to lay flowers. This rally renewed the national movement, which culminated three years later in the re-establishment of Latvian sovereignty after the fall of the Soviet regime. The bas-reliefs of the Freedom Monument, arranged in thirteen groups, depict Latvian culture and history. The core of the monument is composed on top of each other decreasing in size towards the top. Two additional steps form a platform, 28 meters in diameter, on which the whole monument stands. At the front of the monument this platform forms a rectangle, used for ceremonial proposes. Its sides are also paneled with travertine.Freedom Monument – Freedom Monument Brīvības piemineklis
57. Freedom of Worship (painting) – Freedom of Worship or Freedom to Worship is the second of the Four Freedoms oil paintings produced by the American artist Norman Rockwell. Rockwell considered the most successful of the series. Freedom of Worship was published in the February 27, 1943, issue of The Saturday Evening Post by philosopher Will Durant. Freedom of Worship is the second of a series of four oil paintings by Norman Rockwell entitled Four Freedoms. Of the Four Freedoms, the only two described in the United States Constitution are freedom of religion. For the essay accompanying Freedom of Worship, Post editor Ben Hibbs chose Durant, a best-selling author at the peak of his fame. At the time, Durant was in the midst of working on his ten-volume The Story of Civilization, coauthored with Ariel Durant. Will Durant also lectured on philosophy. Eventually, the series of paintings became instrumental in the U.S. Government War Bond Drive. The painting shows the profiles of eight heads in a modest space. The various figures represent people of different faiths in a moment of prayer. In 1966, Rockwell used Freedom of Worship to show his admiration for John F. Kennedy in a Look illustration entitled JFK's Bold Legacy. The work depicts Kennedy in profile in a composition similar to Freedom of Worship along with Peace Corps volunteers. His first workup was a 41-by-33-inch oil on canvas depicting tolerance as "the basis for a democracy's religious diversity". It included a Jew being served by a Protestant barber as a Roman Catholic priest awaited the barber's services.Freedom of Worship (painting) – Freedom of Worship
58. Funerary art – Funerary art is any work of art forming, or placed in, a repository for the remains of the dead. Funerary art may serve cultural functions. A similar division can be seen in grand East Asian tombs. In these cultures, traditions such as the sculpted sarcophagus and monument of the Greek and Roman empires, later the Christian world, have flourished. The mausoleum intended for visiting was later common in Islamic culture. Tomb is a general term for any repository for human remains, while grave goods are other objects which have been placed within the tomb. Knowledge of non-literate cultures is drawn largely from these sources. A mausoleum is a building erected mainly as a tomb, taking its name at Halicarnassus. Stele is a term for erect stones that are often what are now called gravestones. Ship burials are mostly found in coastal Europe, while chariot burials are found widely across Eurasia. Catacombs, of which the most famous examples are those in Rome and Alexandria, are underground cemeteries connected by tunnelled passages. A cenotaph is a memorial without a burial. Particularly influential in this regard was John Weever's Ancient Funerall Monuments, the first full-length book to be dedicated to the subject of tomb memorials and epitaphs. Others, however, have found this distinction "rather pedantic". Many cultures have psychopomp figures, such as the Greek Hermes and Etruscan Charun, who help conduct the spirits of the dead into the afterlife.Funerary art – Tomb of Philippe Pot, governor of Burgundy under Louis XI
59. Funerary Monument to Sir John Hawkwood – The politics of the recommissioning of the fresco have been analyzed and debated by historians. The fresco is now detached from the wall; it has been repositioned twice in modern times. Hawkwood had a complicated relationship with Florence. He fought during the Hundred Years War and then with the "Great Company" which had harassed the Avignon Papacy. The "White Company" remained in Italy, accepting money from many city-states, both to wage war and to refrain from it. Hawkwood also received a lifetime annual pension of 1,200 florins. Hawkwood married the illegitimate daughter of Bernabò Visconti, in 1377. In that same year he defected to Florence. Hawkwood's 1377 massacre at Cesena during the twilight of his papal employment in the War of the Eight Saints continues to tarnish his legacy. However, Hawkwood was the facto commander-in-chief of Florence's military from 1377 until immediately prior to his death in 1394. Now in his seventies, made preparations to return to England, where he had been sending money to acquire land, set up a chantry. Just as he was liquidating his affairs in Italy, he died, on March 1394. Florence acquiesced in a June 3, 1395 letter: Our devotion can deny nothing to the eminence of your highness. We will leave nothing undone that we may fulfill your good pleasure. Tibertino Brandolino was interred at San Francesco in Venice; Jacopo de' Cavalli at SS.Funerary Monument to Sir John Hawkwood – Funerary Monument to Sir John Hawkwood: the fresco measures 732 x 404 cm (288 x 159 in); with Trompe-l'œil frame added in the 16th century, 820 x 515 cm (323 x 203 in).
60. The Garden of Earthly Delights – It dates from between 1510, when Bosch was between about 40 and 60 years old, is his best-known and most ambitious surviving work. The outer wings, when folded, show a grisaille painting of the earth during the biblical narrative of Creation. The three scenes of the inner triptych are probably intended to be read chronologically to right. The right panel portrays the torments of damnation. Art historians frequently interpret the painting as a didactic warning on the perils of life's temptations. However, the intricacy of its symbolism, particularly that of the central panel, has led to a wide range of scholarly interpretations over the centuries. Twentieth-century art historians are divided as to whether the triptych's central panel is a panorama of paradise lost. Bosch painted that can be read from left to right and in which each panel was essential to the meaning of the whole. Each of these three works presents distinct yet linked themes addressing faith. When the triptych's wings are closed, the design of the outer panels becomes visible. It was common for the outer panels of Netherlandish altarpieces to be in grisaille, such that their blandness highlighted the splendid colour inside. The outer panels are generally thought to depict the creation of the world, showing greenery beginning to clothe the still-pristine Earth. God, wearing a crown similar to a papal tiara, is visible as a tiny figure at the upper left. Bosch shows God as the father sitting on his lap creating the Earth in a passive manner by divine fiat. The Earth is encapsulated in a transparent sphere recalling the traditional depiction of the created world as a sphere held by God or Christ.The Garden of Earthly Delights – Hieronymus Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights, oil on oak panels, 220 x 389 cm, Museo del Prado, Madrid
61. Geology Hall – At present, the building houses the university's geological museum. One of the oldest collegiate geology collections in the United States, was founded by state geologist and Rutgers professor George Hammell Cook in 1872. Its exhibits showcase the natural history of New Jersey; focusing geology, anthropology. Exhibits include fluorescent zinc minerals from Franklin and Ogdensburg, a mastodon from a dinosaur trackway discovered in Towaco, a Ptolemaic era Egyptian mummy. In 1864 the State of New Jersey named Rutgers College as their sole land college. A professor of chemistry and natural sciences, influenced the state to select Rutgers over the College of New Jersey. Cook later became the college's vice president. With new funding for scientific studies, Cook expanded his research and teaching into geology and agriculture. Six years later, the college's board of trustees decided to erect a building to house the college's scientific programs. With these funds, the trustees commissioned a design from Henry Janeway Hardenbergh, a young architect from New Brunswick. Hardenbergh received these contracts through family connections, as several members of his family were graduates, trustees, or associated with the school. The building was completed at a cost of US$63,201.54. Geology Hall's first floor housed the college's armory. The first-floor classrooms would accommodate the college's physics, geology departments. Geology Hall's second floor was designed to provide sufficient space to house geological specimens as a museum.Geology Hall – Professor George H. Cook was instrumental in Rutgers becoming the state's only land-grant college and developing the college's programs in the sciences and agriculture.
62. Greece runestones – The Greece runestones are about 30 runestones containing information related to voyages made by Norsemen to the Byzantine Empire. They were engraved in the Old Norse language with Scandinavian runes. All the stones have been found in the majority in Uppland and Södermanland. Several stones were documented by Richard Dybeck in the 19th century. The latest stone to be found was in Nolinge, in 1952. Viking ships were common on the Black Sea, the Aegean Sea, the Sea of Marmara and on the wider Mediterranean Sea. As late as 1195, Emperor Alexios Angelos sent emissaries to Denmark, Norway and Sweden requesting 1,000 warriors from each of the three kingdoms. About 3,000 runestones from the Viking Age have been discovered in Scandinavia of which c. 2,700 were raised within what today is Sweden. As many as 1,277 of them were raised in the province of Uppland alone. In many districts c. 50 % of the stone inscriptions have traces of Christianity. The runestone tradition probably died out by 1125. These two provinces are those that have the greatest concentrations of runic inscriptions. Fótr carved the runes." They include inheritance issues, status and the honouring of the deceased. Such concerns would have arisen when a family knew that a relative would not return from abroad.Greece runestones – The Piraeus Lion with a runic inscription, now in Venice
63. Harris Theater (Chicago) – The theater, underground due to Grant Park-related height restrictions, was named for its primary benefactors, Joan and Irving Harris. It serves as a complement to Jay Pritzker Pavilion, which hosts the park's outdoor performances. Among the regularly local groups are Joffrey Ballet, Hubbard Street Dance Chicago and Chicago Opera Theater. It turned a profit in its fourth fiscal year. The Harris Theater has hosted notable national and international performers, in over 25 years. The theater began offering series of traveling performers in its 2008 -- 2009 fifth anniversary season. Performances through this series have included the San Francisco Ballet, Stephen Sondheim. The design has been criticized with an elevator bottleneck. However, its underground design to preserve Millennium Park have been praised. Although there were complaints about high priced events in its early years, discounted ticket programs were introduced in the 2009–10 season. As of 2007, Millennium Park trails only Navy Pier as a Chicago attraction. In 1836, a year before Chicago was incorporated, the Board of Canal Commissioners held public auctions for the city's first lots. Grant Park has been "forever open, free" since, protected by legislation, affirmed by four previous Illinois Supreme Court rulings. In 1890, arguing that Michigan Avenue property owners held easements on the land, Ward commenced legal actions to keep the park free of new buildings. In 1900, the Illinois Supreme Court concluded that all landfill east of Michigan Avenue was subject to easements.Harris Theater (Chicago) – Harris Theater (left) from Randolph Street
64. Head VI – Head VI is an oil-on-canvas painting by the Irish-born English figurative artist Francis Bacon, the last of six panels making up his "1949 Head" series. This gives the effect of a man suffocated by his surroundings, screaming into an airless void. Head VI contains many motifs that were to reappear in Bacon's work. The object, which may be a light switch or curtain tassel, can be found even in his late paintings. The geometric cage is a motif that appears late as his 1985 -- 86 masterpiece, Study for a Self-Portrait -- Triptych. In 1989 Lawrence Gowing wrote that the "shock of the picture, when it was seen with a whole series of heads... was indescribable. It was unpardonable. The paradoxical appearance at once of iconoclasm was indeed one of Bacon's most original strokes." Curator David Sylvester described it as a seminal piece from Bacon's unusually productive 1949 -- 50 period, one of Bacon's finest popes. Bacon's output is characterised by sequences of images. He told Sylvester that "images breed other images in me". His series were not always painted in sequence; sometimes paintings are grouped for convenience but vary in execution and tone. The idea for the series came after he returned penniless, late in 1948, from a stay in Tangier. In the previous three years he had been unable to find a voice; the last surviving canvas from this period is his Painting. Gallerist Erica Brausen offered the opportunity of a solo show for the opening of her new Hanover Gallery.Head VI – Head VI, 1949. 93.2 × 76.5 cm (36.7 × 30.1 in), Arts Council collection, Hayward Gallery, London
65. Hebron Church (Intermont, West Virginia) – Hebron Church is a mid-19th century Lutheran church in Intermont, Hampshire County, in the U.S. state of West Virginia. The congregation worshiped in a church, which initially served both Lutheran and Reformed denominations. Its congregation was originally German-speaking; the church's documents and religious services were until 1821 when records and sermons transitioned to English. The church's congregation built 1 1⁄2 - story church building in 1849, when it was renamed Hebron on the Cacapon. The original church was moved across the road and subsequently used as a sexton's house, Sunday school classroom, public schoolhouse. As of October 2015, the church continues to be used in America. The Capon Lake Whipple Truss Bridge are 0.64 miles northeast of the church. Its cemetery are on a 3.879-acre lot. Hebron Church is in the Cacapon River Valley. Just southeast of the church, is hidden from the church and cemetery by mature foliage. George Washington National Forest, encompassing the forested area east of the Cacapon River, is east of the church. The National Register of Historic Places listing for Hebron Church includes cemetery. A paved walkway leads from the gate to the northwestern façade and two main entrances of the church. The church is surrounded on its northeastern, southeastern, southwestern sides by a cemetery, still in use. The cemetery contains over 600 gravestones, several yuccas, a boxwood.Hebron Church (Intermont, West Virginia) – Hebron Church
66. Heian Palace – The Heian Palace or Daidairi was the original imperial palace of Heian-kyō, the capital of Japan, from 794 to 1227. The palace consisted of a large walled enclosure, which contained several ceremonial and administrative buildings including the government ministries. Inside this enclosure was the separately walled residential compound of the Inner Palace. The palace was designed to provide an appropriate setting for the emperor's residence, the accompanying ceremonies. From the mid-Heian period, the palace suffered other disasters. During reconstructions, some of the office functions resided outside the palace. This, along with the general loss of political power of the court, acted to further diminish the importance of the palace as the administrative centre. Finally in 1227 the palace was never rebuilt. The site was built over so that almost no trace of it remains. Limited excavations conducted mainly since the late 1970s. The south-eastern corner of the Greater Palace was located in the middle of the present-day Nijō Castle. The palace thus presided over the symmetrical urban plan of Heian-kyō. In addition to the Suzakumon, the palace had 13 other gates located symmetrically along the side walls. In parallel with the concentration of activity within the Dairi, the Greater Palace began to be regarded as increasingly unsafe, especially by night. Hence even violent crime became a problem within the palace by the first half of 11th century.Heian Palace – Memorial stone at the site of the Daigokuden hall of the palace.
67. Holkham Hall – Holkham Hall is an 18th-century country house located adjacent to the village of Holkham, Norfolk, England. The Holkham Estate, had been built up by the founder of his fortune. Other purchases of land in Norfolk to endow to his six sons. John, inherited married heiress Meriel Wheatley in 1612. They made Hill Hall their home and by 1659 John had complete ownership of all three Holkham manors. It is the ancestral home of the Coke family, the Earls of Leicester of Holkham. The interior of the hall is opulently, but by the standards of the day, simply decorated and furnished. Ornament is used with such restraint that it was possible to decorate both private and state rooms in the same style, without oppressing the former. The most impressive of these rooms is the Saloon, which has walls lined with red velvet. Each of the major state rooms is symmetrical in its layout and design; in some rooms, false doors are necessary to fully achieve this balanced effect. Holkham was built by 1st Earl of Leicester, Thomas Coke, born in 1697. Coke was away from England for six years between 1712 and 1718. Coke returned not only with a newly acquired library, but also an art and collection with which to furnish his planned new mansion. However, after his return, he lived a feckless life, preoccupying himself with drinking, gambling and hunting, being a leading supporter of cockfighting. Coke, made Earl of Leicester in 1744, died in 1759—five years before the completion of Holkham—having never fully recovered his financial losses.Holkham Hall – Holkham Hall. The severely Palladian south facade with its Ionic portico is devoid of arms or motif; not even a blind window is allowed to break the void between the windows and roof-line, while the lower windows are mere piercings in the stark brickwork. The only hint of ornamentation is from the two terminating Venetian windows.
68. Holy Thorn Reliquary – The Holy Thorn Reliquary was probably created in the 1390s in Paris for John, Duke of Berry, to house a relic of the Crown of Thorns. The reliquary was bequeathed by Ferdinand de Rothschild as part of the Waddesdon Bequest. The fraud remained undetected until well after the original reliquary came to the British Museum. It remained until after 1860 when it appeared in an exhibition. One of the copies remained in Vienna where the deception remained undetected for several decades. Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna agreed that the London reliquary was the original. Normally it is on display in the dedicated Waddesdon Bequest Room, as specified in the terms of the bequest. The Holy Thorn Reliquary is made of gold, enamel, crystal pearls, rubies and sapphires. It weighs 1.4 kilograms. There are small losses and repairs; but generally the reliquary is in good condition. The central compartment holding the relic is protected by a thin pane of rock crystal, which has kept it in perfect condition. The enamel is mostly in ronde technique, applied to three-dimensional figures, with white as the dominant colour. White enamel using lead was only very fashionable, dominating many contemporary ronde bosse works. There is also red, green, blue, black enamel. Pure gold is used throughout, rare even in royal commissions of such pieces at this period; most use cheaper silver-gilt for the structural framework.Holy Thorn Reliquary – Front view
69. Hope (painting) – Hope is a Symbolist oil painting by the English painter George Frederic Watts, the first two versions of which were completed in 1886. The background is its only visible feature a single star. Watts intentionally used symbolism not traditionally associated with hope to make the painting's meaning ambiguous. While his use of colour in Hope was greatly admired, at the time of its exhibition many critics disliked the painting. Hope proved popular with the Aesthetic Movement, who were unconcerned by the ambiguity of its message. Reproductions in platinotype, later cheap carbon prints, soon began to be sold. Later in 1886 Watts and his assistant Cecil Schott painted a second version. On its completion Watts donated the copy to the South Kensington Museum; thus, this second version is better known than the original. He painted at least two further versions for private sale. As cheap reproductions from 1908 high-quality prints, began to circulate in large quantities, it became a widely popular image. Watts was rapidly falling out of fashion. In 1938 the Tate Gallery ceased to keep their collection of Watts's works on permanent display. Despite the decline in Watts's popularity, Hope remained influential. Among the congregation for the latter was the young Barack Obama, deeply moved. George Frederic Watts was born in 1817, the son of a musical instrument manufacturer.Hope (painting) – Hope (second version)
70. House with Chimaeras – House with Chimaeras or Horodecki House is an Art Nouveau building located in the historic Lypky neighborhood of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine. Situated across the street from the President of Ukraine's office at No. 10, Bankova Street, the building has been used as a presidential residence for official and diplomatic ceremonies since 2005. The Polish architect Władysław Horodecki originally constructed the House during the period of 1901 -- 1902. When the building was vacated, its interior and decor were fully reconstructed and restored according to Horodecki original plans. Horodecki architectural style earned him praise as the Antoni Gaudí of Kiev. A House with Chimaeras was designed by the Polish architect Władysław Horodecki in 1901–1902. Horodecki was born into a prosperous Polish szlachta family in the Podillia region. After finishing the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg in 1890, he moved to Kiev, where he lived for almost 30 years. Besides architecture, Horodecki was also interested in big-game hunting, which explains why his building features many animals. Horodecki financed the house's construction with borrowed money, with the intent for it to be an building. Each floor formed a single apartment, connected by stairs. Horodecki himself occupied the fourth floor of the building, measuring at about 380 m2. Horodecki bought the first lot of land with construction work commencing on March 18 of that year. The roof installed and all masonry work was completed on September 13.