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1. Beaune Altarpiece – The Beaune Altarpiece, often called The Last Judgement, is a large polyptych altarpiece by the Early Netherlandish artist Rogier van der Weyden. It was painted in oil on oak panels, with parts transferred to canvas. It consists of fifteen paintings on nine panels, six are painted on both sides and it retains some of its original frames. Six outer panels are hinged, when folded they show a view of saints. The inner panels contain scenes from the Last Judgement and are arranged across two registers, the large central panel that spans both registers shows Christ seated on a rainbow in judgement, with his feet resting on a golden globe. Below him the Archangel Michael holds scales as he weighs souls, the panel on Christs far right shows the gates of Heaven, that to his far left the entrance to Hell. The panels of the lower register form a landscape, with figures depicted moving from the central panel to their final destinations after receiving judgement. It is one of van der Weydens most ambitious works, equal to his Prado Deposition and lost Justice of Trajan and it remains in the hospice today, although not in its original position. It is in condition and was moved in the 20th century to shield it from sunlight. It has suffered from extensive paint loss, the wearing and darkening of its colours, in addition, a heavy layer of over-paint was applied during restoration. The two painted sides of the panels have been separated so both can be shown simultaneously, traditionally, the shutters would have been opened only on selected Sundays or church holidays. Nicolas Rolin was appointed Chancellor of Burgundy by Philip the Good in 1422 and his tenure with the duke made him a wealthy man, and he donated a large portion of his fortune for the foundation of the Hôtel-Dieu in Beaune. It is not known why he decided to build in Beaune rather than in his birthplace of Autun and he may have chosen Beaune because it lacked a hospital and an outbreak of the plague decimated the population between 1438 and 1440. The hospice was built after Rolin gained permission from Pope Eugene IV in 1441, in conjunction, Rolin established the religious order of Les sœurs hospitalières de Beaune. In the late 1450s, only a few years before he died, Rolins wife, Guigone de Salins, played a major role in the foundation, as probably did his nephew Jan Rolin. De Salins lived and served at the hospice until her own death in 1470, documents regarding the artworks commissioning survive and, unusually for a Netherlandish altarpiece, the artist, patron, place of installation and date of completion are all known. It was intended as the centrepiece for the chapel, and Rolin approached van der Weyden around 1443, the altarpiece was ready by 1451, the year the chapel was consecrated. Painted in van der Weydens Brussels workshop – most likely with the aid of apprentices – the completed panels were transported to the hospiceBeaune Altarpiece – The Beaune Altarpiece, c. 1445–1450. 220cm x 548cm (excluding frames). Oil on oak, Hospices de Beaune, interior view
2. The Dawn of Love (painting) – Loosely based on a passage from John Miltons 1634 masque Comus, it shows a nude Venus leaning across to wake the sleeping Love by stroking his wings. While Etty often included nude figures in his work he rarely depicted physical intimacy, the open sensuality of the work was intended to present a challenge to the viewer mirroring the plot of Comus, in which the heroine is tempted by desire but remains rational and detached. While a few critics praised elements of its composition and execution, the Dawn of Love was not among the 133 paintings exhibited in the major 1849 retrospective exhibition of Ettys works, and its exhibition in Glasgow in 1899 drew complaints for its supposed obscenity. In 1889 it was bought by Sir Merton Russell-Cotes, and has remained in the collection of the Russell-Cotes Art Gallery & Museum ever since, william Etty was born in 1787, the son of a York baker and miller. He began as a printer in Hull. In 1821 the Royal Academy accepted and exhibited one of Ettys works in the Summer Exhibition and this painting was extremely well received, and many of Ettys fellow artists greatly admired him. He became well respected for his ability to capture flesh tones accurately in painting, following the exhibition of Cleopatra, over the next decade Etty tried to replicate its success by painting nude figures in biblical, literary and mythological settings. Etty was the first British artist to specialise in the nude, many critics condemned his repeated depictions of female nudity as indecent, although his portraits of male nudes were generally well received. The Dawn of Love illustrates a passage from Comus, a 1634 masque by John Milton. Comus is a morality tale in which the female protagonist, referred to only as The Lady and she encounters the debauched magician Comus who captures and imprisons her, and uses all the means at his disposal to try to inflame her sexual desires. The Lady resists all temptation, and using her reason and sense of morals resists Comuss efforts to draw her into intemperance or surrender to desire, Ettys painting is not a direct illustration of a scene from Comus. Night hath better sweets to prove, Venus now wakes, Ettys painting shows the nude Venus, as Goddess of nocturnal sport, reaching across to wake the sleeping Love by stroking his wings. The Dawn of Love intentionally presents a dilemma to viewers. By his open depiction of nudity and sensuality, Etty makes the argument as that presented by Comus. Etty exhibited the painting in February 1828 at the British Institution under the title of Venus Now Wakes, the Monthly Magazine complained of Venuss sullen colour and corpulent shape, as well as Ettys excessive exposure of figure. The harshest criticism came from a reviewer in The London Magazine. Mr. Etty seems conscious of the coldness of his flesh-colour and they are any thing but voluptuous or alluring. We would recommend to our artist to leave these small unfinished vignettes and his firm, broad, manly pencil, requires wider scope and a different subjectThe Dawn of Love (painting) – The Dawn of Love, 1828, 88.8 by 96 cm (35.0 by 37.8 in)
3. Geology Hall – As part of the Queens Campus, Geology Hall was included on the New Jersey Register of Historic Places and the National Register of Historic Places in 1973. When Rutgers was selected as New Jerseys only land grant college in 1864, Rutgers president William Henry Campbell raised funds to construct a building to accommodate this expansion, and Geology Hall, designed by architect Henry Janeway Hardenbergh, was built in 1872. At present, the building houses offices and the universitys geological museum. The museum, one of the oldest collegiate geology collections in the United States, was founded by state geologist and its exhibits showcase the natural history of New Jersey, focusing geology, paleontology, and anthropology. Exhibits include fluorescent zinc minerals from Franklin and Ogdensburg, a mastodon from Salem County, a dinosaur trackway discovered in Towaco, in 1864 the State of New Jersey named Rutgers College as their sole land grant college. George Hammell Cook, a professor of chemistry and natural sciences, Cook was appointed state geologist in 1864 and later became the colleges vice president. With the colleges land grant status and new funding for studies, Cook expanded his research and teaching into geology. Six years later, the board of trustees decided to erect a building to house the colleges new scientific programs. With these funds, the trustees commissioned a design for a Geological Hall from Henry Janeway Hardenbergh, Hardenbergh received these contracts through family connections, as several members of his family were graduates, trustees, or associated with the school. Hardenberghs design was described as employing both Gothic elements and classical forms that preceded the extreme eclecticism that was to mark a later Victorian Gothic Revival period. The original plans called for the building to be constructed out of red brick, the third project, Kirkpatrick Chapel, was designed to complement the simple Gothic Revival style of Geology Hall and was erected on the north side of Old Queens. The building was completed in 1872 at a cost of US$63,201.54, Geology Halls first floor provided the college with rooms for laboratory and lecture instruction and housed the colleges armory. The first-floor classrooms would accommodate the physics, military science. Geology Halls second floor was designed to provide sufficient space to house the natural history artefacts. Today, Geology Hall houses some of the offices of the universitys administration and this was the last of the universitys science department to move across the Raritan River to the Busch campus. In 1973, Geology Hall was included with six buildings on Rutgers Queens Campus on the New Jersey Register of Historic Places. Cook established the universitys geology museum in 1872 with specimens collected during the New Jersey Geological Survey which he directed as New Jerseys state geologist. Since then, the museum has operated on the second floor, offering free tours to small groups, schoolsGeology Hall – Professor George H. Cook was instrumental in Rutgers becoming the state's only land-grant college and developing the college's programs in the sciences and agriculture.
4. Literary Hall – Literary Hall is a mid-19th-century brick library building and museum in Romney, West Virginia. It is located at the intersection of North High Street and West Main Street, Literary Hall was constructed between 1869 and 1870 by the Romney Literary Society. Founded in 1819, the Romney Literary Society was the first literary organization of its kind in the state of West Virginia. In 1846, the society constructed a building housed the Romney Classical Institute. The Romney Literary Society and the Romney Classical Institute both flourished and continued to grow in importance and influence until the onset of the American Civil War in 1861. During the war, the contents of the library were plundered by Union Army forces. After a reorganization in 1869, the society commenced construction of the present Literary Hall in downtown Romney, the Romney Literary Societys last meeting was held at Literary Hall in 1886. From 1886 to 1973 the building was used as a space by the Clinton Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons. In 1973, the building was purchased by prominent Romney lawyer Ralph Haines, from 1937 to the early 1940s the building also housed a community library. Literary Hall was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on May 29,1979, Literary Halls basic design incorporates Federal and Greek Revival styles along with Victorian details. Architectural historian Michael J. Pauley described Literary Hall as one of Romneys and Hampshire Countys most notable landmarks, and one in which this community is justifiably proud. Literary Hall is located in the center of downtown Romney, West Virginia, at the intersection of North High Street, the Hampshire County Courthouse is immediately to its east across North High Street and the Romney First United Methodist Church is situated immediately to the buildings north. The Old National Building is located to the south of Literary Hall across West Main Street. Literary Hall stands at an elevation of 820.3 feet above sea level, one of these seven supporters, Thomas Colepeper, 2nd Baron Colepeper, acquired the entire area in 1681, his grandson, Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, inherited it in 1719. Literary Hall was built upon a land lot designated Lot 56 to the immediate west of the square of Romney. In 1790, the trustees of the Town of Romney commissioned John Mitchel to draft a cadastral map of Romney. Prior to this survey, Lord Fairfax had commissioned a similar survey of Romney sometime before the towns incorporation on December 23,1762. The Romney Literary Society, which built Literary Hall between 1869 and 1870, was organized by nine prominent men in Romney on January 30,1819Literary Hall – Literary Hall
5. Oviri (Gauguin) – Oviri is an 1894 ceramic sculpture by French artist Paul Gauguin, the original cast is in the Musée dOrsay. Gauguin shows her with long hair and large wild eyes. In Tahitian mythology Oviri was the goddess of mourning, Gauguin shows her either smothering or embracing a wolf with her feet, as she tightly clutches another wolf cub in her arms. Art historians have presented multiple interpretations of the work, usually that he intended it as an epithet to reinforce his self-image as a civilised savage. Other possible influences include preserved skulls from the Marquesas Islands, figures found at Borobudur, Gauguin made three casts in 1894, each in partially glazed stoneware. Several other copies exist in plaster or bronze and his sale of the casts were not successful, and at a low financial and personal ebb he asked that for one of the reproductions to act as a marker for his grave. A cast was not placed there until 1973,1899 drawing where he appends an inscription referencing Honoré de Balzacs novel Séraphîta. Oviri was exhibited at the 1906 Salon dAutomne where it influenced Pablo Picasso, Gauguin was foremost a painter, he came to ceramics around 1886, when he was taught by the French sculptor and ceramist Ernest Chaplet. They had been introduced by Félix Bracquemond who, inspired by the new French art pottery, was experimenting with the form, during that winter of 1886–87, Gauguin visited Chaplets workshop at Vaugirard, where they collaborated on stoneware pots with applied figures or ornamental fragments and multiple handles. Gauguin first visited Tahiti in 1891, and attracted by the beauty of Tahitian women undertook a set of sculptural mask-like portraits on paper and they evoke both melancholy and death, and conjure the state of faaturuma, imagery and moods later used in the Oviri ceramic. Gauguins first wood carvings in Tahiti were with a wood that quickly crumbled and have not survived. He completed Oviri in the winter of 1894, during his return from Tahiti, according to Danielsson, Gauguin was keen to increase his public exposure and availed of this opportunity by writing an outraged letter to Le Soir, bemoaning the state of modern ceramics. At the outset of 1897, Vollard addressed a letter to Gauguin about the possibility of casting his sculptures in bronze, in this way the buyer would not only have the ceramic piece itself, but also a bronze edition with which to make money. Art historian Christopher Gray mentions three plaster casts, the surfaces of which suggest that they were taken from a prior undocumented wood carving no longer extant. One was given to Daniel Monfreid and now belongs to the Musée départemental Maurice Denis The Priory in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, another version in plaster, with the surface finish of wood, was kept by Gustave Fayet, and subsequently formed part of the collection of his son, Léon. The third version was kept by the artist who made the casts, a number of bronzes were produced, including the version placed on Gauguins grave at Atuona, cast by the Foundation Singer-Poligna and erected 29 March 1973. Oviri has long blonde or grey hair reaching to her knees and her head and eyes are disproportionately large, she has adolescent breasts, while the aperture at the back of her head resembles a vaginal orifice. She holds a wolf cub to her hip, a symbol of her indifference, a second animal, likely another wolf, is at her feet either curling in submission or deadOviri (Gauguin) – Paul Gauguin, Oviri (Sauvage), 1894, partially glazed stoneware, 75 x 19 x 27 cm (29.5 x 7.5 x 10.6 in), Musée d'Orsay, Paris
6. Pitfour estate – The Pitfour estate, in the Buchan area of north-east Scotland, was an ancient barony encompassing most of the extensive Longside Parish, stretching from St Fergus to New Pitsligo. It was purchased in 1700 by James Ferguson of Badifurrow, who became the first Laird of Pitfour, the estate was substantially renovated by Ferguson and the following two generations of his family. At the height of its development in the 18th and 19th centuries the 50-square-mile property had several extravagant features including a racecourse, an artificial lake. The original mansion house was extended before being rebuilt, the first three lairds transformed the estate into a valuable asset. Lord Pitfour, the laird, purchased additional lands including Deer Abbey. Pitfours son, James Ferguson, who became the laird, continued to improve and expand the estate by adding the lake and bridges. The third laird died a bachelor with no children, so the estate passed to the elderly George Ferguson, the extravagant lifestyles of the fifth and sixth lairds led to the sequestration of the estate, which was sold off piecemeal to pay their debts. What remained of the estate was sold after the First World War, the mansion house was demolished in about 1926, and its stone used to build council houses in Aberdeen. The chapel was renovated and converted to a private residence in 2003. The racecourse has been forested since 1926, and the lake is used by members of a fishing club. The Pitfour estate in Mintlaw extended from St Fergus to New Pitsligo, the Pitfour estate is shown on old maps as Petfouir or Petfour. Scant early records exist of the lands but Alexander Stewart, the son of King Robert II of Scotland, was given the Pitfour lands together with those of Lunan by his father in 1383. However, writing in 1887 Cadenhead states the lands were sold to Stewart by Ricardus Mouet, during the next three centuries the lands had several different owners. His son, John, inherited the property and it remained in the possession of the Innes family until at least 1581, when it was owned by James Innes and his wife Agnes Urquhart. Between 1581 and 1667 the lands were bought by George Morrison and his son William inherited the property in 1700, and immediately sold the estate to James Ferguson, who became the first Laird of Pitfour. State papers from the reign of Queen Anne in the 18th century record the lands in favour of James Ferguson, 1st laird James Ferguson—known as the Sheriff, reflecting the post he held, recognised by the Society of Advocates—bought the Pitfour estate after selling the lands of Badifurrow. He had inherited Badifurrow after demanding that his uncle Robert Ferguson should appear in if he wished to contest the inheritance. Robert, nicknamed the Plotter, was in hiding to avoid charges of treachery, at that time the estate contained only a small country housePitfour estate – A side view of Pitfour House, c. late 19th century
7. Virgin and Child with Canon van der Paele – The Virgin and Child with Canon van der Paele is a large oil-on-oak panel painting by the Early Netherlandish artist Jan van Eyck. It was commissioned as an epitaph for Joris van der Paele, Mary is positioned at the centre of a tight semicircular and sacred space, seemingly modelled on and representing a church interior. Saint Donatian of Reims, patron saint of Bruges collegiate church, stands to the left, with Saint George in medieval knights armour, both are identified in the Latin inscriptions on the lower border of the imitation bronze frame. George is shown lifting his helmet in respect and presenting the elderly Canon van der Paele to Mary, Van der Paele is dressed in a white surplice and is shown piously reading from a book of hours. It is one of the earliest known sacra conversazione paintings of the Northern Renaissance, the work has an overall sculptural look, the throne, windows, arches and hanging canvases borrow from the conventions of Romanesque architecture. It is in its original oak frame, and contains a number of Latin inscriptions, Donatian is described as having Enjoy the Glory of God, the upper border of the frame contains words from the Book of Wisdom, comparing Mary to an unspotted mirror. It was commissioned in the autumn of 1434 to celebrate Van der Paeles dedication to his church, St. Donatians Cathedral in Bruges, the Virgin and Child contains one of the finest extant examples of Oriental carpets in Renaissance painting and seems influenced by manuscript illumination. The painting is characterised by its use of illusionism and complex spatial composition. It is widely considered one of van Eycks most fully realised, Joris van der Paele was born in Bruges around 1370, and spent his early career as a papal scribe in Rome before returning to his native city in 1425 as a wealthy man. An illness around 1431 left van der Paele unable to fulfill the role and to question his mortality, in response he endowed a chaplainy to the church and commissioned this work from van Eyck. His bequest allowed him a mass, a daily mass. A second chaplaincy in 1443 centered on prayers for his family, and guaranteed that after his death, an inscription on the lower imitation frame refers to the donation, Joris van der Paele, canon of this church, had this work made by painter Jan van Eyck. And he founded two chaplaincies here in the choir of the Lord and he only completed it in 1436, however. Art historian Barbara Lane speculates that van der Paele may have sought divine protection through prayers, in the early 15th century Mary grew in importance as an intercessor between the divine and members of the Christian faith. The concept of purgatory as a state that each human soul had to pass through before admission to heaven was at its height. There was a trend towards the sponsorship of requiem masses, often as part of the terms of a will, with this income he endowed the churches with embroidered cloths and metal accessories such as chalices, plates and candlesticks. During his lifetime he may have kept it in his private chambers or on an altar in the church as a retable, available for personal devotion, the panel was donated to the church either in 1436, or on van der Paeles death in 1443. It remained there until the church was demolished in 1779, most likely the work was first hung in the church nave as an accompaniment to an altar for Saints Peter and Paul, and used for memorial masses for van der Paele and his familyVirgin and Child with Canon van der Paele – The Virgin and Child with Canon van der Paele, Oil on wood, 141 x 176.5 cm (including frame), 1434-36. Groeningemuseum, Bruges.
8. The World Before the Flood – The World Before the Flood is an oil painting on canvas by English artist William Etty, first exhibited in 1828 and currently in the Southampton City Art Gallery. It depicts a scene from John Miltons Paradise Lost in which, among a series of visions of the shown to Adam. Behind the courting group, an oncoming storm looms, a symbol of the destruction which the dancers and lovers are about to bring upon themselves, when first exhibited at the 1828 Royal Academy Summer Exhibition the painting attracted large crowds, and strongly divided critical opinion. It was greatly praised by critics, who counted it among the finest works of art in the country. Other reviewers condemned it as crude, tasteless, offensive and poorly executed, the painting was bought at the Summer Exhibition by the Marquess of Stafford. It was sold in 1908, long after Etty had fallen out of fashion, for a loss, and sold again in 1937 for a further substantial loss to the Southampton City Art Gallery. The two paintings were exhibited together as part of a retrospective of Ettys work in 2011–12. William Etty was born in 1787, the son of a York baker and miller, on 8 October 1798, at the age of 11, William was apprenticed as a printer to Robert Peck of Hull, publisher of local newspaper the Hull Packet. On completing his apprenticeship he moved at the age of 18 to London. In 1821 the Royal Academy accepted and exhibited one of Ettys works, the painting was extremely well received, and many of Ettys fellow artists greatly admired him. He was elected a full Royal Academician in 1828, at time the most prestigious honour available to an artist. He became well respected for his ability to capture flesh tones accurately, in the decade following the exhibition of Cleopatra Etty tried to replicate its success by painting nude figures in biblical, literary and mythological settings. Etty was the first British artist to specialise in paintings of nudes, many critics condemned his repeated depictions of female nudity as indecent, although his portraits of males in a similar state of undress were generally well received. The World Before the Flood illustrates lines 580–97 from Book XI of John Miltons Paradise Lost, among the visions of the future the Archangel Michael shows to Adam is the world after the expulsion from the Garden of Eden but before the Great Flood. The painting shows the stages of courtship as described by Milton, as men are seduced by women, Etty worked through various configurations for the characters in the painting before settling on his final design. Adam and Michael are not visible in the painting, instead, the viewer sees the scene from Adams point of view. Ettys painting is a Bacchanalian scene, centred on a group of six scantily-clad women dancing, the womens cheeks are flushed both with the exertion of their dancing and with their lustful attempts to seduce the watching men. The men let their eyes rove without rein, each choosing the woman he wants to be with, at the left, five men eye the six dancing womenThe World Before the Flood – The World Before the Flood, 1828, 140 by 202.3 cm (55.1 by 79.6 in)
9. O. G. S. Crawford – Osbert Guy Stanhope Crawford, better known as O. G. S. Crawford, was a British archaeologist who specialised in the study of prehistoric Britain and the archaeology of Sudan. Working for most of his career as the officer of the Ordnance Survey. Born in Bombay, British India, to a wealthy middle-class Scottish family, Crawford moved to England as an infant and was raised by his aunts in London and he studied geography at Keble College, Oxford and worked briefly in that field before devoting himself professionally to archaeology. Employed by the philanthropist Henry Wellcome, Crawford oversaw the excavation of Abu Geili in Sudan before returning to England shortly before the First World War. During the conflict he served in both the London Scottish Regiment and the Royal Flying Corps, where he was involved in ground and aerial reconnaissance along the Western Front. After an injury forced a period of convalescence in England, he returned to the Front, in 1920 he was employed by the Ordnance Survey. In this position he toured Britain to plot the location of sites in the landscape. Increasingly interested in archaeology, he obtained aerial photographs produced by the Royal Air Force and identified the extent of the Stonehenge Avenue. With the archaeologist Alexander Keiller he conducted a survey of many counties in southern England. An internationalist and socialist, he came under the influence of Marxism, during the Second World War he worked with the National Buildings Record, photographically documenting Southampton. After retiring in 1946, he refocused his attention on Sudanese archaeology and his photographic archive remained of use to archaeologists into the 21st century. A biography of Crawford by Kitty Hauser was published in 2008, O. G. S. Crawford was born on 28 October 1886 at Breach Candy, a suburb of Bombay in British India. The Crawford family hailed from Ayrshire in Scotland, and the childs great-uncle was the politician Robert Wigram Crawford, Crawfords mother, Alice Luscombe Mackenzie, was the daughter of a Scottish army doctor and his Devonshire wife. Alice died a few days after her sons birth, and so when he was three months old, Crawford was sent to England aboard the P&O liner Bokhara. During the journey he was entrusted to the care of his paternal aunt Eleanor, in Britain, he spent the next seven years with two paternal aunts who lived together near to Portland Place in the Marylebone district of central London. Like his father, they were devout Christians, having been the children of a Scottish clergyman, under their guardianship Crawford had little contact with other children or with men. Crawford saw his father on the few occasions that the latter visited England, in 1895, Crawford and his two aunts moved to a rural house in East Woodhay, Hampshire. Initially educated at Park House School, which he enjoyed, he was moved to Marlborough CollegeO. G. S. Crawford – O.G.S. Crawford in 1912.
10. Homer Davenport – Homer Calvin Davenport was a political cartoonist and writer from the United States. He is known for drawings that satirized figures of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era, although Davenport had no formal art training, he became one of the highest paid political cartoonists in the world. Davenport also was one of the first major American breeders of Arabian horses, a native Oregonian, Davenport developed interests in both art and horses as a young boy. His talent for drawing and interest in Arabian horses dovetailed in 1893 at the Chicago Daily Herald when he studied, McKinley was elected and Hanna elevated to the Senate, Davenport continued to draw his sharp cartoons during the 1900 presidential race, though McKinley was again victorious. The President in turn proved helpful to Davenport in 1906 when the cartoonist required diplomatic permission to travel abroad in his quest to purchase pure desertbred Arabian horses, the 27 horses Davenport purchased and brought to America had a profound and lasting impact on Arabian horse breeding. Davenports later years were marked by fewer influential cartoons and a personal life, he dedicated much of his time to his animal breeding pursuits, traveled widely. He was a lover of animals and of country living, he not only raised horses. He died in 1912 of pneumonia, which he contracted after going to the docks of New York City to watch, Davenport was born in 1867 in the Waldo Hills, several miles south of Silverton, Oregon. His parents were Timothy Woodbridge and Florinda Willard Davenport and he had an older sister, Orla, and his parents had previously lost two other children in infancy. Timothy Davenport was one of the founders of the Republican Party in Oregon and served as an Oregon state representative, state senator, and he ran unsuccessfully for the United States House of Representatives in 1874. Florinda was an admirer of the cartoons of Thomas Nast that appeared in Harpers Weekly. While pregnant with Homer, she developed a belief, which she viewed as a prophecy and she was also influenced by the essay How To Born A Genius, by Russell Trall, and closely followed his recommendations for diet and concentration during her pregnancy. She died of smallpox in 1870, when Homer was three years old, and on her deathbed asked her husband to give Homer every opportunity to become a cartoonist, young Davenport was given a box of paints as a Christmas gift. Soon after, at the age of three years and nine months, the boy used his paints to produce an image he called Arabian horses and he learned to ride on the familys pet horse, Old John. Following his mothers death, both of Davenports grandmothers helped raise him, Homer began to study music, and was allowed to help Timothy clerk at the store the elder Davenport purchased when he first moved to Silverton. Timothy required Homer to milk the cows, but otherwise Homer was to study faces and he was well-liked by the villagers, but they considered him shiftless—they did not consider drawing to be real work. He exhibited a love of animals, especially fast horses and fighting cocks and he carefully cleaned the can and kept it as his only piece of artistic furniture for many years until forced to leave it behind when he moved to San Francisco. He also played in the community band in his formative years, Davenports initial jobs were not successfulHomer Davenport – Davenport in 1912
11. Stefan Lochner – Stefan Lochner was a German painter working in the late soft style of the International Gothic. His paintings combine that eras tendency towards long flowing lines and brilliant colours with the realism, virtuoso surface textures, based in Cologne, a commercial and artistic hub of northern Europe, Lochner was one of the most important German painters before Albrecht Dürer. Extant works include single panel oil paintings, devotional polyptychs and illuminated manuscripts, today some thirty-seven individual panels are attributed to him with confidence. Less is known of his life, records indicate that his career developed quickly but was cut short by an early death. We know that he was commissioned around 1442 by the Cologne council to provide decorations for the visit of Emperor Frederick III, records from the following years indicate growing wealth and the purchase of a number of properties around the city. Thereafter he seems to have over-extended his finances and fallen into debt, plague hit Cologne in 1451 and there, apart from the records of creditors, mention of Stephan Lochner ends, it is presumed he died that year, aged around 40. Lochners identity and reputation were lost until a revival of 15th century art during the early 19th century romantic period, one of Dürers diary entries became key,400 years later, in the 20th century establishment of Lochners identity. Only two attributed works are dated, and none are signed and his influence on successive generations of northern artists was substantial. Apart from the many copies made in the later 15th century, echoes of his panels can be seen in works by Rogier van der Weyden. Lochners work was praised by Friedrich Schlegel and Goethe for its qualities, especially the sweetness, there are no signed paintings by Lochner, and his identity was not established until the 19th century. J. F. Böhmer in an 1823 article identified the Dombild or Altarpiece of the Citys Patron Saints with a work mentioned in an account of a visit to Cologne in 1520 in the diary of Albrecht Dürer. The notoriously thrifty artist paid 5 silver pfennig to see an altarpiece by Maister Steffan some seventy years after Lochners death, although Dürer fails to mention specifically which of Maister Steffans panels he had seen, his description matches exactly the centre panel of the Dombild Altarpiece. The altarpiece is referred to in a number of other records and it was repaired and re-gilded in 1568, and mentioned in Georg Brauns Civitates Orbis Terrarum in 1572. German Gothic art underwent a revival in the early 19th century Romantic period, the German philosopher and critic Friedrich Schlegel was instrumental in reviving Lochners reputation. He wrote lengthy tracts comparing the Dombild favourably to the work of Raphael, later, Goethe was enthusiastic, emphasising Lochners German spirit and origin, he described the Dombild as the axis around which the ancient Netherlandish art resolves into the new. Lochners identity remained unknown for centuries, and no known works were associated with the Dombild altarpiece. In 1816 Ferdinand Franz Wallraf identified him as Philipp Kalf, based on a reading of a name inscribed on the cloth of a figure on the right of the centre panel. He misinterpreted markings on the stone floor pictured in Annunciation to read 1410, in 1850 Johann Jakob Merlo identified Maister Steffan with the historical Stefan LochnerStefan Lochner – Last Judgement, c. 1435. 124.5 × 172 cm. Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne. This doom painting was originally the center panel of a polyptych altarpiece with the two panels of the The Martyrdom of the Apostles as wings
12. Mortimer Wheeler – Sir Robert Eric Mortimer Wheeler CH, CIE, MC, TD, FSA, FRS, FBA was a British archaeologist and officer in the British Army. Born in Glasgow to a family, Wheeler was raised largely in Yorkshire before relocating to London in his teenage years. After studying Classics at University College London, he began working professionally in archaeology, during World War I he volunteered for service in the Royal Artillery, being stationed on the Western Front, where he rose to the rank of major and was awarded the Military Cross. In 1926, he was appointed Keeper of the London Museum, there, he oversaw a reorganisation of the collection, successfully lobbied for increased funding, and began lecturing at UCL. In 1934, he established the Institute of Archaeology as part of the federal University of London, in this period, he oversaw excavations of the Roman sites at Lydney Park and Verulamium and the Iron Age hill fort of Maidan Castle. During World War II, he re-joined the Armed Forces and rose to the rank of brigadier, serving in the North African Campaign, returning to Britain in 1948, he divided his time between lecturing for the Institute of Archaeology and acting as archaeological adviser to Pakistans government. In later life, his books, cruise ship lectures. Helped to bring archaeology to a mass audience, appointed Honorary Secretary of the British Academy, he raised large sums of money for archaeological projects, and was appointed British representative for several UNESCO projects. Further, he is acclaimed as a major figure in the establishment of South Asian archaeology. However, many of his interpretations of archaeological sites have been discredited or reinterpreted. Mortimer Wheeler was born on 10 September 1890 in the city of Glasgow and he was the first child of the journalist Robert Mortimer Wheeler and his second wife Emily Wheeler. The son of a tea merchant based in Bristol, in youth Robert had considered becoming a Baptist minister, initially working as a lecturer in English literature, Robert turned to journalism after his first wife died in childbirth. His second wife, Emily, shared her husbands interest in English literature, and was the niece of Thomas Spencer Baynes and their marriage was emotionally strained, a situation exacerbated by their financial insecurity. Within two years of their sons birth, the moved to Edinburgh, where a daughter named Amy was born. The couple gave their two children nicknames, with Mortimer being Boberic and Amy being Totsy, when Wheeler was four, his father was appointed chief leader writer for the Bradford Observer. The family relocated to Saltaire, a village northwest of Bradford, a city in Yorkshire, northeast England. Wheeler was inspired by the moors surrounding Saltaire and fascinated by the areas archaeology and he later wrote about discovering a late prehistoric cup-marked stone, searching for lithics on Ilkley Moor, and digging into a barrow on Baildon Moor. Although suffering from ill health, Emily Wheeler taught her two children with the help of a maid up to the age of seven or eightMortimer Wheeler – Mortimer Wheeler in 1956
13. Imleria badia – Both the common and scientific names refer to the bay- or chestnut-coloured cap, which is almost spherical in young specimens before broadening and flattening out to a diameter up to 15 cm. On the cap underside are small pores that bruise dull blue-grey when injured. The smooth, cylindrical stipe, measuring 4–9 cm long by 1–2 cm thick, is coloured like the cap, some varieties have been described from eastern North America, differing from the main type in both macroscopic and microscopic morphology. First described scientifically by Elias Fries in 1818, the bay bolete was reclassified as Xerocomus badius in 1931, modern molecular phylogenetic studies show Xerocomus to be polyphyletic, and the bay bolete is not particularly closely related to species in that genus. Its mushrooms are often infested by maggots than other boletes. Several European studies have demonstrated that the mushroom can bioaccumulate some trace metals from the soil, such as mercury, cobalt, the bay bolete was first named as Boletus castaneus ß badius by Elias Magnus Fries in 1818. Fries later renamed it as a variety of Boletus castaneus in 1828, in 1931, Edouard-Jean Gilbert reclassified it in the genus Xerocomus, and many sources still list it thus. Review of Xerocomus strongly suggested it was polyphyletic, and the genus was not accepted by some mycologists. The stickiness of its wet cap distinguishes the species from classified in Xerocomus. Other clades within the group include the Tylopilus, porcini and Strobilomyces clades, badia by Wally Snell in 1945. The taxon name comes from the Latin limatulus, rather polished or refined, varieties glaber and macrostipitatus were described from Nova Scotia, Canada, in 1976. The species name is the Latin adjective badia, meaning chestnut brown, the common name is likewise derived from the colour of the cap, likened to the coat of a bay horse. Alternate common names of a similar derivation include bay-brown bolete and bay-capped bolete and it is also known as the false cep. Variety glaber was named for its smooth stipe, and macrostipitatus for its large stipe, Imleria badia fruit bodies have a chestnut to dark brown cap, which is almost spherical in young specimens before broadening and flattening out to a diameter of up to 15 cm. The cap margin is acute, and cap surface velvety when young, the cap cuticle is difficult to separate from the flesh underneath. On the cap undersurface, the pores are initially cream to pale yellow and they stain dull blue to bluish-grey when bruised or cut, and are easily removed from the flesh. The pores are circular, becoming more angular with age. The tubes are 0. 8–1.5 cm long, and are adnate to depressed around the area of attachment to the stipe, the flesh is mostly whitish or yellowish in some places, underneath the cap cuticle, it is brownish-pink or reddish brownImleria badia – Imleria badia
14. Boletus aereus – Boletus aereus, the dark cep or bronze bolete, is a highly prized and much sought-after edible mushroom in the family Boletaceae. The bolete is widely consumed in Spain, France, Italy, Greece, and generally throughout the Mediterranean. Described as a new species in 1789 by French mycologist Pierre Bulliard, it is related to several other European boletes, including B. reticulatus, B. pinophilus. Some populations in North Africa have been classified as a species, B. mamorensis. The cork oak is a key host, the fungus produces spore-bearing fruit bodies above ground in summer and autumn. The fruit body has a dark brown cap, which can reach 30 cm in diameter. Like other boletes, B. aereus has tubes extending downward from the underside of the cap, rather than gills, spores escape at maturity through the tube openings, the pore surface of the fruit body is whitish when young, but ages to a greenish-yellow. The squat brown stipe, or stem, is up to 15 cm tall and 10 cm thick and partially covered with a network pattern. French mycologist Pierre Bulliard described Boletus aereus in 1789, the species epithet is the Latin adjective aerěus, meaning made with bronze or copper. In 1940, Manuel Cabral de Rezende-Pinto published the variety B. aereus var. squarrosus from collections made in Brazil, the starting date for all the mycota had been set by general agreement as 1 January 1821, the date of Fries work. These differ from B. aereus by nature of their more gelatinous cap skin, Boletus aereus is classified in Boletus section Boletus, alongside close relatives such as B. reticulatus, B. edulis, and B. pinophilus. A genetic study of the four European species found that B. aereus was sister to B. reticulatus, molecular analysis suggests that the B. aereus/mamorensis and B. reticulatus/Chinese B. edulis lineages diverged around 6 to 7 million years ago. Bulliard gave Boletus aereus the common name of le bolet bronzé in 1789 and it is commonly known as ontto beltza in Basque, porcino nero in Italian, and Cèpe bronzé in French. In Greek it is known as vasilikό, or kalogeraki, the English common name is dark cep, while the British Mycological Society also approved the name bronze bolete. The cap is hemispherical to convex, reaching 15–30 cm in diameter, slightly velvety and lobed or dented, it is dark brown, greyish-brown, violet brown, or purple brown, often with copper, golden, or olivaceous patches. The stipe is 6–15 cm high by 5–10 cm wide, usually shorter than the cap diameter, initially barrel shaped but gradually becoming club shaped, the stipe is pale brown, chestnut, or reddish brown in colour, covered in a brown or concolorous reticulation. Like in other boletes, there are rather than gills on the underside of the cap. The tube openings—known as pores—are small and rounded, whitish or greyish-white when young, they slowly become yellowish or greenish yellow at maturity, and can turn wine coloured with bruisingBoletus aereus – Boletus aereus
15. Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca – Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca, commonly known as the false chanterelle, is a species of fungus in the family Hygrophoropsidaceae. It is found across continents, growing in woodland and heathland. Fruit bodies are yellow–orange with a cap up to 8 cm across that has a felt-like surface. The thin, often forked gills on the underside of the cap run partway down the length of the otherwise smooth stipe, reports on the mushrooms edibility vary – it can serve as food, though not a particularly flavorful one, or it can be mildly poisonous. Austrian naturalist Franz Xaver von Wulfen described the false chanterelle in 1781, the false chanterelle was then placed in the genus Clitocybe, but it was later observed that its forked gills and dextrinoid spores indicated a relationship to Paxillus. Genetic analysis has confirmed that it belongs to the order Boletales and is closely related to boletes. Austrian naturalist Franz Xaver von Wulfen described the false chanterelle as Agaricus aurantiacus in 1781, reporting that it appeared in the fir tree forests around Klagenfurt in October. He added that it could be confused with the chanterelle by the inexperienced, the specific epithet is the Latin word aurantiacus, meaning orange. James Sowerby illustrated it and gave it the name Agaricus subcantharellus, the fungus was placed in the genus Merulius by Johann Friedrich Gmelin in 1792, and then Cantharellus by Elias Fries in 1821. Bernhard Studer-Steinhäuslin concluded it could only be classified in the genus Clitocybe in 1900, based on its white spores, decurrent gills, martin-Sans concurred with Maires assessment of Hygrophoropsis, suggesting that it represented a form intermediate between Cantharellus and Clitocybe, and was thus worthy of generic ranking. The genus name refers to a resemblance to the genus Hygrophorus and it is commonly known as the false chanterelle. Two varieties described by Derek Reid in 1972, H. aurantiaca var. macrospora and H. aurantiaca var. rufa, have since promoted to distinct species status as H. macrospora. Pale forms of the fungus are sometimes referred to as var. pallida and this taxon was first published by Robert Kühner and Henri Romagnesi in 1953, but later considered invalid as it did not conform to nomenclatural rules. Variety nigripes, a taxon with a stipe, is invalid for similar reasons. H. aurantiaca var. pallida was published validly in 1995, in 1979, Egon Horak suggested that H. aurantiaca and the New Zealand taxon H. coacta were the same species, but neither Index Fungorum nor MycoBank accept this synonymy. According to MycoBank, H. aurantiaca has several synonyms, that is, they have different types. Agaricus subcantharellus Sowerby Cantharellus brachypodus Chevall, & M. A. Curtis Merulius brachypodes Kuntze Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca has been confused with the true chanterelles because of overall similarities in appearance. Several pigments have been identified from the fungus, including the orange variegatic acid, methyl variegate, the red variegatorubin, the presence of these pigments suggests a chemotaxic relationship with the Boletaceae, Coniophoraceae, and Paxillaceae—families of Boletales with members that have similar compoundsHygrophoropsis aurantiaca – Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca
16. Imperator torosus – Imperator torosus, commonly known as the brawny bolete, is a species of bolete fungus in the family Boletaceae. It is native to southern Europe east to the Caucasus and Israel and it is generally associated with deciduous trees such as hornbeam, oak and beech in warm, dry locales. Although generally rare in Europe, it appears to be common in Hungary. The pale yellow flesh changes to different colours when broken or bruised depending on age, younger mushrooms become reddish, Elias Magnus Fries and Christopher Theodor Hök first described this species as Boletus torosus in 1835, a name by which it was known for many years. Modern molecular phylogenetics shows that it is distantly related to Boletus edulis—the type species of Boletus—and it was duly placed in the new genus Imperator in 2015. Eating raw mushrooms of this leads to vomiting and diarrhea. Gastrointestinal symptoms have occurred after eating cooked specimens, though some people have eaten it without ill-effects. Swiss mycologist Louis Secretan described the brawny bolete as Boletus pachypus in his 1833 work Mycographie Suisse, swedish mycologists Elias Magnus Fries and Christopher Theodor Hök described Boletus torosus in 1835 based on Secretans B. pachypus—distinct from the B. pachypus described by Fries himself. Fries reported in his 1838 book Epicrisis Systematis Mycologici seu Synopsis Hymenomycetum that he had not actually observed the species, the specific epithet torosus, which derives from Latin, means muscular. In the United Kingdom, it is commonly as the brawny bolete. The German name Ochsen-Röhrling means oxen bolete and the French bolet vigoureux is strong bolete, French naturalist Lucien Quélet transferred the species to the now-obsolete genus Dictyopus in 1886, which resulted in the synonym Dictyopus torosus. Others, however, regard this fungus a distinct species and they concluded the original description must have been based on specimens growing near the French-Swiss border and hence selected a neotype specimen from this region. Within the large genus Boletus, the bolete was classified in the section Luridi, which included species producing medium to large fruit bodies with thick, swollen stipes. In a molecular analysis of Boletaceae phylogeny, the bolete was most closely related to Boletus luteocupreus. This indicated that the brawny bolete and its relatives needed to be placed in a new genus and it was made the type species of the new genus Imperator, becoming Imperator torosus, in 2015. Quite heavy compared with other mushrooms of similar size, the fruit body contains relatively high amounts of chitin. Holding the brawny bolete has been described as having a stone in your hand, the cap is 6–20 cm in diameter. Hemispherical when young, it extends and flattens into a convex and finally a flattish shape, initially curled downward and inward, the cap margin gradually turns outward, eventually flattening in maturity, and sometimes protruding beyond the pored undersurfaceImperator torosus – Imperator torosus
17. Lactarius torminosus – Lactarius torminosus, commonly known as the woolly milkcap or the bearded milkcap, is a large agaric fungus. A common and widely distributed species, it is found in North Africa, northern Asia, Europe and it was first described scientifically by Jacob Christian Schäffer in 1774 as an Agaricus, and later transferred to the genus Lactarius in 1821 by Samuel Frederick Gray. A variety, L. torminosus var. nordmanensis, is known from the United States, Canada, L. torminosus officially became the type species of Lactarius in 2011 after molecular studies prompted the taxonomic reshuffling of species between several Russulaceae genera. A mycorrhizal species, L. torminosus associates with trees, most commonly birch. The caps of L. torminosus mushrooms are convex with a central depression, a blend of pink and ochre hues, the cap sometimes has concentric zones of alternating lighter and darker shades. The edge of the cap is rolled inward, and shaggy when young, on the underside of the cap are narrow flesh-colored gills that are crowded closely together. The cylindrical stem is a flesh color with a delicately downy surface and brittle flesh. When cut or injured, the fruit bodies ooze a white latex that does not change color upon exposure to air. The variety nordmanensis, in contrast, has latex that changes from white to yellow, although it is valued for its peppery flavor and eaten after suitable preparation in Russia and Finland, the species is highly irritating to the digestive system when eaten raw. The toxins, also responsible for the bitter or acrid taste, are destroyed by cooking. Studies have identified several chemicals present in the mushrooms, including ergosterol and derivatives thereof, german naturalist Jacob Christian Schäffer was the first to describe the species, placing it in Agaricus in 1774. According to Index Fungorum, another synonym is Samuel Frederick Grays Lactarius necans, Gray also gave the species its modern name when he transferred it to Lactarius in his 1821 Natural Arrangement of British Plants. The specific epithet torminosus means tormenting or causing colic, in reference to the gastrointestinal distress associated with consuming the raw mushroom, early English vernacular names were Grays bellyach milk-stool, and James Edward Smiths bearded pepper agaric. More recent common names include shaggy milkcap, powderpuff milkcap, pink-fringed milkcap, bearded milkcap, according to Hesler and Smiths 1979 classification of the genus Lactarius, L. torminosus belongs to subgenus Piperites, section Piperites, subsection Piperites. Species in this subsection are characterized by having latex that does not turn yellow after exposure to air, a multi-gene molecular analysis published in 2008 demonstrated that species then distributed in the genera Lactarius and Russula actually consisted of four distinct lineages. Piperatus, belonged to the clade that will be transferred to genus Lactifluus, a proposal to conserve Lactarius with L. torminosus as the type was accepted by the Nomenclatural Committee for Fungi and passed at the 2011 International Botanical Congress. The change minimizes taxonomic disruption, allowing most of the common and well-known Lactarius species to retain their names. The cap is convex, but as it matures the center forms a depressionLactarius torminosus – Lactarius torminosus
18. Lycoperdon perlatum – Lycoperdon perlatum, popularly known as the common puffball, warted puffball, gem-studded puffball, or the devils snuff-box, is a species of puffball fungus in the family Agaricaceae. A widespread species with a distribution, it is a medium-sized puffball with a round fruit body tapering to a wide stalk. It is off-white with a top covered in short spiny bumps or jewels, when mature it becomes brown, and a hole in the top opens to release spores in a burst when the body is compressed by touch or falling raindrops. The puffball grows in fields, gardens, and along roadsides and it is edible when young and the internal flesh is completely white, although care must be taken to avoid confusion with immature fruit bodies of poisonous Amanita species. L. perlatum can usually be distinguished from other similar puffballs by differences in surface texture, laboratory tests indicate that extracts of the puffball have antimicrobial and antifungal activities. The species was first described in the literature in 1796 by mycologist Christiaan Hendrik Persoon. Synonyms include Lycoperdon gemmatum, the variety Lycoperdon gemmatum var. perlatum, Lycoperdon bonordenii, L. perlatum is the type species of the genus Lycoperdon. Molecular analyses suggest a phylogenetic relationship with L. marginatum. The specific epithet perlatum is Latin for widespread, because some indigenous peoples believed that the spores caused blindness, the puffball has some local names such as blindmans bellows and no-eyes. The fruit body ranges in shape from pear-like with a top, to nearly spherical. The outer surface of the body is covered in short cone-shaped spines that are interspersed with granular warts. The spines, which are whitish, gray, or brown, can be rubbed off. The base of the puffball is thick, and has internal chambers and it is initially white, but turns yellow, olive, or brownish in age. The reticulate pattern resulting from the spines is less evident on the base. In maturity, the exoperidium at the top of the puffball sloughs away, revealing a hole in the endoperidium. In young puffballs, the contents, the gleba, is white and firm. The gleba contains minute chambers that are lined with hymenium, the collapse when the spores mature. Mature puffballs release their spores through the ostiole when they are compressed by touch or falling raindropsLycoperdon perlatum – Lycoperdon perlatum
19. Marasmius rotula – Marasmius rotula is a common species of agaric fungus in the family Marasmiaceae. Widespread in the Northern Hemisphere, it is known variously as the pinwheel mushroom, the pinwheel marasmius, the little wheel. The type species of the genus Marasmius, M. rotula was first described scientifically in 1772 by mycologist Giovanni Antonio Scopoli and assigned its current name in 1838 by Elias Fries. The fruit bodies, or mushrooms, of M. rotula are characterized by their whitish, thin, and membranous caps up to 2 cm wide that are sunken in the center, and pleated with scalloped margins. The slender and wiry black hollow stems measure up to 8.0 cm long by 1.5 mm thick, on the underside of the caps are widely spaced white gills that are attached to a collar encircling the stem. The mushrooms grow in groups or clusters on decaying wood such as twigs and sticks, moss-covered logs. Unlike other mushrooms known to release spores in response to a circadian rhythm, dried mushrooms may revive after rehydrating and continue to release spores for up to three weeks—a sustained spore production of markedly longer duration than other typical agarics. Although M. rotula mushrooms are not generally considered edible, they produce a unique peroxidase enzyme that is attracting research interest for use in bioengineering applications. The species was first described by Italian mycologist Giovanni Antonio Scopoli as Agaricus rotula in 1772, in 1821 Elias Magnus Fries redescribed the mushroom in Systema Mycologicum, and later transferred it to Marasmius in his 1838 Epicrisis Systematis Mycologici. In 1946 Alexander H. Smith and Rolf Singer proposed to conserve the name Marasmius over Micromphale, the generic name Marasmius, with M. rotula as the lectotype species, was later conserved at the 1954 Paris Congress on Botanical Nomenclature. M. rotula is also the species of section Marasmius within the genus. Several varieties of M. rotula have been described, miles Berkeley and Moses Ashley Curtis named var. fuscus in 1869 for its brown cap. In 1887 Pier Andrea Saccardo described var. microcephalus from Italy and it is now understood, however, that fruit body morphology is variable and dependent upon environmental conditions. Joseph Schröter described var. phyllophyla in 1889, but that taxon is now treated as Marasmius bulliardii, Marasmius rotula is commonly known as the pinwheel mushroom, the pinwheel Marasmius, the collared parachute, or the horse hair fungus. This latter name is shared with other Marasmius species, including M. androsaceus, gray called it the collared dimple-stool. The cap of the body is thin and membranous, measuring 3 to 20 mm in diameter. It has a shape slightly depressed in the center, conspicuous furrows in an outline of the gills. Young, unexpanded caps are yellowish brown, as the cap expands, the variety fusca has brown capsMarasmius rotula – Marasmius rotula
20. Paxillus involutus – Paxillus involutus, commonly known as the brown roll-rim, common roll-rim, or poison pax, is a basidiomycete fungus widely distributed across the Northern Hemisphere. It has been introduced to Australia, New Zealand, and South America. Although it has gills, it is closely related to the pored boletes than to typical gilled mushrooms. It was first described by Pierre Bulliard in 1785, and was given its current binomial name by Elias Magnus Fries in 1838, genetic testing suggests that Paxillus involutus may be a species complex rather than a single species. A common mushroom of deciduous and coniferous woods and grassy areas in summer and autumn. These benefit from the symbiosis as the fungus reduces their intake of heavy metals, an antigen in the mushroom triggers the immune system to attack red blood cells. Serious and potentially fatal complications include acute renal failure, shock, acute respiratory failure, james Bolton published a description of what he called Agaricus adscendibus in 1788, the taxonomical authority Index Fungorum considers this to be synonymous with P. involutus. Additional synonyms include Omphalia involuta described by Samuel Frederick Gray in 1821, the species gained its current binomial name in 1838 when the father of mycology, Swedish naturalist Elias Magnus Fries erected the genus Paxillus, and set it as the type species. It was thus written Paxillus involutus Fr, however, a 1987 revision of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature set the starting date at May 1,1753, the date of publication of Linnaeus seminal work, the Species Plantarum. Hence the name no longer requires the ratification of Fries authority, the genus was later placed in a new family, Paxillaceae, by French mycologist René Maire who held it to be related to both agarics and boletes. Although it has rather than pores, it has long been recognised as belonging to the pored mushrooms of the order Boletales rather than the traditional agarics. The generic name is derived from the Latin for peg or plug, common names include the naked brimcap, poison paxillus, inrolled pax, poison pax, common roll-rim, brown roll-rim, and brown chanterelle. Gray called it the involved navel-stool in his 1821 compendium of British flora, studies of the ecology and genetics of Paxillus involutus indicate that it may form a complex of multiple similar-looking species. In a field study near Uppsala, Sweden, conducted from 1981 to 1983, one was found under conifers and mixed woodlands, while the other two were found in parklands, associated with nearby birch trees. However, there were only general tendencies and he was unable to detect any consistent macroscopic or microscopic features that differentiate them. Vernalis, while those from forests were allied with P. filamentosus, the authors suggested the park populations may have been introduced from North America. Changes in host range have occurred frequently and independently among strains within this species complex, resembling a brown wooden top, the epigeous fruit body may be up to 6 cm high. The cap surface is initially downy and later smooth, becoming sticky when wet, the cap and cap margin initially serve to protect the gills of young fruit bodies, this is termed pilangiocarpic developmentPaxillus involutus – Paxillus involutus
21. Suillus spraguei – Suillus spraguei is a species of fungus in the Suillaceae family. It is known by a variety of names, including the painted slipperycap. Suillus spraguei has had a complex history, and is also frequently referred to Suillus pictus in the literature. The readily identifiable fruit bodies have caps that are red when fresh, dry to the touch. On the underside of the cap are small, yellow, angular pores that become brownish as the mushroom ages, the stalk bears a grayish cottony ring, and is typically covered with soft hairs or scales. Suillus spraguei grows in an association with several pine species, particularly eastern white pine. It has a distribution, and is found in eastern Asia, northeastern North America. The mushroom is edible, although opinions about its quality vary, the mushroom bears a resemblance to several other Suillus species, including the closely related S. decipiens, although the species can be differentiated by variations in color and size. Suillus spraguei has had a complex taxonomic history, in a publication that appeared the following year, American mycologist Charles Horton Peck named the species Boletus pictus. However, in 1945 Singer reported that the name Boletus pictus was illegitimate because it was a homonym, the name was officially switched to Suillus spraguei in 1986. A1996 molecular analysis of 38 Suillus species used the sequences of their internal transcribed spacers to infer phylogenetic relationships, the results indicate that S. spraguei is most closely related to S. decipiens. The species S. granulatus and S. placidus lie on a sister to that containing S. spraguei. These results were corroborated and extended in later publications that assessed the relationships between Asian and eastern North American isolates of various Suillus, including S. spraguei, the specific epithet spraguei is an homage to the collector Sprague, while pictus means painted or colored. Suillus spraguei is commonly known as the painted slipperycap, the painted suillus, or the red and it is also called the eastern painted Suillus to contrast with the western painted Suillus. The cap of the body is 3 to 12 cm in diameter. The cap margin is initially rolled downward before straightening out, often with hanging remnants of partial veil, the cap surface is covered with densely matted filaments that are rough and scale-like. The scales are pink to red, fading to a pale brown-gray or dull yellow in maturity. Under the scales, the cap surface is yellow to pale yellow-orange, while many other Suillus species have a sticky or slimy cap, S. spraguei is drySuillus spraguei – Suillus spraguei
22. Tricholoma pardinum – It is generally found in beech woodland in summer and autumn. Two subspecies have been described from southern Europe, first officially described by Christiaan Hendrik Persoon in 1801, Tricholoma pardinum has had a confusing taxonomic history that extends over two centuries. The fruit body of Tricholoma pardinum is a mushroom with a pale grey cap up to 15 cm in diameter that is covered with dark brownish to greyish scales. The gills are whitish, and are not attached to the white to pale grey-brown stalk. Ingesting T. pardinum—even in small quantities—results in a severe, persistent gastroenteritis caused by an unknown mycotoxin, Christiaan Hendrik Persoon described this species as Agaricus myomyces var. pardinus in 1801, although he queried whether it was a distinct species. The illustration accompanying the name fits what we now know as Tricholoma pardinum, in his 1838 work Epicrisis systematis mycologici, seu synopsis hymenomycetum, Fries assigned a different fungus again to the binomial name and linked it to Schäffers 1762 description. French mycologist Lucien Quélet reclassified it as a species in 1873, italian mycologist Alfredo Riva has noted that Swiss mycologist Louis Secretan provided a description forty years before Quélet, in his 1833 work Mycographie Suisse, and queried why it was ignored. He has proposed the fungus be written as Tricholoma pardinum Quél, however, Secretans works are generally not recognised for nomenclatural purposes because he did not use binomial nomenclature consistently. There has been confusion over which name to use for over two hundred years. Tricholoma tigrinum has been used in some European field guides, but has applied in error to this species. The uncertainty was such that Czech mycologists Josef Herink and František Kotlaba suggested in 1967 that both designations were incorrect, and proposed the new name T. pardalotum. Molecular analyses suggest that T. pardinum is closely related to T. huronense, T. mutabile, Tricholoma pardinum var. filamentosum is an uncommon variety, described in 1983 by Carlo Luciano Alessio, which produces mushrooms with more fibrillose caps and stalks than the typical variety. It is found in southern Europe, where it associates with chestnut, another variety has been described as T. pardinum var. unguentatum, characterised by daintier mushrooms that have a greasy coating on their caps. The specific epithet pardinum is derived from the Latin pardus leopard, the generic name derives from the Greek trichos/τριχος hair and loma/λωμα hem, fringe, or border. Common names include striped tricholoma, spotted tricholoma, tiger tricholoma, poison trich, leopard knight, dirty trich was a name coined by author Gary H. Lincoff in response to a publishers request for a more accessible name than its binomial one for North American guidebooks. The fruit body is a mushroom, with a cap 6–10 cm in diameter. The cap is hemispherical before flattening with maturity, and has a broad. The cap margin is initially curled inwards but uncurls as it matures, the gills are free, white and thick, may have a yellow or greenish tint, and may drip water, as may the top of the stalk when brokenTricholoma pardinum – Tricholoma pardinum
23. Turbinellus floccosus – Turbinellus floccosus, sometimes known as the shaggy, scaly, or woolly chanterelle, is a cantharelloid mushroom of the family Gomphaceae native to Asia and North America. It was known as Gomphus floccosus until 2011, when it was found to be distantly related to the genuss type species. It was consequently transferred from Gomphus to Turbinellus, the orange-capped vase- or trumpet-shaped fruiting bodies may reach 30 cm high and 30 cm wide. The lower surface, the hymenium, is covered in wrinkles and ridges rather than gills or pores, though mild-tasting, they generally cause gastrointestinal symptoms of nausea, vomiting and diarrhea when consumed. T. floccosus is eaten by people in northeastern India, Nepal. This species was first described as Cantherellus floccosus in 1834 by American mycologist Lewis David de Schweinitz and its specific epithet is derived from the Latin floccus, meaning tuft, or flock, of wool. In 1839, Miles Joseph Berkeley named a specimen from Canada as Cantharellus canadensis based on a manuscript by Johann Friedrich Klotzsch, a large specimen collected in Maine by Charles James Sprague was described as Cantharellus princeps in 1859 by Berkeley and Moses Ashley Curtis. In 1891, German botanist Otto Kuntze renamed Cantharellus canadensis as Trombetta canadensis, franklin Sumner Earle made C. floccosus the type species of the new genus Turbinellus in 1909, in which he placed two other North American species. This was not widely taken up, as Earles new combination was not published validly according to nomenclatural rules, American mycologist Elizabeth Eaton Morse described Cantharellus bonarii in 1930. The type locality was General Grant National Park in Fresno County, in 1945 C. floccosus and Morses C. bonarii were transferred to Gomphus by Rolf Singer. The generic name is derived from the Ancient Greek γομφος, gomphos, the shaggy chanterelle was placed in the latter section due to its scaly cap, lack of clamp connections and rusty-colored spores. Roger Heim classified it in the genus Nevrophyllum, before E. J. H. Corner returned it to Gomphus in 1966, thus the genus Turbinellus was resurrected and the taxon became Turbinellus floccosus. Giachini also concluded G. bonarii was the same species, in Mexico, it is known as corneta or trompeta, or by the indigenous words oyamelnanácatl, tlapitzal or tlapitzananácatl in Tlaxcala. Adult fruit bodies are cylindrical, maturing to trumpet- or vase-shaped and reaching up to 30 cm high. There is no clear demarcation between the cap and stipe, the stipe can be up to 15 cm tall and 6 cm wide, though it tapers to a narrower base. It is solid in younger specimens, though is often hollowed out by insect larvae in older, at higher elevations, two or three fruit bodies may arise from one stipe. Colored various shades of reddish- to yellowish-orange, the cap surface is broken into scales, the most colorful specimens occur in warm humid weather. The white flesh is fibrous and thick, though thins with age, somewhat brittle, it can sometimes turn brown when cut or bruisedTurbinellus floccosus – Turbinellus floccosus
24. Banksia aculeata – Banksia aculeata, commonly known as prickly banksia, is a species of plant of the family Proteaceae native to the Stirling Range in the southwest of Western Australia. A shrub up to 2 m tall, it has dense foliage and its unusual pinkish, pendent flower spikes, known as inflorescences, are generally hidden in the foliage and appear during the early summer. Although it was collected by the naturalist James Drummond in the 1840s, a rare plant, Banksia aculeata is found in gravelly soils in elevated areas. Native to a habitat burnt by bushfires, it is killed by fire. In contrast to other Western Australian banksias, it appears to have resistance to dieback from the soil-borne water mould Phytophthora cinnamomi. A bushy shrub, Banksia aculeata grows up to 2 m tall, with fissured bark on its trunk. Unlike many other species, it does not have a woody base. The leaves range from 4–9 cm long and 0. 8–3 cm wide, appearing in February and March, the cylindrical flower spikes—known as inflorescences—range from 6–9 cm long, growing at the ends of short leafy 2–3-year-old side branches. Hanging downward rather than growing upright like those of most other banksias, they are composed of a central spike or axis. These floral units are made up of a tubular perianth that envelopes the flowers sexual organs. The perianth is 3. 0–4.3 cm long and pink at the base grading into cream, in late bud, the end of the perianth has a characteristic four-angled appearance. It then splits at anthesis to reveal the smooth straight pistil, the fruiting cone, known as an infructescence, is a swollen woody spike in which up to 20 massive follicles are embedded, the withered flower parts persist on the spike, giving it a hairy appearance. Oval in shape, the follicles are wrinkled in texture and covered with fine hair and they are 3. 0–4.5 cm long,2. 5–3.0 cm high, and 2–2.5 cm wide. The obovate seed is 4–5 cm long and fairly flattened and it is composed of the wedge-shaped seed body, measuring 1. 0–1.2 cm long by 1. 5–1.8 cm wide, and a papery wing. One side, termed the outer surface, is grey and wrinkled, the seeds are separated by a sturdy dark brown seed separator that is roughly the same shape as the seeds with a depression where the seed body sits adjacent to it in the follicle. Known as cotyledons, the first pair of leaves produced by seedlings are cuneate and they are dull dark green, sometimes with a reddish tinge, and the margin of the wedge is convex. The auricle at the base of the leaf is pointed. The hypocotyl is thick, smooth and dark red, the obovate to oblong seedling leaves are 4–9 cm long by 2. 0–2.5 cm wide with serrated margins, with v-shaped sinuses and sharp teethBanksia aculeata – Banksia aculeata
25. Banksia oblongifolia – Banksia oblongifolia, commonly known as the fern-leaved, dwarf banksia or rusty banksia, is a species in the plant genus Banksia. A many-stemmed shrub up to 3 m high, it has leathery serrated leaves, the yellow flower spikes, known as inflorescences, most commonly appear in autumn and early winter. Up to 80 follicles, or seed pods, develop on the spikes after flowering, Banksia oblongifolia resprouts from its woody lignotuber after bushfires, and the seed pods open and release seed when burnt, the seed germinating and growing on burnt ground. Some plants grow between fires from seed shed spontaneously, spanish botanist Antonio José Cavanilles described B. oblongifolia in 1800, though it was known as Banksia asplenifolia in New South Wales for many years. However, the name, originally coined by Richard Anthony Salisbury, proved invalid. Two varieties were recognised in 1987, but these have not been generally accepted, a wide array of mammals, birds, and invertebrates visit the inflorescences. Though easily grown as a plant, it is not commonly seen in horticulture. Banksia oblongifolia is a shrub that can reach 3 m high, though is less than 2 m high. The smooth bark is marked with lenticels, and is reddish-brown fading to greyish-brown with age. New leaves and branchlets are covered with a rusty fur, the leaves lose their fur and become smooth with maturity, and are alternately arranged along the stem. Measuring 5–11 cm in length and 1, the sinuses are U-shaped and teeth are 1–2 mm long. The leaf underside is whitish with a reticulated pattern and a raised central midrib. The leaves sit on 2–5 mm long petioles, flowering has been recorded between January and October, with a peak in autumn and early winter. The inflorescences, or flower spikes, arise from the end of 1 to 5 year old branchlets, measuring 5–15 cm high and 4 cm wide, the yellow spikes often have blue-grey tinged limbs in bud, though occasionally pinkish, mauve or mauve-blue limbs are seen. Opening to a yellow after anthesis, the spikes lose their flowers with age and swell to up to 17.5 cm high and 4 cm wide. Covered with fine fur but becoming smooth with age, the oval-shaped follicles measure 1–1.8 cm long by 0. 2–0.7 cm high and 0. 3–0.7 cm wide. The bare swollen spike, now known as an infructescence, is patterned with short spiky persistent bracts on its surface where follicles have not developed, each follicle contains one or two obovate dark grey-brown to black seeds sandwiching a woody separator. Measuring 1. 2–1.8 cm long, they are made up of an oblong to semi-elliptic smooth or slightly ridged seed body,0. 7–1.1 cm long by 0. 3–0.7 cm wideBanksia oblongifolia – Fern-leaved banksia
26. Banksia serrata – Banksia serrata, commonly known as old man banksia, saw banksia, saw-tooth banksia and red honeysuckle, is a species of woody shrub or tree of the genus Banksia in the family Proteaceae. Native to the east coast of Australia, it is found from Queensland through to Victoria with outlying populations on Tasmania, commonly growing as a gnarled tree up to 15 m in height, it can be much smaller in more exposed areas. This Banksia species has wrinkled grey bark and shiny green serrated leaves, with large, yellow or greyish-yellow flower spikes, known as inflorescences. The flower spikes turn grey as they age and large grey follicles appear, there are no recognised varieties, although it is closely related to Banksia aemula. It grows exclusively in sandy soils, and is usually the dominant plant in scrubland or low woodland, Banksia serrata is pollinated by and provides food for a wide array of vertebrate and invertebrate animals in the autumn and winter months. It is an important source of food for honeyeaters and it is a common plant of parks and gardens. As a tree, it usually has a single, stout trunk with the grey bark characteristic of Banksia. Trunks are often black from past bushfires, and ooze a red sap when injured, the leaves are dark glossy green above and light green below,8 to 20 centimetres long, and 2 to 4 centimetres wide. Except near the base of the leaf, the margins are serrated with lobes between 1 and 3 millimetres deep, leaves occur crowded together at the upper end of branches, giving the canopy a thin, sparse appearance. The flowers are a grey colour, with cream or golden styles. Cones may have up to 30 follicles, and usually appear hairy due to the retention of old withered flower parts, as the first named species of the genus, Banksia serrata is considered the type species. Under Browns taxonomic arrangement, B. serrata was placed in subgenus Banksia verae, Banksia verae was renamed Eubanksia by Stephan Endlicher in 1847, and demoted to sectional rank by Carl Meissner in his 1856 classification. Meissner further divided Eubanksia into four series, with B. serrata placed in series Quercinae on the basis of its toothed leaves, when George Bentham published his 1870 arrangement in Flora Australiensis, he discarded Meissners series, replacing them with four sections. B. serrata was placed in Orthostylis, a heterogeneous section containing 18 species. This arrangement would stand for over a century, kuntze proposed Sirmuellera as an alternative, republishing B. serrata as Sirmuellera serrata. The challenge failed, and Banksia L. f. was formally conserved, alex George published a new taxonomic arrangement of Banksia in his classic 1981 monograph The genus Banksia L. f. Banksia, and was divided into three sections, B. serrata was placed in B. sect. Banksia, and this was divided into nine series, with B. serrata placed in B. serBanksia serrata – Saw banksia
27. Banksia speciosa – Banksia speciosa, commonly known as the showy banksia, is a species of large shrub or small tree in the family Proteaceae. It occurs on the south coast of Western Australia between Hopetoun and the Great Australian Bight, growing on white or grey sand in shrubland. Reaching up to 8 m in height, it is a plant that has thin leaves with prominent triangular teeth along each margin. The prominent cream-yellow flower spikes known as inflorescences appear throughout the year, as they age they develop up to 20 follicles each that store seeds until opened by fire. Though widely occurring, it is sensitive to dieback and large populations of plants have succumbed to the disease. Collected and described by Robert Brown in the early 19th century and its closest relative is B. baxteri. Banksia speciosa plants are killed by bushfire, and regenerate from seed, the flowers attract nectar- and insect-feeding birds, particularly honeyeaters, and a variety of insects. In cultivation, Banksia speciosa grows well in a location on well-drained soil in areas with dry summers. It cannot be grown in areas with humid summers, though it has been grafted onto Banksia serrata or B. integrifolia, Banksia speciosa grows as a shrub or small tree anywhere from 1 to 6 or rarely 8 m high. It has an open many-branched habit, arising from a stem or trunk with smooth grey bark. Unlike many banksias, it not have a lignotuber. The plant puts on new growth, which is covered in rusty-coloured fur, the long thin leaves are linear, 20–45 cm long and 2–4 cm wide. They are bordered with 20 to 42 prominent triangular lobes that have a zigzag pattern, the lobes are 1–2 cm long and 1–2.5 cm wide, while the V-shaped sinuses between intrude almost to the midrib of the leaf. The leaf margins are slightly recurved, on the underside of each lobe, there are 3–10 nerves converging on the lobe apex. The midrib is raised on the undersurface, it is covered with white hair when new. The cream to yellow flower spikes, known as inflorescences, can appear at any time of year and they arise on the ends of one- or two-year-old stems and are roughly cylindrical in shape with a domed apex, measuring 4–12 cm high and 9–10 cm wide at anthesis. Each is a compound flowering structure, with a number of individual flowers arising out of a central woody axis. A field study on the southern sandplains revealed an average count of 1369±79 on each spike, the perianth is grey-cream in bud, maturing to a more yellow or creamBanksia speciosa – showy banksia
28. Banksia sphaerocarpa – Banksia sphaerocarpa, commonly known as the Fox Banksia or Round-fruit Banksia, is a species of shrub or tree in the plant genus Banksia. It is generally encountered as a 1–2 m high shrub, and is smaller in the north of its range. This species has green leaves, and brownish, orange or yellow round flower spikes which may be seen from January to July. It is widely distributed across the southwest of Western Australia, growing exclusively in sandy soils and it is usually the dominant plant in scrubland or low woodland. It is pollinated by, and is a source for, birds, mammals. At present, most authorities recognise five varieties, the largest variety, B. sphaerocarpa is classified as Not Threatened under the Wildlife Conservation Act of Western Australia, although two varieties have been placed on the Declared Rare and Priority Flora List—var. Latifolia has been declared a Priority Two – Poorly Known taxon, none of the varieties are commonly seen in cultivation. Banksia sphaerocarpa is a species that differs in plant size, flower size. The variability is marked enough that five varieties are recognised and this species is generally a shrub 0. 4–2 m tall. Plants are smaller in northern parts of the range, and grow larger in the southeast, with var. dolichostyla, all varieties bear a lignotuber, a swollen starchy root crown from which the plant resprouts after bushfire. The new stems are hairy but become smooth with maturity. The leaves are stiff, narrow and linear, and measure 2. 5–10 cm in length, on a petiole 2–3 mm long. Leaves of most varieties are 1–1.5 mm in width, and have a tip, but var. latifolia has wider leaves, 2–2.5 cm. The foliage is green, or a more pale blue-grey in the case of caesia, the inflorescences are generally globular and measure 5 to 8 cm in diameter, although larger forms, such as var. dolichostyla, are more oval in shape. Flowering from January to July, the blooms are yellow, orange or brownish in colour and they take five to eight weeks to develop from bud to the finish of flowering. Anthesis takes place two weeks, as the individual flowers open in a wave across the inflorescence. Three weeks before the open, the spikes develop a strong musky smell. The flowers produce large quantities of nectar, indeed some flowers produce so much that it drips to the groundBanksia sphaerocarpa – Fox Banksia
29. Isopogon anemonifolius – Isopogon anemonifolius, commonly known as broad-leaved drumsticks, is a shrub of the family Proteaceae that is found only in eastern New South Wales in Australia. It occurs naturally in woodland, open forest, and heathland on sandstone soils, I. anemonifolius usually ranges between 1 and 1.5 metres in height, generally being smaller in exposed heathland. Its leaves are divided and narrow, though broader than those of the related Isopogon anethifolius, the yellow flowers appear during late spring or early summer and are displayed prominently. They are followed by round grey cones, which give the plant its common name drumsticks, the small hairy seeds are found in the old flower parts. A long-lived plant reaching an age of up to 60 years, I. anemonifolius resprouts from its woody base, seedlings appear in the year following a fire. Although I. anemonifolius was collected by Daniel Solander in 1770, several varieties have been named, though none are now recognised as distinct. It was first cultivated in the United Kingdom in 1791, I. anemonifolius grows readily in the garden if located in a sunny or part-shaded spot with sandy soil and good drainage. Isopogon anemonifolius grows as a shrub to 1–1.5 m in height. The leaves are 5–11 cm long and fork after 2–5 cm into three segments, and then often fork a second time, leaves can vary markedly on single plants, though some leaves are undivided. Leaf surfaces are smooth, though occasionally covered with fine hair. Its flat leaves distinguish it from the leaves of Isopogon anethifolius, they are also broader. The new growth and leaves of I. anemonifolius may be flushed red to purple in colour, the globular inflorescences appear any time from July to January, being most abundant in October. They are 3–4 cm in diameter, and grow terminally at the tips of branches, the individual flowers are around 1.2 cm long. They are straight stalkless structures arising from a basal scale, the perianth, a tube that envelopes the flowers sexual organs, splits into four segments, revealing a thin delicate style that is tipped with the stigma. At the ends of the four segments are the male pollen-bearing structures known as anthers. Arranged in a pattern, the flowers open from the bottom of the flowerhead inwards. Flowering is followed by the development of the fruiting cones. The seed-bearing nuts are small—up to 4 mm across—and lined with hairs, swedish naturalist Daniel Solander, after collecting a specimen at Botany Bay in 1770 on the first voyage of Captain James Cook, was the first to write of this speciesIsopogon anemonifolius – Isopogon anemonifolius
30. Isopogon anethifolius – Isopogon anethifolius, commonly known as narrowleaf- or narrow-leafed drumsticks, is a shrub in the family Proteaceae. The species is only in coastal areas near Sydney, Australia. It occurs naturally in woodland, open forest and heathland on sandstone soils, an upright shrub, it can reach to 3 m in height, with terete leaves that are divided and narrow. The yellow flowers appear from September to December and are prominently displayed and they are followed by round grey cones, which give the plant its common name of drumsticks. The small hairy seeds are found in the old flower parts, Isopogon anethifolius regenerates after bushfire by resprouting from its woody base, known as a lignotuber, as well as from seed. It was described by Richard Salisbury in 1796, and was first grown in the United Kingdom the same year. One of the easiest members of the genus Isopogon to grow in cultivation, I. anethifolius grows readily in the garden if located in a sunny or part-shaded spot with sandy soil, Isopogon anethifolius is a shrub usually between 1 and 3 m high with an upright habit. It generally grows taller in sheltered areas such as woodlands. The stems are reddish in colour, and new growth in winter is tinged with reddish, the leaves are terete and less than 1 mm in diameter. They branch once or twice in their 16 cm length, the globular yellow flowerheads, known as inflorescences, appear at the ends of branches in spring and early summer, though occasionally at other times of year. These are up to 4 cm in diameter, the individual flowers arise out of the central woody globe in a spiral pattern, and are around 1.2 cm long. They are straight stalkless structures that originate from a scale on the globe, composed of a structure known as the perianth. The perianth splits into four segments, revealing a thin delicate style that is tipped with the stigma, at the ends of the four perianth segments are the male pollen-bearing structures known as anthers. Arranged in a pattern, the flowers open from the outer/bottom of the flowerhead inwards. The egg-shaped grey cones are revealed as the old flower parts fall away, the seed-bearing nuts are small—up to 4 mm across—and lined with hairs. The seed weighs around 4 mg, the terete leaves readily distinguish Isopogon anethifolius from other members of the genus, which have flat leaves and are greater than 1 mm across. On a microscopic level, the ground tissue of I. anethifolius differs from some of its genus by its irregular misshapen sclereids. Isopogon anethifolius was among the plants collected by English botanist Joseph Banks, a drawing by Scottish artist Sydney Parkinson was the source for a subsequent painting by James Britten, published in 1905Isopogon anethifolius – Isopogon anethifolius
31. Persoonia linearis – Persoonia linearis, commonly known as the narrow-leaved geebung, is a shrub native to New South Wales and Victoria in eastern Australia. It reaches 3 m, or occasionally 5 m, in height and has thick, the leaves are, as the species name suggests, more or less linear in shape, and are up to 9 cm long, and 0.1 to 0.7 cm wide. The small yellow flowers appear in summer and autumn, followed by green fleshy fruit known as drupes. Within the genus Persoonia, it is a member of the Lanceolata group of 58 closely related species, P. linearis interbreeds with several other species where they grow together. The fruit are consumed by such as kangaroo, possums. As with other members of the genus, P. linearis is rare in cultivation as it is hard to propagate. It adapts readily to cultivation, preferring acidic soils with good drainage, english botanist and artist Henry Charles Andrews described Persoonia linearis in 1799, in the second volume of his Botanists Repository, Comprising Colourd Engravings of New and Rare Plants. He had been given a plant in flower by J. Robertson of Stockwell, the species name is the Latin linearis linear, referring to the shape of the leaves. The genus name derived from the Greek penta- five and dactyl fingers, carl Meissner described a population from the Tambo River in Victoria as a separate variety, Persoonia linearis var. latior in 1856, but no varieties or subspecies are recognised. German botanist Otto Kuntze proposed the binomial name Linkia linearis in 1891, from Cavanilles original description of the genus Linkia, the short-leaved material of P. breviuscula was noted to have been collected in Queensland but this is now thought to have been incorrectly recorded. Gandoger described 212 taxa of Australian plants, almost all of which turned out to be species already described, in 1870, George Bentham published the first infrageneric arrangement of Persoonia in Volume 5 of his landmark Flora Australiensis. He divided the genus into three sections, placing P. linearis in P. sect, amblyanthera, and recognising Pentadactylon angustifolium as the same species, after examining the specimen in the Banksian Herbarium. He described a variety sericea from the Shoalhaven River region and also noted the discrepancy in Robert Browns description of the species, brown had noted the bark to be smooth, in contrast to Ferdinand von Mueller and others who recorded the bark as layered. Cunninghamii, P. oleoides, P. pinifolia and P. sericea have been recorded, Bentham wrote in 1870 that the name geebung, derived from the Dharug language word geebung or jibbong, which had been used by the indigenous people for the fruits of this species. It goes by the names of narrow-leaved geebung or narrow-leaf geebung. Naam-burra is a name from the Illawarra region. Persoonia linearis grows as a shrub to small tree, occasionally reaching 5 m in height. The flaky soft bark is grey on the surface, while deeper layers are reddishPersoonia linearis – Narrow-leaved geebung
32. Babakotia – Babakotia is an extinct genus of medium-sized lemur, or strepsirrhine primate, from Madagascar that contains a single species, Babakotia radofilai. Together with Palaeopropithecus, Archaeoindris, and Mesopropithecus, it forms the family Palaeopropithecidae, the name Babakotia comes from the Malagasy name for the indri, babakoto, to which it and all other sloth lemurs are closely related. Babakotia radofilai and all other sloth lemurs share many traits with living sloths and it had long forearms, curved digits, and highly mobile hip and ankle joints. Its skull was heavily built than that of indriids. Its dentition is similar to that of all other indriids and sloth lemurs and it lived in the northern part of Madagascar and shared its range with at least two other sloth lemur species, Palaeopropithecus ingens and Mesopropithecus dolichobrachion. Babakotia radofilai was primarily a leaf-eater, though it also ate fruit and it is known only from subfossil remains and may have died out shortly after the arrival of humans on the island, but not enough radiocarbon dating has been done with this species to know for certain. The name of the genus Babakotia derives from the Malagasy common name for the Indri, babakoto, the species name, radofilai, was chosen in honor of French mathematician and expatriate Jean Radofilao, an avid spelunker who mapped the caves where remains of Babakotia radofilai were first found. This family in turn belongs to the infraorder Lemuriformes, which all the Malagasy lemurs. The second wave of research was launched in the 1980s by biological anthropologist Elwyn L, the monkey lemurs had skulls that more closely resembled the indriids, but their teeth were very specialized and unlike those of the indriids. The larger sloth lemurs, on the hand, retained a dentition similar to living indriids, yet differed by having more robust. Weighing between 16 and 20 kg, Babakotia radofilai was a medium-sized lemur and noticeably smaller than the large sloth lemurs, in many ways, it had an intermediate level of adaptations for suspensory behavior between the large sloth lemurs and the small sloth lemurs. This includes its highly mobile hip and ankle joints, as well as other specializations in the column, pelvis. Its forelimbs were 20% longer than its hind limbs, giving it a higher index than Mesopropithecus. It had a reduced tarsus and curved, elongated digits, adapted for grasping and suggesting suspensory behavior and its hind feet were reduced, making it well-adapted for climbing and hanging, but not leaping. Wrist bones found in 1999 further demonstrated that species was a vertical climber. Therefore, it was likely a slow climber like a loris, all sloth lemurs have relatively robust skulls compared to the indriids, yet despite shared cranial features with the larger sloth lemurs, its skull still resembles that of an indri. The cranial traits shared with the sloth lemurs include relatively small orbits, robust zygomatic arches. The small orbits taken into consideration with the size of the optic canal suggest that Babakotia had low visual acuityBabakotia – Babakotia radofilai
33. Dermotherium – Dermotherium is a genus of fossil mammals closely related to the living colugos, a small group of gliding mammals from Southeast Asia. In addition, an isolated upper molar from the Early Oligocene of Pakistan has been tentatively assigned to D. chimaera. Some features of the teeth differentiate Dermotherium from both living colugo species, but other features are shared only one of the two. The third lower incisor, lower canine, and third lower premolar at least are pectinate or comblike, bearing rows of tines or cusps. The fourth lower premolar instead resembles the lower molars, the front part of these teeth, the trigonid, is broader in D. chimaera than in D. major, which is known only from the second and third lower molars. The two species differ in the configuration of the inner back corner of the lower molars. The upper molars are triangular teeth bearing a number of small cusps, particularly on the second upper molar. Colugos are a group of Southeast Asian gliding mammals closely related to the primates. Their fossil record is exceptionally poor, in that year, Stéphane Ducrocq and colleagues described a jaw fragment from the Eocene of Thailand as a new genus and species of colugo, Dermotherium major. Mary Silcox and colleagues reaffirmed the colugo affinities of Dermotherium in 2005 on the basis of detailed similarities in molar morphology, in 2006, Laurent Marivaux and colleagues described a second species of Dermotherium, D. chimaera, from material from the Oligocene of Thailand. They gave it the specific name chimaera because it shares characters with both the Philippine colugo and Sunda colugo, the two living colugo species. In addition, they identified a fossil from the Oligocene of Pakistan as Dermotherium chimaera. According to an analysis carried out by Marivaux and colleagues, D. chimaera, D. major. Known material of Dermotherium includes a handful of jaw fragments and isolated teeth, Dermotherium major is known only from a fragment of the left lower jaw bearing the third lower molar and a poorly preserved second lower molar. The holotype of Dermotherium chimaera is a jaw fragment in which remnants of the deciduous third lower premolar are visible. X-ray microtomography reveals the unerupted lower third incisor, canine, third premolar, in addition, this species is known from two other jaw fragments, one bearing m1 and m2 and the other bearing m2 and m3, and two isolated molars, an upper first and second molar. The tentatively referred material of this species from Pakistan includes a single M2, the two species of Dermotherium were about as large as the Philippine colugo and larger than the Sunda colugo and differed from both in a number of characteristics of the dentition. Not enough is known of the skeleton of Dermotherium to assess whether the animal already possessed the gliding adaptations of living colugos, the two species are similar in size, but again differ in details of the dentitionDermotherium – A Sunda colugo (Galeopterus variegatus), a living relative of Dermotherium
34. Euryoryzomys emmonsae – Euryoryzomys emmonsae, also known as Emmonss Rice Rat or Emmons Oryzomys, is a rodent from the Amazon rainforest of Brazil in the genus Euryoryzomys of the family Cricetidae. Initially misidentified as E. macconnelli or E. nitidus, it was described in 1998. A rainforest species, it may be scansorial, climbing but also spending time on the ground and it occurs only in a limited area south of the Amazon River in the state of Pará, a distribution that is apparently unique among the muroid rodents of the region. Euryoryzomys emmonsae is a large rice rat, weighing 46 to 78 g, with a distinctly long tail and relatively long. The skull is slender and the incisive foramina are broad, the animal has 80 chromosomes and its karyotype is similar to that of other Euryoryzomys. Its conservation status is assessed as Data Deficient, but deforestation may pose a threat to this species, in 1998, Guy Musser, Michael Carleton, Eric Brothers, and Alfred Gardner reviewed the taxonomy of species previously lumped under Oryzomys capito. The specific name honors Louise H. Emmons, who, among other contributions to Neotropical mammalogy, the new species was placed in what they termed the Oryzomys nitidus group, which also included O. macconelli, O. nitidus, and O. russatus. In 2000, James Patton, Maria da Silva, and Jay Malcolm reported on mammals collected at the Rio Juruá in western Brazil. In this report, they provided information on the Oryzomys species reviewed by Musser and colleagues. The average sequence difference between the three O. emmonsae studied was 0. 8%, later in 2006, Weksler and colleagues described several new genera to accommodate species previously placed in Oryzomys, among which was Euryoryzomys for the O. nitidus complex, including O. emmonsae. Thus, the species is now known as Euryoryzomys emmonsae, as a species of Euryoryzomys, it is classified within the tribe Oryzomyini, which includes over a hundred species, mainly from South and Central America. Oryzomyini in turn is part of the subfamily Sigmodontinae of family Cricetidae, Euryoryzomys emmonsae is a fairly large, long-tailed rice rat with long, soft fur. The hairs on the back are 8 to 10 mm long and it generally resembles E. nitidus in these and other characters, but has a longer tail. E. macconnelli is slightly larger and has longer and duller fur, in E. emmonsae, the upperparts are tawny brown, but a bit darker on the head because many hairs have black tips. The hairs of the underparts are gray at the bases and white at the tips, overall, in most specimens, there is a patch on the chest where the gray bases are absent. The longest of the vibrissae of the face extend slightly beyond the ears, the ears are covered with small, yellowish brown hairs and appear dark brown overall. The feet are covered with white hairs above and brown below, there are six pads on the plantar surface, but the hypothenar is reduced. The ungual tufts, tufts of hair which surround the bases of the claws, are well-developed, the tail is like the body in color above, and mostly white below, but in the 10 mm nearest the tail tip it is brown belowEuryoryzomys emmonsae – Euryoryzomys emmonsae
35. Hartebeest – The hartebeest, also known as kongoni, is an African antelope, first described by the German zoologist Peter Simon Pallas in 1766. Eight subspecies have been described, including two considered to be independent species. A large antelope, the hartebeest stands just over 1 m at the shoulder, the weight ranges from 100 to 200 kg. It has a particularly elongated forehead and oddly shaped horns, short neck and its legs, which often have black markings, are unusually long. The coat is short and shiny. Coat colour varies by the subspecies, from the brown of the western hartebeest to the chocolate brown of the Swaynes hartebeest. Both sexes of all subspecies have horns, with those of females being more slender, horns can reach lengths of 45–70 cm. Apart from its face, the large chest and the sharply sloping back differentiate the hartebeest from other antelopes. Gregarious animals, hartebeest form herds of 20 to 300 individuals and they are very alert and non-aggressive. They are primarily grazers, with their diets consisting mainly of grasses, mating in hartebeest takes place throughout the year with one or two peaks, and depends upon the subspecies and local factors. Both males and females reach maturity at one to two years of age. Gestation is eight to nine months long, after which a single calf is born, births usually peak in the dry season. The lifespan is 12 to 15 years, inhabiting dry savannas and wooded grasslands, hartebeest often move to more arid places after rainfall. They have been reported from altitudes on Mount Kenya up to 4,000 m, the hartebeest was formerly widespread in Africa, but populations have undergone drastic decline due to habitat destruction, hunting, human settlement, and competition with livestock for food. Each of the eight subspecies of the hartebeest has a different conservation status, the Bubal hartebeest was declared extinct by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in 1994. While the populations of the red hartebeest are on the rise, the hartebeest is extinct in Algeria, Egypt, Lesotho, Libya, Morocco, Somalia, and Tunisia, but has been introduced into Swaziland and Zimbabwe. It is a game animal due to its highly regarded meat. The vernacular name hartebeest could have originated from the obsolete Afrikaans word hertebeest, the name was given by the Boers, based on the resemblance of the antelope to deerHartebeest – Hartebeest
36. Lundomys – Lundomys molitor, also known as Lunds amphibious rat or the greater marsh rat, is a semiaquatic rat species from southeastern South America. Its distribution is now restricted to Uruguay and nearby Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, but it previously ranged northward into Minas Gerais, Brazil, the Argentine form may have been distinct from the living form from Brazil and Uruguay. L. molitor is a rodent, with the head and body length averaging 193 mm, characterized by a long tail, large hindfeet. It builds nests above the water, supported by reeds, within the family Cricetidae and subfamily Sigmodontinae, it is a member of a group of specialized oryzomyine rodents that also includes Holochilus, Noronhomys, Carletonomys, and Pseudoryzomys. Lundomys molitor was first described in 1887 by Danish zoologist Herluf Winge, Lund named the animal Hesperomys molitor and placed it in the same genus as what is now Pseudoryzomys simplex and two species of Calomys. Subsequently, it was mentioned in the literature on South American rodents. In 1926, American zoologist Colin Campbell Sanborn collected some rodents in Uruguay, in 1,981 ft agnus was also recognized in the Late Pleistocene of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, and in 1982 it was recorded from Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil. Since then, the species has been known as Lundomys molitor, in the same paper in which they described Lundomys, Voss and Carleton also, for the first time, diagnosed the tribe Oryzomyini in a phylogenetically valid way. Voss and Carleton had found support for a close relationship between Holochilus, Lundomys, and Pseudoryzomys within Oryzomyini. In subsequent years, the related species Holochilus primigenus and Noronhomys vespuccii were discovered, subsequently, Carletonomys cailoi was described as an additional relative of Holochilus and Lundomys. Unlike in Holochilus brasiliensis, which occurs in the same area and it is sparsely haired and dark, and there is no difference in color between the upper and lower side. The coat, which is long, dense, and soft, is yellow–brown at the sides, the large hindfeet are characterized by conspicuous interdigital webbing, but they lack tufts of hair on the digits and several of the pads are reduced. As in some other oryzomyines, fringes of hair are present along the plantar margins. The forefeet also lack tufts on the digits and show very long claws, the female has four pairs of teats and the gall bladder is absent, both important characters of oryzomyines. The head and body length is 160 to 230 mm, averaging 193 mm, the length is 195 to 255 mm, averaging 235 mm. The front part of the skull is notably broad, as in Holochilus, the zygomatic plate, the flattened front portion of the cheek bone, is expansive and produced into a spinous process at the anterior margin. The jugal bone is small, but less reduced than in Holochilus, the interorbital region of the skull is narrow and flanked by high beads. The incisive foramina, which perforate the palate between the incisors and the molars, are long, extending between the molarsLundomys – Lundomys molitor Temporal range: Late Pleistocene to Recent
37. Mesopropithecus – Mesopropithecus is an extinct genus of small to medium-sized lemur, or strepsirrhine primate, from Madagascar that includes three species, M. dolichobrachion, M. globiceps, and M. pithecoides. Together with Palaeopropithecus, Archaeoindris, and Babakotia, it is part of the sloth lemur family, however, as it had the shortest forelimbs of all sloth lemurs, it is thought that Mesopropithecus was more quadrupedal and did not use suspension as much as the other sloth lemurs. All three species ate leaves, fruits, and seeds, but the proportions were different, M. pithecoides was primarily a leaf-eater, but also ate fruit and occasionally seeds. M. globiceps ate a mix of fruits and leaves, as well as a quantity of seeds than M. pithecoides. M. dolichobrachion also consumed a diet of fruits and leaves. M. dolichobrachion was the most distinct of the three due to its longer arms. Mesopropithecus was one of the smallest of the subfossil lemurs. Known only from remains, it died out after the arrival of humans on the island, probably due to hunting pressure. Mesopropithecus is a genus within the sloth lemur family, which three other genera, Palaeopropithecus, Archaeoindris, and Babakotia. This family in turn belongs to the infraorder Lemuriformes, which all the Malagasy lemurs. Mesopropithecus was named in 1905 by Herbert F, standing using four skulls found at Ampasambazimba. He noted that the animal had characteristics of both Palaeopropithecus and the living sifakas, in 1936, Charles Lamberton defined Neopropithecus globiceps and N. platyfrons. He thought that Neopropithecus was a separate, intermediate genus between Mesopropithecus and Propithecus, in 1971, paleoanthropologist Ian Tattersall merged N. platyfrons into N. globiceps and Neopropithecus into Mesopropithecus. For example, in 1974, Tattersall and Schwartz labeled Mesopropithecus as a group to sifakas. With the discovery of a skeleton of M. dolichobrachion near Ankarana in 1986. Unlike the indriids, but like the lemurs, they had elongated forelimbs and other adaptations for arboreal suspension. A comparison of morphological traits between the sloth lemurs and indriids suggest that Mesopropithecus was the first genus to diverge within the sloth lemur family. Three species are recognized within Mesopropithecus, M. pithecoides, described in 1905, was the first species to be formally named and it was a small to medium-sized lemur, weighing approximately 10 kg and having an intermembral index of 99Mesopropithecus – Mesopropithecus
38. Noronhomys – Noronhomys vespuccii, also known as Vespuccis rodent, is an extinct rat species from the islands of Fernando de Noronha off northeastern Brazil. Numerous but fragmentary remains of the animal, of uncertain but probably Holocene age, were discovered in 1973. Noronhomys vespuccii was a large rodent, larger than the black rat. Although a suite of traits suggest that Holochilus is its closest relative, it is distinctive in many ways and is classified in a separate genus. On this island, identified as Fernando de Noronha, he saw very big rats, the Lettera purports to be an account of Vespuccis voyages, but it is unlikely that he produced it himself and, additionally, his fourth voyage may never have actually taken place. The lizard is probably Trachylepis atlantica and the record of snakes most likely refers to Amphisbaena ridleyi, the generic name, Noronhomys, combines the name of the island of Fernando de Noronha with the Ancient Greek μῦς mys mouse and the specific name, vespuccii, honors Amerigo Vespucci. Noronhomys would have larger than the black rat, which was common on ships. Oryzomyini is one of several tribes recognized within the subfamily Sigmodontinae, Sigmodontinae itself is the largest subfamily of the family Cricetidae, other members of which include voles, lemmings, hamsters, and deermice, all mainly from Eurasia and North America. They used an analysis to examine its relationships within Oryzomyini. They found that Noronhomys appeared closest to Holochilus, with Lundomys more distantly related, eighteen shared characters supported the grouping of Noronhomys with Holochilus. Another form described as a species of Holochilus, Holochilus primigenus, may also be related, in 1998, a fragmentary fossil of another species of this same group of oryzomyines was found in eastern Argentina. Noronhomys vespuccii is known from a number of fragments, including five skulls, damaged to various degrees. This material documents that, with a skull of about 4 cm, Noronhomys was a large oryzomyine, smaller than Lundomys. Skull shape is different from both Holochilus and Lundomys, resulting in a clear separation from both of these taxa in statistical analyses of measurement data. In three individuals measured, the length, a measure of skull length, varies from 38.0 to 39.2 mm. The width of the braincase is 13.4 to 14.8 mm, between the first molars, the width of the palate is 8.1 to 8.9 mm in four specimens, averaging 8.4 mm. The lower molars have a length of 7.57 to 8.29 mm, averaging 8.00 mm. The skull is flattened in general shape, the front part is short and broadNoronhomys – View of Morro do Pico on Fernando de Noronha.
39. North Ronaldsay sheep – The North Ronaldsay or Orkney is a breed of domestic sheep from North Ronaldsay, the northernmost island of Orkney, off the north coast of Scotland. It belongs to the Northern European short-tailed sheep group of breeds and it is a smaller sheep than most, with the rams horned and ewes mostly hornless. It was formerly kept primarily for wool, but now the two largest flocks are feral, one on North Ronaldsay and another on the Orkney island of Linga Holm. The Rare Breeds Survival Trust lists the breed as vulnerable, with fewer than 600 registered breeding females in the United Kingdom, the semi-feral flock on North Ronaldsay is the original flock that evolved to subsist almost entirely on seaweed – they are one of few mammals to do this. They are confined to the shoreline by a 1.8 m tall dry-stone wall and this diet has caused a variety of adaptations in the sheeps digestive system. These sheep have to extract the trace element copper far more efficiently than other breeds as their diet has a supply of copper. This results in them being susceptible to toxicity, if fed on a grass diet. Grazing habits have changed to suit the sheeps environment. To reduce the chance of being stranded by a tide, they graze at low tide. A range of colours are exhibited, including grey, brown. Meat from the North Ronaldsay has a flavour, described as intense and gamey, due, in part. The meat is protected by the UK Government, so only meat from North Ronaldsay sheep can be marketed as Orkney Lamb, the sheep are descended from the Northern European short-tailed sheep. Their arrival onto North Ronaldsay is not known precisely but it may have been as early as the Iron Age, because of their isolated location, they have evolved without much admixture from imported Roman and European breeds. They share some characteristics, including their colour range and short tails, with Scandinavian sheep introduced when the islands were under Norse control, in 1832, a dry stone wall known as a dyke was erected on the island. Its purpose was to keep the sheep inland and away from the shore, thus preventing them from eating the seaweed, which local people harvested for iodine extraction. When iodine farming became unprofitable, the sheep were banished to the outside of the wall to make way for more valuable cattle, since then, the flocks on the island have been feral. The wall also unintentionally reduced the chances of crossbreeding, which would have diluted the gene pool of a vulnerable breed. The wall circles the entire coast of the island,19 km, in 1999, Historic Scotland described it as a unique and important structure and designated it an A-list site requiring conservationNorth Ronaldsay sheep – North Ronaldsay sheep
40. Oryzomys antillarum – Oryzomys antillarum, also known as the Jamaican rice rat, is an extinct rodent of Jamaica. A member of the genus Oryzomys within the family Cricetidae, it is similar to O. couesi of mainland Central America, O. antillarum is common in subfossil cave faunas and is also known from three specimens collected live in the 19th century. Some historical records of Jamaican rats may pertain to it, Oryzomys antillarum was a medium-sized rat, similar in most respects to Oryzomys couesi. The head and body length was 120 to 132 mm and the skull was about 30 mm long, the upperparts were reddish and graded into the yellowish underparts. The tail was about as long as the head and body, sparsely haired, the species differed from O. couesi in having longer nasal bones, shorter incisive foramina, and more robust zygomatic arches. In his 1877 monograph on North American rodents, Elliott Coues mentioned two specimens of Oryzomys from Jamaica in the collections of the United States National Museum, according to Coues, the specimens were similar to the marsh rice rat of the United States, but different in color. The species was first formally described by Oldfield Thomas in 1898 based on a specimen that had been in the British Museum of Natural History since 1845. He recognized it as a species of Oryzomys, Oryzomys antillarum. Thomas suspected that the species was extinct on Jamaica. In 1920, Harold Anthony reported that remains of O. antillarum were common in coastal caves, philip Hershkovitz came to the same conclusion in a 1966 paper. In a 1993 review, Gary Morgan reinstated the animal as a species closely related to O. couesi, citing an unpublished paper by Humphrey, Setzer. Guy Musser and Michael Carleton, writing for the 2005 third edition of Mammal Species of the World, continued to classify the Jamaican form as part of O. couesi, but did not reference Morgan. Many aspects of the systematics of the O. couesi section remain unclear, Oryzomys antillarum was a medium-sized rodent, about as large as O. couesi. According to Thomass description, the upperparts were reddish, slightly brighter on the rump, the color of the upperparts graded into that of the underparts, which were yellowish. The hairs of the underparts were grayish at the bases, the small ears were black on the outer and yellow on the inner side and the upper surfaces of the hands and feet were whitish. The tail was nearly naked and was light brownish above and lighter below, Goldman wrote that the specimens in the USNM were rather more reddish, but their color may have been altered because they had been preserved in alcohol. Coues had described these as rusty brown above and washed with the same color below, the skull was generally similar to that of Oryzomys couesi, as were the teeth. It was robust and bore well-developed supraorbital ridges on the braincase, the interparietal bone, part of the roof of the braincase, was small and narrowOryzomys antillarum – The brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) may have contributed to the extinction of Oryzomys antillarum.
41. Oryzomys dimidiatus – Oryzomys dimidiatus, also known as the Nicaraguan oryzomys, Thomass rice rat, or Nicaraguan rice rat, is a rodent in the genus Oryzomys of the family Cricetidae. It is known from three specimens, all collected in southeastern Nicaragua since 1904. With a head and body length of 110 to 128 mm, the upperparts are gray-brown and the underparts are grayish, not buffy as in O. couesi. The tail is slightly darker above than below. All three specimens were caught near water and the species may be semiaquatic, spending time in the water. Its conservation status is assessed as Least Concern. He placed it in the genus Nectomys, commenting that it was smaller than. The species was listed as a Nectomys in taxonomic overviews in the next decades, after examining the holotype in London, Hershkovitz instead placed the species in the genus Oryzomys in 1948. He remarked that it was a distinctive member of that genus. J. Hernández-Camacho described a species of Micronectomys, Oryzomys borreroi. In 1970, Hershkovitz treated O. Nevertheless, he did not do anything to rectify the situation, Hershkovitz also noted that while O. dimidiatus resembles a juvenile Nectomys in external anatomy, it is otherwise similar to the marsh rice rat. He accepted O. borreroi as an Oryzomys, but did not think it closely related to O. dimidiatus. A second specimen was obtained in 1966 and the find was published in 1971 by Hugh Genoways and Knox Jones, later workers affirmed the relationship between O. dimidiatus, O. palustris and associated species like O. couesi. Fiona Reid reported in 1997 that a specimen had been found. Oryzomys dimidiatus is now recognized as one of eight species in the genus Oryzomys, O. couesi occurs with O. dimidiatus in southeastern Nicaragua. Many aspects of the systematics of the O. couesi section remain unclear, Oryzomys dimidiatus is a medium-sized rice rat, smaller than O. couesi, with thick, glossy fur and velvety underfur. The hairs on the back are about 6 mm in length, the upperparts are gray-brown with some dark hairs, appearing darker overall than in O. couesi, the color becomes more yellowish towards the sides. According to Thomas, a faint buff line extends from the sides to the sides of the hindlegsOryzomys dimidiatus – The marsh rice rat (Oryzomys palustris) is similar to O. dimidiatus.
42. Small-toothed sportive lemur – The small-toothed sportive lemur, or small-toothed weasel lemur, is a primate species in the family Lepilemuridae that—like all lemurs—is endemic to Madagascar. The species lives in dense rainforest in southeastern Madagascar, and can be found in Ranomafana, described in 1894, it was considered either a subspecies or taxonomic synonym of the weasel sportive lemur throughout most of the 20th century. Phylogenetic studies not only support its species status, but also suggest that it is the only eastern Malagasy sportive lemur that is closely related to western than to other eastern species. According to the description, some of its teeth are smaller than those in other sportive lemurs. It is relatively large for a lemur, and is difficult to visually distinguish from the weasel sportive lemur. The species weighs between 0.9 and 1.2 kg and measures 55 to 64 cm from head to tail and its fur is mostly reddish-brown or chestnut color, with a dark stripe running from its head down its back. Its underside and neck are lighter in color, like other sportive lemurs, it is nocturnal, sleeping in concealed tangles of vegetation as well as tree holes. The small-toothed sportive lemur is solitary and eats leaves, fruits, due to recent taxonomic changes and a lack of clarity about its population size and range, it is listed as Data Deficient by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. It is also protected from commercial trade under CITES Appendix I. Its primary threats are habitat loss to agriculture and hunting. Although Forsyth Major did not explicitly state the origins of either the name or the vernacular name. The species name microdon is derived from the Ancient Greek micro-, meaning small and -odon, until the 1990s, there was some dispute over the taxonomic status of the species. For much of the 20th century, the sportive lemur was considered a subspecies of the weasel sportive lemur. However, primatologist Russell Mittermeier, et al, the species has 24 chromosomes, the autosomal pairs include eight that are meta- or submetacentric and three smaller acrocentric pairs. Both the X and Y chromosomes are acrocentric, the study also showed that the small-toothed sportive lemur was the sportive lemur species most genetically distinct from the weasel sportive lemur, despite their similar appearance. In September 2006, Edward E. Louis, Jr. et al. announced the discovery of 11 new species of sportive lemur based on mitochondrial DNA data, each new species resulted from the splitting of existing species. The small-toothed sportive lemur remains a distinct species, while even more species have since been described, between 2006 and 2009, three studies were published to resolve the phylogenetic relationships between the sportive lemurs. Cytogenetic and molecular studies in 2006 and 2008 concluded that the small-toothed sportive lemur is most closely related to the Milne-Edwards sportive lemurSmall-toothed sportive lemur – Small-toothed sportive lemur
43. Springbok – The springbok /ˈsprɪŋˌbɒk/ is a medium-sized antelope found mainly in southern and southwestern Africa. The sole member of the genus Antidorcas, this bovid was first described by the German zoologist Eberhard August Wilhelm von Zimmermann in 1780, a slender, long-legged antelope, the springbok reaches 71 to 86 cm at the shoulder and weighs between 27 and 42 kg. Both sexes have a pair of black, 35-to-50-centimetre long horns that curve backward, active mainly at dawn and dusk, springbok form harems. In earlier times, springbok of the Kalahari desert and Karoo would migrate in large numbers across the countryside, primarily a browser, the springbok feeds on shrubs and succulents, this antelope can live without drinking water for years, meeting its requirements through eating succulent vegetation. Breeding takes place year-round, and peaks in the rainy season, a single calf is born after a five- to six-month-long pregnancy, weaning occurs at nearly six months of age, and the calf leaves its mother a few months later. Springbok inhabit the dry areas of south and southwestern Africa, the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources classifies the springbok as a Least Concern species. There are no threats to the long-term survival of the species. They are popular animals, and are valued for their meat. The springbok is the animal of South Africa. The common name comes from the Afrikaans words spring and bok. The scientific name of the springbok is Antidorcas marsupialis, anti is Greek for opposite, the specific epithet marsupialis comes from the Latin marsupium, it refers to a pocket-like skin flap which extends along the midline of the back from the tail. In fact, it is this feature that distinguishes the springbok from true gazelles. The springbok is the member of the genus Antidorcas and is placed in the family Bovidae. It was first described by the German zoologist Eberhard August Wilhelm von Zimmermann in 1780, Zimmermann assigned the genus Antilope to the springbok. In 1845, Swedish zoologist Carl Jakob Sundevall placed the springbok in Antidorcas, in 2013, Eva Verena Bärmann and colleagues undertook a revision of the phylogeny of the tribe Antilopini on the basis of nuclear and mitochondrial data. They showed that the springbok and the form a clade with saiga as sister taxon. The cladogram below is based on the 2013 study, fossil springbok are known from the Pliocene, the antelope appears to have evolved about three million years ago from a gazelle-like ancestor. Three fossil species of Antidorcas have been identified, in addition to the extant form, two of these, A. bondi and A. australis, became extinct around 7,000 years agoSpringbok – Springbok
44. Subfossil lemur – Subfossil lemurs are lemurs from Madagascar that are represented by recent remains dating from nearly 26,000 years ago to approximately 560 years ago. They include both living and extinct species, although the more frequently refers to the extinct giant lemurs. The diversity of subfossil lemur communities was greater than that of present-day lemur communities, ranging from as high as 20 or more species per location, extinct species are estimated to have ranged in size from slightly over 10 kg to roughly 160 kg. Even the subfossil remains of living species are larger and more robust than the remains of modern specimens. Despite their size, the giant lemurs shared many features with living lemurs, including development, poor day vision, relatively small brains. The giant lemurs likely filled ecological niches now left vacant, particularly seed dispersal for plants with large seeds, there were three distinct families of giant lemur, including the Palaeopropithecidae, Megaladapidae, and Archaeolemuridae. Two other types were more closely related and similar in appearance to living lemurs, the giant aye-aye and Pachylemur, Subfossil remains were first discovered on Madagascar in the 1860s, but giant lemur species were not formally described until the 1890s. Discoveries waned during the century, although paleontological work resumed in the 1980s and resulted in the discovery of new species. Research has recently focused on diets, lifestyle, social behavior, the remains of the subfossil lemurs are relatively recent, with all or most species dating within the last 2,000 years. Humans first arrived on Madagascar around that time and likely played a role in the demise of the lemurs, yet oral traditions and recent sightings by Malagasy villagers are still reported, suggesting either lingering populations or very recent extinctions. Until recently, giant lemurs existed in Madagascar, all 17 extinct lemurs were larger than the extant forms, including the largest living lemurs, the indri and diademed sifaka, which weigh up to 9.5 kg. The estimated weights for the lemurs have varied. Techniques used for these weight estimations include the comparison of skull lengths, tooth size, the diameter of the femur, and more recently. Despite the variations in the estimates for some species, all subfossil lemurs were larger than living species, weighing 10 kg or more. All but one species, the giant aye-aye, are thought to have been active during the day, not only were they unlike the living lemurs in both size and appearance, they also filled ecological niches that no longer exist or are now left unoccupied. Their remains have been found in most parts of the island, except for the rainforests and the Sambirano domain. Radiocarbon dates for subfossil lemur remains range from approximately 26,000 years BP to around 500 years BP, all of the extinct subfossil lemurs, including the smallest species, were larger than the lemur species alive today. The largest species were among the largest primates ever to have evolved, due to their larger size, the extinct subfossil lemurs have been compared to large-bodied anthropoids, yet they more closely resemble the small-bodied lemursSubfossil lemur – Palaeopropithecus ingens, an extinct species of sloth lemur
45. Thomasomys ucucha – Thomasomys ucucha, also known as the ucucha thomasomys, is a rodent in the genus Thomasomys of the family Cricetidae. Found only in the Cordillera Oriental of Ecuador, a range, it lives in forests. It may occur with seven species of Thomasomys. First collected in 1903, Thomasomys ucucha was formally described in 2003 and most closely resembles T. hylophilus, habitat destruction may threaten T. ucucha, so that it is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. Medium-sized, dark-furred, and long-tailed, Thomasomys ucucha can be distinguished from all species of Thomasomys by its large, broad. Head and body length is 94 to 119 mm and body mass is 24 to 46 g, the front part of the skull is flat, short, and broad. The incisive foramina, openings at the front of the palate, are short, the root of the lower incisor is contained in a prominent capsular process. The first three specimens of Thomasomys ucucha were collected in 1903 at Tablón in Pichincha Province, Ecuador, by L. Söderström. It was not found again until Robert S. Voss of the American Museum of Natural History collected a total of forty-three specimens at nearby Papallacta, Napo Province, in 1978 and 1980. Papallacta is in a area that is difficult to access. In 2003, he described the animal as a new species, Thomasomys ucucha. The generic name, Thomasomys, honors English zoologist Oldfield Thomas, who named about 2,900 taxa of mammals, T. ucucha most closely resembles T. hylophilus, which is found further north in Colombia and Venezuela. Both are members of Thomasomys, a genus that occurs in the northern Andes. Together with Rhipidomys and a few other, smaller genera, Thomasomys forms the tribe Thomasomyini, Thomasomyini in turn is part of the subfamily Sigmodontinae of the family Cricetidae, along with hundreds of other species of mainly small rodents. Thomasomys ucucha is a medium-sized Thomasomys with a long tail. The dense, fine, and soft fur is brown on the upperparts. The mystacial vibrissae are long and extend beyond the ears laid back against the head. Sparse short, dark hairs are present on the ears, the digits and metapodials of the hands and feet are covered with dark hairs, but the ungual tufts at the bases of the claws consist of longer, gray hairsThomasomys ucucha – Thomasomys ucucha
46. Transandinomys – Transandinomys is a genus of rodents in the tribe Oryzomyini of family Cricetidae. Bolivaris and T. talamancae—found in forests from Honduras in Central America south and east to southwestern Ecuador and they may be most closely related to genera like Hylaeamys and Euryoryzomys, which contain very similar species. Both species of Transandinomys have had eventful taxonomic histories, Transandinomys bolivaris and T. talamancae are medium-sized, soft-furred rice rats. The upperparts—brownish in T. bolivaris and reddish in T. talamancae—are much darker than the whitish underparts, both species are characterized by very long vibrissae, but those of T. bolivaris are particularly long. In addition to length and fur color, several other morphological differences distinguish the two, including the wider first upper molar in T. bolivaris. Species of Hylaeamys and Euryoryzomys also differ from Transandinomys in some details of the skull, Species of Transandinomys live on the ground, are active during the night, eat both plant and animal matter, and construct nests of vegetation. Both are hosts to various external parasites and they are in no apparent danger of extinction and have been assessed as Least Concern in the IUCN Red List. The first species of Transandinomys to be described was T. talamancae. Several other species were added to the genus Oryzomys, then more broadly defined than currently. In his 1918 review of North American Oryzomys, Edward Alphonso Goldman placed Oryzomys talamancae and Oryzomys bombycinus each in their own group, in 1960, O. talamancae was synonymized with Oryzomys capito, but it has again been recognized as a separate species since 1983. The 1998 study by Musser and colleagues also documented Oryzomys bolivaris as the name for the species previously known as Oryzomys bombycinus. In 2006, Marcelo Weksler published a phylogenetic analysis of Oryzomyini. O. talamancae appeared within clade B, together with other species associated with Oryzomys capito. Some analyses placed it closest to species now placed in Euryoryzomys or Nephelomys, Transandinomys is now one of about thirty genera within Oryzomyini, a diverse group of well over a hundred species. Transandinomys species are medium-sized, soft-furred rice rats, in general, Transandinomys are distinguished from those animals by their very long superciliary vibrissae. Handleyomys alfaroi is smaller than species of Transandinomys, but juvenile Transandinomys may be confused with similarly colored adult H. alfaroi. The fur is brownish or reddish above and lighter below, appearing whitish, the mystacial and superciliary vibrissae both extend to at least the back margin of the ears when laid back against the head, but are much longer in T. bolivaris. On the hindfeet, which are long and narrow, ungual tufts of hairs surround the bases of the toes, in T. bolivaris, the sole usually entirely lacks squamae, but T. talamancae does have squamae on part of its soleTransandinomys
47. Transandinomys talamancae – Transandinomys talamancae is a rodent in the genus Transandinomys that occurs from Costa Rica to southwestern Ecuador and northern Venezuela. Its habitat consists of forests up to 1,525 m above sea level. With a body mass of 38 to 74 g, it is a rice rat. The fur is soft and is reddish to brownish on the upperparts, the tail is dark brown above and lighter below and the ears and feet are long. In the skull, the rostrum is long and the braincase is low, the number of chromosomes varies from 34 to 54. The species was first described in 1891 by Joel Asaph Allen and thereafter a variety of names and it was lumped into a widespread species Oryzomys capito from the 1960s till the 1980s and the current allocation of synonyms dates only from 1998. It shares this genus with Transandinomys bolivaris, which has even longer vibrissae, active during the night, Transandinomys talamancae lives on the ground and eats plants and insects. Males move more and have home ranges than females. It breeds throughout the year, but few survive for more than a year. After a gestation period of about 28 days, two to five young are born, which reach maturity within two months. A variety of parasites occur on this species, widespread and common, it is of no conservation concern. In 1891, Joel Asaph Allen was the first to scientifically describe Transandinomys talamancae and he placed it in the genus Oryzomys, then more broadly defined than it is now, and compared it to both the marsh rice rat and to O. laticeps. Several other names that are now recognized as synonyms of Transandinomys talamancae were introduced in the following years, in 1899, Allen described Oryzomys mollipilosus, O. magdalenae, and O. villosus from Magdalena Department, Colombia. Oldfield Thomas added O. sylvaticus from Santa Rosa, Ecuador in 1900 and O. panamensis from Panama City, Panama, in the same year, Wirt Robinson and Markus Lyon named Oryzomys medius from near La Guaira, Venezuela. Allen added O. carrikeri from Talamanca, Costa Rica, in 1908, edward Alphonso Goldman revised North American Oryzomys in 1918. He placed both panamensis and carrikeri as synonyms of Oryzomys talamancae and mentioned O. mollipilosus and O. medius as closely related species, O. talamancae was the only member of its own species group, which Goldman regarded as closest to Oryzomys bombycinus. In 1960, Philip Hershkovitz listed talamancae, medius, magdalenae, sylvaticus, and mollipilosus among the synonyms of Oryzomys laticeps. The species remained lumped under Oryzomys capito until 1983, when Alfred Gardner again listed it as a valid species and they restricted the name to the skin, making villosus a synonym of O. talamancaeTransandinomys talamancae
48. Banded stilt – The banded stilt is a nomadic wader of the stilt and avocet family Recurvirostridae native to Australia. It belongs to the monotypic genus Cladorhynchus and it gets its name from the red-brown breast band found on breeding adults, though this is mottled or entirely absent in non-breeding adults and juveniles. Its remaining plumage is pied and the eyes are dark brown, nestling banded stilts have white down, unlike any other species of wader. Breeding is triggered by the filling of inland salt lakes by rainfall, banded stilts migrate to these lakes in large numbers and assemble in large breeding colonies. The female lays three to four brown- or black-splotched whitish eggs on a scrape, if conditions are favourable, a second brood might be laid, though if the lakes dry up prematurely the breeding colonies may be abandoned. The banded stilt is considered to be a species of least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, under the South Australian National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972, however, this bird is considered to be Vulnerable. This is due to the predation of it by silver gulls, black falcons and wedge-tailed eagles are also predators, taking the banded stilt and its young. He only recorded the species as being found in terres australes, amateur ornithologist Gregory Mathews interpreted this as Victoria, while Erwin Stresemann concluded this was Rottnest Island in Western Australia. The species name is derived from the Ancient Greek words leukos white and his countryman Georges Cuvier described it as Recurvirostra orientalis the same year. Belgian ornithologist Bernard du Bus de Gisignies described it as a new genus and species, Leptorhynchus pectoralis, english zoologist George Robert Gray placed the banded stilt in its own genus Cladorhynchus in 1840, noting that the name Leptorhynchus had been previously used. The genus name is from the Ancient Greek klados twig and rhynchos bill, likewise, German naturalist Johannes Gistel proposed the name Timeta to replace Leptorhynchus in 1848. John Gould had described it as Himantopus palmatus in 1837, German naturalist Ludwig Reichenbach placed it in a new genus, naming it Xiphidiorhynchus pectoralis in 1845. Australian ornithologist Fred Lawson gave it the name Cladorhynchus australis in 1904, Gregory Mathews in his 1913 List of the Birds of Australia synonymised all subsequent genus and species names, using Cladorhynchus australis. He listed his subspecies rottnesti from 1913, though this has not been recognised since, both Joseph G. Strauch in a 1978 study and Philip C. Chu in a 1995 re-analysis of bone and muscle characters found that the banded stilt was sister taxon to the avocets, a 2004 study combining genetics and morphology reinforced its position as sister to the avocet lineage. English naturalist John Latham gave the bird the name oriental avocet in 1824, banded stilt has been designated the official name by the International Ornithological Committee. Other common names include Rottnest snipe and bishop snipe, the Ngarrindjeri people of the Lower Murray region in South Australia knew it as nilkani. The banded stilt is 45–53 cm long and weighs 220–260 g, adults in breeding plumage are predominantly white with black wings and a broad well-demarcated u-shaped chestnut band across the breastBanded stilt – Banded stilt
49. Black-throated loon – The black-throated loon is a migratory aquatic bird found in the northern hemisphere. The species is known as an Arctic loon in North America and its current name is a compromise proposed by the International Ornithological Committee. The black-throated loon was one of the species originally described by Linnaeus in his 18th-century work. The genus name Gavia comes from the Latin for sea mew, the specific arctica is Latin for northern or arctic. Breeding adults are 58 to 77 cm in length with a 100 to 130 cm wingspan, body mass is reportedly from 2–3.4 kg. They have a head, black throat, white underparts. Non-breeding plumage is drabber with the chin and foreneck white and its bill is grey or whitish and dagger-shaped. In all plumages, a white flank patch distinguishes this species from all other divers including the otherwise almost identical Pacific diver and it breeds in Eurasia and occasionally in western Alaska. It winters at sea, as well as on large lakes over a wider range. This species can be found to habitate the area around isolated, the nest is made on the ground, out of heaped plant material like leaves and sticks on the shores of lakes. The black-throated loon lays a clutch of two 76 by 47 millimetres eggs that are brown-green with darker speckles and these eggs are incubated by both parents for a period of 27 to 29 days. The hatched, mobile young are fed by parents for a period of weeks. This species, like all divers, is a specialist fish-eater and it feeds on fish, insects, crustaceans and amphibians. The calls include a yodelling high-pitched wail and harsh growls, similar, the black-throated diver is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds applies. Instructions for constructing and deploying artificial floating islands to provide black-throated divers with nesting opportunities are given in Hancock, both species decreased elsewhere in Europe. The black-throated diver is the current school emblem of Achfary Primary School, dr Mark Eaton, an RSPB scientist, traced the drop in overall numbers to warming of the North Sea which reduced stocks of the fish on which they feed. Artificial floating islands for nesting Black-throated Divers Gavia arctica in Scotland, construction, use, field Guide to the Birds of North America. Identification of divers in immature and winter plumages, field identification of Arctic and Pacific LoonsBlack-throated loon – Black-throated loon
50. Cuban macaw – The Cuban macaw or Cuban red macaw was a species of macaw native to the main island of Cuba and the nearby Isla de la Juventud that became extinct in the late 19th century. Its relationship with other macaws in the genus Ara is uncertain, but it may have been related to the scarlet macaw. It may also have closely related, or identical, to the hypothetical Jamaican red macaw. No modern skeletons are known, but a few remains have been found on Cuba. At about 45–50 centimetres long, the Cuban macaw was one of the smallest macaws and it had a red, orange, yellow, and white head, and a red, orange, green, brown, and blue body. Little is known of its behaviour, but it is reported to have nested in trees, lived in pairs or families. The species original distribution on Cuba is unknown, but it may have been restricted to the central and it was mainly reported from the vast Zapata Swamp, where it inhabited open terrain with scattered trees. The Cuban macaw was traded and hunted by Amerindians, and by Europeans after their arrival in the 15th century, many individuals were brought to Europe as cagebirds, and 19 museum skins exist today. It had become rare by the century due to pressure from hunting, trade. Hurricanes may also have contributed to its demise, the last reliable accounts of the species are from the 1850s on Cuba and 1864 on Isla de la Juventud, but it may have persisted until 1885. Early explorers of Cuba, such as Christopher Columbus and Diego Álvarez Chanca, mentioned macaws on Cuba in 14th-, Cuban macaws were described and illustrated in several early accounts about the island. In 1811, Johann Matthäus Bechstein scientifically named the species Psittacus tricolor, bechsteins description was based on the birds entry in François Le Vaillants 1801 book Histoire Naturelle des Perroquets. Le Vaillants account was partially based on the late 1700s work Planches Enuminées and a specimen in Paris, as it is unknown which specimen this was. Today,19 skins of the Cuban macaw exist in 15 collections worldwide, several were provided by Juan Gundlach, who collected some of the last individuals that regularly fed near the Zapata Swamp in 1849–50. Some of the specimens are known to have lived in captivity in zoos or as cagebirds. Several more skins are known to have existed, but have been lost, there are no records of its eggs. All the endemic Caribbean macaws were likely driven to extinction by humans in historic and prehistoric times, the identity of these macaws is only likely to be further resolved through fossil finds and examination of contemporary reports and artwork. The Jamaican red macaw was named by Walter Rothschild in 1905 on the basis of a description of a shot in 1765Cuban macaw – Cuban macaw
51. Delichon – Delichon is a small genus of passerine birds that belongs to the swallow family and contains three species named as house martins. These are chunky, bull-headed and short-tailed birds, blackish-blue above with a white rump. They have feathering on the toes and tarsi that is characteristic of this genus, the house martins are closely related to other swallows that build mud nests, particularly the Hirundo barn swallows. They breed only in Europe, Asia and the mountains of North Africa, two species, the common and Asian house martins, migrate south in winter, while the Nepal house martin is resident in the Himalayas year-round. The house martins nest in colonies on cliffs or buildings, constructing feather- or grass-lined mud nests, the typical clutch is two or three white eggs, both parents build the nest, incubate the eggs and feed the chicks. These martins are aerial hunters of insects such as flies. Despite their flying skills the Delichon martins are sometimes caught by fast-flying birds of prey and they may carry fleas or internal parasites. None of the species are considered threatened, although widespread reductions in common house martin numbers have reported from central. This decline is due to factors including weather, poisoning by agricultural pesticides, lack of mud for nest building. DNA studies suggest that there are three groupings within the Hirundininae, broadly correlating with the type of nest built. The groups are the core martins including burrowing species like the sand martin, the nest-adopters, which are birds like the tree swallow that utilise natural cavities, the suggested taxonomic sequence of the mud-building swallows has been recommended by at least two European taxonomic committees. The two other house martins were moved to Delichon from the genus Chelidon in which they had placed up to that time. The name of the new genus, Delichon, is an anagram of the Ancient Greek term χελιδον/chelidôn, the genus contains three similar species, Common house martin originally described as Hirundo urbica by Linnaeus in 1758. Asian house martin described as Chelidon dasypus by Bonaparte in 1850, Nepal house martin described by Moore in 1854. The common and Asian house martins have sometimes considered to be a single species. There is also limited DNA evidence that suggests a significant genetic distance between these two martins, Delichon is an Old World genus with all three species breeding only in the Northern Hemisphere. The common house martin is a widespread migrant breeder across Europe, north Africa and its western subspecies D. u. urbicum winters in tropical Africa, and eastern D. u. lagopodum moves to southern China and Southeast Asia. The Nepal house martin is resident in the mountains of southern Asia, as its name implies, it readily nests on man-made buildings, and will breed even in city centres if the air is clean enoughDelichon – Delichon
52. Elfin woods warbler – The elfin woods warbler is a bird endemic to Puerto Rico where it is a local and uncommon species. Discovered in 1968 and described in 1972, it is the most recently described species of New World warbler, the species name, angelae, is a tribute to Angela Kepler, one of its discoverers. An insectivore, it feeds by gleaning insects off leaves. Due to its populations and restricted habitats, conservation efforts were begun in 1982 to protect this species but, as of 2005. The elfin woods warbler is one of many species in the genus Setophaga of the New World warbler family Parulidae. It was first observed in 1968 by Cameron and Angela Kepler while they were conducting observations on two Puerto Rican endemic birds, the Puerto Rican amazon and the Puerto Rican tody. On May 18,1971, a specimen was captured in El Yunque National Forest, a year later Kepler and Parkes described and named the species making it the most recent warbler of the genus Setophaga discovered in the New World. Also, it is the first species described in the Caribbean since 1927, the species name, angelae, is a tribute to Angela Kepler. Elfin-woods warbler is a spelling, and Reinita de Bosque Enano is the Spanish name. This revised classification was adopted by the International Ornithologists’ Union, the warblers upper body is predominantly black with white areas while its underparts are white with black streaks. Other identifying characteristics are dark eyes, white patches on its ears and neck, an incomplete white eyering, a white eyestripe. Characteristic of Antillean warblers, the features a long bill and short. Among Setophaga spp. only S. adelaidae has a wing length average than the elfin woods warbler. Juveniles differ from adults, retaining a grayish-green back for approximately a year, the warblers average mature length is 12.5 cm and its average weight is 8.4 g. Sexual dimorphism is not present in this species, the elfin woods warbler is often confused with the black-and-white warbler, a non-breeding species in the Caribbean occurring in Puerto Rico from mid-September to early May. The main physical distinction is in the eyes, the elfin woods warbler has an incomplete white eyering and the black-and-white warbler has a white band across the eye and a white lower half of the eyering. Another distinction is found in the crown, with the elfin woods warblers being entirely black, the latter species forages on larger branches compared with the elfin woods warblers foraging in the canopy and on smaller branch tips. The elfin woods warblers song and call are difficult to hear, the species has a subtle voice and its call and song resemble those of the bananaquit, the most abundant bird in Puerto RicoElfin woods warbler – Elfin woods warbler
53. Eurasian tree sparrow – The Eurasian tree sparrow is a passerine bird in the sparrow family with a rich chestnut crown and nape, and a black patch on each pure white cheek. The sexes are similarly plumaged, and young birds are a version of the adult. Although several subspecies are recognised, the appearance of this bird varies little across its extensive range, the Eurasian tree sparrows untidy nest is built in a natural cavity, a hole in a building or the large nest of a European magpie or white stork. The typical clutch is five or six eggs which hatch in two weeks. This sparrow feeds mainly on seeds, but invertebrates are also consumed, as with other small birds, infection by parasites and diseases, and predation by birds of prey take their toll, and the typical life span is about two years. In eastern Asia and western Australia, this species is viewed as a pest. The Eurasian tree sparrow is 12. 5–14 cm long, with a wingspan of about 21 cm and a weight of 24 g, making it roughly 10% smaller than the house sparrow. The adults crown and nape are chestnut, and there is a kidney-shaped black ear patch on each pure white cheek, the chin, throat. The upperparts are brown, streaked with black, and the brown wings have two distinct narrow white bars. The legs are brown, and the bill is lead-blue in summer. This sparrow is even within its genus in that it has no plumage differences between the sexes, the juvenile also resembles the adult, although the colours tend to be duller. Its contrasting face pattern makes this species easily identifiable in all plumages, adult and juvenile Eurasian tree sparrows undergo a slow complete moult in the autumn, and show an increase in body mass despite a reduction in stored fat. The change in mass is due to an increase in volume to support active feather growth. The Eurasian tree sparrow has no song, but its vocalisations include an excited series of tschip calls given by unpaired or courting males. Other monosyllabic chirps are used in social contacts, and the call is a harsh teck. This may have resulted from the size of the founding North American population. The Old World sparrow genus Passer is a group of passerine birds that is believed to have originated in Africa. Its members are found in open, lightly wooded, habitats, although several speciesEurasian tree sparrow – Eurasian tree sparrow
54. European nightjar – The European nightjar, Eurasian nightjar or just nightjar is a crepuscular and nocturnal bird in the nightjar family that breeds across most of Europe and temperate Asia. The Latin generic name refers to the old myth that the nocturnal nightjar suckled goats, the six subspecies differ clinally, the birds becoming smaller and paler towards the east of the range. All populations are migratory, wintering in sub-Saharan Africa, the preferred habitat is dry, open country with some trees and small bushes, such as heaths, forest clearings or newly planted woodland. The male European nightjar occupies a territory in spring and advertises his presence with a sustained churring trill from a perch. He patrols his territory with wings held in a V and tail fanned, wing clapping also occurs when the male chases the female in a spiralling display flight. The European nightjar feeds on a variety of flying insects. It hunts by sight, silhouetting its prey against the night sky and its eyes are relatively large, each with a reflective layer, which improves night vision. It appears not to rely on its hearing to find insects, drinking and bathing take place during flight. Although it suffers a degree of predation and parasitism, the threats to the species are habitat loss, disturbance. Despite population decreases, its numbers and huge breeding range mean that it is classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as being of Least Concern. The nightjars, Caprimulgidae, are a family of mostly nocturnal insect-eating birds. The largest and most widespread genus is Caprimulgus, characterised by stiff bristles around the mouth, long pointed wings, the males, and sometimes females, often have white markings in the wing or tail. Within the genus, the European nightjar forms a superspecies with the rufous-cheeked nightjar and it is replaced further east in Asia by the jungle nightjar which occupies similar habitat. The European nightjar was described by Linnaeus in his Systema naturae in 1758 under its current scientific name. Caprimulgus is derived from the Latin capra, nanny goat, and mulgere, to milk, referring to an old myth that nightjars suck milk from goats, and the species name, europaeus is Latin for European. The common name nightjar, first recorded in 1630, refers to the habits of the bird. Old or local names refer to the song, churn owl, habitat, fern owl, diet, dor hawk and moth hawk. There are six recognised subspecies, although the differences are clinal, birds become smaller and paler in the east of the rangeEuropean nightjar – European nightjar
55. European storm petrel – The European storm petrel, British storm petrel or just storm petrel is a seabird in the northern storm petrel family, Hydrobatidae. It is the member of the genus Hydrobates. The small, square-tailed bird is black except for a broad white rump and a white band on the underwings. The large majority of the population breeds on islands off the coasts of Europe, with the greatest numbers in the Faroe Islands, United Kingdom, Ireland and Iceland. The Mediterranean population is a subspecies, but is inseparable at sea from its Atlantic relatives, its strongholds are Filfla Island, Sicily. The storm petrel nests in crevices and burrows, sometimes shared with other seabirds or rabbits, the adults share the lengthy incubation and both feed the chick, which is not normally brooded after the first week. This petrel is strictly oceanic outside the breeding season and it feeds on small fish, squid and zooplankton while pattering on the seas surface, and can find oily edible items by smell. The food is converted in the stomach to an oily orange liquid which is regurgitated when the chick is fed. Although usually silent at sea, the storm petrel has a call given by both members of a pair in their courtship flight, and the male has a purring song given from the breeding chamber. The storm petrel cannot survive on islands where land mammals such as rats and cats have been introduced, although the population may be declining slightly, this petrel is classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as being of Least Concern due to its high total numbers. Its presence in rough weather at sea has led to various mariners superstitions, the relationships within the Hydrobatinae are complex and uncertain, and it has been suggested that all the members of the subfamily could be subsumed into an enlarged Hydrobates. The storm petrel was first described from by Linnaeus in his Systema naturae in 1758 as Procellaria pelagica and it was moved to the genus Hydrobates by Friedrich Boie in 1822. Petrel, first recorded in 1602, is a corruption of pitteral, the suggestion that the word refers to St Peter walking on the waves is a later invention. Storm arises from seamens association of this bird with bad weather, in English, the name of the species was written as stormy petrel by some 19th-century authors. The scientific name derives from Greek, Hydrobates is from hudro, water, and bates, walker, there are two recognised subspecies, the North Atlantic nominate subspecies, H. p. pelagicus, and the Mediterranean H. p. melitensis. The storm petrel is a bird, 14–18 cm in length with a 36–39 cm wingspan. It weighs 20–38 g, with an average of 28 g and it is square-tailed and has all-black plumage except for a snow-white rump that extends to the sides of the tail base and a broad white band on the underwings. Juveniles in fresh plumage can also show a white bar on the upperwingEuropean storm petrel – European storm petrel
56. Forest raven – The forest raven is a passerine bird in the family Corvidae native to Tasmania and parts of southern Victoria, such as Wilsons Promontory and Portland. Populations are also found in parts of New South Wales, including Dorrigo, measuring 50–53 cm in length, it has all-black plumage, beak and legs. As with the two species of raven in Australia, its black feathers have grey bases. Adults have white irises, younger birds have brown and then hazel irises with an inner blue rim. New South Wales populations are recognised as a separate subspecies C. tasmanicus boreus, the forest raven lives in a wide variety of habitats in Tasmania but is restricted to more closed forest on mainland Australia. Breeding takes place in spring and summer, occurring later in Tasmania than in New South Wales, the nest is a bowl-shaped structure of sticks sited high in a tree. An omnivorous and opportunistic feeder, it eats a variety of plant and animal material, as well as food waste from urban areas. It has been blamed for killing lambs and poultry and raiding orchards in Tasmania, the forest raven is sedentary, with pairs generally bonding for life and establishing permanent territories. John Latham described the South-Seas raven in 1781, with throat feathers and found in the Friendly Isles in the South Seas. Tasked as the expeditions naturalist, Anderson collected many bird specimens but had died of tuberculosis in 1778 before the return home, many collection localities were incorrect, and notes were lost or pieced together many years later. German naturalist Johann Friedrich Gmelin gave the species the name Corvus australis in the 13th edition of Systema naturae in 1788, since Australia was settled by Europeans, all species of crows and ravens have been colloquially known as crows by the general population and are difficult to distinguish. In his 1865 Handbook to the Birds of Australia, John Gould noted a single species of corvid in Australia, Corvus australis and he used Gmelins 1788 name, which took precedence by virtue of its age over Vigors and Horsfields description. In 1912 Scottish naturalist William Robert Ogilvie-Grant clarified the species as C. coronoides and this has been followed by later authors. Gregory Mathews described the forest raven as a distinct subspecies—Corvus marianae tasmanicus—of the Australian raven in 1912, its species derived from Tasmania. Rowley raised the forest raven to species rank in 1970, noting there were no intermediate forms between it and the raven and that it was clearly larger with a much more massive bill. Rowley gave the species name forest raven in 1970, the term crow is colloquially applied to any or all species of Australian corvid. The genetic separation between species is small and there was a suggestion the forest raven may be conspecific with the Australian raven, subsequent multigene analysis using nuclear DNA by Jønsson and colleagues in 2012 clarified that the forest and little raven are each others closest relative. The northern subspecies boreus turned out to be nested in the Tasmanian tasmanicus and it is still recognised as a distinct subspecies by the International Ornithological CommitteeForest raven – Forest raven
57. Goldcrest – The goldcrest is a very small passerine bird in the kinglet family. Its colourful golden crest feathers gives rise to its English and scientific names, several subspecies are recognised across the very large distribution range that includes much of Eurasia and the islands of Macaronesia. Birds from the north and east of its range migrate to winter further south. This kinglet has greenish upper-parts, whitish under-parts, and has two white wingbars and it has a plain face contrasting black irises and a bright head crest, orange and yellow in the male and yellow in the female, which is displayed during breeding. It superficially resembles the firecrest, which shares its European range. The song is a repetition of high notes, slightly higher-pitched than those of its relative. Birds on the Canary Islands are now separated into two subspecies of the goldcrest, but were considered to be a subspecies of the common firecrest or a separate species. The goldcrest breeds in woodland and gardens, building its compact. Ten to twelve eggs are incubated by the female alone, and this kinglet is constantly on the move as it searches for insects to eat, and in winter it is often found with flocks of tits. It may be killed by birds of prey or carry parasites, the goldcrest is the smallest European bird,8. 5–9.5 cm in length, with a 13. 5–15.5 cm wingspan and a weight of 4. 5–7.0 g. It is similar in appearance to a warbler, with olive-green upper-parts, buff-white underparts, the small, thin bill is black, and the legs are dark flesh-brown. Apart from the crest colour, the sexes are alike, although in fresh plumage, the juvenile is similar to the adult, but has duller upper-parts and lacks the coloured crown. Although the tail and flight feathers may be retained into the first winter, the flight is distinctive, it consists of whirring wing-beats with occasional sudden changes of direction. Shorter flights while feeding are a mix of dashing and fluttering with frequent hovering and it moves restlessly among foliage, regularly creeping on branches and up and down trunks. The goldcrest is usually distinguished from other small birds in its range. The yellow-browed warbler has a supercilium and pale crown stripe. The ruby-crowned kinglet, an American Regulus species and a vagrant in Europe. It has a face like its Old World cousinGoldcrest – Goldcrest
58. Great spotted woodpecker – The great spotted woodpecker is a medium-sized woodpecker with pied black and white plumage and a red patch on the lower belly. Males and young also have red markings on the neck or head. This species is found across Eurasia and parts of North Africa, across most of its range it is resident, but in the north some will migrate if the conifer cone crop fails. Some individuals have a tendency to wander leading to the recent recolonisation of Ireland and it breeds in holes excavated in living or dead trees, unlined apart from wood chips. The typical clutch is four to six white eggs. Both parents incubate the eggs, feed the chicks and keep the nest clean, when the young fledge they are fed by the adults for about ten days, each parent taking responsibility for feeding part of the brood. The great spotted woodpecker is closely related to other members of its genus. It has a number of subspecies, some of which are enough to be potential new species. It has a range and large population, with no widespread threats. The woodpeckers are an ancient bird family consisting of three subfamilies, the wrynecks, the piculets and the true woodpeckers, Picinae, the largest of the six tribes within the Picinae is the pied woodpeckers, a group which includes the great spotted woodpecker. Within the large genus Dendrocopus the great spotted woodpeckers closest relatives are the Himalayan, Sind, Syrian and white-winged woodpeckers, the great spotted woodpecker has been recorded as hybridising with the Syrian woodpecker. The great spotted woodpecker was described by Linnaeus in his 1758 Systema Naturae as Picus major and it was moved to its current genus, Dendrocopus, by the German naturalist Carl Ludwig Koch in 1816. The genus name Dendrocopus is a combination of the Greek words dendron, tree, the specific major is from Latin maior, greater. The number of subspecies of the great spotted woodpecker recognised by different authors varies widely from as few as 14 to nearly 30 and this is largely because changes are clinal with many intermediate forms. However, mitochondrial DNA data suggests that the Caspian Sea regions Dendrocopus major poelzami, Japanese D. m. japonicus and Chinese D. m. cabanisi may all merit full species status. Despite its distinctive appearance, D. m. canariensis from Tenerife in the Canary Islands appears to be related to the nominate subspecies D. m. major. The fossil subspecies D. m. submajor lived during the Middle Pleistocene Riss glaciation when it was found in Europe south of the ice sheet. It is sometimes treated as a species, but did not differ significantly from the extant great spotted woodpeckerGreat spotted woodpecker – Great spotted woodpecker
59. Grey currawong – The grey currawong is a large passerine bird native to southern Australia and Tasmania. One of three species in the genus Strepera, it is closely related to the butcherbirds and Australian magpie of the family Artamidae. It is a large bird, around 48 cm long on average, with yellow irises, and a heavy bill. The male and female are similar in appearance, all grey currawongs have a loud distinctive ringing or clinking call. Within its range, the grey currawong is sedentary, although it is a winter visitor in the southeastern corner of Australia. Comparatively little studied, much of its behaviour and habits is poorly known, omnivorous, it has a diet that includes a variety of berries, invertebrates, and small vertebrates. Less arboreal than the pied currawong, the grey currawong spends more time foraging on the ground and it builds nests high in trees, which has limited the study of its breeding habits. Unlike its more common relative, it has adapted poorly to human impact and has declined in much of its range, the habitat includes all kinds of forested areas as well as scrubland in dryer parts of the country. The grey currawong was first described as Corvus versicolor by ornithologist John Latham in 1801, the specific name versicolor means of variable colours in Latin. Other old common names include grey crow-shrike, leaden crow-shrike, mountain magpie, black-winged currawong, clinking currawong, the black-winged currawong was known to the Ramindjeri people of Encounter Bay as wati-eri, the word meaning to sneak or to track. Kiling-kildi was a derived from the call used by the people of the lower Murray River. Together with the pied currawong and black currawong, the grey currawong forms the genus Strepera, although crow-like in appearance and habits, currawongs are only distantly related to true crows, and are instead closely related to the Australian magpie and the butcherbirds. The affinities of all three genera were recognised early on and they were placed in the family Cracticidae in 1914 by ornithologist John Albert Leach after he had studied their musculature, six subspecies are spread around Australia. It is found in the Yorke and Eyre Peninsulas, the Gawler and Mount Lofty Ranges, the smallest of the six subspecies, it has a shorter wing and tail. Birds in the southern Eyre Peninsula have darker plumage than those in the northern parts, first described by Richard Bowdler Sharpe in 1877 from a specimen collected in Port Lincoln, its specific name is the Latin adjective intermedia intermediate. S. v. arguta, the darkest race, is from eastern Tasmania and is known as the clinking currawong from its call or locally as the black magpie, Sharpe called it the Tasmanian hill-crow. It was first described by John Gould in 1846, the specific name is the Latin adjective argūtus shrill/piercing, noisy or melodious. Larger and heavier than the subspecies, it has longer wings, tail, billGrey currawong – Grey currawong
60. Hooded pitohui – The hooded pitohui is a is a species of pitohui in the family Oriolidae found in New Guinea. It has black and orange plumage and both sexes have colored patches and it is one of the few known poisonous birds. Alternate names for the hooded pitohui include the black-headed pitohui and lesser pitohui and this species and the other pitohuis were the first documented poisonous birds other than the poisonous common quail that cause coturnism. A neurotoxin called homobatrachotoxin, found in the skin and feathers, causes numbness. The hooded pitohui may acquire its poison from part of its diet and these beetles are also a likely source of the lethal batrachotoxins found in Colombias poison dart frogs. Common and widespread throughout New Guinea, the hooded pitohui is evaluated as least concern on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the Intoxicating Birds of New Guinea by John Tidwell at wayback machine The Pitohui and the Frog by Robert BHooded pitohui – Hooded pitohui
61. King Island emu – The King Island emu is an extinct subspecies of emu that was endemic to King Island, which is situated in the Bass Strait between mainland Australia and Tasmania. Its closest relative may be the extinct Tasmanian emu, as they belonged to a population until less than 14,000 years ago. The small size of the King Island emu may be an example of insular dwarfism, the King Island emu was the smallest of all emus, and had darker plumage than the mainland emu. It was black and brown, and had naked blue skin on the neck, the subspecies was distinct from the likewise diminutive Kangaroo Island emu in a number of osteological details, including size. The behaviour of the King Island emu probably did not differ much from that of the mainland emu, the birds gathered in flocks to forage and during breeding time. They fed on berries, grass and seaweed and they ran swiftly, and could defend themselves by kicking. The nest was shallow, and consisted of leaves and moss. Seven to nine eggs were laid, which were incubated by both parents and they had arrived on King Island in 1802 with Nicolas Baudins expedition, and in 1804 several live and stuffed King and Kangaroo Island emus were sent to France. The two live King Island specimens were kept in the Jardin des Plantes, and the remains of these, hunting pressure and fires started by early settlers on King Island likely drove the wild population to extinction by 1805. The two captive specimens in Paris both died in 1822 and are believed to have been the last of their kind. Furthermore, in 1914, L. Brasil argued the expedition did not encounter emus on King Island, the French also referred to both emus and cassowaries as casoars at the time, which has led to further confusion. Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot coined the binomial Dromaius ater in 1817, william Vincent Legge also coined a name for these remains, Dromaius bassi, but at a later date. In his 1907 book Extinct Birds, Walter Rothschild stated that Vieillots description actually referred to the emu. Later writers claimed that the remains found on King and Kangaroo Islands were not discernibly different. In 1959, the French ornithologist Christian Jouanin proposed that none of the skins were actually from Kangaroo Island, after inspecting expedition, all scientific names given to the Kangaroo Island emu were therefore based on specimens from King Island or were otherwise invalid, leaving it nameless. More recent finds of subfossil material and subsequent studies on King and Kangaroo Island emu, notably by Shane A. Parker in 1984, confirmed their separate geographic origin, Parker named the Kangaroo Island bird Dromaius baudinianus, after Nicolas Baudin, the leader of the French expedition. The name Dromaius ater was kept for the King Island emu, there are few morphological differences that distinguish the extinct insular emus from the mainland emu besides their size, but all three taxa were most often considered distinct species. A2011 genetic study of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, which was extracted from five subfossil King Island emu bones and it was therefore interpreted as conspecific with the emus of the Australian mainland, and was reclassified as a subspecies of Dromaius novaehollandiae, D. n. aterKing Island emu – King Island emu
62. Pigeon guillemot – The pigeon guillemot is a species of bird in the auk family, Alcidae. It is endemic to the Pacific Ocean and it closely resembles the other members of the genus Cepphus, particularly the black guillemot, which is slightly smaller and lacks the dark wing wedge present in the pigeon guillemot. Combined, the two form a superspecies, although the spectacled and the pigeon guillemot are more closely related, there are five subspecies of the pigeon guillemot. The pigeon guillemot can generally be identified in breeding plumage by its brown and black sheen body. When in its plumage, it can be identified by its mottled grey and black upperparts. The long bill is black, as is the claws, the legs, feet, and inside of the mouth are red. The sexes are similar, and the juvenile can be distinguished by its faint white streaking—as opposed to the wing patch displayed by the mature bird—and its grey-orange legs. The pigeon guillemot is considered to be a least concern species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and this is due to its population and wide range. Threats to this bird include climate change, introduced mammalian predators, avian predation is also damaging to this guillemot, with crows being a threat to eggs. The pigeon guillemot is one of three species of auk in the genus Cepphus, the two being the black guillemot of the Atlantic Ocean and the spectacled guillemot from the Eastern Pacific. It was described in 1811 by Peter Simon Pallas in the volume of his Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica. The genus Cepphus is most closely related to the murrelets from the genus Synthliboramphus, within the genus, the pigeon guillemot and spectacled guillemot are sister species, and the black guillemot is basal within the genus. The pigeon guillemot and the black form a superspecies. The specific epithet, columba, is derived both from the Icelandic klumba, meaning auk, and the Latin columba, meaning pigeon, snowi is dedicated to Captain Henry James Snow, a British seaman and hunter. The name of the subspecies kaiurka is derived from the Russian kachurka, adiantus is derived from the Greek adiantos, unwetted. The trinomial epithet of the subspecies C. c. eureka is derived from the motto of the state of California, the pigeon guillemot is a medium-sized auk,30 to 37 centimetres in length and weighing 450 to 550 grams. The adult bird has a brown with a black sheen body with a white wing patch broken by a brown-black wedge. The legs and feet are red, with black claws, the iris is brown and the eye is surrounded by a thin unbroken white eye-ringPigeon guillemot – Pigeon guillemot
63. Rainbow pitta – The rainbow pitta is a small passerine bird in the family Pittidae, endemic to northern Australia. A colourful bird, it has a black head with brown stripes above the eye, dark green upper parts, pale blue shoulders, black underparts. It feeds on insects, crustaceans and other animals and builds an untidy. It is a shy forest bird but is common and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated it as being of least concern. It has a black head and underparts, green upperparts, pale blue shoulder. It has a bill, pink legs, brown eye. Both sexes are similar, with the female being smaller and duller than the male. An Australian endemic, the rainbow pitta lives in the forests of northern Australia, as with other pittas, it is a secretive and shy bird. The diet consists mainly of insects, arthropods and small animals, the female lays three to four glossy cream eggs with blotches inside its large domed nest. Locally common throughout its range, the rainbow pitta is evaluated as being of least concern on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. BirdLife Species Factsheet Many Australian bird pictures and callsRainbow pitta – Rainbow pitta
64. Red-headed myzomela – The red-headed myzomela or red-headed honeyeater is a passerine bird of the honeyeater family, Meliphagidae, found in Australia, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea. It was described by John Gould in 1840, two subspecies are recognised, with the nominate race M. e. erythrocephala distributed around the tropical coastline of Australia, and M. e. infuscata in New Guinea. Though widely distributed, it is not abundant within this range, while the IUCN lists the Australian population of M. e. infuscata as being near threatened, as a whole the widespread range means that its conservation is of least concern. At 12 centimetres, it is a honeyeater with a short tail. It is sexually dimorphic, the male has a red head and brown upperparts. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical mangrove forests and it is very active when feeding in the tree canopy, darting from flower to flower and gleaning insects off foliage. It calls constantly as it feeds, the red-headed myzomela was described and named as Myzomela erythrocephala by John Gould in 1840, from specimens collected in King Sound in northern Western Australia. This species was known as the red-headed honeyeater in Australia, and red-headed myzomela elsewhere, other common names are mangrove red-headed honeyeater, mangrove redhead, and blood-bird. Forbes noted there was red on the back, and the upperparts are a lighter brown. The Sumba myzomela was until 2008 regarded as a subspecies of the red-headed myzomela, the red-headed myzomela is a member of the genus Myzomela which includes two other Australian species, the scarlet myzomela of eastern Australia, and the dusky myzomela of northern Australia. It belongs to the honeyeater family Meliphagidae, molecular analysis has shown honeyeaters to be related to the Pardalotidae, Acanthizidae, and the Maluridae in the large superfamily Meliphagoidea. The red-headed myzomela is a small honeyeater with a compact body, short tail. It averages 12 centimetres, with a wingspan of 17–19 cm, the birds exhibit sexual dimorphism, with males being slightly larger and much more brightly coloured than females. The adult male of the subspecies has a dark red head, neck, and rump. The rest of the body is a blackish-brown, and the upper breast. The red of the head is sharply demarcated against the brown plumage, the bill is black or blackish-brown, and the gape is black or yellowish. There is a black loral stripe that extends to become a narrow eye ring. The adult females head and neck are grey-brown with a pink-red tint to the forehead, the rest of the females upper body is grey-brown with darker shades on the wings and lighter shades on the breast and underpartsRed-headed myzomela – Red-headed myzomela
65. Red-backed fairywren – The red-backed fairywren is a species of passerine bird in the family Maluridae. It is endemic to Australia and can be found near rivers, the male adopts a striking breeding plumage, with a black head and upperparts and tail, and brightly coloured red back and brown wings. The female has brownish upperparts and paler underparts, the male in eclipse plumage and the juvenile resemble the female. Some males remain in non-breeding plumage while breeding, two subspecies are recognised, the nominate form melanocephalus of eastern Australia has a longer tail and orange back, and the short-tailed form cruentatus from northern Australia has a redder back. The red-backed fairywren mainly eats insects, and supplements its diet with seed, the preferred habitat is heathland and savannah, particularly where low shrubs and tall grasses provide cover. It can be nomadic in areas where there are frequent bushfires, although pairs or small groups of birds maintain, groups consist of a socially monogamous pair with one or more helper birds who assist in raising the young. These helpers are progeny that have attained sexual maturity yet remain with the group for one or more years after fledging. The red-backed fairywren is sexually promiscuous, and each partner may mate with other individuals, older males in breeding plumage are more likely to engage in this behaviour than are those breeding in eclipse plumage. As part of a display, the male wren plucks red petals from flowers. However, the used by Latham was a male in partial moult, with mixed black and brown plumage and an orange back. John Gould described Malurus cruentatus in 1840 from a short-tailed scarlet-backed specimen collected in Northwestern Australia by Benjamin Bynoe aboard the HMS Beagle on its third voyage, the first three names were synonymised into Malurus melanocephalus by Gould who maintained his form as a separate species. An intermediate form from north Queensland was described as pyrrhonotus, ornithologist Tom Iredale proposed the common name elfin-wren in 1939, however this was not taken up. Like other fairywrens, the red-backed fairywren is unrelated to the true wren, more recently, DNA analysis has shown that the Maluridae family is related to the Meliphagidae, and the Pardalotidae in the large superfamily Meliphagoidea. Within the Maluridae, it is one of 12 species in its genus, Malurus and it is closely related to the Australian white-winged fairywren, and the white-shouldered fairywren of New Guinea. Breeding males of intermediate plumage, larger and scarlet-backed, or smaller and orange-backed, a molecular study published in 2008 focussing on the Cape York population found it was genetically closer to the eastern forest subspecies than to the Top End form. These birds became segregated around 0.27 million years ago, two subspecies are recognised, M. m. melanocephalus, the nominate subspecies, has an orange back and longer tail and is found from northern coastal New South Wales through to North Queensland. This form has been called the orange-backed fairywren. M. m. cruentatus occurs across Northern Australia from the Kimberleys to northern Queensland and it is smaller than the nominate subspecies, with males averaging 7.1 g and females 6.6 g in weightRed-backed fairywren – Red-backed fairywren
66. Red-billed tropicbird – The red-billed tropicbird, also known as the boatswain bird is a tropicbird, one of three closely related seabirds of tropical oceans. The scientific name is derived from Ancient Greek phaethon, sun and Latin aetherius, the red-billed tropicbird occurs in the tropical Atlantic, eastern Pacific and Indian Oceans. The Indian Ocean race, P. a. indicus, was at one time considered a full species and it breeds on tropical islands laying a single egg directly onto the ground or a cliff ledge. Breeding in the Western Palaearctic occurs on the Cape Verde Islands, total numbers in 2000 were probably less than 150 pairs. It disperses widely when not breeding, and sometimes wanders far, in July 2005, one was found in eastern New Brunswick, Canada, and another sighting at Matinicus Rock, Maine. There was confirmed sighting on Lord Howe Island near Australia in November 2010, the adult is a slender, mainly white bird,48 cm long, excluding the central tail feathers which double the total length, and a one-metre wingspan. The long wings have black markings on the flight feathers, there is black through the eye. Sexes are similar, although males average longer tails, juveniles lack the tail streamers, are greyer-backed, and have a yellow bill. P. a. indicus has a black eye stripe. They feed on fish and squid, but are poor swimmers, the red-billed tropicbird was featured in error on the $50 Bermudian dollar and was replaced in 2012 by the white-tailed tropicbird. The breeding of the Red-billed Tropicbird in the Galapagos Islands, birds of India by Grimmett, Inskipp and Inskipp, ISBN 0-691-04910-6 Seabirds, An Identification Guide by Harrison, Peter ISBN 0-7470-1410-8 Red-billed Tropicbird BirdLife InternationalRed-billed tropicbird – Red-billed tropicbird
67. Red-throated loon – The red-throated loon or red-throated diver is a migratory aquatic bird found in the northern hemisphere. The most widely distributed member of the loon or diver family, it primarily in Arctic regions. Ranging from 55 to 67 centimetres in length, the red-throated loon is the smallest and lightest of the worlds loons, in winter, it is a nondescript bird, greyish above fading to white below. During the breeding season, it acquires the distinctive reddish throat patch which is the basis for its common name, fish form the bulk of its diet, though amphibians, invertebrates, and plant material are sometimes eaten as well. A monogamous species, the red-throated loon forms long-term pair bonds, both members of the pair help to build the nest, incubate the eggs, and feed the hatched young. The red-throated loon has a global population and a significant global range. Oil spills, habitat degradation, pollution, and fishing nets are among the threats this species faces. Natural predators—including various gull species, and both red and Arctic foxes, will take eggs and young, the species is protected by international treaties. First described by Danish naturalist Erik Pontoppidan in 1763, the red-throated loon is a monotypic species, Pontoppidan initially placed the species in the now-defunct genus Colymbus, which contained grebes as well as loons. By 1788, German naturalist Johann Reinhold Forster realized that grebes and loons were different enough to warrant separate genera and it is thought to have evolved in the Palearctic, and then to have expanded into the Nearctic. It is also most closely related to the fossil Pliocene species Gavia howardae, the genus name Gavia comes from the Latin for sea mew, as used by ancient Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder. The specific epithet stellata is Latin for set with stars or starry, members of the family Gavidae are known as loons in North America and divers in Great Britain and Ireland. The International Ornithological Congress uses the name red-throated loon for this species, diver refers to the familys underwater method of hunting for prey, while red-throated is a straightforward reference to the birds most distinctive breeding plumage feature. A local name from Willapa Harbor, Washington was Quaker loon, even its sharply pointed bill may help its underwater streamlining. Its feet are large, its front three toes are webbed, and its tarsus is flattened, which reduces drag and allows the leg to move easily through the water. The red-throated loon is the smallest and lightest of the worlds species, ranging from 53 to 69 cm in length with a 91–120 cm wingspan. Like all loons, it is long-bodied and short-necked, with its legs set far back on its body, the sexes are similar in appearance, although males tend to be slightly larger and heavier than females. In breeding plumage, the adult has a grey head and neck, a triangular red throat patch, white underpartsRed-throated loon – Red-throated diver
68. Rock martin – The rock martin is a small passerine bird in the swallow family that is resident in central and southern Africa. It breeds mainly in the mountains, but also at lower altitudes, especially in areas and around towns. It is 12–15 cm long, with brown plumage, paler-toned on the upper breast and underwing coverts. The sexes are similar in appearance, but juveniles have pale fringes to the upperparts, the former northern subspecies are smaller, paler, and whiter-throated than southern African forms, and are now usually split as a separate species, the pale crag martin. The rock martin hunts along cliff faces for flying insects using a flight with much gliding. Its call is a soft twitter and this martin builds a deep bowl nest on a sheltered horizontal surface, or a neat quarter-sphere against a vertical rock face or wall. It is often reused for subsequent broods or in later years and this species is a solitary breeder, and is not gregarious, but small groups may breed close together in suitable locations. The two or three eggs of a clutch are white with brown and grey blotches, and are incubated by both adults for 16–19 days prior to hatching. Both parents then feed the chicks, fledging takes another 22–24 days, but the young birds will return to the nest to roost for a few days after the first flight. This small martin is caught in flight by several fast, agile species, such as hobbies, and it sometimes carries parasites. Because of its range of nearly 10 million km2 and large, apparently stable, population, it is not seen as vulnerable and is assessed as least concern on the IUCN Red List. The genus name is derived from the Ancient Greek ptuon, a fan, referring to the shape of the tail, and Procne. The specific name fuligula means sooty-throated, from Latin fuligo soot, DNA sequence studies suggest that there are three major groupings within the Hirundininae, broadly correlating with the type of nest built. The groups are the core martins including burrowing species like the sand martin, the nest-adopters, which are birds like the tree swallow that utilise natural cavities, the Ptyonoprogne species construct open mud nests and therefore belong to the last group. Hirundo species also build nests, Delichon house martins have a closed nest. The genus Ptyonoprogne is closely related to the swallow genus Hirundo. There are several subspecies differing in plumage shade or size, although the differences are clinal, the southern forms of the rock martin can weigh more than twice as much as the smallest northern subspecies of pale crag martin. The average weight for P. f. fusciventris is 22.4 g against 10 g for P. o. obsoletaRock martin – Rock martin
69. Rodrigues parrot – The Rodrigues parrot is an extinct species of parrot that was endemic to the Mascarene island of Rodrigues in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar. It is unclear to which species it is most closely related. The Rodrigues parrot bore similarities to the parrot of Mauritius. Two additional species have been assigned to its genus, based on descriptions of parrots from the other Mascarene islands, the Rodrigues parrot was green, and had a proportionally large head and beak along with a long tail. Its exact size is unknown, but it may have been around 50 cm long and it was the largest parrot on Rodrigues, and it had the largest head of any Mascarene parrot. It may have looked similar to the great-billed parrot, by the time it was discovered, it frequented and nested on islets off southern Rodrigues, where introduced rats were absent, and fed on the seeds of the Fernelia buxifolia shrub. The species is known from bones and from mentions in contemporary accounts. It was last mentioned in 1761, and probably extinct soon after, perhaps due to a combination of predation by rats, deforestation. Birds thought to be the Rodrigues parrot were first mentioned by François Leguat in his 1708 memoir, Leguat was the leader of a group of nine French Huguenot refugees who colonised Rodrigues between 1691 and 1693 after they were marooned there. The Rodrigues parrot was described and named as Psittacus rodricanus in 1867 by the French ornithologist Alphonse Milne-Edwards. The specific name refers to Rodrigues, which is named after the discoverer of the island. The current whereabouts of the beak are unknown. In 1893 the ornithologists Edward Newton and Hans Gadow described more fossils of the Rodrigues parrot, including a skull, remains of the species are scarce, and subfossils have been discovered in caves on the Plaine Corail and in Caverne Tortue. In the footnotes to his 1873 compilation, Milne-Edwards correlated the subfossil species with parrots mentioned by Leguat, in 1875, A. Newton analysed Tafforets then newly rediscovered account, and identified a description of the Rodrigues parrot therein. Many endemic Mascarene birds, including the dodo, are derived from South Asian ancestors, sea levels were lower during the Pleistocene, so it was possible for species to colonise some of the then less isolated islands. The British ornithologist Graham S. Cowles instead found their skulls too dissimilar for them to be close relatives in 1987. The British zoologist Walther Rothschild assigned two hypothetical parrot species from the other Mascarene Islands to the Necropsittacus genus, N. francicus in 1905, N. Rothschild considered it to belong to Necropsittacus since Dubois compared it with Psittacula species, which are related. The two assigned Necropsittacus species have become the source of much taxonomic confusion, and their identities have been debatedRodrigues parrot – Rodrigues parrot
70. Siberian accentor – The Siberian accentor is a small passerine bird that breeds in northern Russia from the Ural Mountains eastwards across Siberia. It is migratory, wintering in Korea and eastern China, with occurrences in western Europe. Its typical breeding habitat is deciduous forests and open coniferous woodland, often close to water, although it also occurs in mountains. The head has a brown crown and a long, wide pale yellow supercilium. The nest is a cup in dense shrub or a tree into which the female lays four to six glossy deep blue-green eggs that hatch in about ten days. Adults and chicks feed mainly on insects, typically picked off the ground, in winter, the accentors may also consume seeds or feed near human habitation. Breeding over an area, the Siberian accentor has a large. October and November 2016 saw an influx of this species into western Europe. The accentors are a family of small ground-living insectivorous birds, most of which are found in habitats in Eurasia. Their relationships with other families are uncertain. All accentors are placed in a genus, Prunella, but within that genus. These are of comparable in size and typically have a pale supercilium, however, a 2013 phylogenetic study indicates that the closest relative of the Siberian accentor is actually the physically dissimilar Japanese accentor. The Siberian accentor was first described by Russian-based German zoologist Peter Simon Pallas in 1776 as Motacilla montanella, the accentors were moved to their current genus by French ornithologist Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot in 1816. The Siberian accentor has two subspecies, Prunella montanella montanella, the subspecies, breeds in northern Russia from just inside Europe eastwards to the Lena River. It also occurs further south, from the Ob to the Amur, Prunella montanella badia, Portenko,1929 breeds in northeastern Siberia eastwards from the Lena, and south to the Sea of Okhotsk. Accentor comes from the old name for the Alpine accentor, Accentor collaris. It derives from Late Latin and means sing with another, the genus name Prunella is from the German Braunelle, dunnock, a diminutive of braun, brown, and the specific montanella is a diminutive of Latin montanus, mountain. The Siberian accentor is on average 14.5 centimetres long, the adult of the nominate race has brown upperparts and wings, with bright chestnut streaking on its back and a greyish-brown rump and tailSiberian accentor – Siberian accentor
71. Sind sparrow – The Sind sparrow is a passerine bird of the sparrow family Passeridae, found around the Indus valley region in South Asia. It is also known as the jungle, Sind jungle, or rufous-backed sparrow, very similar to the related house sparrow, it is smaller and has distinguishing plumage features. As in the sparrow, the male has brighter plumage than female and young birds, including black markings. Distinctively, the male has a stripe running down its head behind the eye. Its main vocalisations are soft chirping calls that are extended into longer songs with other sounds interspersed by breeding males, historically, this species was thought to be very closely related to the house sparrow, but its closest evolutionary affinities may lie elsewhere. Discovered around 1840, this species went undetected for several decades after its discovery, within its Indus valley breeding range in Pakistan and western India, the Sind sparrow is patchily distributed in riverine and wetland habitats with thorny scrub and tall grass. During the non-breeding season, some birds enter drier habitats as they disperse short distances from their habitat, or migrate into western Pakistan. Since this species is common and expanding its range, it is assessed as least concern on the IUCN Red List. The Sind sparrow is social within small groups while feeding and breeding and it feeds mostly on seeds and less often on insects, foraging close to the ground. Nests are made in the branches of trees, and are untidy globular masses constructed from grass or other plant matter. Both sexes are involved in building the nest and caring for the young, the Sind sparrow is 13 cm long, while the common South Asian subspecies of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus indicus, is about 15 cm long. Wingspans range from 6.2 to 7.0 cm, tails from 4.7 to 5.7 cm, the breeding male has a short and narrow black bib and a broad chestnut eye stripe that does not meet the mantle. The male has a crown and nape and a rufous lower back. The female has a darker and greyer crown and cheek than the house sparrow. The female Dead Sea sparrow of the subspecies Passer moabiticus yattii is also similar to the female Sind sparrow, the bill is black on the breeding male and pale brown on the non-breeding male and female. With a culmen length of 1. 1–1.3 centimetres, the Sind sparrows chirping chup call is softer, less strident, and higher pitched than that of the house sparrow, and is easily distinguished. The song of breeding males includes chirrups interspersed with grating t-r-r-rt notes, the Sind sparrow was first formally described by Edward Blyth, from a specimen collected by Alexander Burnes at Bahawalpur in around 1840. Blyths description was published in an issue of the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal which and it was not recorded until 36 years later, despite the efforts of noted ornithologists Allan Octavian Hume in Sindh and William Thomas Blanford in eastern IranSind sparrow – Sind sparrow
72. Snoring rail – The snoring rail also known as the Celebes rail or Platens rail is a large flightless rail, the only member of the genus Aramidopsis. It is an Indonesian endemic found in vegetation in wet areas of Sulawesi. The rail has grey underparts, a white chin, brown wings, the sexes are similar, but the female has a brighter neck patch and a differently coloured bill and iris. The typical call is the snoring ee-orrrr sound that gives the bird its English name and its inaccessible habitat and retiring nature mean that the snoring rail is rarely seen and little is known of its behaviour. Only the adult plumage has been described, and the behaviour is unrecorded. It feeds on crabs and probably other small prey such as lizards. The rails are a large and very widespread family, with nearly 150 species and they are small to medium-sized, terrestrial or wetland birds, and their short bodies are often flattened laterally to help them move through dense vegetation. Island species readily become flightless, of 53 extant or recently extinct taxa restricted to islands,32 have lost the ability to fly, Aramidopsis derives from the genus name of the limpkin, Aramus and the Greek suffix opsis, resembling. Although the rail shares the origin of its name with the South American Aramides species, its bill, thick legs. The species name plateni commemorates Carl Constantin Platen, a German doctor who collected birds and butterflies in the Malay Archipelago and gave Blasius his specimen of the rail. The common name refers to the distinctive call, and was given to the bird as der Vogel Schnarch by German entomologist Gerd Heinrich when he rediscovered the species in 1932. The snoring rail is 30 cm long and weighs 143–160 g and it is flightless, with short wings, a very short tail and strong legs and feet. The back and the underparts from the forecrown to the breast are grey, apart from a white chin, most of the rest of the upperparts are brown, and the belly, flanks and undertail have white barring. The male has black legs, an iris and a brown. The female is similar, but has a brighter colour, less white on the chin, a red iris. Immature and juvenile plumages are undescribed, visual confusion with sympatric rails is unlikely. The blue-faced rail is similar in size, but is chestnut above and black below, the slaty-breasted rail is smaller and has barred upperparts. The call, given frequently, is a short wheez followed by a distinctive snoring ee-orrrr, a deep hmmmm sound has also been recordedSnoring rail – Snoring rail
73. Spotted green pigeon – The spotted green pigeon or Liverpool pigeon is a species of pigeon of unknown provenance which is most likely extinct. It was first mentioned and described in 1783 by John Latham, today, the species is only known from a specimen kept in World Museum, Liverpool. Overlooked for much of the 20th century, it was recognised as a valid extinct species by the IUCN Red List in 2008. In 2014 a genetic study confirmed it as a species related to the Nicobar pigeon. The surviving specimen is 32 cm long, and has very dark, the neck-feathers are elongated, and most of the feathers on the upperparts and wings have a yellowish spot on their tips. It has a bill with a yellow tip, and the end of the tail has a pale band. It has relatively short legs and long wings and it has been suggested it had a knob on its bill, but there is no evidence for this. Unlike the Nicobar pigeon, which is mainly terrestrial, the features of the spotted green pigeon suggest it was mainly arboreal. It may have been native to an island somewhere in the South Pacific Ocean or the Indian Ocean, the spotted green pigeon may have been close to extinction by the time Europeans arrived in its native area, and may have disappeared due to over-hunting and predation by introduced animals. The spotted green pigeon was first mentioned and described by the English ornithologist John Latham in his 1783 work A General Synopsis of Birds, after Davies death, his specimen was bought by Edward Smith-Stanley, the 13th Earl of Derby in 1812, who kept it in Knowsley Hall. Smith-Stanleys collection was transferred to the Derby Museum in 1851, where the specimen was prepared from the original posed mount into a study skin and this museum later became World Museum, Liverpool, where the specimen is housed today, but Banks specimen is now lost. Latham also mentioned a drawing of a spotted green pigeon in the collection of Ashton Lever, the spotted green pigeon was scientifically named by Johann Friedrich Gmelin in 1789, based on Lathams description. The original binomial name Columba maculata means spotted pigeon in Latin, Latham himself accepted this name, and used it in his 1790 work Index ornithologicus. Since Latham appears to have based his 1783 description on Davies specimen, tommaso Salvadori listed the bird in an appendix about doubtful species of pigeons, which have not yet been identified in 1893. In 1898, Henry Ogg Forbes supported the validity of the species, after examining Nicobar pigeon specimens and he therefore considered it a distinct species of the same genus as the Nicobar pigeon, Caloenas. In 1901, Walter Rothschild and Ernst Hartert agreed that the pigeon belonged to Caloenas, the spotted green pigeon was only sporadically mentioned in the literature throughout the 20th century, little new information was published, and the bird remained an enigma. In 2001, Errol Fuller suggested that the bird had been overlooked because Rothschild dismissed it as an aberration. Fuller considered it a valid, extinct species, and also coined an alternative name for the birdSpotted green pigeon – Spotted green pigeon
74. White-breasted nuthatch – The white-breasted nuthatch is a small songbird of the nuthatch family which breeds in old-growth woodland across much of temperate North America. It is a bird, with a large head, short tail, powerful bill. The upperparts are pale blue-gray, and the face and underparts are white and it has a black cap and a chestnut lower belly. The nine subspecies differ mainly in the color of the body plumage, like other nuthatches, the white-breasted nuthatch forages for insects on trunks and branches and is able to move head-first down trees. Seeds form a part of its winter diet, as do acorns. The nest is in a hole in a tree, and the pair may smear insects around the entrance as a deterrent to squirrels. Sitta is derived from sittē, the Ancient Greek for nuthatch, the white-breasted nuthatch was first described by English ornithologist John Latham in his 1790 work, the Index Ornithologicus. Nuthatch taxonomy is complex, with geographically separated species sometimes closely resembling each other, the white-breasted nuthatch has an appearance and contact call similar to those of the white-cheeked nuthatch, Sitta leucopsis, of the Himalayas and was formerly considered to be conspecific with it. A study published in 2012 showed that four distinct lineages were genetically isolated from other and could represent different species, recognizable by morphology. The adult male of the subspecies, S. c. carolinensis, has pale blue-gray upperparts, a glossy black cap. The wing coverts and flight feathers are dark gray with paler fringes. The face and the underparts are white, the outer tail feathers are black with broad diagonal white bands across the outer three feathers, a feature readily visible in flight. The female has, on average, a black back band, slightly duller upperparts. Her cap may be gray, but many females have black caps, like other nuthatches, this is a noisy species with a range of vocalizations. The males mating song is a rapid nasal qui-qui-qui-qui-qui-qui-qui, the contact call between members of a pair, given most frequently in the fall and winter is a thin squeaky nit, uttered up to 30 times a minute. Three other, significantly smaller, nuthatches have ranges which overlap that of white-breasted, the white-breasted nuthatch has nine subspecies, although the differences are small and change gradually across the range. The subspecies are sometimes treated as three groups based on similarities in morphology, habitat usage, and vocalizations. These groups cover eastern North America, the Great Basin and central Mexico, the subspecies of the western interior have the darkest upperparts, and eastern S. c. carolinensis has the palest backWhite-breasted nuthatch – White-breasted nuthatch
75. Yellow-faced honeyeater – The yellow-faced honeyeater is a medium-small bird in the honeyeater family, Meliphagidae. It takes both its name and scientific name from the distinctive yellow stripes on the sides of its head. Its loud clear call often begins twenty or thirty minutes before dawn and it is widespread across eastern and south eastern Australia, in open sclerophyll forests from coastal dunes to high-altitude subalpine areas, and woodlands along creeks and rivers. It catches insects in flight as well as gleaning them from the foliage of trees and they form socially monogamous pairs and lay two or three eggs in a delicate cup-shaped nest. While the success rate can be low, the pairs nest several times during the breeding season, Honeyeaters preferred woodland habitat is vulnerable to the effects of land clearing, grazing, and weeds. However, as it is common and widespread, the yellow-faced honeyeater is considered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature to be of least concern for conservation and it is considered a pest in orchards in some areas. The yellow-faced honeyeater was first described, and placed in the genus Sylvia, by ornithologist John Latham in his 1801 work Supplementum Indicis Ornithologici, french ornithologist Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot described it as Melithreptus gilvicapillus in 1817, and English zoologist George Robert Gray as Ptilotis trivirgata in 1869. The specific name chrysops is derived from the Ancient Greek words meaning gold and face, the yellow-faced honeyeater was classified in the genera Meliphaga and then Lichenostomus until 2011. The bridled honeyeater and the Eungella honeyeater were sufficiently different to be placed in a separate genus as Bolemoreus, there are three subspecies, two described by Gregory Mathews in 1912. The latter race is described as poorly differentiated and possibly not worthy of recognition by the Handbook of the Birds of the World. Surgeon-General to the First Fleet John White caught a specimen in May 1788, calling it a yellow-faced flycatcher in his Journal of a Voyage to New South Wales, Latham called it the black-cheeked warbler. John Gould called it the yellow-faced honeyeater in 1848, which has become its official name and it is also known as the yellow-gaped honeyeater, or the quitchup, in reference to its call. The yellow-faced honeyeater is a medium-small, greyish-brown bird that takes its name from distinctive yellow stripes on the sides of the head. Yellow feathers form a stripe above the gape, which broadens. Above the yellow stripe is an eye stripe which is broken by a small yellow to off-white patch behind the eye. The chin, throat and breast are a greyish brown, streaked with slightly darker grey. The upper body is a greyish brown to olive-brown. Olive green outer edges on the combine to form an olive panel on the folded wingYellow-faced honeyeater – Yellow-faced honeyeater
76. Yellowhammer – The yellowhammer is a passerine bird in the bunting family that is native to Eurasia and introduced to New Zealand, Australia, the Falkland Islands, and South Africa. Most European birds remain in the breeding range year-round, but the subspecies is partially migratory. The male yellowhammer has a yellow head, streaked brown back, chestnut rump. Other plumages are duller versions of the same pattern, the yellowhammer is common in open areas with some scrubs or trees, and forms small flocks in winter. It has a song with an A little bit of bread. The song is similar to that of its closest relative. Breeding commences mainly in April and May, with the building a lined cup nest in a concealed location on or near the ground. The 3–5 eggs are patterned with a mesh of fine dark lines, the female incubates the eggs for 12–14 days to hatching, and broods the altricial downy chicks until they fledge 11–13 days later. Both adults feed the chick in the nest and raise two or three each year. The nest may be raided by rodents or corvids, and the adults are hunted by birds of prey, yellowhammers feed on the ground, usually in flocks outside the breeding season. The diet is seeds, supplemented by invertebrates in the breeding season. This conspicuous yellow bird has inspired poems by Robbie Burns and John Clare, the childrens writer Enid Blyton helped to popularise the standard English representation of the song. Within its genus, the yellowhammer is most closely related to the bunting, with which it forms a superspecies. The white-capped and cirl buntings are also near relatives of the species pair, where their ranges meet, the yellowhammer and pine bunting interbreed, the yellowhammer is dominant, and the hybrid zone is moving further east. The yellowhammer was described by Linnaeus in his Systema Naturae in 1758 under its current scientific name, emberiza is derived from the Old German embritz, a bunting, and citrinella is the Italian for a small yellow bird. The English name is thought to have come from ammer, another German word for a bunting, the yellowhammer is a large bunting, 16–16.5 cm long, with a 23–29.5 cm wingspan, it weighs 20–36.5 g. The male of the nominate subspecies E. c. citrinella has a yellow head, heavily streaked brown back, rufous rump, yellow underparts. The female is less brightly coloured, and more streaked on the crown, breast, both sexes are less strongly marked outside the breeding season, when the dark fringes on new feathers obscure the yellow plumageYellowhammer – Yellowhammer
77. Giganotosaurus – Giganotosaurus is a genus of theropod dinosaur that lived in what is now Argentina, during the early Cenomanian age of the Late Cretaceous period, approximately 99.6 to 97 million years ago. The holotype specimen was discovered in the Candeleros Formation of Patagonia in 1993, the animal was named G. carolinii in 1995, the genus name translates as giant southern lizard and the specific name honours the discoverer, Rubén D. Carolini. A dentary bone, a tooth and some tracks, discovered before the holotype, were assigned to this animal. The genus attracted much interest and became part of a debate about the maximum sizes of theropod dinosaurs. Giganotosaurus was one of the largest known terrestrial carnivores, but the size has been hard to determine due to the incompleteness of the remains found so far. Estimates for the most complete range from a length of 12 to 13 m, a skull 1.53 to 1.80 m in length. The dentary bone that belonged to a larger individual has been used to extrapolate a length of 13.2 m. The skull was low, with rugose nasal bones and a ridge-like crest on the bone in front of the eye. The front of the jaw was flattened, and had a downwards projecting process at the tip. The teeth were compressed sideways and had serrations, the neck was strong and the pectoral girdle proportionally small. Giganotosaurus is thought to have been homeothermic, with a metabolism between that of a mammal and a reptile, which would have enabled fast growth and it may have been relatively slow-moving, with a suggested running speed of 14 metres per second. It would have been capable of closing its jaws quickly, capturing and bringing down prey by delivering powerful bites, the chin may have helped in resisting stress when a bite was delivered against prey. Giganotosaurus is thought to have been the apex predator of its ecosystem, Giganotosaurus is thought to have been one of the largest theropod dinosaurs, but the incompleteness of its remains have made it difficult to estimate its size reliably. It is therefore impossible to determine with certainty whether it was larger than Tyrannosaurus, for example, different size estimates have been reached by several researchers, based on various methods, and depending on how the missing parts of the skeleton have been reconstructed. Length estimates for the specimen have varied between 12 and 13 m, with a skull between 1.53 and 1.80 m long, a femur between 1.365 and 1.43 m long, and a weight between 4.2 and 13.8 t. Fusion of sutures in the braincase indicates the specimen was a mature individual. A second specimen, consisting of a bone from a supposedly larger individual, has been used to extrapolate a length of 13.2 m, a skull 1.95 m long. Some writers have considered the largest size estimates for both specimens exaggerated, Giganotosaurus has been compared to an oversized version of the well-known genus AllosaurusGiganotosaurus
78. Heterodontosaurus – Heterodontosaurus is a genus of heterodontosaurid dinosaur that lived during the Early Jurassic period, 200–190 million years ago. Its only known species, Heterodontosaurus tucki, was named in 1962 based on a skull discovered in South Africa. The genus name means different toothed lizard, in reference to its unusual, heterodont dentition, further specimens have since been found, including an almost complete skeleton in 1966. Though it was a dinosaur, Heterodontosaurus was one of the largest members of its family. The body was short with a long tail, the five-fingered forelimbs were long and relatively robust, whereas the hind-limbs were long, slender, and had four toes. The skull was elongated, narrow, and triangular when viewed from the side, the front of the jaws were covered in a horny beak. It had three types of teeth, in the jaw, small, incisor-like teeth were followed by long. A gap divided the tusks from the cheek teeth. Heterodontosaurus is the eponymous and best known member of the family Heterodontosauridae and this family is considered one of the most primitive or basal groups within the order of ornithischian dinosaurs. In spite of the tusks, Heterodontosaurus is thought to have been herbivorous. Though it was thought to have been capable of quadrupedal locomotion. Tooth replacement was sporadic and not continuous, unlike its relatives, at least four other heterodontosaurid genera are known from the same geological formations as Heterodontosaurus. The most complete skeleton, SAM-PK-K1332, belonged to an animal measuring about 1.18 m in length and its weight was variously estimated at 1.8 kg,2.59 kg, and 3.4 kg in separate studies. The closure of sutures on the skeleton indicates that the specimen was an adult. A second specimen, consisting of a skull, indicates that Heterodontosaurus could have grown substantially larger – up to a length of 1.75 m. The reason for the difference between the two specimens is unclear, and might reflect variability within a single species, sexual dimorphism. The size of dinosaur has been compared to that of a turkey. Heterodontosaurus was amongst the largest known members of the Heterodontosauridae family, the family contains some of the smallest known ornithischian dinosaurs – the North American Fruitadens, for example, reached a length of only 65 to 75 cmHeterodontosaurus
79. Nemegtomaia – Nemegtomaia is a genus of oviraptorid dinosaur from what is now Mongolia that lived in the Late Cretaceous Period, about 70 million years ago. The first specimen was found in 1996, and became the basis of the new genus, the original genus name was Nemegtia, but this was changed to Nemegtomaia in 2005, as the former name was preoccupied. The specific name honours the palaeontologist Rinchen Barsbold, two more specimens were found in 2007, one of which was found on top of a nest with eggs, but the dinosaur had received its genus name before it was found associated with eggs. Nemegtomaia is estimated to have been around 2 m in length, as an oviraptorosaur, it would have been feathered. It had a deep, narrow, and short skull, with an arched crest and it was toothless, had a short snout with a parrot-like beak, and a pair of tooth-like projections on its palate. It had three fingers, the first was largest and bore a strong claw, Nemegtomaia is classified as a member of the oviraptorid subfamily Ingeniinae, and it the only known member of this group with a cranial crest. Though Nemegtomaia has been used to suggest that oviraptorosaurs were flightless birds, the nesting Nemegtomaia specimen was placed on top of what was probably a ring of eggs, with its arms folded across them. None of the eggs are complete, but they are estimated to have been 5 to 6 cm wide and 14 to 16 cm long when intact. The specimen was found in a area that indicates Nemegtomaia preferred nesting near streams that would provide soft, sandy substrate. Nemegtomaia may have protected its eggs by covering them with its tail, the skeleton of the nesting specimen has damage that indicates it was scavenged by skin beetles. The diet of oviraptorids is uncertain, but their skulls are most similar to animals that are known or thought to have been herbivorous. Nemegtomaia is known from the Nemegt and Baruungoyot Formations, which are thought to represent humid and arid environments that coexisted in the same area. Nemegtomaia is estimated to have been around 2 m in length, and to have weighed 40 kg, as an oviraptorosaur, it would have been feathered. The neural spines of the vertebrae were short, and the neural arches had an x-shaped appearance. The middle three of these vertebrae were the largest, the scapula appears to have been 185 mm in total length. The humerus had a fossa in a similar to modern birds, but atypical among oviraptorosaurs. The radius of the arm was straight, oval in cross-section. The first finger was relatively large and had a strong ungual, the second finger was slightly longer than the first, and the third finger was the smallestNemegtomaia
80. Teleost – The teleosts or Teleostei are by far the largest infraclass in the class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes, and make up 96 percent of all fish. This diverse group arose in the Triassic period and members are arranged in about 40 orders and 448 families, over 26,000 species have been described. Teleosts range from giant oarfish, measuring 25 ft or more, as well as torpedo-shaped fish built for speed, teleosts can be flattened vertically or horizontally, be elongated cylinders or take specialised shapes as in anglerfish and seahorses. Teleosts dominate the seas from pole to pole and inhabit the depths, estuaries, rivers, lakes. This is of advantage, enabling them to grab prey. Other bones further back in the serve to grind and swallow food. Another difference is that the upper and lower lobes of the fin are about equal in size. The spine ends at the peduncle, distinguishing this group from other fish in which the spine extends into the upper lobe of the tail fin. Teleosts have adopted a range of reproductive strategies, most use external fertilisation, the female lays a batch of eggs, the male fertilises them and the larvae develop without any further parental involvement. A fair proportion of teleosts are hermaphrodites, starting life as females and transitioning to males at some stage, a small percentage of teleosts are viviparous and some provide parental care with typically the male fish guarding a nest and fanning the eggs to keep them well-oxygenated. Teleosts are economically important to humans as is shown by their depiction in art over the centuries, the fishing industry harvests them for food and anglers attempt to capture them for sport. Some species are farmed commercially, and this method of production is likely to be important in the future. Others are kept in aquaria or used in research, especially in the fields of genetics, the defining features of the teleosts are mobile premaxilla, elongated neural arches at the end of the caudal fin and unpaired basibranchial toothplates. The premaxilla is unattached to the neurocranium, it plays a role in protruding the mouth and this lowers the pressure inside the mouth, sucking the prey inside. The lower jaw and maxilla are then pulled back to close the mouth, by contrast, mere closure of the jaws would risk pushing food out of the mouth. In more derived teleosts, the premaxilla is enlarged and has teeth, the maxilla functions to push both the premaxilla and the lower jaw forward. To open the mouth, an adductor muscle pulls back the top of the maxilla, in addition, the maxilla rotates slightly, which pushes forward a bony process that interlocks with the premaxilla. The pharyngeal jaws of teleosts, a set of jaws contained within the throat, are composed of five branchial archesTeleost
81. Grasshopper – Grasshoppers are insects of the suborder Caelifera within the order Orthoptera, which includes crickets and katydids. They are sometimes referred to as short-horned grasshoppers to distinguish them from the katydids and they are probably the oldest living group of chewing herbivorous insects, dating back to the early Triassic around 250 million years ago. Grasshoppers are typically ground-dwelling insects with powerful hind legs enable them to escape from threats by leaping vigorously. They are hemimetabolous insects which hatch from an egg into a nymph or hopper which undergoes five moults, at high population densities and under certain environmental conditions, some grasshopper species can change colour and behaviour and form swarms. Under these circumstances they are known as locusts, other species such as the rainbow grasshopper have warning coloration which deters predators. Grasshoppers are affected by parasites and various diseases, and many predatory creatures feed on nymphs and adults. The eggs are the subject of attack by parasitoids and predators, the grasshoppers have had a long relationship with humans. Swarms of locusts have had effects that have changed the course of history. They are eaten in countries such as Mexico and Indonesia and they feature in art, symbolism and literature. Grasshoppers have the insect body plan of head, thorax. The head is held vertically at an angle to the body, the head bears a large pair of compound eyes which give all-round vision, three simple eyes which can detect light and dark, and a pair of thread-like antennae that are sensitive to touch and smell. The downward-directed mouthparts are modified for chewing and there are two sensory palps in front of the jaws, the thorax and abdomen are segmented and have a rigid cuticle made up of overlapping plates composed of chitin. The three fused thoracic segments bear three pairs of legs and two pairs of wings, the forewings, known as tegmina, are narrow and leathery while the hindwings are large and membranous, the veins providing strength. The legs are terminated by claws for gripping, the hind leg is particularly powerful, the femur is robust and has several ridges where different surfaces join and the inner ridges bear stridulatory pegs in some species. The posterior edge of the bears a double row of spines. The interior of the houses the muscles that control the wings and legs. The abdomen has eleven segments, the first of which is fused to the thorax and contains the tympanal organ, segments two to eight are ring-shaped and joined by flexible membranes. Segments nine to eleven are reduced in size, segment nine bears a pair of cerci, female grasshoppers are normally larger than males, with short ovipositorsGrasshopper
82. Nothomyrmecia – Nothomyrmecia, also known as the dinosaur ant or dawn ant, is a rare genus of ants consisting of a single species, Nothomyrmecia macrops. It lives in South Australia, nesting in old-growth mallee woodland, the full distribution of Nothomyrmecia has never been assessed, and it is unknown how widespread it really is, its potential range may be wider if it does favour old-growth mallee woodland. Possible threats to its survival include habitat destruction and climate change, Nothomyrmecia is most active when it is cold because workers encounter fewer competitors and predators such as Camponotus and Iridomyrmex, and it also increases hunting success. Thus, the increase of temperature may prevent them from foraging, as a result, the IUCN lists the ant as Critically Endangered. A medium-sized ant, Nothomyrmecia measures 9. 7–11 mm, workers are monomorphic, showing little morphological differentiation among one another. Mature colonies are small, with only 50 to 100 individuals in each nest. Workers are strictly nocturnal and are solitary foragers, collecting arthropod prey and sweet substances such as honeydew from scale insects and other Hemiptera. They rely on their vision to navigate and there is no evidence to suggest that the species use chemicals to communicate when foraging, a queen ant will mate with one or more males and, during colony foundation, she will hunt for food until the brood have fully developed. Two queens may establish a colony together, but only one will remain once the first generation of workers has been reared, Nothomyrmecia was first described by Australian entomologist John S. Clark in 1934 from two specimens of worker ants. These were reportedly collected in 1931 near the Russell Range, inland from Israelite Bay in Western Australia. After its initial discovery, the ant was not seen again for four decades until a group of entomologists rediscovered it in 1977,1,300 km away from the reported site. Dubbed as the Holy Grail of myrmecology, the ant was subject to scientific interest after its rediscovery. In Poochera, pictures of the ant are stenciled on the streets, owing to its body structure, Nothomyrmecia is regarded to be the most primitive ant alive and a living fossil, stimulating studies on its morphology, behaviour, ecology, and chromosomes. Nothomyrmecia is an ant, measuring 9. 7–11 mm in length. Workers are monomorphic, meaning there is little morphological differentiation among one another. The mandibles, clypeus, antennae and legs are pale yellow, the hairs on the body are yellow, erect and long and abundant, but on the antennae and legs they are shorter and suberect. Though it shows similar characteristics to Myrmecia, Nothomyrmecia somewhat resembles Oecophylla, workers are strictly nocturnal but navigate by vision, relying on large compound eyes. The mandibles are shorter than the head and they have 10 to 12 teeth and are less specialised than those of Myrmecia and Prionomyrmex, being elongate and triangularNothomyrmecia – Nothomyrmecia
83. Finn M. W. Caspersen – Finn Michael Westby Caspersen, Sr. was an American financier and philanthropist. After an $8.6 billion acquisition of Beneficial by Household International in 1998, Caspersen ran Knickerbocker Management and he described education as his particular love and regarded it as an investment in the future—an investment in human capital. Buildings and endowed professorships have been named in his honor, Caspersen was an influential donor to Republican candidates at the state and national level. In the 1980s, he was a supporter of former New Jersey governor Thomas Kean. He served as a commissioner in Jupiter Island, Florida. Near the end of his life, Caspersen was subjected to an IRS audit with a focus on alleged offshore accounts. An attorney for Caspersen’s estate claimed that in 2013 the IRS effectively exonerated Caspersen posthumously—with no penalties or fines for offshore accounts or anything else, Finn Michael Westby Caspersen was born on October 27,1941 in New York City. He was one of two sons of Olaus Westby Caspersen, a Norwegian immigrant, and Freda Resika, an American-born Eastern European Jew thought to be of Russian or Polish descent. Olauss widowed mother and siblings had emigrated to the United States earlier, Olaus came to the United States in 1912 at age 16, settling in Weehawken, New Jersey. Finn Caspersens mother, Freda, was a non-practicing Jew, Finn attended a congregational church near the family home in his youth. He later reflected that being Protestant was important, there was a kind of anti-Catholicism in the family. The family moved to homes in Andover, New Jersey, and Venice, Caspersen frequently visited Norway as a child, vacationing there during summers after 1947. Caspersen attended private schools until the ninth grade and he attended the Peddie School, a private preparatory school in Hightstown, New Jersey, and was graduated in 1959. Caspersen received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Brown University in 1963, in 1972, Caspersen joined the legal department at Beneficial Corporation, a large American consumer finance firm. Four years later, he was named the chief executive officer. Beneficial had been established in 1914 in Elizabeth, New Jersey, Caspersens father, Olaus, joined Beneficial in 1920 and served as Hodsons secretary for several years. In 1929, Hodson and Caspersen reorganized the firm as Beneficial Finance Corporation, Freda Caspersen was one of the companys directors. Under the younger Caspersens leadership, Beneficial expanded into finance and offered credit cards through its Peoples BankFinn M. W. Caspersen – Finn Caspersen, circa 2008
84. London Necropolis Company – The LNC intended to establish a single cemetery large enough to accommodate all of Londons future burials in perpetuity. Accordingly, the company bought a large tract of land in Brookwood, Surrey, around 25 miles from London. A dedicated railway line, the London Necropolis Railway, linked the new cemetery to the city, financial mismanagement and internal disputes led to delays in the project. By the time Brookwood Cemetery opened in late 1854, a number of cemeteries had opened nearer to London or were in the process of opening. While some parishes in London did arrange for the LNC to handle the burials of their dead, buying the land for Brookwood Cemetery and building the cemetery and railway had been very expensive, and by the time the cemetery opened the LNC was already on the verge of bankruptcy. The LNC remained solvent by selling parts of its land. From the 1880s the LNC began a more aggressive programme to maximise its income, the process for the sale of surplus land was improved, resulting in increased income. The LNC redeveloped its lands at Hook Heath, Woking into housing, the LNC also provided the land for a number of significant military cemeteries and memorials at Brookwood after both of the World Wars. In 1941 London Necropolis railway station, the LNCs London railway terminus, was damaged by bombing. Rising property prices in Surrey in the 1940s and 1950s made the LNC increasingly valuable, in 1959 a hostile takeover succeeded, and LNCs independence came to an end. From 1959 to 1985 a succession of owners stripped the profitable parts of the business from the company, in 1985 what remained of the company came into the ownership of Ramadan Güney, who set about reviving what remained. Links were formed with Londons Muslim communities in an effort to encourage new burials, since the conversion of London to Christianity in the early 7th century, the citys dead had been buried in and around the local churches. From the 14th century onwards the charnel houses themselves were overwhelmed, despite this practice, by the mid 17th century the city was running seriously short of burial space. In the first half of the 19th century the population of London more than doubled, despite this rapid growth in population, the amount of land set aside for use as graveyards remained unchanged at approximately 300 acres, spread across around 200 small sites. The difficulty of digging without disturbing existing graves led to bodies often simply being stacked on top of each other to fit the available space and covered with a layer of earth. In more crowded areas even relatively fresh graves had to be exhumed to free up space for new burials, in some cases large pits were dug on existing burial grounds, unearthing the previous burials, and fresh corpses crammed into the available space. Public health policy at this time was shaped by the theory. In 1848–49 a cholera epidemic killed 14,601 people in London, bodies were left stacked in heaps awaiting burial, and even relatively recent graves were exhumed to make way for new burialsLondon Necropolis Company – The Westminster Bridge Road offices of the LNC and the first class entrance to the second London terminus, opened in 1902.
85. California Diamond Jubilee half dollar – The California Diamond Jubilee half dollar was a United States commemorative fifty cent piece struck at the San Francisco Mint in 1925. It was issued to celebrate the 75th anniversary of California statehood, the San Francisco Citizens Committee wished to issue a commemorative coin as a fundraiser for a celebration of the statehood diamond jubilee. A California congressman attached authorization for it to another coinage bill, designs by sculptor Jo Mora met a hostile reception at the Commission of Fine Arts, but the Citizens Committee would not change them, and they were approved. The coin has been praised for its beauty in the years since. The coins were struck in August 1925 in San Francisco, and were sold the following month. They did not sell as well as hoped, only some 150,000 of the mintage of 300,000 were ever struck. The coin is catalogued at between $200 and $1,300, though specimens have sold for more. The land that is now the state of California was first visited by Europeans when Spanish explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo visited there in 1542. His report to the Spanish crown garnered little interest, and it was not until the English seaman Sir Francis Drake touched there in 1579 that the Spanish were moved to colonize the area. Nevertheless, over the next 275 years, California saw few settlers, mostly around the chain of missions that were founded there, according to numismatic author Arnie Slabaugh, the coming of American settlers brought two changes to California that continue to this day, immigrants and activity. In 1846, American settlers revolted against Mexican rule, founding the Bear Flag Republic, the republic proved short-lived, the Mexican-American War had begun, and California was occupied by U. S. forces. A week before the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed in January 1848, the California Gold Rush followed, as did statehood for California in 1850. The bill passed the Senate after an amendment removed the gold dollar and he added that because of this, Washington Representative Albert Johnson had agreed to withdraw his bill for a commemorative honoring Fort Vancouver, in Washington state. Raker nevertheless persisted, and his amendment passed, Representative Johnson then offered an amendment to add a Fort Vancouver coin to the bill, and to Vestals chagrin, this also was adopted. The bill passed the House of Representatives, and the Senate agreed to the House amendments without debate on February 17, I feel that even for an anniversary of national significance the Treasury should not be asked to debauch its currency system. Nevertheless, Coolidge signed the bill, which became the Act of February 24,1925 and this was the first time commemorative coin legislation covered more than one issue. The latter group of banks had in 1923 distributed the Monroe Doctrine Centennial half dollar, on May 4,1925, Rossi sent a letter to Mint Director Robert J. Grant. Rossi enclosed sketches by California sculptor Joseph Mora, with the promise that a designCalifornia Diamond Jubilee half dollar – California Diamond Jubilee half dollar
86. Cleveland Centennial half dollar – The Cleveland Centennial half dollar is a commemorative United States half dollar struck at the Philadelphia Mint in 1936 and 1937, though all bear the earlier date. He was successful with the Cincinnati Musical Center half dollar, from which he profited greatly, brenda Putnam designed the Cleveland coin, which was approved by the Commission of Fine Arts after suggestions by sculptor Lee Lawrie. Melish distributed the Cleveland coins through the exposition, at local banks, sales were good, and the full authorized mintage of 50,000 was struck. Thousands remained in dealer inventories for years, and the coins remain inexpensive by the standards of commemorative coins of the era. After the American Revolutionary War, the known as the Western Reserve, now in eastern Ohio, was the subject of dispute among the states. The remainder was sold to the Connecticut Land Company in 1795, Moses Cleaveland was a surveyor, a lawyer, and one of the companys directors. In 1796, by the shores of Lake Erie, he set out a townsite that came to bear his name, in 1830, a newspaper was founded, to be called the Cleaveland Advertiser. The editor found the one character too long to fit in the printing form. The town of Cleveland became a city in 1836, thomas G. Melish was a prominent Cincinnati businessman, who had inherited the Bromwell Wire Company. Melish was also a collector, who came up with an idea for a commemorative coin that he would control. The result was the 1936 Cincinnati Music Center half dollar, a controlled by Melish. Melish sold only a few coins at the price, which was high. By 1936, the market for U. S. commemorative coins had become, David Bowers, as hot as a volcano, and Congress gave permission to have his own commemorative coins minted and to charge the public whatever he liked for them. Melish, who had friends in Congress, had in early 1936 also tried to get lawmakers to authorize other commemorative issues that he would control, the only one of these that came to fruition was the Cleveland Centennial half dollar. A bill for a Cleveland Centennial half dollar was introduced into the United States Senate by Ohios Robert J. Bulkley on March 23,1936, and it was referred to the Committee on Banking and Currency. The bill was to both the 100th anniversary of Clevelands incorporation as a city, and the Great Lakes Exposition. The bill was reported back to the House by committee chairman Alva B, Adams of Colorado on March 26, drastically amended. Adams had held hearings on other coins on March 11,1936Cleveland Centennial half dollar
87. Huguenot-Walloon half dollar – The Huguenot-Walloon half dollar or Huguenot-Walloon Tercentenary half dollar is a commemorative coin issued by the United States Bureau of the Mint in 1924. It marks the 300th anniversary of the voyage of the Nieuw Nederland which landed in the New York area in 1624. Many of the passengers were Huguenots who had lived in what is now Belgium, where they were known as Walloons, they became early settlers of New York State and the surrounding area. Sketches were prepared by commission chairman Rev. John Baer Stoudt and converted to plaster models by the Mints aging chief engraver, the models were initially rejected by the Commission of Fine Arts, which required revisions under the supervision of Buffalo nickel designer James Earle Fraser. Of the 300,000 coins authorized by Congress, fewer than half were actually struck, the coin excited some controversy because of its sponsorship by a religious group. The coins are currently valued in the hundreds of dollars, depending on condition, the Huguenots were French Protestants, who were often in conflict with the Catholic majority. Many Huguenots fled France in the 16th and 17th centuries, when there was persecution of them. Among those who fell in the rioting that day was the Huguenot military and political leader, many Huguenots who fled France settled in what is today Belgium and have become known as Walloons. Others came to live in the Netherlands, William the Silent, the Prince of Orange was one of the leaders of the Dutch War of Independence against Spain. He was assassinated in 1584 by Balthasar Gérard, a pro-Spanish extremist, some Huguenots went elsewhere, on March 29,1624, the ship Nieuw Nederlandt set out for New Netherland, the Dutch possessions centered on what is now the state of New York, more ships followed. These were many of the settlers of the area. The Huguenot-Walloon New Netherland Commission was established in 1922 under the auspices of the Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America in anticipation of the upcoming anniversary, President Warren G. Harding was the honorary president of the commission, and Belgiums King Albert I accepted an honorary chairmanship. A bill for a Huguenot-Walloon half dollar was introduced in the House of Representatives on January 15,1923 by Pennsylvania Congressman Fred Gernerd, who was of Huguenot descent. It received a hearing before the House Committee on Coinage, Weights, and Measures on February 7, with Indiana Representative Albert Vestal, a Republican, presiding. Gernerd stated that while the sale of half dollars would raise money towards the observance, it was not intended as a serious fundraiser and he reminded the committee that the 300th anniversary of the voyage of the Mayflower had seen a half dollar issued. New Jersey Congressman Ernest R. Ackerman briefly addressed the committee in support, noting that the coins would likely be retained as souvenirs, west Virginias Wells Goodykoontz also spoke in favor. The witnesses, all urging passage of the bill, concluded with a number of pastors, led by E. O. Watson. On February 10,1923, Vestal issued a report recommending that the pass with an amendment adding the bank as the ordering organizationHuguenot-Walloon half dollar
88. Lewis and Clark Exposition dollar – Designed by United States Bureau of the Mint Chief Engraver Charles E. Barber, the coin did not sell well and less than a tenth of the authorized mintage of 250,000 was issued. The Lewis and Clark Expedition, the first American overland exploring party to reach the Pacific Coast, was led by Meriwether Lewis, the Portland fair commemorated the centennial of that trip. The coins were, for the most part, sold to the public by numismatic promoter Farran Zerbe, as he was unable to sell much of the issue, surplus coins were melted by the Mint. The coins have continued to increase in value, and today are worth between hundreds and thousands of dollars, depending on condition, the Lewis and Clark Exposition dollar is the only American coin to be two-headed, with a portrait of one of the expedition leaders on each side. The Louisiana Purchase, by the United States from France in 1803, a captain in the United States Army, Lewis selected William Clark, a former Army lieutenant and younger brother of American Revolutionary War hero George Rogers Clark, as co-leader of the expedition. Lewis and William Clark had served together, and chose about thirty men, dubbed the Corps of Discovery, many of these were frontiersmen from Kentucky who were in the Army, as well as boatmen, and others with necessary skills. The expedition set forth from the St. Louis area on May 14,1804, journeying up the Missouri River, Lewis and Clark met Sacagawea, a woman of the Lemhi Shoshone tribe. Sacagawea had been captured by another tribe and sold as a slave to Toussaint Charbonneau, a French-Canadian trapper, one reason for her success was that the Indian chief whose aid they sought proved to be Sacagaweas brother. The expedition spent the winter of 1804–1805 encamped near the site of Bismarck and they left there on April 7,1805 and came within view of the Pacific Ocean, near Astoria, Oregon, on November 7. After exploring the area, they departed eastward on March 23,1806, only one of the expedition members died en route, most likely of appendicitis. While they did not find the mammoths or salt mountains reputed to be in the American West, further, the exploration of the Oregon Country later aided American claims to that area. In gratitude for their service to the nation, Congress gave Lewis and Clark land grants, beginning in 1895, Oregonians proposed honoring the centennial of the Lewis and Clark Expedition with a fair to be held in Portland, a city located along the partys route. In 1900, a committee of Portland business men began to plan for the event, an issue of stock was successful in late 1901, a long drive to gain federal government support succeeded when President Theodore Roosevelt signed an appropriations bill on April 13,1904. The organizing committee was the only entity allowed to purchase these from the government, Numismatist Farran Zerbe had advocated for the passage of the authorization. Zerbe was not only a collector and dealer, but promoted the hobby through his traveling exhibition. Zerbe, president of the American Numismatic Association from 1908 to 1910, was involved in the sale of coins for over 20 years. The Portland expositions authorities placed him in charge of the sale of the gold dollar, details of the preparation of the commemorative dollar are lost, the Mint destroyed many records in the 1960s. Mint Chief Engraver Charles E. Barber was responsible for the designs, Numismatic historians Don Taxay and QLewis and Clark Exposition dollar – Lewis and Clark Exposition dollar
89. Lexington-Concord Sesquicentennial half dollar – It was designed by Chester Beach. Members of the Massachusetts congressional delegation introduced legislation in 1924 which would provide for a half dollar for the anniversary. The bill passed both houses of Congress and was signed by President Calvin Coolidge, Beach had to satisfy committees from both Lexington and Concord, and the Commission of Fine Arts passed the design only reluctantly, feeling Beach had been given poor materials to work with. The coins were sold for $1, and were vended at the celebrations in Lexington and in Concord. Although just over half of the mintage of 300,000 was struck. Depending on condition, they are catalogued in the hundreds of dollars, the Battles of Lexington and Concord took place in those neighboring Massachusetts towns on April 19,1775. These groups, under the control of Massachusetts leader John Hancocks Committee of Safety, were often dubbed minutemen for their readiness to assemble to fight at a moments notice, caches of munitions were stored at various towns for their use, including at Concord. The Secretary of State for the Colonies, Lord Dartmouth, instructed the British commander in Boston, General Thomas Gage, on April 18,1775, Gage secretly ordered Lieutenant Colonel Francis Smith to go with 700 men to Concord and destroy the munitions there. It is uncertain how the Americans came to hear of the plan, Gages wife Margaret was born in New Jersey and may have been a spy. Another local leader, Joseph Warren, informed Paul Revere and William Dawes, both got to Lexington, where they met with Hancock and Samuel Adams. The supplies in Concord were moved, British troops began their march at 2 am on April 19, and Smith sent troops ahead under Major John Pitcairn. When Pitcairn and his men found a company of armed colonials at Lexington, in the confusion, a shot was fired from an unknown source, which brought several volleys from the British troops. Eight of the men were killed and one British soldier was wounded. The British burned or otherwise destroyed what supplies they could find in Concord, the bridge was held by the British, and by then about 400 minutemen had assembled. Seeing the smoke from Concord, the believed the town was being burned. The British fired on them but the colonials returned fire and defeated them, the encounters at Lexington and Concord were the first battles of what became the Revolutionary War. Robert Luce, also of that state, introduced an identical copy, Rogers represented Concords district in Congress, while the townsfolk of Lexington were among Dallingers constituents. All three bills were referred to the Committee on the Library, presided over by Luce, hearings were held on May 8,1924, with both Rogers and Dallinger presentLexington-Concord Sesquicentennial half dollar
90. Benedetto Pistrucci – Benedetto Pistrucci was a distinguished Italian Gem-engraver, medallist and coin-engraver who became Chief-medallist at the Royal Mint in England. Pistrucci was born in Rome, second son, of a family of three, of Federico Pistrucci, a judge in the court, and Antonia. His elder brother Phillip became a painter, copper-plate engraver and poet and he was educated in Rome, Bologna and Naples, but was not an outstanding scholar. However, he acquired an interest in art and received instruction first from a cameo engraver known as Mango, in Rome, during his recovery from a serious injury sustained in a fight, Pistrucci taught himself to model in wax at home. His models attracted favourable attention and led to his employment as a maker for a merchant called Domenico Desalief. At the age of 15, he was placed with the gem-engraver Nicolo Morelli, whose patrons included the Pope, there he gained great experience in carving cameos and also attended the drawing academy at the Campidoglio, where he obtained first prize in sculpture. At the age of 16 years, he left his master – who by then was said to be jealous of his pupils abilities – and set up in business on his own. In 1802, Pistrucci married Barbara Folchi, daughter of a well-to-do merchant and he continued working in Rome, turning out portrait cameos and engraved gems, until 1814. He then went on to London, England in 1815, becoming successful and wealthy as a cameo designer and maker. After the death of Thomas Wyon in 1817, Wellesly Pole offered Pistrucci the post of Chief-engraver at the Royal Mint, with a salary of £500 p. a. and a house within the grounds of the Mint. In fact, although he performed the duties of a de facto Chief-engraver, a compromise was eventually agreed, in 1828, whereby William Wyon was made Chief-engraver and Pistrucci, Chief-medallist. Pistrucci created the St. George & the Dragon design used on British gold sovereigns and crowns first seen during the Great Recoinage of 1816 and he cut the dies for the coinage from 1817, The Crowns were issued in 1818,1819 and 1820. In 1820, he engraved a George III Five Pound piece, of which only 25 specimens were made, however on the death of the king. In that year the Pattern Two Pound piece was issued, limited to 60 coins, sovereigns appeared in all the years from 1817–20, and Half-sovereigns in 1817,1818, and 1820, as well as many other proofs and patterns. He also engraved the early coins of George IVs reign, the Double Sovereign,1823, Sovereign, 1821-1825, Half-sovereign,1821 and 1823–25, Crown, 1821–22, Pistruccis involvement with the coinage ceased in 1825 but he continued at the Mint until 1849 as a medallist. He also engaged in work as a cameo- and Intaglio-maker, commanding high prices for his work. Amongst others, he designed the Coronation medal of George IV, Pistrucci is renowned for the massive 140.8 mm,677.5 g Waterloo Medal, which took over 30 years to complete, and for which he was paid the sum of £3,500. It was begun in 1817 but the matrices were not delivered to the Master of the Mint until 1850, to immortalize the successful Waterloo campaign, the Duke of Wellington suggested that a couple of special medals be preparedBenedetto Pistrucci – Cameo of Pistrucci (ca. 1850, by his daughter, Elisa)
91. Walking Liberty half dollar – The Walking Liberty half dollar was a silver 50-cent piece or half dollar coin issued by the United States Mint from 1916 to 1947, it was designed by Adolph A. Weinman. In 1915, the new Mint Director, Robert W. Woolley and he therefore began the process of replacing the Barber coinage, dimes, quarters and half dollars, all bearing similar designs by long-time Mint Engraver Charles E. Barber, and first struck in 1892. Woolley had the Commission of Fine Arts conduct a competition, as a result of which Weinman was selected to design the dime, nevertheless, art historian Cornelius Vermeule considered the piece to be among the most beautiful US coins. Since 1986, a modification of Weinmans obverse design has been used for the American Silver Eagle, and the half dollar was issued in gold for its centennial in 2016. On September 26,1890, the United States Congress passed an act providing, The Director of the Mint shall have power, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, to cause new designs. But no change in the design or die of any coin shall be made oftener than once in twenty-five years from, the Barber coinage was introduced in 1892, dimes, quarter dollars, and half dollars with similar designs by Mint Engraver Charles E. Barber. The new pieces attracted considerable public dissatisfaction, beginning in 1905, successive presidential administrations had attempted to bring modern, beautiful designs to United States coins. As early as 1914, Victor David Brenner, designer of the Lincoln cent and he was told in response that Secretary of the Treasury William G. McAdoo was completely occupied with other matters. On January 2,1915, an interview with Philadelphia Mint Superintendent Adam M. Joyce appeared in the Michigan Manufacturer and Financial Record, there is no thought of issuing new coins of the 50-cent, 25-cent, and 10-cent values. If, however, a change is made we all hope that more serviceable and satisfactory coins are produced than the recent Saint-Gaudens double eagle and eagle, the buffalo nickel and the Lincoln penny are also faulty from a practical standpoint. All resulted from the desire by the government to mint coins to the satisfaction of artists, in January 1915, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury William P. This can be any time in the year. In reply, McAdoo wrote let the mint submit designs before we try anyone else on the memorandum, in April 1915, Robert W. Woolley took office as Mint Director. On April 14, he asked Joyce to request Engraver Barber, then in his 36th year in office, the same day, Malburn requested the opinion of the Treasury Departments Solicitor concerning the Mint view that it could strike new designs for the three denominations in 1916. On April 17, the Solicitors Office responded that the Mint could change the designs, at the time, the Mint was intensely busy producing the Panama-Pacific commemorative coin issue, and immediate action was not taken. In October, Barber was summoned to Washington to discuss coin designs with Woolley, on December 3, Woolley met with the Commission of Fine Arts. Woolley asked the Commission to view sketches produced by the Mints engraving department, Barber was present to explain the coinage process to the Commission members. Woolley suggested to the members if they did not like the Mints workWalking Liberty half dollar – Roty 's "Sower" design for French coins may have inspired Weinman's obverse.
92. Lead – Lead is a chemical element with atomic number 82 and symbol Pb. When freshly cut, it is bluish-white, it tarnishes to a dull gray upon exposure to air and it is a soft, malleable, and heavy metal with a density exceeding that of most common materials. Lead has the second-highest atomic number of the stable elements. Lead is a relatively unreactive post-transition metal and its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature and tendency to form covalent bonds. Compounds of lead are found in the +2 oxidation state. Exceptions are mostly limited to organolead compounds, like the lighter members of the group, lead exhibits a tendency to bond to itself, it can form chains, rings, and polyhedral structures. Lead is easily extracted from its ores and was known to people in Western Asia. A principal ore of lead, galena, often bears silver, Lead production declined after the fall of Rome and did not reach comparable levels again until the Industrial Revolution. Nowadays, global production of lead is about ten million tonnes annually, Lead has several properties that make it useful, high density, low melting point, ductility, and relative inertness to oxidation. In the late 19th century, lead was recognized as poisonous, Lead is a neurotoxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bones, damaging the nervous system and causing brain disorders and, in mammals, blood disorders. A lead atom has 82 electrons, arranged in a configuration of 4f145d106s26p2. The combined first and second ionization energies—the total energy required to remove the two 6p electrons—is close to that of tin, leads upper neighbor in group 14. This is unusual since ionization energies generally fall going down a group as an elements outer electrons become more distant from the nucleus, the similarity is caused by the lanthanide contraction—the decrease in element radii from lanthanum to lutetium, and the relatively small radii of the elements after hafnium. The contraction is due to shielding of the nucleus by the lanthanide 4f electrons. The combined first four ionization energies of lead exceed those of tin, for this reason lead, unlike tin, mostly forms compounds in which it has an oxidation state of +2, rather than +4. Relativistic effects, which become particularly prominent at the bottom of the periodic table, as a result, the 6s electrons of lead become reluctant to participate in bonding, a phenomenon called the inert pair effect. A related outcome is that the distance between nearest atoms in crystalline lead is unusually long, the lighter group 14 elements form stable or metastable allotropes having the tetrahedrally coordinated and covalently bonded diamond cubic structure. The energy levels of their outer s- and p-orbitals are close enough to allow mixing into four hybrid sp3 orbitalsLead – Lead, 82 Pb
93. Burke and Hare murders – The Burke and Hare murders were a series of 16 murders committed over a period of about ten months in 1828 in Edinburgh, Scotland. The killings were undertaken by William Burke and William Hare, who sold the corpses to Doctor Robert Knox for dissection at his anatomy lectures. Edinburgh was a leading European centre of study in the early 19th century. Scottish law required that corpses used for medical research should only come from those who had died in prison, suicide victims, or from foundlings, the shortage of corpses led to an increase in grave robbing by what were known as resurrection men. Measures to ensure graves were left undisturbed exacerbated the shortage, when a lodger in Hares house died, he turned to his friend Burke for advice and they decided to sell the body to Knox. They received what was, for them, the sum of £7 10s. A little over two months later, when Hare was concerned that a lodger suffering from fever would deter others from staying in the house, he and Burke murdered her, the men continued their murder spree, probably with the knowledge of their wives. Burke and Hares actions were uncovered after other lodgers discovered their last victim, Margaret Docherty, a forensic examination of Dochertys body indicated she had probably been suffocated, but it could not be proven. Although the police suspected the men of other murders, there was no evidence on which they could take action, an offer was put to Hare granting immunity from prosecution if he turned kings evidence. He provided the details of Dochertys murder and confessed to all 16 deaths, formal charges were made against Burke, at the subsequent trial Burke was found guilty of one murder and sentenced to death. The case against his wife was found not proven—a Scottish legal verdict to acquit an individual, Burke was hanged shortly afterwards, his corpse was dissected and his skeleton displayed at the Anatomical Museum of Edinburgh Medical School where, as of 2017, it remains. The murders raised public awareness of the need for bodies for medical research, the events have made appearances in literature, and been portrayed on screen, either in heavily fictionalised accounts or as the inspiration for fictional works. Because of their efforts, Edinburgh became one of the leading European centres of study, alongside Leiden in the Netherlands. The teaching of anatomy—crucial in the study of surgery—required a sufficient supply of cadavers, Scottish law determined that suitable corpses on which to undertake the dissections were those who died in prison, suicide victims, and the bodies of foundlings and orphans. The situation was confused by the legal position, disturbing a grave was a criminal offence, as was the taking of property from the deceased. Stealing the body was not an offence, as it did not legally belong to anyone, the price per corpse changed depending on the season. By the 1820s the residents of Edinburgh had taken to the streets to protest at the increase in grave robbing, other families used a mortsafe, an iron cage that surrounded the coffin. Knox was an anatomist who had qualified as a doctor in 1814, after contracting smallpox as a child, he was blind in one eye and badly disfiguredBurke and Hare murders – Hare and Burke
94. Josephine Butler – Josephine Elizabeth Butler was an English feminist and social reformer in the Victorian era. Josephine grew up in a well-to-do and politically connected progressive family which helped develop in her a social conscience. She married George Butler, an Anglican divine and schoolmaster, and the couple had four children, the death was a turning point for Josephine, and she focused her feelings on helping others, starting with the inhabitants of a local workhouse. She began to campaign for rights in British law. The campaign achieved its success in 1886 with the repeal of the Acts. Josephine also formed the International Abolitionist Federation, a Europe-wide organisation to combat systems on the continent. Josephine fought child prostitution with help from the editor of the Pall Mall Gazette, William Thomas Stead. The subsequent outcry led to the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885 which raised the age of consent from 13 to 16 years of age and her final campaign was in the late-1890s, against the Contagious Diseases Acts which continued to be implemented in the British Raj. Her name appears on the Reformers Memorial in Kensal Green Cemetery, London and her campaign strategies changed the way feminist and suffragists conducted future struggles, and her work brought into the political milieu groups of people that had never been active before. After her death in 1906 the feminist intellectual Millicent Fawcett hailed her as the most distinguished Englishwoman of the nineteenth century, Josephine Grey was born on 13 April 1828 at Milfield, Northumberland. She was the daughter and seventh child of Hannah and John Grey, a land agent and agricultural expert. In this role John promoted his cousins political opinions locally, including support for Catholic emancipation, the abolition of slavery, Josephine was taught at home before completing her schooling at a boarding school in Newcastle upon Tyne which she attended for two years. John treated his children equally within the home and he educated them in politics and social issues and exposed them to various politically important visitors. At about the age of 17 Josephine went through a religious crisis and she became disenchanted with her weekly church attendance, describing the local vicar as an honest man in the pulpit. Taught us loyally all that he himself knew about God. Following her crisis, Josephine did not identify any single strand of Christianity. She later wrote that she imbibed from childhood the widest ideas of vital Christianity, I have not much sympathy with the Church. She began to directly to God in her prayers, I spoke to Him in solitudeJosephine Butler – Josephine Butler
95. Monroe Edwards – Monroe Edwards was an American slave trader, forger and convicted criminal who was the subject of a well-publicized trial and conviction in 1842. Originally from Kentucky, Edwards moved to New Orleans then settled in Texas and he smuggled slaves into Brazil in 1832, and used the proceeds to purchase land in Texas. In 1836 he was again smuggling slaves, this time into Texas, after attempting to swindle his partner out of the profits of the venture, partly with forged documents, Edwards was forced to flee the Republic of Texas to the United States. He then tried to scam money out of various abolitionists in the United States and he traveled to the United Kingdom, but his schemes were mainly unsuccessful and he returned to the United States in mid-1841. Edwards largest swindle involved forged letters from cotton brokers in New Orleans and his fabrications caught up with him and he was arrested and tried for the forgeries in June 1842. Several sensational accounts of his offenses and trial were published after his death, and he was mentioned in Herman Melvilles 1853 short story Bartleby, Edwards was born in 1808 in Danville, Kentucky. His father was reported to be Amos Edwards or Moses Edwards and his brother was Amos Edwards, and his uncle was Haden Edwards who lived in Nacogdoches. Nothing is known with certainty of his childhood, as a grown man, he was considered very handsome, and usually dressed fashionably. Some accounts give him the title Colonel, around 1822, Edwards was sent to New Orleans to learn business from a merchant named Mr. Morgan. By the late 1820s Morgan had established a trading post on San Jacinto Bay near Galveston in what was then Mexican Texas, some time after, Edwards met a slave trader and joined his new acquaintance on a smuggling trip to acquire slaves in Africa. This first effort ended when they were shipwrecked, but an attempt in 1832 successfully smuggled slaves into Brazil. Unconnected with his trading, Edwards was arrested in 1832 as part of the Anahuac Disturbances. Edwards next efforts in smuggling involved a new partner, Christopher Dart, in 1835 Dart invested $40,000 to buy the contracts of indentured blacks in Cuba and smuggle them into Texas as slaves. Instead providing money for the partnership, Edwards contribution was land certificates, at the time, Texas was a Mexican border province. In 1829, Mexico had abolished slavery as well as the importation of slaves, to circumvent the ban on importing slaves, traders instead reclassified them as indentured servants with 99-year contracts. The Mexican government cracked down on this practice in 1832, limiting terms of indenture to a maximum of 10 years, Edwards secured further financing from a New Orleans company named George Knight and Company and then went to Cuba where he purchased slaves. Because of uncertainty about the legality of importing slaves, Fisher did not seize the slaves, although the new Texas Republic eventually outlawed the importation of slaves from anywhere but the United States, Edwards landing of slaves from Cuba in early 1836 was never prosecuted. After this, Edwards also established a market on Galveston BayMonroe Edwards – A portrait engraving of Edwards from Life and Adventures of the Accomplished Forger and Swindler, Colonel Monroe Edwards, published a year after his death
96. Guy Fawkes Night – Guy Fawkes Night, also known as Guy Fawkes Day, Bonfire Night and Firework Night, is an annual commemoration observed on 5 November, primarily in Great Britain. Its history begins with the events of 5 November 1605, when Guy Fawkes, Puritans delivered sermons regarding the perceived dangers of popery, while during increasingly raucous celebrations common folk burnt effigies of popular hate-figures, such as the pope. Towards the end of the 18th century reports appear of children begging for money with effigies of Guy Fawkes and 5 November gradually became known as Guy Fawkes Day. Towns such as Lewes and Guildford were in the 19th century scenes of increasingly violent class-based confrontations, fostering traditions those towns celebrate still, albeit peaceably. In the 1850s changing attitudes resulted in the toning down of much of the days anti-Catholic rhetoric, eventually the violence was dealt with, and by the 20th century Guy Fawkes Day had become an enjoyable social commemoration, although lacking much of its original focus. The present-day Guy Fawkes Night is usually celebrated at large organised events, centred on a bonfire, settlers exported Guy Fawkes Night to overseas colonies, including some in North America, where it was known as Pope Day. Those festivities died out with the onset of the American Revolution and this made 1605 the first year the plots failure was celebrated. The following January, days before the conspirators were executed, Parliament passed the Observance of 5th November Act. A new form of service was added to the Church of Englands Book of Common Prayer. Little is known about the earliest celebrations, in settlements such as Carlisle, Norwich and Nottingham, corporations provided music and artillery salutes. According to historian and author Antonia Fraser, a study of the earliest sermons preached demonstrates an anti-Catholic concentration mystical in its fervour. Delivering one of five 5 November sermons printed in A Mappe of Rome in 1612, Thomas Taylor spoke of the generality of his cruelty, which had been almost without bounds. By the 1620s the Fifth was honoured in market towns and villages across the country, Gunpowder Treason Day, as it was then known, became the predominant English state commemoration. Some parishes made the day a festive occasion, with public drinking, what unity English Protestants had shared in the plots immediate aftermath began to fade when in 1625 Jamess son, the future Charles I, married the Catholic Henrietta Maria of France. During Charless reign Gunpowder Treason Day became increasingly partisan, between 1629 and 1640 he ruled without Parliament, and he seemed to support Arminianism, regarded by Puritans like Henry Burton as a step toward Catholicism. By 1636, under the leadership of the Arminian Archbishop of Canterbury William Laud, the English church was trying to use 5 November to denounce all seditious practices, Puritans went on the defensive, some pressing for further reformation of the Church. Bonfire Night, as it was known, assumed a new fervour during the events leading up to the English Interregnum. Although Royalists disputed their interpretations, Parliamentarians began to uncover or fear new Catholic plots, effigies of Fawkes and the pope were present, the latter represented by Pluto, Roman god of the underworldGuy Fawkes Night – Festivities in Windsor Castle by Paul Sandby, c. 1776
97. Pig-faced women – Legendary stories of pig-faced women originated roughly simultaneously in Holland, England and France in the late 1630s. The stories told of a woman whose body was of normal human appearance. In the earliest forms of the story, the womans pig-like appearance was the result of witchcraft. Following her wedding day, the pig-faced womans new husband was granted the choice of having her appear beautiful to him but pig-like to others, or pig-like to him, when her husband told her that the choice was hers, the enchantment was broken and her pig-like appearance vanished. These stories became popular in England, and later in Ireland. The magical elements gradually vanished from the story, and the existence of pig-faced women began to be treated as fact, in late 1814 and early 1815, rumour swept London that a pig-faced woman was living in Marylebone. Her existence was reported as fact, and numerous alleged portraits of her were published. With belief in pig-faced women commonplace, unscrupulous showmen exhibited living pig-faced women at fairs and these were not genuine women, but shaven bears dressed in womens clothing. Belief in pig-faced women declined, and the last significant work to treat their existence as genuine was published in 1924, today, the legend is almost forgotten. While stories of pig-faced women vary in detail, they have the basic form. A pregnant noblewoman would be approached by a beggar accompanied by her children, and would dismiss the beggar, and in so doing would in some way compare the beggars children to pigs. The beggar would curse the pregnant noblewoman, and come the birth of the child it would be a girl, healthy, the child would grow up healthy, but with some of the behaviours of a pig. She would eat from a trough, and speak only in grunts or with a grunting sound to her speech. The only child of her parents, she would stand to inherit a large fortune, but her parents would be concerned about what would become of her after their death. They would thus make arrangements either to find a man willing to marry her, although originating roughly simultaneously in Holland, England, and France, it was only in England, and later in Ireland, that the legend became well known and widely believed. In 1861 Charles Dickens remarked on the longevity of the belief in pig-faced women in England, commenting that In every age, I suppose, there has been a pig-faced lady. While earlier stories of humans with the appearance of animals are common, the earliest versions of the story of the pig-faced woman appear to have originated roughly simultaneously in England, Holland and France, and to have become prevalent in England in late 1639. A1904 paper in Volkskunde magazine by Dutch historian and antiquarian nl, the earliest surviving version of the legend is a Dutch print about an Amsterdam woman named Jacamijntjen JacobsPig-faced women – An 1882 print of a pig-faced woman, from The Illustrated Police News
98. Ashton-under-Lyne – Ashton-under-Lyne is a market town in Tameside, Greater Manchester, England. The population had increased to 45,198 at the 2011 census, historically in Lancashire, it is on the north bank of the River Tame, in the foothills of the Pennines,6.2 miles east of Manchester. Evidence of Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Viking activity has been discovered in Ashton-under-Lyne, the Ashton part of the towns name probably dates from the Anglo-Saxon period, and derives from Old English meaning settlement by ash trees. The origin of the suffix is less clear, it possibly derives from the British lemo meaning elm or from Ashtons proximity to the Pennines. In the Middle Ages, Ashton-under-Lyne was a parish and township and Ashton Old Hall was held by the de Asshetons, granted a Royal Charter in 1414, the manor spanned a rural area consisting of marshland, moorland, and a number of villages and hamlets. Until the introduction of the trade in 1769, Ashton was considered bare, wet. Ashton-under-Lynes transport network allowed for a boom in cotton spinning, weaving, and coal mining. The 140, 000-square-foot, two-floored Ashton Arcades shopping centre opened in 1995, a single Mesolithic flint tool has been discovered in the bog, along with a collection of nine Neolithic flints. There was further activity in or around the bog in the Bronze Age, the eastern terminus of the early medieval linear earthwork Nico Ditch is in Ashton Moss, it was probably used as an administrative boundary and dates from the 8th or 9th century. Legend claims it was built in a night in 869 or 870 as a defence against Viking invaders. Further evidence of Dark Age activity in the area comes from the towns name and this means that Ashton probably became a settlement some time after the Romans left Britain in the 5th century. An early form of the name, which included a burh element, indicates that in the 11th century Ashton. The under Lyne suffix was not widely used until the mid-19th century when it became useful for distinguishing the town from other places called Ashton, the Domesday Survey of 1086 does not directly mention Ashton, perhaps because only a partial survey of the area had been taken. However, it is thought that St Michaels Church, mentioned in the Domesday entry for the ancient parish of Manchester, was in Ashton, the town itself was first mentioned in the 12th century when the manor was part of the barony of Manchester. By the late 12th century, a family who adopted the name Assheton held the manor on behalf of the Gresleys, Ashton Old Hall was a manor house, the administrative centre of the manor, and the seat of the Assheton family. With three wings, the hall was one of the finest great houses in the North West of the 14th century. It has been recognised as important for being one of the few houses in south-east Lancashire. The town was granted a Royal Charter in 1414, which allowed it to hold a twice a yearAshton-under-Lyne – Ashton-under-Lyne town centre
99. Blyth, Northumberland – Blyth is a town and civil parish in southeast Northumberland, England. It lies on the coast, to the south of the River Blyth and is approximately 13 miles northeast of Newcastle upon Tyne and it has a population of about 37,339. The port of Blyth dates from the 12th century, but the development of the town only began in the first quarter of the 18th century. The main industries which helped the town prosper were coal mining and shipbuilding, with the trade, fishing. These industries have vanished, but the port still thrives, shipping paper. The town was affected when its principal industries went into decline. The Keel Row Shopping Centre, opened in 1991, brought major high street retailers to Blyth, the market place has recently been re-developed, with the aim of attracting further investment to the town. The Quayside has also seen much redevelopment and has transformed into a peaceful open space. There were, on the side of the river are the nine wind turbines of the Blyth Harbour Wind Farm. They were joined in 2000 by Blyth Offshore Wind Farm, which is composed of two turbines situated 1 kilometre out to sea. Although the original 9 turbines have now been demolished, there is one bigger turbine on the North Blyth side with building work taking place on a second turbine. Blyth is also home to the football club Blyth Spartans. The place-name Blyth is first attested in 1130 as Blida, the river-name comes from the Old English adjective blithe meaning gentle or merry, and still used today. Interestingly, the town of Blyth is referred to as Blithmuth in 1236, had this name persisted, the town would today be referred to as Blythmouth, on the analogy of Tynemouth to the south. Little is known of the development of the Blyth area. The oldest archaeological find is an antler hammer dating from the late Neolithic or early Bronze Age period, which was found at Newsham in 1979. Human skulls, a spearhead and a sword dating from the Bronze Age were found in the river in 1890, as well as an axe which was found at South Beach in 1993. Debate also surrounds a mosaic which was found near Bath Terrace, the strongest evidence so far has been a single coin, dating from the reign of the Emperor Constans, which was found during excavations for a dry dockBlyth, Northumberland – Blyth town centre
100. Brownsea Island Scout camp – Boys from different social backgrounds participated from 1 to 8 August 1907 in activities around camping, observation, woodcraft, chivalry, lifesaving and patriotism. Recognised as the worlds first Scout camp, the event is regarded as the origin of the worldwide Scout movement. Up to the early 1930s, camping by Boy Scouts continued on Brownsea Island, in 1963, a formal 50-acre Scout campsite was opened by Olave Baden-Powell, when the island became a nature conservation area owned by the National Trust. In 1973, a Scout Jamboree was held on the island with 600 Scouts, the worldwide centenary of Scouting took place at the Brownsea Island Scout camp, celebrated on 1 August 2007, the 100th anniversary of the start of the first encampment. Activities by The Scout Association at the campsite included four Scout camps, robert Baden-Powell had become a national hero during the Boer War as a result of his successful defence of the town of Mafeking, which was under siege from October 1899 to May 1900. The Mafeking Cadets, made up of boys aged 12 to 15, acted as messengers throughout the siege. Baden-Powell had also published a number of books on military scouting, including Aids to Scouting for NCOs and Men. Though written for non-commissioned officers, it became a best-seller and was used by teachers, to test his ideas while writing Scouting for Boys, Baden-Powell conceived of an experimental camp, creating a program to take place on Brownsea Island during the summer of 1907. He invited his friend, Major Kenneth McLaren, to attend the camp as an assistant. Baden-Powell had visited Brownsea Island as a boy with his brothers and it covers 560 acres of woodland and open areas, and features two lakes. The island perfectly suited his needs for the camp as it was isolated from the mainland and hence from the press, yet was only a ferry trip from the town of Poole. Baden-Powell invited boys from different social backgrounds to the camp, an idea during the class-conscious Edwardian era. Eleven came from the private boarding schools of Eton and Harrow. Seven came from the Boys Brigade at Bournemouth, and three came from the Brigade at Poole & Hamworthy, Baden-Powells nine-year-old nephew Donald Baden-Powell also attended. The camp fee was dependent on means, one pound for the school boys. The boys were arranged into four patrols, designated as the Wolves, Ravens, Bulls and it is uncertain if 20 or 21 boys attended the camp. At least four authors list attendance at 20 boys, and that they were organised into five patrols with Baden-Powells nephew Donald as camp orderly. These sources included an article in The Scout, Sir Percy Everett in The First Ten Years and Rover Word, in 1964, William Hillcourt added the fourth Rodney brother, Simon, in Two Lives of a Hero, bringing the total to 21Brownsea Island Scout camp – Robert Baden-Powell at Brownsea Island, 1907
101. Greater Manchester – Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million. Greater Manchester was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972, Greater Manchester spans 493 square miles, which roughly covers the territory of the Greater Manchester Built-up Area, the second most populous urban area in the UK. It is landlocked and borders Cheshire, Derbyshire, West Yorkshire, Lancashire, for the 12 years following 1974 the county had a two-tier system of local government, district councils shared power with the Greater Manchester County Council. The county council was abolished in 1986, and so its districts became unitary authority areas. However, the county has continued to exist in law and as a geographic frame of reference, and as a ceremonial county, has a Lord Lieutenant. A further devolution of powers to Greater Manchester is set to place upon the election of the inaugural Mayor of Greater Manchester scheduled for 2017. Before the creation of the county, the name SELNEC was used for the area. Since deindustrialisation in the century, Greater Manchester has become known as an exporter of media and digital content, for its guitar and dance music. Although the modern county of Greater Manchester was not created until 1974, there is evidence of Iron Age habitation, particularly at Mellor, and Celtic activity in a settlement named Chochion, believed to have been an area of Wigan settled by the Brigantes. Stretford was also part of the believed to have been occupied by the Celtic Brigantes tribe. The remains of 1st-century forts at Castlefield in Manchester, and Castleshaw Roman fort in Saddleworth, are evidence of Roman occupation. Much of the region was omitted from the Domesday Book of 1086, Redhead states that this was only a partial survey was taken. During the Middle Ages, much of what became Greater Manchester lay within the hundred of Salfordshire – an ancient division of the county of Lancashire, Salfordshire encompassed several parishes and townships, some of which, like Rochdale, were important market towns and centres of Englands woollen trade. The development of what became Greater Manchester is attributed to a tradition of domestic flannel and fustian cloth production. Infrastructure such as rows of terraced housing, factories and roads were constructed to house labour, transport goods, however, it was Manchester that was the most populous settlement, a major city, the worlds largest marketplace for cotton goods, and the natural centre of its region. In the 1910s, local government reforms to administer this conurbation as an entity were proposed. In the 18th century, German traders had coined the name Manchesterthum to cover the region in, however, the English term Greater Manchester did not appear until the 20th century. One of its first known recorded uses was in a 1914 report put forward in response to what was considered to have been the creation of the County of London in 1889Greater Manchester – Former weavers' cottages in Wardle. The development of Greater Manchester is attributed to a shared tradition of domestic cloth production, and textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution.
102. Jerome, Arizona – Jerome is a town in the Black Hills of Yavapai County in the State of Arizona. Founded in the late 19th century on Cleopatra Hill overlooking the Verde Valley and it is about 100 miles north of Phoenix along State Route 89A between Sedona and Prescott. Supported in its heyday by rich copper mines, it was home to more than 10,000 people in the 1920s, as of the 2010 census, its population was 444. The town owes its existence mainly to two ore bodies that formed about 1.75 billion years ago along a fault in the caldera of an undersea volcano. In the late 19th century, the United Verde Mine, developed by William A. Clark, extracted ore bearing copper, gold, silver, the United Verde Extension Mine, owned by James Douglas, Jr. depended on the other huge deposit. In total, the deposits discovered in the vicinity of Jerome were among the richest ever found in any time or place. Jerome made news in 1917, when strikes involving the Industrial Workers of the World led to the expulsion at gunpoint of about 60 IWW members, who were loaded on a cattle car and shipped west. Production at the mines, always subject to fluctuations for various reasons, boomed during World War I, fell thereafter, rose again, then again during. As the ore deposits became exhausted, the closed. Efforts to save the town from oblivion succeeded when residents turned to tourism, Jerome became a National Historic Landmark in 1967. In the early 21st century, Jerome has art galleries, coffee houses, restaurants, wineries, Jerome is about 100 miles north of Phoenix and 45 miles southwest of Flagstaff along Arizona State Route 89A between Sedona and Prescott. Other nearby communities include Clarkdale, Cottonwood, and Prescott Valley, Jerome is in Arizonas Black Hills and within the Prescott National Forest at an elevation of more than 5,000 feet. Woodchute Wilderness is about 3 miles west of Jerome, and Mingus Mountain, Jerome State Historic Park is in the town itself. Bitter Creek, a tributary of the Verde River, flows intermittently through Jerome, most of Cleopatra Hill, the rock formation upon which Jerome was built, is 1.75 billion years old. After the eruption, cold sea water entered Earths crust through cracks caused by the eruption, heated by rising magma to perhaps 660 °F, the water was forced upward again, chemically altering the rocks it encountered and becoming rich in dissolved minerals. When the hot solution emerged from a vent at the bottom of the ocean, its dissolved minerals solidified. The accumulating sulfide deposits from two such vents formed the ore bodies, the United Verde and the UVX, most important to Jerome 1.75 billion years later and these ore bodies formed in different places along a ring fault in the caldera. About 50 million years after they were deposited, the plate of which they were a part collided with another small plateJerome, Arizona – Connor Hotel, 1899
103. Keswick, Cumbria – Keswick is an English market town and civil parish, historically in Cumberland, and since 1974 in the Borough of Allerdale in Cumbria. The town, in the Lake District National Park, just north of Derwentwater, among the towns annual events is the Keswick Convention, an Evangelical gathering attracting visitors from many countries. Keswick became widely known for its association with the poets Samuel Taylor Coleridge, together with their fellow Lake Poet William Wordsworth, based at Grasmere,12 miles away, they made the scenic beauty of the area widely known to readers in Britain and beyond. The town is first recorded in Edward Is charter of the 13th century, among the later scholars supporting the cheese farm toponymy are Eilert Ekwall and A D Mills, and Diana Whaley, for the English Place-Name Society. Evidence of prehistoric occupation in the area includes the Castlerigg stone circle on the fringe of the town. Neolithic-era stone tools were unearthed inside the circle and in the centre of Keswick during the 19th century, the antiquary W G Collingwood, commenting in 1925 about finds in the area, wrote that they showed Stone Age man was fairly at home in the Lake District. In Roman Britain Cumbria was the territory of the Carvetii, as the site of the western part of Hadrians Wall, it was of strategic importance. Such nearby settlements as can be traced from the era of the Romans, many local place names from the period, including that of the River Derwent, are Celtic, some closely related to Welsh equivalents. The former, the pupil and friend of St Cuthbert of Lindisfarne, lived as a hermit on an island in Derwentwater, now named after him. Kentigern, who lived and preached in the area before moving to Wales, is held to have founded Crosthwaite Church. Keswicks recorded history starts in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria in the seventh century, but Northumbria was destroyed by the Vikings in the late ninth. In the early tenth century the British Kingdom of Strathclyde seized the area, and it remained part of Strathclyde until about 1050, when Siward, Earl of Northumbria, conquered Cumbria. In 1181 Jocelyn of Furness wrote of a new church at Crosthwaite, Keswick, founded by Alice de Romilly, the Lady of Allerdale, in 1189, Richard I granted the rectory of Crosthwaite to the Cistercian order of Fountains Abbey. During the 13th century, agricultural land around the town was acquired by Fountains, the latter, already prosperous from the wool trade, wished to expand its sheep farming, and in 1208 bought large tracts of land from Alice de Romilly. She also negotiated with Fountains Abbey, to which she sold Derwent Island in Derwentwater, land at Watendlath, Keswick was at the hub of the monastic farms in the area, and Fountains based a steward in the town, where tenants paid their rents. Furness also enjoyed profitable rights to the extraction of iron ore, Keswick was granted a charter for a market in 1276 by Edward I. This market has a history lasting for more than 700 years. According to local tradition these stout walls and the entrances to the yards were for defence against marauding ScotsKeswick, Cumbria – Keswick
104. Lock Haven, Pennsylvania – The city of Lock Haven is the county seat of Clinton County, in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. At the 2010 census, Lock Havens population was 9,772, built on a site long favored by pre-Columbian peoples, Lock Haven began in 1833 as a timber town and a haven for loggers, boatmen, and other travelers on the river or the West Branch Canal. Resource extraction and efficient transportation financed much of the growth through the end of the 19th century. In the 20th century, a factory, a college. Frequent floods, especially in 1972, damaged local industry and led to a rate of unemployment in the 1980s. A levee, completed in 1995, protects the city from further flooding, while industry remains important to the city, about a third of Lock Havens workforce is employed in education, health care, or social services. The earliest settlers in Pennsylvania arrived from Asia between 12000 BCE and 8000 BCE, when the glaciers of the Pleistocene Ice Age were receding, fluted point spearheads from this era, known as the Paleo-Indian Period, have been found in most parts of the state. First contact with Europeans occurred in Pennsylvania between 1500 and 1600 CE, Indian settlements in the area included three Munsee villages on the 325-acre Great Island in the West Branch Susquehanna River at the mouth of Bald Eagle Creek. During the French and Indian War, colonial militiamen on the Kittanning Expedition destroyed Munsee property on the Great Island, by 1763, the Munsee had abandoned their island villages and other villages in the area. With the signing of the first Treaty of Fort Stanwix in 1768, however, white settlers continued to appropriate land, including tracts in and near the future site of Lock Haven, not covered by the treaty. It was the westernmost of 11 mostly primitive forts along the West Branch, Fort Augusta, in response to settler incursions, and encouraged by the British during the American Revolution, Indians attacked colonists and their settlements along the West Branch. Fort Reed and the white settlements in the area were temporarily abandoned in 1778 during a general evacuation known as the Big Runaway. Hundreds of people fled along the river to Fort Augusta, about 50 miles from Fort Reed, the U. S. acquired the last remaining tract, the Erie Triangle, through a separate treaty and sold it to Pennsylvania in 1792. Lock Haven was laid out as a town in 1833, and it became the county seat in 1839, incorporated as a borough in 1840 and as a city in 1870, Lock Haven prospered in the 19th century largely because of timber and transportation. The forests of Clinton County and counties upriver held a supply of white pine and hemlock as well as oak, ash, maple, poplar, cherry, beech. The wood was used locally for such things as houses, shingles, canal boats, and wooden bridges. Log driving and log rafting, competing forms of transporting logs to sawmills, by 1830, slightly before the founding of the town, the lumber industry was well established. The West Branch Canal, which opened in 1834, ran 73 miles from Northumberland to Farrandsville, a state-funded extension called the Bald Eagle Cut ran from the West Branch through Lock Haven and Flemington to Bald Eagle CreekLock Haven, Pennsylvania – Clinton County Courthouse, Lock Haven (1869), Samuel Sloan and Addison Hutton, architects
105. Nico Ditch – Nico Ditch is a six mile long linear earthwork between Ashton-under-Lyne and Stretford in Greater Manchester, England. It was dug as a fortification, or possibly a boundary marker. The ditch is visible in short sections, such as a 330-yard stretch in Denton Golf Course. In the parts which survive, the ditch is 4–5 yards wide, part of the earthwork is protected as a Scheduled Ancient Monument. Nico Ditch stretches six miles from Ashton Moss in Ashton-under-Lyne to Hough Moss, the ditch coincides with the boundaries between the boroughs of Stockport and Manchester, and between Tameside and Manchester as far as Denton golf course. A section is now beneath the Audenshaw Reservoirs, which were built towards the end of the 19th century, the ditch may have extended west beyond Stretford, to Urmston. Nico Ditch was constructed some time between the end of Roman rule in Britain in the early 5th century and the Norman conquest in 1066 and its original purpose is unclear, but it may have been used as a defensive fortification or as an administrative boundary. It possibly marked a 7th-century boundary for the expansionist Anglo-Saxons, or it may have been a late 8th or early 9th century boundary marker between the kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria. In the early period, the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia and Wessex struggled for control over North West England, along with the Britons. Whatever its earlier use, the ditch has been used as a boundary since at least the Middle Ages. It was said that man had an allocated area to construct. The names derive from dirty farmstead and reedy ditch respectively, antiquarians and historians have been interested in the ditch since the 19th century, but much of its course has been built over. Although no date was established for the construction, the investigations revealed that the bank to the north of the ditch is of 20th century origin. The conclusion of the project was that the ditch was probably a boundary marker, the earliest documented reference to the ditch is in a charter detailing the granting of land in Audenshaw to the monks of the Kersal Cell. In the document, dating from 1190 to 1212, the ditch is referred to as Mykelldiche, the name Nico for the ditch became established in the 19th and 20th centuries. An alternative derivation is that Nico comes from nǽcan, an Anglo-Saxon verb meaning kill, despite heavy weathering, the ditch is still visible in short sections, which can be 4–5 yards wide and up to 5 feet deep. A 330-yard stretch through Denton Golf Course, and a section running through Platt Fields Park, are considered the best preserved remains, in 1997, a segment of the ditch 150-yard long in Platt Fields was protected as a Scheduled Ancient Monument. The rest of the ditch remains unprotected, history of Manchester Scheduled Monuments in Greater Manchester Notes BibliographyNico Ditch – Looking west along Nico Ditch, near Levenshulme
106. Plunketts Creek (Loyalsock Creek) – Plunketts Creek is an approximately 6. 2-mile-long tributary of Loyalsock Creek in Lycoming and Sullivan counties in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. Two unincorporated villages and a hamlet are on the creek, the creek is a part of the Chesapeake Bay drainage basin via Loyalsock Creek and the West Branch Susquehanna and Susquehanna Rivers. Plunketts Creeks unique name comes from the first owner of the land including the mouth. The creek flows southwest and then south through the dissected Allegheny Plateau, through rock from the Mississippian sub-period, much of the Plunketts Creek valley is composed of various glacial deposits, chiefly alluvium. The watershed now includes parts of the Loyalsock State Forest, Pennsylvania State Game Lands, tourism, hunting, and fishing have long been important in the region, and its year-round population is increasing much faster than that of either Lycoming or Sullivan County. Plunketts Creek is named for Colonel William Plunkett, a physician, during conflicts with Native Americans, he treated wounded settlers and fought the natives. Plunkett led a Pennsylvania expedition in the Pennamite-Yankee War to forcibly remove settlers from Connecticut, for his services, Plunkett was granted six tracts of land totaling 1,978 acres on November 14,1776, although the land was not actually surveyed until September 1783. Plunketts land included the mouth, so Plunketts Creek was given his name. During the American Revolution, Plunkett did not actively support the revolution and he died in 1791, aged about 100, and was buried in Northumberland, without a grave marker or monument. Lycoming County was formed from Northumberland County in 1795, naming the township for the creek was an acceptable compromise. Plunketts Creek Township was originally larger than it is now. When Sullivan County was formed from Lycoming County on March 15,1847, in 1866, Cascade Township was formed from parts of Hepburn and Plunketts Creek Townships in Lycoming County. According to Meginness, Colonel Plunkett actually spelled his last name Plunket, but the current spelling was established by custom, as of 2007, it is the only stream officially named Plunketts Creek on USGS maps of the United States and in the USGS Geographic Names Information System. The possessive apostrophe is not part of the name of the creek. The Native American name for Plunketts Creek is unknown, two streams in the watershed have given their names to roads in Plunketts Creek Township, Engle Run Drive and Mock Run Road. The source of Plunketts Creek is 1440 ft above sea level, northwest of the village of Hillsgrove and just south of the Loyalsock State Forest in Hillsgrove Township. The creek continues southwest as it enters Plunketts Creek Township and receives Reibsan Run on the bank,4.70 miles upstream from the mouth. It next receives Mock Creek at the hamlet of Hoppestown, then Wolf Run, at the village of Proctor, Plunketts Creek receives King Run on the right bank, then turns south towards Loyalsock CreekPlunketts Creek (Loyalsock Creek) – Plunketts Creek looking upstream, just north of the mouth in Plunketts Creek Township
107. Qatna – Qatna is an archaeological site in the Wadi il-Aswad, a tributary of the Orontes,18 km northeast of Homs, Syria. It consists in a tell occupying 1 km², which makes it one of the largest Bronze Age towns in western Syria, the tell is located at the edge of the limestone-plateau of the Syrian desert towards the fertile Homs-Bassin. The tell is named after the adjacent modern town of al-Mishirfeh, the first finds at Qatna date to the mid- to late 3rd millennium BC, although this early period is not well represented. The find of a 12th Dynasty Egyptian sphinx belonging to Princess Ita, daughter of Amenemhat II shows early Egyptian influence, the first king of Qatna known by name from the Mari archives is Ishi-Adad, an Amurru or Amorite. He was a confederate of Shamshi-Adad of Upper Mesopotamia and he was succeeded by his son Amut-pî-el who had been governor of Nazala as crown prince. This was in the time of Hammurabi of Babylon, beltum, the sister of Amut-pî-el was married to Jasmah-Addu of Mari. Contracts between Mari and Qatna define her as the wife of Jasmah-Addu. Her mother might have been Lammassi-Ashur from Assur or Ekallatum, zimrilim of Mari was married to another princess from Qatna, Dam-hurasim. At its height, Qatna extended from Palmyra in the east, after the destruction of Mari by Hammurapi, the written sources become sparse. Aleppo now became Qatnas most powerful neighbour, during the reign of Yarim-Lim III Qatna was temporarily dominated by Aleppo, with the development of the Mitanni empire in Upper Mesopotamia, Qatna was incorporated but was located in disputed territory between the Mitanni and Egypt. The inscriptions of the so-called Nin-Egal temple show that Mittanni were resident in Qatna, the campaigns of Pharaohs Amenhotep I and Thutmose I in Syria might have reached Qatna, but there is no conclusive evidence. On the 7th Pylon of the temple of Amun in Karnak, Amenhotep II was attacked by the host of Qatnawhile crossing the Orontes, but he remained victorious and acquired booty, among which the equipment of a Mitanni charioteer is mentioned. Qatna is mentioned in Egyptian topographic lists till the time of Ramesses III, cuneiform tablets discovered under the Royal palace in Qatna mention a previously unknown king Idanda who ruled ca.1400 BC. During this same Amarna letters period, Prince Akizzi wrote 5 letters to Akhenaten, texts from Emar describe how Qatna was attacked by Aramaic tribes in the late Bronze Age, so the town must still have been in existence. The tell was settled in Neo-Babylonian times as well, but the town remained insignificant as nearby Emesa had taken over its position on the trade routes, in the 2nd Millennium BC trade routes developed connecting Mesopotamia with Cyprus, Crete and Egypt. Qatna was then situated near the end of the road connecting the middle Euphrates valley, another route started from Aleppo, left the Euphrates at Emar and led via Halab, Qatna and Hazor to Egypt. The valley of Homs formed a connection to the Mediterranean near the port of Byblos and Tripoli, Qatna is mentioned in the tin trade, which went from Mari via Qatna to the Mediterranean, Cypriote copper was transported in the other direction. The Mari texts mention cloth, clothing, a kind of bows, jewellery, woods, wine and two-wheeled chariots as trade goods reaching Mari via QatnaQatna – Part of the excavated royal palace
108. Radcliffe, Greater Manchester – Radcliffe is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Bury, Greater Manchester, England. It lies in the Irwell Valley 2.5 miles south-west of Bury and 6.5 miles north-northwest of Manchester and is contiguous with Whitefield to the south, the disused Manchester, Bolton & Bury Canal bisects the town. Historically a part of Lancashire, evidence of Mesolithic, Roman and Norman activity has been found in Radcliffe, a Roman road passes through the area, along the border between Radcliffe and Bury. Coal lies under the area of mines opened in the Industrial Revolution, by the mid-19th century, Radcliffe was an important mill town with cotton mills, bleachworks and a road, canal and railway network. With a population of 34,239, falling to 29,950 at the Census in 2011, Radcliffe is predominantly a residential area whose few remaining cotton mills are now occupied by small businesses. The name Radcliffe is derived from the Old English words read and clif, meaning the red cliff or bank, the Domesday Book records the name as Radeclive. Other archaic spellings include Radclive, and Radeclif, the Radcliffe family took its name from the town. The first human settlements in the area, albeit seasonal, are thought to have been as far back as 6, archaeological excavations in 1949 at Radcliffe Ees found evidence of pre-historic activity, suggesting a lake village site, but dating techniques of the time were unreliable. Further investigations in 1961 revealed rows of sharpened posts and worked timbers, in 1911 while repairs to the bridge at Radcliffe bridge were underway, a stone axe-hammer was found in the river bed. The 8. 5-inch large tool artefact weighs 4 pounds and is made from polished Quartzite, South of the present-day Withins reservoir is a possible location for a Hengi-form Tumulus. The town also has Roman associations, a Roman road passes through the town and it allowed easy travel between the Roman forts at Manchester and Ribchester. The approximate route was through Higher Lane in nearby Whitefield, through Dales Lane, the route passes up Croft Lane, over Cross Lane and over the route of the Manchester Bolton & Bury Canal under the 10 3/4 milestone. It then crosses Bury and Bolton Road, and heads through Higher Spen Moor, other than placenames, little information about the area survives from the Dark Ages. Radcliffe was likely moorland and swamps, following the 11th century Norman conquest of England, Radcliffe became a parish and township in the hundred of Salford, and county of Lancashire. As a Royal Manor, the hide may originally have been up to four times the size it was when it was recorded in 1212 as being held by William de Radeclive, of the Radclyffes of the Tower family. In the 15th century the Pilkington family who, during the Wars of the Roses, supported the House of York, Thomas Pilkington was at this time lord of many estates in Lancashire. In 1485 Richard III was killed in the Battle of Bosworth, the Duke of Richmond, representing the House of Lancaster, was crowned Henry VII. Sir William Stanley may have placed the crown upon his head, as a reward for the support of his family, on 27 October 1485 Henry made Thomas Stanley the Earl of DerbyRadcliffe, Greater Manchester – A prominent landmark, St Thomas and St John with St Philip Church
109. Somerset Levels – The Somerset Levels are a coastal plain and wetland area of Somerset, South West England, running south from the Mendips to the Blackdown Hills. The Mendip Hills separate the Somerset Levels from the North Somerset Levels, the Somerset Levels consist of marine clay levels along the coast and inland peat-based moors, agriculturally, about 70 per cent is used as grassland and the rest is arable. Willow and teazel are grown commercially and peat is extracted, a Palaeolithic flint tool found in West Sedgemoor is the earliest indication of human presence in the area. The Levels were the location of the Glastonbury Lake Village as well as two Lake villages at Meare Lake, several settlements and hill forts were built on the natural islands of slightly raised land, including Brent Knoll and Glastonbury. In the Roman period sea salt was extracted and a string of settlements were set up along the Polden Hills. The discovery at Shapwick of 9,238 silver Roman coins, a number of Saxon charters document the incorporation of areas of moor in estates. In 1685, the Battle of Sedgemoor was fought in the Bussex area of Westonzoyland at the conclusion of the Monmouth Rebellion, as a result of the wetland nature of the Levels, the area contains a rich biodiversity of national and international importance. It supports a vast variety of plant and bird species and is an important feeding ground for birds and includes 32 Sites of Special Scientific Interest, the area has been extensively studied for its biodiversity and heritage, and has a growing tourism industry. People have been draining the area since before the Domesday Book, in the Middle Ages, the monasteries of Glastonbury, Athelney and Muchelney were responsible for much of the drainage. The artificial Huntspill River was constructed during the Second World War as a reservoir, the Sowy River between the River Parrett and Kings Sedgemoor Drain was completed in 1972, water levels are managed by the Levels internal drainage boards. Discussions have taken place concerning the possibility of obtaining World Heritage Site status for the Somerset Levels as a cultural landscape. It was suggested that if this bid were successful it could improve flood control, but only if wetland fens were created again, the plans were abandoned in 2010. The Somerset Levels form a region that has been designated as a national character area – No.142 – by Natural England. The Levels are mainly flat areas of plains and a coastal sand and clay barrier. There are some slightly raised parts, called burtles, as well as higher ridges, the Levels are about 20 feet above mean sea level. The general elevation inland is 10 to 12 feet O. D. with peak tides of 25 to 26 feet O. D. recorded at Bridgwater, large areas of peat were laid down in the Brue Valley during the Quaternary period after the ice sheets melted. The area is prone to floods of fresh water and occasional salt water inundations. Another severe flood occurred in 1872–1873, when over 107 square miles were underwater from October to March, Glastonbury Tor is composed of Upper Lias SandSomerset Levels – The Somerset Levels, seen from Glastonbury Tor
110. Chicago Pile-1 – Chicago Pile-1, when it achieved criticality, became the worlds first artificial nuclear reactor. Its construction was part of the Manhattan Project, the Allied effort to create atomic bombs during World War II and it was built by the Manhattan Projects Metallurgical Laboratory at the University of Chicago, under the west viewing stands of the original Stagg Field. The reactor was assembled in November 1942, by a team that included Fermi, Leo Szilard, discoverer of the reaction, and Herbert L. Anderson, Walter Zinn, Martin D. Whitaker. It contained 45,000 graphite blocks weighing 400 short tons used as neutron moderators, unlike most subsequent nuclear reactors, it had no radiation shielding or cooling system as it only operated at very low power. The shape of the pile was intended to be roughly spherical, in 1943, CP-1 was moved to Red Gate Woods, and reconfigured to become Chicago Pile-2. There, it was operated until 1954, when it was dismantled and buried, the stands at Stagg Field were demolished in August 1957, but the site is now a National Historic Landmark and a Chicago Landmark. The concept of a chain reaction was first hypothesized by the Hungarian scientist Leo Szilard on 12 September 1933. Szilard realized that if a nuclear reaction produced neutrons or dineutrons, which caused further nuclear reactions. Szilard proposed using mixtures of lighter known isotopes which produced neutrons in copious amounts and he filed a patent for his idea of a simple nuclear reactor the following year. In order for a reaction to occur, fissioning uranium atoms had to emit additional neutrons to keep the reaction going. Subsequent work confirmed that fast neutrons were indeed produced by fission, Szilard obtained permission from the head of the Physics Department at Columbia, George B. Pegram, to use a laboratory for three months, and persuaded Walter Zinn to become his collaborator and they conducted a simple experiment on the seventh floor of Pupin Hall at Columbia, using a radium-beryllium source to bombard uranium with neutrons. They discovered significant neutron multiplication in uranium, proving that a chain reaction might be possible. Fermi and Szilard still believed that enormous quantities of uranium would be required for an atomic bomb, an initial design planned to use the U-235, but sufficient quantities still proved limited at the time. Szilard suggested to Fermi that they use carbon in the form of graphite as a moderator, as a back-up plan, he considered heavy water. Fermi estimated that a fissioning uranium nucleus produced 1.73 neutrons on average and it was enough, but a careful design was called for to minimize losses. Szilard estimated he would need about 50 short tons of graphite and 5 short tons of uranium, in December 1940, Fermi and Szilard met with Herbert G. MacPherson and Victor C. Hamister at National Carbon to discuss the existence of impurities in graphiteChicago Pile-1 – Site of the First Self Sustaining Nuclear Reaction
111. Fredonian Rebellion – The Fredonian Rebellion was the first attempt by Anglo settlers in Texas to secede from Mexico. The settlers, led by Empresario Haden Edwards, declared independence from Mexican Texas, the short-lived republic encompassed the land the Mexican government had granted to Edwards in 1825 and included areas that had been previously settled. In late December 1826, a group of Edwardss supporters took control of the region by arresting and removing from office several municipality officials affiliated with the established residents, supporters declared their independence from Mexico. Austin convinced tribal leaders to repudiate the rebellion, on January 31,1827, a force of over 100 Mexican soldiers and 250 militiamen from Austins colony marched into Nacogdoches to restore order. Haden Edwards and his brother Benjamin fled to the United States, Chief Richard Fields was killed by his own tribe. A local merchant was arrested and sentenced to death, but later paroled, the rebellion led Mexican President Guadalupe Victoria to increase the military presence in the area. As a result, several tribes in the area halted their raids on settlements. The Comanche abided by this treaty for many years, fearing that through the rebellion the United States hoped to gain control of Texas, the Mexican government severely curtailed immigration to the region from the US. This new immigration law was opposed by colonists and caused increasing dissatisfaction with Mexican rule. Some historians consider the Fredonian Rebellion to be the beginning of the Texas Revolution, in the words of one historian, the rebellion was premature, but it sparked the powder for later success. After winning independence in 1821, several of Spains colonies in the New World joined together to create a new country, the country divided itself into several states, and the area known as Mexican Texas became part of the border state Coahuila y Tejas. To assist in governing the area, the state created several departments. This department was subdivided into municipalities, which were governed by alcalde. A large portion of East Texas, ranging from the Sabine to the Trinity Rivers and from the Gulf Coast to the Red River, most residents of the municipality were Spanish-speaking families who had occupied their land for generations. An increasing number were English-speaking residents who had immigrated illegally during the Mexican War of Independence, many of the immigrants were adventurers who had arrived as part of various military filibustering groups which had attempted to create independent republics within Texas during Spanish rule. To better control the sparsely populated region, in 1824 the Mexican federal government passed the General Colonization Law to allow legal immigration into Texas. Under the law, each state would set its own requirements for immigration, after some debate, on March 24,1825, Coahuila y Tejas authorized a system granting land to empresario, who would recruit settlers for their particular colony. In addition, for every 100 families an empresario settled on Texas, they would receive 23,000 acres of land to cultivate, during the state governments deliberations, many would-be empresarios congregated in Mexico to lobby for land grantsFredonian Rebellion – The Old Stone Fort was seized during the Fredonian Rebellion.
112. Halifax Explosion – The Halifax Explosion was a maritime disaster in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, on the morning of 6 December 1917. SS Mont-Blanc, a French cargo ship laden with explosives, collided with the Norwegian vessel SS Imo in the Narrows. A fire on board the French ship ignited her cargo, causing an explosion that devastated the Richmond district of Halifax. Approximately 2,000 people were killed by blast, debris, fires and collapsed buildings, the blast was the largest man-made explosion prior to the development of nuclear weapons, releasing the equivalent energy of roughly 2.9 kilotons of TNT. Mont-Blanc was under orders from the French government to carry her cargo of explosives from New York via Halifax to Bordeaux. At roughly 8,45 am, she collided at low speed – approximately one knot – with the unladen Imo, the resulting fire aboard the French ship quickly grew out of control. Approximately 20 minutes later at 9,04,35 am, nearly all structures within an 800-metre radius, including the entire community of Richmond, were obliterated. A pressure wave snapped trees, bent iron rails, demolished buildings, grounded vessels, hardly a window in the city proper survived the blast. Across the harbour, in Dartmouth, there was widespread damage. A tsunami created by the blast wiped out the community of Mikmaq First Nations people who had lived in the Tufts Cove area for generations, Relief efforts began almost immediately, and hospitals quickly became full. Rescue trains began arriving from across eastern Canada and the north-eastern United States, construction of temporary shelters to house the many people left homeless began soon after the disaster. The initial judicial inquiry found Mont-Blanc to have responsible for the disaster. There are several memorials to the victims of the explosion in the North End, the community of Dartmouth lies on the east shore of Halifax Harbour, while Halifax is on the west shore. After 1906, the Canadian Government took over the Halifax Dockyard from the Royal Navy and this dockyard later became the command centre of the Royal Canadian Navy upon its founding in 1910. Just before the First World War, the Canadian government began to make a determined, costly effort to develop the harbour, the outbreak of the war brought Halifax back to prominence. The population of Halifax/Dartmouth had increased to between 60,000 and 65,000 people by 1917, convoys carried soldiers, men, animals and supplies to the European theatre of war. The two main points of departure were in Nova Scotia at Sydney in Cape Breton and Halifax, Hospital ships brought the wounded to the city, and a new military hospital was constructed in the city. The success of German U-boat attacks on crossing the Atlantic Ocean led the Allies to institute a convoy system to reduce losses while transporting goodsHalifax Explosion – A view of the pyrocumulus cloud
113. Macedonia (ancient kingdom) – Macedonia or Macedon was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece. The kingdom was founded and at first ruled by the royal Argead dynasty, the reign of Philip II saw the rise of Macedonia, during which the kingdom rose to control the entire Greek world. With a reformed army containing phalanxes wielding the sarissa pike, Philip II defeated the old powers of Athens and Thebes in the decisive Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, Sparta was kept isolated and was occupied a century later by Antigonus III Doson. Alexander then led a roughly decade-long campaign of conquest against the Achaemenid Empire, in the ensuing wars of Alexander the Great, he overthrew the Achaemenid Empire and conquered a territory that stretched as far as the Indus River. For a brief period, his Macedonian empire was the most powerful in the world – the definitive Hellenistic state, Greek arts and literature flourished in the new conquered lands and advances in philosophy, engineering, and science were spread throughout much of the ancient world. Of particular importance were the contributions of Aristotle, who had been imported as tutor to Alexander, important cities such as Pella, Pydna, and Amphipolis were involved in power struggles for control of the territory. New cities were founded, such as Thessalonica by the usurper Cassander, Macedonias decline began with the Macedonian Wars and the rise of Rome as the leading Mediterranean power. At the end of the Second Macedonian War in 168 BC, a short-lived revival of the monarchy during the Third Macedonian War in 150–148 BC ended with the establishment of the Roman province of Macedonia. The name Macedonia comes from the ethnonym Μακεδόνες, which itself is derived from the ancient Greek adjective μακεδνός, meaning tall and it also shares the same root as the noun μάκρος, meaning length in both ancient and modern Greek. The name is believed to have meant either highlanders, the tall ones. Robert S. P. Beekes supports that both terms are of Pre-Greek substrate origin and cannot be explained in terms of Indo-European morphology. Contradictory legends state that either Perdiccas I of Macedon or Caranus of Macedon were the founders of the Argead dynasty, the kingdom of Macedonia was situated along the Haliacmon and Axius rivers in Lower Macedonia, north of Mount Olympus. Historian Malcolm Errington posits the theory one of the earliest Argead kings must have established Aigai as their capital in the mid-7th century BC. Prior to the 4th century BC, the kingdom covered a region corresponding to the western. Achaemenid Persian hegemony over Macedonia was briefly interrupted by the Ionian Revolt, although Macedonia enjoyed a large degree of autonomy and was never made a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire, it was expected to provide troops for the Achaemenid army. Following the Greek victory at Salamis in 480 BC, Alexander I was employed as an Achaemenid diplomat to strike a treaty and alliance with Athens. Soon afterwards the Achaemenid forces were forced to withdraw from mainland Europe, although initially a Persian vassal, Alexander I of Macedon fostered friendly diplomatic relations with his former Greek enemies, the Athenian and Spartan-led coalition of Greek city-states. Two separate wars were fought against Athens between 433 and 431 BC, spurred by an Athenian alliance with a brother and cousin of Perdiccas II who had rebelled against himMacedonia (ancient kingdom) – The entrance to one of the royal tombs at Vergina, a UNESCO World Heritage site.
114. Metallurgical Laboratory – The Metallurgical Laboratory or Met Lab was the Chicago-based part of the Manhattan Project – the Allied effort to develop the atomic bomb during World War II. The Metallurgical Laboratory was established in February 1942 and it produced the first controlled nuclear chain reaction on 2 December 1942 in Chicago Pile-1, built at the Universitys old football stadium, Stagg Field. In August 1942 its chemical section was the first to separate a weighable sample of plutonium. The worlds first nuclear reactor, Chicago Pile-1, was moved by the lab to a more remote site in the Argonne Forest. Another reactor, Chicago Pile-3, was built at the Argonne site in early 1944 and this was the worlds first reactor to use heavy water as a neutron moderator. It went critical in May 1944, and was first operated at full power in July 1944. The Metallurgical Laboratory also designed the X-10 Graphite Reactor at the Clinton Engineer Works in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and it was discovered that plutonium, like radium, was a bone seeker, making it especially hazardous. The Metallurgical Laboratory was successively led by Richard L. Doan, Samuel K. Allison, Joyce C. Stearns, Scientists who worked there included Enrico Fermi, Eugene Wigner and Glenn Seaborg. At its peak on 1 July 1944, the Metallurgical Laboratory had 2,008 staff, by 1 July 1945, this had declined to 1,444. The Metallurgical Laboratory became Argonne National Laboratory on 1 July 1946, at Columbia University, Enrico Fermi and Leo Szilard began exploring how this might be achieved. This resulted in support for research into nuclear fission by the U. S. government, in April 1941, the National Defense Research Committee, asked Arthur Compton, a Nobel-Prize-winning physics professor at the University of Chicago, to report on the uranium program. Niels Bohr and John Wheeler theorized that heavy isotopes with odd numbers were fissile. If so, then plutonium-239 was likely to be, while minute quantities of plutonium-239 could be created in cyclotrons, it was not feasible to produce a large quantity that way. On 20 December, soon after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor that brought the United States into the war, Compton was placed in charge of the plutonium project. Its objectives were to produce reactors to convert uranium to plutonium, to find ways to separate the plutonium from the uranium. Although a successful reactor had not yet built, the scientists had already produced several different. It fell to Compton to decide which of these should be pursued and he proposed an ambitious schedule that aimed to achieve a controlled nuclear chain reaction by January 1943, and to have a deliverable atomic bomb by January 1945. Nobody wanted to move, and everybody argued in favor of their own location, other factors contributing to the decision were Chicagos central location and the availability of scientists, technicians and facilities in the Midwest that had not yet been taken away by war workMetallurgical Laboratory – Henry Moore 's Nuclear Energy on the site of the first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. Regenstein Library is in the background.
115. Operation Bernhard – Operation Bernhard was an exercise by the Nazis to forge British bank notes. The initial plan was to drop the notes over Britain to bring about a collapse of the British economy, the first phase was run from early 1940 by the Sicherheitsdienst under the title Unternehmen Andreas. The unit successfully duplicated the rag paper used by the British, produced near-identical engraving blocks, the unit closed in 1942 after its head, Alfred Naujocks, fell out of favour with his superior officer, Reinhard Heydrich. The operation was revived in July 1942, the aim was changed to forging money to finance German intelligence operations, instead of a specialist unit within the SD, prisoners from Nazi concentration camps were selected and sent to Sachsenhausen concentration camp to work under SS Major Bernhard Krüger. The unit produced British notes until mid 1945, estimates vary of the number, by the time the unit ceased production, they had perfected the artwork for US dollars, although the paper and serial numbers were still being analysed. The counterfeit money was laundered in exchange for money and other assets, in early 1945 the unit was moved to Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp in Austria, then to the Redl-Zipf series of tunnels before being finally sent to Ebensee concentration camp. Because of an overly precise interpretation of a German order, the prisoners were not executed on their arrival, the operation has been dramatised in a comedy-drama miniseries Private Schulz by the BBC and in a 2007 Austrian film, The Counterfeiters. The designs used on British paper currency at the beginning of the Second World War were introduced in 1855 and had been altered slightly over the intervening years. The notes were made from white rag paper with black printing on one side, the £5, also known as the White Fiver, measured 7 11⁄16 x 4 11⁄16, while the £10, £20 and £50 notes measured 8 1⁄4 x 5 1⁄4. The notes had 150 minor marks that acted as security measures to identify forgeries and these were often assumed to be printing errors, and were changed between issues of notes. Each note bore an alphanumeric serial designation and the signature of the Chief Cashier of the Bank of England, a watermark appeared across the middle of every note, it differed depending on the value of the currency and the alphanumeric serial designation used. The forged notes—amounting to £30 billion—would then be dropped over Britain, causing a financial collapse, nebes superior officer, Reinhard Heydrich, liked the plan, but was unsure of using the police files to find the available individuals. Joseph Goebbels, the Reich Minister of Propaganda, described it as einen grotesken Plan, the main objection to the plan came from Walther Funk, the Reich Minister for Economic Affairs, who said it would breach international law. Adolf Hitler, the German Chancellor, gave the approval for the operation to proceed. Palairet reported the information to London, who alerted the US Department of the Treasury, although the Bank considered the existing security measures were sufficient, in 1940 it released a blue emergency £1 note which had a metal security thread running through the paper. It also banned the import of pound notes for the duration of the war in 1943, stopped producing new £5 notes, on receipt of Hitlers go-ahead Heydrich opened a counterfeiting unit under the operational title Unternehmen Andreas. Heydrichs order to set up the unit stated that This is not to be a forgery or counterfeiting in the usual sense, the notes must be such a perfect copy of the original that even the most experienced bank-note experts cannot tell the difference. In early 1940 he forgery unit was set up in Berlin within the department of the Sicherheitsdienst, headed by Alfred NaujocksOperation Bernhard – A £5 (White fiver) note forged by the Jewish Sachsenhausen concentration camp prisoners.
116. Senghenydd colliery disaster – The Senghenydd colliery disaster, also known as the Senghenydd explosion, occurred at the Universal Colliery in Senghenydd, near Caerphilly, Glamorgan, Wales, on 14 October 1913. The explosion, which killed 439 miners and a rescuer, is still the worst mining accident in the United Kingdom, Universal Colliery, located on the South Wales Coalfield, produced steam coal which was much in demand. Some of the coal seams contained high quantities of firedamp, a highly explosive gas consisting of methane and hydrogen. In an earlier disaster in May 1901, three explosions at the colliery killed 81 miners. The inquest established that the colliery had high levels of coal dust. The cause of the 1913 explosion is unknown, but the subsequent inquiry thought the most likely cause was a spark from underground signalling equipment that could have ignited any firedamp present, fires in the workings hampered rescue efforts, and it took several days before they were under control. It took six weeks for most of the bodies to be recovered, the subsequent enquiry pointed to errors made by the company and its management leading to charges of negligence against Edward Shaw, the colliery manager, and the owners. Shaw was fined £24 while the company was fined £10, newspapers calculated the cost of each miner lost was just 5 1⁄2 pence. In 1981 a memorial to the men who died in the disaster was unveiled by the National Coal Board, followed by a second in 2006, to honour the dead of both the 1901 and 1913 explosions. The Welsh coal industry employed 1,500 workers in 1800, and as the expanded, the workforce rose to 30,000 by 1864. As employment became available, many moved to the area of the South Wales Coalfield. In 1913 Britain was responsible for 25 per cent of coal production and 55 percent of all world coal exports. The South Wales Coalfield produced the sought-after anthracite, bituminous and steam coals—the latter a grade between the two comprising a hard coal without the coking elements. An additional danger of firedamp is afterdamp, a mixture of gases left after an explosion, primarily constituted of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide. They combine with haemoglobin in the bloodstream to stop cells carrying oxygen, if survivors from an explosion are not rescued quickly, they face the possibility of being killed by the gas. As coal output from British collieries reached its peak in 1913 there was a large number of accidents around this time. Senghenydd—Senghennydd in Welsh—is situated at the end of the Aber Valley, approximately four miles north-west of Caerphilly. When geological surveys for coal began in 1890 it was a hamlet of around 100 peopleSenghenydd colliery disaster – Crowd gathering at the pit head of the Universal Colliery, after the explosion at Senghenydd
117. Tube Alloys – Starting before the Manhattan Project in the United States, the British efforts were kept classified and as such had to be referred to by code even within the highest circles of government. The possibility of weapons was acknowledged early in the war. This led to the formation of the MAUD Committee, which called for an effort to develop nuclear weapons. Wallace Akers, who oversaw the project, chose the deliberately misleading name Tube Alloys and his Tube Alloys Directorate was part of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. The Tube Alloys programme in Britain and Canada was the first nuclear weapons project, due to the high costs, and the fact that Britain was fighting a war within bombing range of its enemies, Tube Alloys was ultimately subsumed into the Manhattan Project. The Soviet Union gained valuable information through its spies, who had infiltrated both the British and American projects. The United States terminated co-operation after the war ended and this prompted the United Kingdom to launch its own project, High Explosive Research. Production facilities were established and British scientists continued their work under the auspices of an independent British programme, finally in 1952, Britain performed a nuclear test under codename Operation Hurricane. In December 1938, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann conducted experiments in Hahns laboratory in Berlin-Dahlem that involved bombarding uranium with slowed neutrons and they discovered that barium had been produced, and therefore that the uranium nucleus had been split. Atoms had been split before, by John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton at the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge in 1932, the neutron had been discovered by James Chadwick at Cavendish only in 1932. Experiments with bombardment of elements by slow neutrons had always produced heavier elements and this phenomenon was a new type of nuclear disintegration and was radioactively more powerful than ever seen before. Frisch and Meitner calculated this energy released by each disintegration to be approximately 200,000,000 electron volts, by analogy with the division of biological cells, they named this process fission. This was followed up by a group of scientists at the Collège de France in Paris, Frédéric Joliot-Curie, Hans von Halban, Lew Kowarski, in February 1939, the Paris Group showed that when fission occurs in uranium, two or three extra neutrons are given off. This important observation suggested that a nuclear chain reaction might be possible. It was immediately apparent to scientists that, in theory. The term atomic bomb was already familiar to the British public through the writings of H. G. Wells, Perrin defined a critical mass of uranium to be the smallest amount that could sustain a chain reaction. Thus, in order to create a chain reaction, there existed a need for a neutron moderator to contain. The College de France found that water and graphite could be used as acceptable moderatorsTube Alloys – The Tube Alloys created this atom bomb which was tested in 1952, codename Operation Hurricane.
118. X-10 Graphite Reactor – It was built during World War II as part of the Manhattan Project. An intermediate step was considered prudent, the next step for the plutonium project, codenamed X-10, was the construction of a semiworks where techniques and procedures could be developed and training conducted. The centerpiece of this was the X-10 Graphite Reactor and it was air-cooled, used nuclear graphite as a neutron moderator, and pure natural uranium in metal form for fuel. DuPont commenced construction of the plutonium semiworks at the Clinton Engineer Works in Oak Ridge on February 2,1943, the reactor went critical on November 4,1943, and produced its first plutonium in early 1944. It supplied the Los Alamos Laboratory with its first significant amounts of plutonium, studies of these samples heavily influenced bomb design. The reactor and chemical separation plant provided invaluable experience for engineers, technicians, reactor operators and it was shut down in 1963, and was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1965. At Columbia University, Enrico Fermi and Leo Szilard began exploring how this might be done and he convinced his old friend and collaborator Albert Einstein to co-sign it, lending his fame to the proposal. This resulted in support by the U. S. government for research into nuclear fission, in April 1941, the National Defense Research Committee asked Arthur Compton, a Nobel-Prize-winning physics professor at the University of Chicago, to report on the uranium program. His report, submitted in May 1941, foresaw the prospects of developing weapons, nuclear propulsion for ships. In October he wrote another report on the practicality of an atomic bomb, niels Bohr and John Wheeler had theorized that heavy isotopes with odd atomic numbers were fissile. If so, then plutonium-239 was likely to be, at the time only such minute quantities of plutonium-239 had been produced, in cyclotrons, and it was not possible to produce a sufficiently large quantity that way. In December, Compton was placed in charge of the plutonium project and its objectives were to produce reactors to convert uranium to plutonium, to find ways to chemically separate the plutonium from the uranium, and to design and build an atomic bomb. It fell to Compton to decide which of the different types of designs the scientists should pursue. By June 1942, the Manhattan Project had reached the stage where the construction of production facilities could be contemplated, on June 25,1942, the Office of Scientific Research and Development S-1 Executive Committee deliberated on where they should be located. Moving directly to a production plant looked like a big step. An intermediate step of building a plant was considered prudent. Compton selected a site in the Argonne Forest, part of the Forest Preserve District of Cook County, the full-scale production facilities would be co-located with other Manhattan Project facilities at a still more remote location in Tennessee. Some 1,000 acres of land was leased from Cook County for the facilities, while an 83, 000-acre site for the production facilities was selected at Oak RidgeX-10 Graphite Reactor – X-10 Reactor, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
119. Abu Nidal – Sabri Khalil al-Banna, known as Abu Nidal, was the founder of Fatah - the Revolutionary Council, a militant Palestinian splinter group more commonly known as the Abu Nidal Organization. At the height of its power in the 1970s and 1980s, Abu Nidal formed the ANO in October 1974 after a split from Yasser Arafats Fatah faction within the Palestine Liberation Organization. Acting as a contractor, Abu Nidal is believed to have ordered attacks in 20 countries, killing over 300. The groups operations included the Rome and Vienna airport attacks on 27 December 1985, Patrick Seale, Abu Nidals biographer, wrote of the shootings that their random cruelty marked them as typical Abu Nidal operations. Abu Nidal died after a shooting in his Baghdad apartment in August 2002, Palestinian sources believed he was killed on the orders of Saddam Hussein, while Iraqi officials insisted he had committed suicide during an interrogation. He was the patriot turned psychopath, David Hirst wrote in the Guardian on the news of his death and he served only himself, only the warped personal drives that pushed him into hideous crime. Abu Nidal was born in May 1937 in Jaffa, on the Mediterranean coast of what was then the British Mandate of Palestine and his father, Hajj Khalil al-Banna, owned 6,000 acres of orange groves situated between Jaffa and Majdal, today Ashkelon in Israel. The family lived in luxury in a stone house near the beach. Muhammad Khalil al-Banna, Abu Nidals brother, told Yossi Melman, according to Abu Nidal in an interview with Der Spiegel, his father had 13 wives,17 sons and eight daughters. Melman writes that Abu Nidals mother was the eighth wife and she had been one of the familys maids, a 16-year-old Alawite girl. In 1944 or 1945 his father sent him to Collège des Frères, a French mission school in Jaffa, the father died in 1945 when Abu Nidal was seven years old, and the family turned his mother out of the house. His brothers took him out of the school and enrolled him instead in a prestigious, private Muslim school in Jerusalem. He attended for two years. On 29 November 1947, the United Nations resolved to partition Palestine into an Arab, fighting broke out immediately, and the disruption of the citrus-fruit business hit the familys income. In Jaffa there were shortages, truck bombs and an Irgun mortar bombardment. Melman writes that the family had had good relations with the Jewish community, but it was war. Abu Nidals brother told Melman, My father was a friend of Avraham Shapira, one of the founders of Hashomer. He would visit in his home in Petah Tikva, or Shapira riding his horse would visit our home in Jaffa, I also remember how we visited Dr. Weizmann in his home in RehovotAbu Nidal – Abu Nidal was born in Jaffa, where he was raised in a large stone house near the beach.
120. William Cragh – William Cragh, was a medieval Welsh warrior and supporter of Rhys ap Maredudd, lord of the lands of Ystrad Tywi, in his rebellion against King Edward I of England. Captured in 1290 by the son of William de Briouze, the Cambro-Norman Lord of Gower, he was tried, Cragh was executed just outside Swansea within sight of de Briouzes Swansea Castle, twice, as the gallows collapsed during his first hanging. Cragh began to show signs of life the day after his execution, the main primary source for Craghs story is the record of the investigation into the canonisation of Thomas de Cantilupe, which is held in the Vatican Library. Craghs resurrection was one of thirty-eight miracles presented to the commissioners who in 1307 were charged with examining the evidence for Cantilupes saintliness. The hanged man himself gave evidence to the commission, after which nothing more is known of him, Cantilupe was formally canonised by Pope John XXII on 17 April 1320. William Cragh was born in about 1262 in the Welsh parish of Llanrhidian, Gower, to Rhys ap Gwilym, between 1282 and 1283 King Edward I of England waged a military campaign in Wales that concluded with his annexation of that country. One of Edwards allies, Rhys ap Maredudd, found the post-war settlement unsatisfactory, Edwards vastly superior forces soon crushed the uprising, but Rhys ap Maredudd remained at liberty until his capture and execution in 1292. Cragh probably took part in the rebellion on the Welsh side and he was apprehended in 1290 by the son of William de Briouze, the Lord of Gower, who was defending his fathers lands against incursions by the rebels still at large. Cragh was one of 14 prisoners captured by de Briouze,12 of whom were subsequently released and he was taken to Swansea Castle, where he was held in the dungeons awaiting trial, accused of killing 13 men. The law in Wales at that time permitted condemned men to atone for their crimes by making a payment to their victims, Craghs friends and family rallied round to offer 100 cows to de Briouze for his release, but the offer was refused. The substantial scale of the proposed compensation indicates that Cragh was an important man, Cragh pleaded innocence of the charges against him, but he was nevertheless found guilty and sentenced to be hanged. Cragh was hanged on a hill about a quarter of a mile outside Swansea, in sight of de Briouzes Swansea Castle and he was executed along with another malefactor, Trahaern ap Hywel. Although the latter was dealt with by the executioner, Cragh was hanged by one of his own relatives, Ythel Fachan. Trahaern ap Hywel was a large and powerful man who struggled a great deal as he was hauled up from the ground by his neck, the execution took place early in the morning, and the two men were left swinging from the gallows. John of Baggeham reported that he cut down Craghs body at about 4,00 pm and sent it into the town at the request of William de Briouzes wife and it is unclear what became of Trahaern ap Hywel, but his body may have been buried by the gallows. The younger William de Briouze visited the house in Swansea to which Craghs corpse had been taken that evening, describing the scene some years later he recalled that, His face was black and in parts bloody or stained with blood. His eyes had come out of their sockets and hung outside the eyelids and the sockets were filled with blood. His mouth, neck, and throat and the parts around them, and also his nostrils, were filled with blood, so that it was impossible in the natural course of things for him to breatheWilliam Cragh – Swansea Castle, the home of the de Briouze family, where Cragh was held before his execution
121. Guy Fawkes – Guy Fawkes, also known as Guido Fawkes, the name he adopted while fighting for the Spanish, was a member of a group of provincial English Catholics who planned the failed Gunpowder Plot of 1605. Fawkes was born and educated in York and his father died when Fawkes was eight years old, after which his mother married a recusant Catholic. Fawkes converted to Catholicism and left for the continent, where he fought in the Eighty Years War on the side of Catholic Spain against Protestant Dutch reformers in the Low Countries and he travelled to Spain to seek support for a Catholic rebellion in England without success. He later met Thomas Wintour, with whom he returned to England, Wintour introduced Fawkes to Robert Catesby, who planned to assassinate King James I and restore a Catholic monarch to the throne. The plotters leased an undercroft beneath the House of Lords, prompted by the receipt of an anonymous letter, the authorities searched Westminster Palace during the early hours of 5 November, and found Fawkes guarding the explosives. Over the next few days, he was questioned and tortured, immediately before his execution on 31 January, Fawkes fell from the scaffold where he was to be hanged and broke his neck, thus avoiding the agony of the mutilation that followed. Fawkes became synonymous with the Gunpowder Plot, the failure of which has been commemorated in Britain since 5 November 1605 and his effigy is traditionally burned on a bonfire, commonly accompanied by a fireworks display. Guy Fawkes was born in 1570 in Stonegate, York and he was the second of four children born to Edward Fawkes, a proctor and an advocate of the consistory court at York, and his wife, Edith. Guys mothers family were recusant Catholics, and his cousin, Richard Cowling, Guy was an uncommon name in England, but may have been popular in York on account of a local notable, Sir Guy Fairfax of Steeton. The date of Fawkess birth is unknown, but he was baptised in the church of St. Michael le Belfrey on 16 April, as the customary gap between birth and baptism was three days, he was probably born about 13 April. In 1568, Edith had given birth to a daughter named Anne and she bore two more children after Guy, Anne, and Elizabeth. Both were married, in 1599 and 1594 respectively, in 1579, when Guy was eight years old, his father died. His mother remarried years later, to the Catholic Dionis Baynbrigge of Scotton. A governor of the school had spent about 20 years in prison for recusancy, and its headmaster, John Pulleyn, came from a family of noted Yorkshire recusants, the Pulleyns of Blubberhouses. Fawkess fellow students included John Wright and his brother Christopher and Oswald Tesimond, Edward Oldcorne and Robert Middleton, after leaving school Fawkes entered the service of Anthony Browne, 1st Viscount Montagu. The Viscount took a dislike to Fawkes and after a short time dismissed him, he was employed by Anthony-Maria Browne, 2nd Viscount Montagu. At least one source claims that Fawkes married and had a son, in October 1591 Fawkes sold the estate in Clifton that he had inherited from his father. He travelled to the continent to fight in the Eighty Years War for Catholic Spain against the new Dutch Republic and, from 1595 until the Peace of Vervins in 1598, FranceGuy Fawkes – George Cruikshank 's illustration of Guy Fawkes, published in William Harrison Ainsworth 's 1840 novel
122. Khalid al-Mihdhar – Khalid Muhammad Abdallah al-Mihdhar was one of five hijackers of American Airlines Flight 77, which was flown into the Pentagon as part of the September 11 attacks. Mihdhar was born in Saudi Arabia and fought in the Bosnian War during the 1990s, in early 1999, he traveled to Afghanistan where, as an experienced and respected jihadist, he was selected by Osama bin Laden to participate in the attacks. Mihdhar arrived in California with fellow hijacker Nawaf al-Hazmi in January 2000, at this point, the CIA was aware of Mihdhar, and he was photographed in Malaysia with another al-Qaeda member who was involved in the USS Cole bombing. The CIA did not inform the FBI when it learned that Mihdhar and Hazmi had entered the United States, upon arriving in San Diego, California, Mihdhar and Hazmi were to train as pilots, but spoke English poorly and did not do well with flight lessons. In June 2000, Mihdhar left the United States for Yemen, Mihdhar spent some time in Afghanistan in early 2001 and returned to the United States in early July 2001. He stayed in New Jersey in July and August, before arriving in the Washington, on the morning of September 11,2001, Mihdhar boarded American Airlines Flight 77, which was hijacked approximately 30 minutes after take off. The plane was crashed into the Pentagon, killing all 64 people aboard the flight. Khalid al-Mihdhar was born on May 16,1975 in Mecca, Saudi Arabia to a prominent family, little is known about his life before the age of 20, when he and childhood friend Nawaf al-Hazmi went to Bosnia to fight with the mujahideen in the Bosnian War. After the war, Mihdhar and Hazmi went to Afghanistan where they alongside the Taliban against the Northern Alliance. In 1997, Mihdhar told his family that he was leaving to fight in Chechnya, in the late 1990s, Mihdhar married Hoda al-Hada, who was the sister of a comrade from Yemen, and they had two daughters. Through marriage, Mihdhar was related to a number of individuals involved with al-Qaeda in some way, in Spring 1999, al-Qaeda founder Osama bin Laden committed to support the 9/11 attacks plot, which was largely organized by prominent al-Qaeda member Khalid Sheikh Mohammed. Mihdhar and Hazmi were among the first group of participants selected for the operation, along with Tawfiq bin Attash and Abu Bara al Yemeni, Mihdhar, who had spent time in al-Qaeda camps in the 1990s, was known and highly regarded by Bin Laden. Mihdhar listed the Los Angeles Sheraton as his intended destination, once selected, Mihdhar and Hazmi were sent to the Mes Aynak training camp in Afghanistan. He was known as Sinaan during the preparations, the CIA was aware of Mihdhar and Hazmis involvement with al-Qaeda, having been informed by Saudi intelligence during a 1999 meeting in Riyadh. Based on information uncovered by the FBI in the 1998 United States embassy bombings case, the National Security Agency began tracking the communications of Hada, Mihdhars father-in-law. In late 1999, the NSA informed the CIA of a meeting in Malaysia, which Hada mentioned would involve Khalid, Nawaf, and Salem. On January 4,2000, Mihdhar left Yemen and flew to Dubai, United Arab Emirates, the photocopy was sent to the CIAs Alec Station, which was tracking al-Qaeda. On January 5,2000, Mihdhar traveled to Kuala Lumpur, where he joined Hazmi, Attash and Yemeni, hamburg cell member Ramzi bin al-Shibh was also at the summit, and Mohammed possibly attendedKhalid al-Mihdhar – Khalid al-Mihdhar
123. Francis Nash – Francis Nash was a brigadier general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. Nash was also involved in North Carolina politics, representing Hillsborough on several occasions in the colonial North Carolina General Assembly, Nash quickly became engaged in revolutionary activities, and served as a delegate to the first three Patriot provincial congresses. In 1775, he was named lieutenant colonel of the 1st North Carolina Regiment under Colonel James Moore, Nash was made a brigadier general in 1777 upon Moores death, and given command of the North Carolina brigade of the Continental Army under General George Washington. He led North Carolinas soldiers in the Philadelphia campaign, but was wounded at the Battle of Germantown on October 4,1777, Nash was one of only ten Patriot generals to die from wounds received in combat between 1775 and 1781. He is honored by several city and county names, including those of Nashville, Tennessee, Nashville, North Carolina, Nash was born around 1742 in Amelia County, Virginia to John and Ann Owen Nash. His parents were originally from Wales, and several of his seven siblings, one of Nashs brothers was Abner Nash, who later became a statesman in North Carolina. By 1763, Francis Nash had moved along with Abner to Childsburgh, there Francis started a law practice, and became a clerk of court in 1763, a position which paid an annual stipend of £100 sterling. The Nash brothers also owned property in the town, and established a mill on the Eno River. From 1764 to 1765, he served his first term in the North Carolina Assembly representing Orange County, in 1770, Nash married Sarah Moore, the daughter of colonial jurist Maurice Moore, niece of James Moore, and sister of future United States Supreme Court Alfred Moore. Nash had two children out of wedlock, one of some scholars identify as a son also named Francis Nash. The mother of one of the children was reported as Hillsborough barmaid Ruth Jackson, the elder Nash provided Jackson with property west of Hillsborough, and several slaves. Nash showed an interest in military affairs while living in Hillsborough and he worked his way up through the Orange County militia ranks until he eventually became its commanding colonel. During the War of the Regulation, in 1768, he ordered the militia to put down several riots incited by the Regulators, along with Fanning, who was a personal friend, Nash was accused of extorting money from Hillsboroughs residents. Regulator leaders attempted to have Nash tried for corruption, but the charges against him were dismissed, in September 1770, a group of Regulators took control of Hillsborough, forcing Nash and other public officials to flee for fear of bodily harm. Nash subsequently fought alongside Governor William Tryon in the Battle of Alamance against the Regulator militia and he served in the Lower House of the colonial Assembly in 1771 and from 1773 to 1775 as a representative for Hillsborough. In response, members of the Assembly, many of whom would later become Patriot supporters, Nash and his brother, Abner, were both elected to that body, along with 69 other North Carolinians, which then selected delegates to the Continental Congress. Governor Martin condemned the Provincial Congress as a body not permitted to assemble. In response, Martin dissolved the Assembly, the Royal government would never again call an Assembly to session in North CarolinaFrancis Nash – Francis Nash's home in Hillsborough, now known as the Nash-Hooper House
124. William F. Raynolds – William Franklin Raynolds was an explorer, engineer and U. S. army officer who served in the Mexican-American War and American Civil War. He is best known for leading the 1859–60 Raynolds Expedition while serving as a member of the U. S. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers, during the 1850s and again after his participation in the American Civil War, Raynolds was the head engineer on numerous lighthouse construction projects. He oversaw riverway and harbor dredging projects intended to improve accessibility, as a cartographer, Raynolds surveyed and mapped the islands and shorelines on the Great Lakes and other regions. At least six lighthouses whose construction he oversaw are still standing, some are still in use and of these, several are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1859, Raynolds was placed in charge of the first government-sponsored expedition to venture into the upper Yellowstone region that was later to become Yellowstone National Park, after negotiating the pass the expedition entered Jackson Hole and surveyed the Teton Range, now within Grand Teton National Park. On March 13,1865 Raynolds was brevetted brigadier general for service during the Civil War. Raynolds retired from the Corps of Engineers on March 17,1884 with the permanent rank of colonel after a 40-year military career, William Franklin Raynolds was born on March 17,1820 in Canton, Ohio, the fourth of six children to William Raynolds and Elizabeth Seabury. William F. Raynoldss grandfather was also named William Raynolds and had been a veteran of the War of 1812, during the War of 1812, the grandfather Raynolds rose to the rank of major while serving under Lewis Cass. William F. Raynolds entered the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York and he graduated fifth out of 39 classmates in his class of 1843, which included William B. Franklin, Raynoldss friend Joseph J. Reynolds and future president Ulysses S. Grant, Raynolds married at a young age, he and his wife had no children. Initially appointed a second lieutenant in the 5th U. S. Infantry. The Topographical Engineers performed surveys and developed maps for use until their merger with the Corps of Engineers in 1863. When war with Mexico seemed imminent, topographic engineers were sent to the border to assist with the armys preparations, Raynolds served in Winfield Scotts Mexican-American War campaign which marched overland to Mexico City from the Gulf of Mexico seaport at Veracruz. After the war, the American army occupied Mexico City and the surrounding region, during the occupation, Raynolds and others set out to map and explore nearby mountains. Raynoldss party is credited with being the first confirmed to climb to the summit of Pico de Orizaba which at 18,620 feet is the tallest mountain in Mexico and third tallest in North America. Over a period of months, Raynolds and other officers from both the army and navy mapped the best approach route to Pico de Orizaba. As the expedition left to ascend the mountain, a pack train of nearly fifty officers, soldiers. After several days of hiking through dense jungle, the expedition slowly gained altitude, starting from base camp in the early morning of May 10 nearly two dozen climbers made the final push to the top of the mountain, but only Raynolds and a few others reached the summitWilliam F. Raynolds – William F. Raynolds in brevet brigadier general uniform
125. Tarrare – Tarrare, sometimes spelled Tarare, was a French showman and soldier, noted for his unusual eating habits. Able to eat vast amounts of meat, he was hungry, his parents could not provide for him. He then took this act to Paris where he worked as a street performer, at the start of the War of the First Coalition Tarrare joined the French Revolutionary Army. With military rations unable to satisfy his appetite, he would eat any available food from gutters and refuse heaps. Despite his unusual diet, he was of size and appearance. Unfortunately for Tarrare, he could not speak German, and on his first mission was captured by Prussian forces, severely beaten and underwent a mock execution before being returned to French lines. Chastened by this experience, he agreed to submit to any procedure that would cure his appetite, after being suspected of eating a toddler he was ejected from the hospital. He reappeared four years later in Versailles suffering from severe tuberculosis, Tarrare was born in rural France, near Lyon, around 1772. His date of birth is unrecorded and it is not even known if Tarrare was his name or a nickname. As a child, Tarrare had a huge appetite and by his teens could eat a quarter of a bullock, weighing as much as Tarrare himself, by this time, his parents could not provide for him and had forced him to leave home. For some years after this, he toured the country with a band of thieves and prostitutes, begging and stealing for food. Tarrare would draw a crowd by eating corks, stones and live animals and he would eat ravenously and was particularly fond of snake meat. In 1788, Tarrare moved to Paris to work as a street performer and he appears to have been successful in general, but on one occasion the act went wrong and he suffered severe intestinal obstruction. Members of the crowd carried him to the Hôtel-Dieu hospital, where he was treated with powerful laxatives, despite his unusual diet, Tarrare was slim and of average height. At the age of 17, he weighed only 100 pounds and he was described as having unusually soft fair hair and an abnormally wide mouth, in which his teeth were heavily stained and on which the lips were almost invisible. When he had not eaten, his skin would hang so loosely that he could wrap the fold of skin from his abdomen around his waist, when full, his abdomen would distend like a huge balloon. The skin of his cheeks was wrinkled and hung loosely, and he suffered from chronic diarrhoea, which was said to be fetid beyond all conception. Despite his large intake of food, he did not appear either to vomit excessively or to gain weight, the cause of Tarrares behaviour is not knownTarrare – Baron Percy's original paper on Tarrare's medical history, Mémoire sur la polyphagie (1805)
126. Dietrich v The Queen – Dietrich v The Queen is an important legal case, stemming from an incident that took place on 17 December 1986, that was decided in the High Court of Australia on 13 November 1992. It concerned the nature of the right to a fair trial, on 17 December 1986, the accused, a career criminal named Olaf Dietrich, flew from Bangkok, Thailand, to Melbourne Airport. He had imported at least seventy grams of heroin, which he concealed within condoms that he had swallowed. He was arrested the morning by the Australian Federal Police, who searched his flat and found one of the condoms in the kitchen. He was taken into custody, and passed the remainder of the condoms during the night at the hospital in Pentridge Prison, Dietrich alleged that the drugs had been planted by the police. Dietrich was tried in the County Court of Victoria in 1988 for an offence under the Customs Act 1901. During the lengthy trial the accused had no legal representation, although he had applied to the Legal Aid Commission of Victoria for assistance, they said that they would only help him if he pleaded guilty, an option which Dietrich did not want to take. He applied to the Supreme Court of Victoria for legal assistance, Dietrich brought an appeal in the Supreme Court, but that court refused to hear his appeal. He then sought leave to appeal to the High Court of Australia, in his High Court appeal Dietrich was represented by David Grace, QC. The main argument advanced on Dietrichs behalf was that his trial was a miscarriage of justice, since he did not have legal representation and he argued that he should have been provided with counsel at public expense, given the seriousness of the crime with which he was charged. Alternatively, he argued that the judge should have stayed or adjourned the trial until he was able to obtain counsel himself and his argument was based on the common law tradition that an accused is entitled to a fair trial. Dietrich suggested three different sources in law for the right to counsel that he asserted, however, the court found that this provision only means that an accused is entitled to counsel paid for by themselves or someone else, and not counsel provided by the state. Article 14 of the Covenant provides that an accused should have legal assistance provided for them in any case where the interests of justice so require. Article 6 of the European Convention of Human Rights, to which Australia is not a party, Australia has not incorporated the ICCPR into its domestic law with any specific legislation, unlike some other international treaties, such as World Heritage treaties. However, Dietrich argued that the law of Australia should be developed in accordance with the principles in the ICCPR. This is the used in the United Kingdom, in relation to decisions of the European Court of Human Rights. The third source that Dietrich suggested was a group of cases in other common law countries such as the United States. In the United States, the right to counsel was guaranteed in the Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution, the Amendment says that In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the rightDietrich v The Queen – Mugshot of Hugo Rich, formerly known as Olaf Dietrich, on his arrest on 12 May 2005
127. Analog Science Fiction and Fact – Analog Science Fiction and Fact is an American science-fiction magazine published under various titles since 1930. The first issue, titled Astounding Stories of Super-Science, was dated January 1930, published by William Clayton, Clayton went bankrupt in 1933 and the magazine was sold to Street & Smith. At the end of 1937, Campbell took over editorial duties under Tremaines supervision, the period beginning with Campbells editorship is often referred to as the Golden Age of Science Fiction. By 1950, new competition had appeared from Galaxy Science Fiction, in 1960, Campbell changed the title of the magazine to Analog Science Fiction & Fact, he had long wanted to get rid of the word Astounding in the title, which he felt was too sensational. At about the same time Street & Smith sold the magazine to Condé Nast, Campbell remained as editor until his death in 1971. Ben Bova took over from 1972 to 1978, and the character of the magazine changed noticeably, Bova won five consecutive Hugo Awards for his editing of Analog. The title was sold to Davis Publications in 1980, then to Dell Magazines in 1992, Crosstown Publications acquired Dell in 1996 and remains the publisher. Schmidt continued to edit the magazine until 2012, when he was replaced by Trevor Quachri, in 1926, Hugo Gernsback launched Amazing Stories, the first science-fiction magazine. Amazing was very successful, quickly reaching a circulation over 100,000, Clayton was unconvinced, but the following year decided to launch a new magazine, mainly because the sheet on which the color covers of his magazines were printed had a space for one more cover. He suggested to Harry Bates, a newly hired editor, that start a magazine of historical adventure stories. Bates proposed instead a science-fiction pulp, to be titled Astounding Stories of Super Science, Astounding was initially published by Publishers Fiscal Corporation, a subsidiary of Clayton Magazines. The first issue appeared in January 1930, with Bates as editor, Bates aimed for straightforward action-adventure stories, with scientific elements only present to provide minimal plausibility. In February 1931, the original name Astounding Stories of Super-Science was shortened to Astounding Stories, the magazine was profitable, but the Depression caused Clayton problems. Normally a publisher would pay a printer three months in arrears, but when a credit squeeze began in May 1931, it led to pressure to reduce this delay. The financial difficulties led Clayton to start alternating the publication of his magazines, some printers bought the magazines which were indebted to them, Clayton decided to buy his printer to prevent this from happening. As it turned out, enough stories were in inventory, and enough paper was available, to one further issue. In April, Clayton went bankrupt, and sold his titles to T. R. Foley for $100, Foley resold them in August to Street & Smith. Science fiction was not entirely a departure for Street & Smith, the first Street & Smith issue was dated October 1933, until the third issue, in December 1933, the editorial team was not named on the mastheadAnalog Science Fiction and Fact – The first issue of Astounding Stories, January 1930, cover by Wesso
128. The Blue Flame (play) – The Blue Flame is a four-act play written by George V. Hobart and John Willard, who revised an earlier version by Leta Vance Nicholson. In 1920, producer Albert H. Woods staged it on Broadway, the main character is a religious young woman who dies and is revived by her scientist fiancé as a soulless femme fatale. She seduces several men and involves them in crimes, including drug use, in the final act, her death and resurrection are revealed to be a dream. The production starred Theda Bara, a silent film actress who was known for playing similar roles in movies. The play received negative reviews, with critics ridiculing the plot, dialog. It has been called one of the worst plays ever written, however, Baras movie fame drew large crowds to theaters, making the play a commercial success, with the production breaking attendance records at some of its venues. The Blue Flame was Baras only Broadway role and one of her last professional acting projects, in the first of the plays four acts, irreligious scientist John Varnum has developed a device to bring the recently dead back to life. His sweet, religious fiancée, Ruth Gordon, does not approve of his experiments, however, when she is struck by lightning and killed, she becomes the first person to be revived by his machine. Before she is reanimated, the audience sees her soul visibly leave her body as the flame of the title. With no soul, the revived Ruth has a different personality. Upon waking, she asks John for a kiss, then suggests they marry immediately so they can begin having sex, in the second and third acts, Ruth seduces a young man named Larry Winston and steals him away from his own fiancée. She takes Larry to New Yorks Chinatown, where she gets him hooked on cocaine and she seduces Ned Maddox and kills him for insurance money, framing another man for the murder. In the final act, Ruths death and revival is revealed to be a dream John Varnum was having, upon waking he now understands the importance of the soul, he embraces religion and destroys his life restoration device. The characters and cast from the Broadway production are given below, The first version of The Blue Flame was written by Leta Vance Nicholson and she sold it to theatrical agent Walter C. Jordan, who had it rewritten by George V. Hobart, jordan paid the three writers $10,000 for their work, then resold the play to producer Albert H. Woods for $35,000. Actress Theda Bara was one of the most popular stars of silent films. From her first leading role as the Vampire in the 1915 movie A Fool There Was, Bara had been typecast as a vamp, playing femme fatale roles, with her characters seducing and ruining innocent men. Although she sometimes performed in films playing other types of roles and she played dozens of similar roles while contracted with Fox Film from 1915 to 1919The Blue Flame (play) – Poster of Theda Bara in The Blue Flame
129. Famous Fantastic Mysteries – Famous Fantastic Mysteries was an American science fiction and fantasy pulp magazine published from 1939 to 1953. It was launched by the Munsey Company as a way to reprint the many science fiction and fantasy stories which had appeared over the decades in the Munsey magazines. The first issue was dated September/October 1939, the magazine was immediately successful, in late 1942 Popular Publications acquired the title from Munsey, and Famous Fantastic Mysteries stopped reprinting short stories from the earlier magazines. It continued to reprint longer works, including titles by G. K. Chesterton, H. G. Wells, original short fiction also began to appear, including Arthur C. Clarkes Guardian Angel, which would form the first section of his novel Childhoods End. In 1951 the publishers experimented briefly with a large digest format, the magazine ceased publication in 1953, almost at the end of the pulp era. By the early decades of the 20th century, science stories were frequently seen in popular magazines. By the end of the 1930s science fiction was a growing market, the first issue was dated September/October 1939, and was edited by Mary Gnaedinger. The magazine immediately became successful and went to a monthly schedule starting in November 1939, demand for reprints of old favorites was so strong that Munsey decided to launch an additional magazine, Fantastic Novels, in July 1940. The two magazines were placed on alternating bimonthly schedules, but when Fantastic Novels ceased publication in early 1941 Famous Fantastic Mysteries remained bimonthly until June 1942. The first issue from Popular appeared in March 1943, and only two issues appeared that year, the September 1943 issue marked the beginning of a regular quarterly schedule. It returned to a schedule in 1946 which it maintained with only slight deviations until the end of its run. In 1949, Street & Smith, one of the longest established and most respected publishers, shut down all of their pulp magazines and our choice has been dictated by your requests and our firm belief that these are the aces of imaginative fiction. The first issue included Ray Cummings The Girl in the Golden Atom and A. Merritts The Moon Pool, Merritts sequel, The Conquest of the Moon Pool, began serialization in the next issue, with illustrations by Virgil Finlay. Finlay did many illustrations for Famous Fantastic Mysteries over its lifetime, frank R. Paul began illustrating for the magazine with the third issue, he was not as capable an artist as Finlay but was very popular with the readers. The first five covers were simply tables of contents, but with the issue, dated March 1940, pictorial covers began. The decision to launch Fantastic Novels was taken partly because there were a great many works that readers wanted to see reprinted. When Munsey sold Famous Fantastic Mysteries to Popular, the policy changed againFamous Fantastic Mysteries – The cover of the first issue, dated September/October 1939
130. Fantastic (magazine) – Fantastic was an American digest size fantasy and science fiction magazine, published from 1952 to 1980. It was founded by Ziff Davis as a companion to Amazing Stories. Early sales were good, and Ziff Davis quickly decided to switch Amazing from pulp format to digest, within a few years sales fell, and Howard Browne, the editor, was forced to switch the focus to science fiction rather than fantasy. Browne lost interest in the magazine as a result and the magazine generally ran poor quality fiction in the mid-1950s, under Browne and his successor and she helped to nurture the early careers of writers such as Roger Zelazny and Ursula K. Le Guin, but was unable to increase circulation, and in 1965 the magazines were sold to Sol Cohen and this was financially successful, but brought Cohen into conflict with the newly formed Science Fiction Writers of America. After a turbulent period at the end of the 1960s, Ted White became editor, White worked hard to make the magazine successful, introducing artwork from artists who had made their names in comics, and working with new authors such as Gordon Eklund. His budget for fiction was low, but he was able to find good stories from well-known writers which had been rejected by the other markets. Circulation continued to decline and in 1978 Cohen sold out his half of the business to his partner, in 1938, Ziff-Davis, a Chicago-based publisher looking to expand into the pulp magazine market, acquired Amazing Stories. Ziff-Davis agreed to back the new magazine, and Browne put together a copy, but when the Korean War broke out Ziff-Davis cut their budgets. Browne did not give up, and in 1952 received the go-ahead to try a new magazine instead, focused on high-quality fantasy, the first issue of Fantastic, dated Summer 1952, appeared on March 21 of that year. The experiment with quality fiction did not last, circulation dropped, which led to budget cuts, and in turn the quality of the fiction fell. Browne had wanted to separate Fantastic from Amazings pulp roots, but now found he had to print more science fiction, Fantastics poor results were probably a consequence of the overloaded sf magazine market, far more magazines appeared in the early 1950s than the market was able to support. In May 1956 Browne left Ziff-Davis to become a screenwriter, Paul W. Fairman took over as editor of both Fantastic and Amazing. In 1957 Bernard Davis left Ziff-Davis, it had been Davis who had suggested the acquisition of Amazing in 1939, with his departure Amazing and Fantastic stagnated, they remained monthly but drew no attention from Ziff-Daviss management. In November 1955, Ziff-Davis hired an assistant, Cele Goldsmith and she also read the slush piles for all the magazines, and was quickly given more responsibility. Goldsmith stayed as editor for six and a half years, circulation dropped for both Amazing and Fantastic, in 1964 Fantastic had a paid circulation of only 27,000. In 1965 Sol Cohen, who at time was Galaxys publisher, set up his own publishing company, Ultimate Publishing. Cohen had decided to make the magazines as profitable as possible by filling them only with reprints, using reprints in this way saved Cohen about $8,000 a year between the two magazinesFantastic (magazine) – Cover of the October 1961 issue, by Alex Schomburg
131. Fantasy Book – Fantasy literature is the body of written works that employ the motifs, themes, and stylistic approaches expected in the fantasy genre. Historically, most works of fantasy were written pieces of literature, since the 1960s, a growing segment of the fantasy genre has taken the form of films, television programs, graphic novels, video games, music and painting. Stories involving paranormal magic and terrible monsters have existed in spoken forms before the advent of printed literature, homers Odyssey satisfies the definition of the fantasy genre with its magic, gods, heroes, adventures and monsters. Fantasy literature as a distinct type emerged in Victorian times, with the works of such as Mary Shelley, William Morris. J. R. R. Tolkien played a role in the popularization and accessibility of the fantasy genre with his highly successful publications The Hobbit. Rarely does one consider modern fantasy without conjuring the memory and image of Tolkien, Tolkien was largely influenced by an ancient body of Anglo-Saxon myths, particularly Beowulf, as well as modern works such as The Worm Ouroboros by E. R. Eddison. Tolkiens close friend C. S. Lewis, author of The Chronicles of Narnia, the tradition established by these predecessors of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries has continued to thrive and be adapted by new authors. Tolkiens fiction has—particularly over the genre of high fantasy—prompted backlash, at the turn of the millennium, the Harry Potter novels of J. K. Rowling achieved widespread popularity. R. Martin in 2005, and 2011, Neil Gaiman in 2005, authors often engage in worldbuilding, constructing a framework or entire world against which the narrative plays out. Symbolism often plays a significant role in literature, often through the use of archetypal figures inspired by earlier texts or folklore. Some argue that fantasy literature and its archetypes fulfill a function for individuals and society, le Guin, in her essay From Elfland to Poughkeepsie, presented the idea that language is the most crucial element of high fantasy, because it creates a sense of place. She analyzed the misuse of a formal, olden-day style, saying that it was a trap for fantasy writers because it was ridiculous when done wrong. Brian Peters writes that in various forms of fantasy, even the villains language might be inappropriate if vulgar. The fantastical details of the series fade away by the installment, revealing that the wizarding community of the Harry Potter books is just as bad, if not worse. Farah Mendlesohn argues the world of literature is broken up into four categories, the portal quest, the immersive, the intrusive. How the fantastic enters the world is what determines how a story fits into these categories. In a portal quest such as C. S. Lewis The Chronicles of Narnia, The Lion, The Witch, in the intrusion fantasies like Bram Stokers Dracula, the fantastic invades the fictional world. With liminal fantasy, for example Phillip Pullman’s His Dark Materials, The Subtle Knife, tolkiens The Hobbit for example, allows the reader no escape from the fantasticFantasy Book – Fantasy
132. Galaxy Science Fiction – Galaxy Science Fiction was an American digest-size science fiction magazine, published from 1950 to 1980. It was founded by an Italian company, World Editions, which was looking to break into the American market. World Editions hired as editor H. L. Gold, who rapidly made Galaxy the leading science fiction magazine of its time, in 1952, the magazine was acquired by Robert Guinn, its printer. By the late 1950s, Frederik Pohl was helping Gold with most aspects of the magazines production, when Golds health worsened, Pohl took over as editor, starting officially at the end of 1961, though he had been doing the majority of the production work for some time. Under Pohl Galaxy had continued success, regularly publishing fiction by such as Cordwainer Smith, Jack Vance, Harlan Ellison. However, Pohl never won the annual Hugo Award for his stewardship of Galaxy, in 1969 Guinn sold Galaxy to Universal Publishing and Distribution Corporation and Pohl resigned, to be replaced by Ejler Jakobsson. Under Jakobsson the magazine declined in quality, by the end of the 1970s the gaps between issues were lengthening, and the title was finally sold to Galileo publisher Vincent McCaffrey, who brought out only a single issue in 1980. A brief revival as a magazine followed in 1994, edited by H. L. Golds son, E. J. Gold. At its peak, Galaxy greatly influenced the science fiction field and it was regarded as one of the leading sf magazines almost from the start, and its influence did not wane until Pohls departure in 1969. Gold brought a sophisticated intellectual subtlety to magazine science fiction according to Pohl, SF historian David Kyle agrees, commenting that of all the editors in and out of the post-war scene, the most influential beyond any doubt was H. L. Gold. Kyle suggests that the new direction Gold set inevitably led to the experimental New Wave, the first science fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, appeared in 1926. By the end of the 1930s, the genre was flourishing in the United States, in the late 1940s, the market began to recover. From a low of eight active US magazines in 1946, the field expanded to 20 just four years later, Galaxys appearance in 1950 was part of this boom. With the advent of the war, Gold left publishing and went into the army, but in late 1949 he was approached by Vera Cerutti, Cerutti was now working for an Italian publisher, Edizione Mondiale, that had opened an office in New York as World Editions. She initially asked Gold for guidance on how to produce a magazine, World Editions took a heavy loss on Fascination, its first attempt to launch a US magazine, and Cerutti returned to Gold asking for recommendations for new titles. Gold knew about The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction, a digest launched in the fall of 1949, World Editions agreed, hired Gold as the editor, and the first issue appeared in October 1950. The novel series subsequently appeared as Galaxy Science Fiction Novels, Gold initially suggested two titles for the magazine, If and Galaxy. For the first issue, Gold obtained stories by several authors, including Isaac Asimov, Fritz LeiberGalaxy Science Fiction – David Stone's cover for the first issue of Galaxy. Founding editor H. L. Gold disliked other magazines' covers depicting muscular men and half-dressed women fighting monsters.
133. The Halo Graphic Novel – The Halo Graphic Novel is the first graphic novel adaptation of the military science fiction video game Halo, published by Marvel Comics in partnership with Bungie. The Halo Graphic Novel is the series first entry into the art medium. The majority of the book is divided into four stories by different writers and artists from the computer game. Each story focuses on different aspects of the Halo universe, revealing stories that are tangential to the plot of the game. Apart from the stories, the book contains an extensive art gallery compiled of contributions from Bungie, Marvel. Released on July 19,2006, The Halo Graphic Novel was well-received, with reviewers noting the cohesiveness of the work as a whole, the success of the novel led to Marvel announcing a new limited comic series, which became known as Halo, Uprising. Bungie Studios and Microsofts original concept of the novel was to bring the Halo series into new media beyond that of video games. The comic was originally pitched by the head of Microsofts Franchise Development Eric Trautmann, however, Lorraine McLees, the art director of Bungie, disliked the comic, calling it a lump of coal. Bungie also disliked Trautmanns comic team and requested to be able to choose their own artists, the novel was completed after a two-year development cycle and Bungie sought out a publisher, eventually approaching Marvel Comics. Bungie cited Marvels passion for Halo and reach in the comic, the studio worked alongside Marvel director of development Ruwan Jayatilleke, an early champion of the project, to assist in the distribution and publication of the novel. Jarrard explained that The stories that happen off camera, the events to the arcs that our fans know from the existing mediums, are the stories we really wanted to tell. A genetically enhanced super soldier picking up two guns and kicking some alien butt, the four stories that ended up in the final publication were the most interesting to, and the writers of. Artist Simon Bisley said that the stress was to make the look very much as they do in the game. Beyond that point I was given free rein to interpret the script, located after the main body of stories is a selection of art pieces that represent interpretations of the Halo universe from a number of comic book artists. These contributors include Doug Alexander, Rick Berry, Geof Darrow, a full-color poster of the books cover was released on June 28,2006. The novel is split into four stories, each has an introduction by the creators of the work detailing their thoughts about the plot or their experiences adding to the Halo lore. The Last Voyage of the Infinite Succor takes place during and after the mission of the video game Halo. The Flood are accidentally released by the Covenant from stasis and begins to spread across the ring, in contrast to the players point of view in the game, The Last Voyage focuses on the CovenantThe Halo Graphic Novel – The front cover of The Halo Graphic Novel
134. The Portage to San Cristobal of A.H. – The Portage to San Cristobal of A. H. is a 1981 literary and philosophical novella by George Steiner. The story is about Jewish Nazi hunters who find a fictional Adolf Hitler alive in the Amazon jungle thirty years after the end of World War II. The book was controversial, particularly reviewers and Jewish scholars. There Hitler maintains that Israel owes its existence to the Holocaust, the novella was first published in the United Kingdom in May 1981 as a paperback original by Faber and Faber, and in the United States in hardcover in April 1982 by Simon & Schuster. Adapted for the theatre by British playwright Christopher Hampton, it was staged in London in 1982 and in Hartford, the productions generated further controversy, resulting in public pickets and condemnation being levelled against Steiner. A central theme of The Portage is the nature of language, other themes include the philosophical and moral analysis of history, justice, guilt and revenge. Steiner makes no attempt to explain Hitler, but rather enters into a dialogue with him, similarly, many readers and theatre-goers were disturbed by Steiners fictional Hitler, and the author admitted that his character had gotten the better of him. Despite the controversy, The Portage to San Cristobal of A. H. was a 1983 finalist in the PEN/Faulkner Award for Fiction, from his base in Tel Aviv, Holocaust survivor Emmanuel Lieber directs a group of Jewish Nazi hunters in search of Adolf Hitler. Lieber believes that the former Führer is still alive, and following rumours and hearsay, after months of wading through swamps in the Amazon jungle, the search party finds the 90-year-old alive in a clearing. Lieber flies to San Cristóbal where he awaits the return with their captive. But getting the old man out of the jungle alive is more difficult than getting in, debates flare up over his impending trial, where it will be held and under whose jurisdiction. Orosso is identified as the nearest airfield to the last known location of the search party, and aircraft begin arriving at the hitherto unknown town. But when the party loses radio contact with Lieber, they must make a decision to either wait out the storms and deliver their captive to Lieber later. They choose the latter, given that they would lose control of the situation if they attempted to transport their prisoner. Against Liebers advice they prepare for a trial with a judge, prosecution, Teku, a local Indian tracker, is asked to observe the trial as an independent witness. My racism is a parody of yours, a hungry imitation, the virus of utopia had to be stopped. Hitler states that he was not the originator of evil, had perfected genocide when I was still a nameless scribbler in Munich. Further, Hitler asserts that the number of lives lost due to his actions are dwarfed by various world atrocities, including those in Russia, China and AfricaThe Portage to San Cristobal of A.H. – The first edition
135. Science Fantasy (magazine) – Walter Gillings was editor for the first two issues, and was then replaced by John Carnell, the editor of New Worlds, as a cost-saving measure. Carnell edited both magazines until Nova went out of business in early 1964, the title was changed again to SF Impulse for the last few issues. Science Fantasy ceased publication the following year, when Roberts & Vinter came under pressure after their printer went bankrupt. Fantasy stories began to more frequently during the latter half of the 1950s. Under Bonfiglioli more new writers appeared, including Keith Roberts, Brian Stableford, in early 1946, British fan John Carnell launched a new science fiction magazine titled New Worlds, published by Pendulum Publications. The first issue appeared in July 1946 and failed to sell well, the second issue, in October of that year, sold better, but Pendulum went out of business before the end of 1947 with only one more issue released. A group of sf fans, including Carnell and Frank Cooper, decided to restart the magazine under their own control, the fourth issue appeared in April 1949. At the same time that the first issue of New Worlds appeared, a separate British magazine called Fantasy was launched by Walter Gillings, a science fiction fan and a reporter by profession. Fantasy lasted for three issues before dying in 1947, but Gillings had accumulated a substantial inventory of stories—enough to fill nine issues. Gillings followed the demise of Fantasy by publishing a fanzine, titled Fantasy Review, in 1950, with New Worlds on a stable quarterly schedule, Nova Publications decided to launch a companion, Science Fantasy. They chose Gillings as the editor, and his fanzine, which had been retitled Science Fantasy Review in 1949, was incorporated in the new magazine as a department, the first issue was dated Summer 1950, but printing disputes meant that the second issue was delayed until winter. According to Carnell, there were fundamental differences of opinion that led to the decision to replace him. After the Spring 1953 issue Nova Publications decided to switch printers, in order to cut costs, maclarens legal department was helpful in resolving the dispute with The Carlton Press, and the seventh issue of Science Fantasy finally appeared with a cover date of March 1954. In 1958, Nova decided to launch a British reprint of the American magazine Science Fiction Adventures, the British Science Fiction Adventures lasted until May 1963, when it was felled by declining sales. S. In early 1964, David Warburton of Roberts & Vinter, a publisher, heard from the printer of Science Fantasy. Warburton gave Moorcock the choice of which magazine to edit, Moorcock chose New Worlds, Roberts & Vinter changed the format from digest to paperback, and the first issue under Bonfigliolis control was number 65, dated June–July 1964. The schedule was initially irregular, with each issue dated with two months even when two issues were only a month apart—for example, June–July 1964 was followed by July–August 1964. From March 1965 a regular schedule was begunScience Fantasy (magazine) – R.M. Bull's cover for the third issue is "strikingly reminiscent of the work of Margaret Brundage for Weird Tales in the thirties", according to sf historian David Kyle.
136. Science-Fiction Plus – Science-Fiction Plus was a U. S. science fiction magazine published by Hugo Gernsback for seven issues in 1953. In 1926 Gernsback had launched Amazing Stories, the first science magazine, but he had not been involved in the genre since 1936. Science-Fiction Plus was initially in slick format, meaning that it was large-size, Gernsback had always believed in the educational power of science fiction, and he continued to advocate his views in the new magazines editorials. Combined with Gernsbacks earnest editorials, the use of early writers gave the magazine an anachronistic feel. Sales were initially good, but soon fell, for the last two issues Gernsback switched the magazine to cheaper pulp paper, but the magazine remained unprofitable. The final issue was dated December 1953 and he also published several new writers, but only one, Anne McCaffrey, went on to a successful career in the field. Science fiction historians consider the magazine a failed attempt to reproduce the early days of the science fiction pulps, the first science fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, was launched in 1926 by Hugo Gernsback at the height of the pulp magazine era. The two magazines were combined as Wonder Stories, which lasted until 1936, when Gernsback sold it to Ned Pines of Beacon Magazines. Gernsback remained in the business as proprietor of several profitable magazines, but he did not return to the sf field for nearly seventeen years. The first issue produced for sale was dated March 1953, the price,35 cents, was also competitive. Sales were initially good, and Science-Fiction Plus remained on a schedule until June, but when the circulation began to slip. In October Gernsback cut costs by switching to cheaper pulp paper, during Gernsbacks long absence from sf publishing, from 1936 to 1953, the field evolved away from his focus on facts and education. And he stated his preference for truly scientific, prophetic Science-Fiction with the accent on SCIENCE. The managing editor, Sam Moskowitz, also had a history in the field. Lawler agrees, describing the magazine as an anachronism, and dull from first to last, as part of Gernsbacks attempt to encourage stories that contained plausible scientific predictions, he created a symbol made up of a sphere labeled SF, with a five-pointed star atop it. He placed the first of these awards on a story of his own, Exploration of Mars, in the first issue, Lawler describes Simaks story, Spacebred Generations, as a gem, and cites Farmers Strange Compulsion as the high point in story quality for the entire run. Ashley praises the same two stories, and considers Nightmare Planet, by Murray Leinster, from the June 1953 issue, as equal in quality. Moskowitz attempted to find and develop new writers, and published the first story by Anne McCaffrey, Freedom of the Race, however, none of Moskowitzs other new writers lasted in the field, and he rejected McCaffreys subsequent submissionsScience-Fiction Plus – Frank R. Paul did the cover for the last issue (December 1953) of Science-Fiction Plus. It illustrates the short story "Misfit" by Michael Fischer.
137. Scientific Detective Monthly – Scientific Detective Monthly was a pulp magazine which published fifteen issues beginning in January 1930. It was launched by Hugo Gernsback as part of his venture into science fiction magazine publishing. At the same time, the editor—Hector Grey—was replaced by David Lasser, the title change apparently did not make the magazine a success, and Gernsback closed it down with the October issue. He sold the title to publisher Wallace Bamber, who produced at least five more issues in 1931 under the title Amazing Detective Stories. By the end of the 19th century, stories that were centered on scientific inventions and set in the future, the first science fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, was launched in 1926 by Hugo Gernsback at the height of the pulp magazine era. It was successful, and helped to form science fiction as a separately marketed genre, by April he had formed a new company, Gernsback Publications Incorporated, and created two subsidiaries, Techni-Craft Publishing Corporation and Stellar Publishing Corporation. In the middle of the year he launched three new magazines, a magazine titled Radio Craft, and two sf pulps titled Science Wonder Stories and Air Wonder Stories. Reeves Craig Kennedy stories as an example, and also mentioned S. S. Van Dines Philo Vance stories, in the January 1930 issue of both the sf magazines, Gernsback advertised the new magazine that he hoped to populate with these stories, Scientific Detective Monthly. He intended Scientific Detective Monthly to be a magazine in which the stories had a scientific background, it would entertain. The first issue was dated January 1930, Gernsback was editor-in-chief, and had final say on the choice of stories, but the editorial work was done by his deputy, Hector Grey. In February 1930, an article by Gernsback appeared in Writers Digest titled How to Write Science Stories, with the June issue, the title was changed to Amazing Detective Tales. It is likely that the same reasoning motivated Scientific Detective Monthlys new title, in the following issue, Grey was replaced as editor by David Lasser, who was already editing Gernsbacks other sf titles, and an attempt was made to include more stories with science fiction elements. Gernsback continued the magazine for five issues under the new title, Gernsback sold the title to Wallace Bamber, who published at least five more issues, starting in February 1931, no issues are known for June or July 1931, or after August. In the first issue, for example, The Mystery of the Bulawayo Diamond, reeve, mentions unusual science, but the mystery is solved by use of a bolometer to detect a blush on the face of a black girl. The only genuine science fiction story in the first issue is The Perfect Counterfeit by Captain S. P. Meek, in which a matter duplicator has been used to counterfeit paper money. It was not science fiction, however, and throughout the magazines run, the cover for the first issue, by Jno Ruger, showed a detective using an electronic device to measure the reactions of a suspect. Hamiltons The Invisible Master, for example, describes a way to become invisible, but at the end of the story the science is revealed to be a hoax, and the story is straightforward detective fiction. As well as fiction, there were some non-fiction departments, including letters, book reviewsScientific Detective Monthly – Cover of the second issue; artwork is by Jno Ruger
138. Shojo Beat – Shojo Beat is a shōjo manga magazine formerly published in North America by Viz Media. Released in June 2005 as a magazine to Shonen Jump, it featured serialized chapters from six manga series, as well as articles on Japanese culture, manga, anime, fashion. After its initial launch, Shojo Beat underwent two redesigns, becoming the first English anthology to use the cyan and magenta ink tones common to Japanese manga anthologies. Viz launched related Shojo Beat imprints in its manga, Japanese light novel, targeted at women ages 16–18, the first issue of Shojo Beat launched with a circulation of 20,000. By 2007, the circulation was approximately 38,000 copies. It was well received by critics, who praised its mix of manga series, in May 2009, Viz announced that it was discontinuing the magazine, the July 2009 issue was the last released. Fans were disappointed at the sudden news, in February 2005, Viz Media announced the creation of a new manga anthology, Shojo Beat. Marketed as a publication of Vizs existing Shonen Jump, the magazine started with six manga titles, Crimson Hero, Kaze Hikaru, Baby & Me, Godchild, Nana. Of the six titles, two came from Japanese publishers Shueisha, Shogakukan, and Hakusensha. The first issue, released in June 2005, featured Nana Komatsu of Nana on its July cover, yumi Hoashi was the publications original editor-in-chief. In November 2006, Hoashi left Viz, and Marc Weidenbaum replaced him as the magazines editor-in-chief, starting with the June 2009 issue, publisher Hyoe Narita was listed as the editor-in-chief. The magazines panda mascot, Moko, was first introduced in the October 2005 issue and he later was given his own MySpace account run by Viz. With the July 2007 issue, a new mascot, Beat Girl, was introduced, included in each issue on the Editors Letter page as the magazines illustrated spokesperson, she was drawn by different artists each time. A third mascot, a figure named Hoshiko, was introduced with the March 2008 issue as a friend for Moko. With the magazines first anniversary issue, dated July 2006, Shojo Beat switched to using cyan, though this mirrors the format of Japanese manga anthologies, it was a first for manga anthologies published in North America. Shojo Beat launched another redesign with the January 2007 issue, the new design included more vivid color schemes and fonts and introduced a new Girl Hero column to spotlight women Viz felt were charitable and selfless and who would inspire readers. The existing columns were also expanded, in May 2009, the magazine stopped accepting new subscriptions and ceased publication with the release of the July issue. Existing Shojo Beat subscriptions were transferred to Vizs Shonen Jump magazine, with the first copy of Shonen Jump sent to former subscribers, a letter informed them of the transfer and how to request a refund for the unfilled portion of their subscriptions if they would preferShojo Beat – Shojo Beat Volume 1, Issue 1, cover dated July 2005
139. Starship Troopers – Starship Troopers is a military science fiction novel by American writer Robert A. Heinlein, published hardcover in December 1959. The story was first published as a serial in The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction as Starship Soldier. The first-person narrative is about a soldier named Juan Johnny Rico and his exploits in the Mobile Infantry. Rico and the characters discuss moral and philosophical aspects of suffrage, civic virtue, juvenile delinquency, corporal punishment, capital punishment. Starship Troopers won the Hugo Award for Best Novel in 1960, some time during 1958 and 1959, Heinlein ceased work on the novel that would become Stranger in a Strange Land and wrote Starship Troopers. It was first published in The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction in October and November 1959 as a two part serial called Starship Soldier, the novel was eventually published as teenage fiction by G. P. Putnams Sons. In response, Robert and Virginia Heinlein created the small Patrick Henry League in an attempt to support for the U. S. nuclear testing program. Heinlein found himself under attack both from within and outside the science community for his views. Heinlein used the novel to clarify and defend his military and political views at the time, Starship Troopers takes place in the midst of an interstellar war between the Terran Federation of Earth and the Arachnids of Klendathu. It is narrated as a series of flashbacks by space marine Johnny Rico and this is one of just a few Heinlein novels set out in this fashion. The novel opens with Rico aboard the space corvette Rodger Young, serving with the known as Rasczaks Roughnecks. Rico himself is a cap trooper in the Terran Federations Mobile Infantry, the raid itself is relatively brief, the Roughnecks land on the planet, destroy their targets, and retreat, suffering two casualties in the process. Later it becomes apparent that his attitude and display of truncated limbs are intended to scare off unmotivated applicants, interspersed throughout the book are other flashbacks to Ricos History and Moral Philosophy course, which reveal that the rights of a full Citizen must be earned through voluntary Federal service. Those who do not perform this Service retain the rights of speech, assembly, etc. This structure arose ad hoc after the collapse of the 20th century Western democracies, brought on by social failures at home, in the next section of the novel, Rico begins training at Camp Arthur Currie on the Canadian prairie. Five chapters are spent exploring Ricos experience there, under the tutelage of career Ships Sergeant Charles Zim, fewer than ten percent of the recruits finish basic training, the rest resign, are expelled, or die in training. One of the chapters displays Ted Hendrick, a recruit and constant complainer. Zim does not offer this information to his superior, but Hendrick does, another recruit, a deserter who murdered a baby girl while AWOL, is hanged by his battalion after his arrest by civilian policeStarship Troopers – First edition cover
140. The Story of Miss Moppet – The Story of Miss Moppet is a tale about teasing, featuring a kitten and a mouse, that was written and illustrated by Beatrix Potter. It was published by Frederick Warne & Co for the 1906 Christmas season, Potter was born in London in 1866, and between 1902 and 1905 published a series of small format childrens books with Warne. In 1906, she experimented with an atypical panorama design for Miss Moppet, which booksellers disliked, Miss Moppet, the storys eponymous main character, is a kitten teased by a mouse. While pursuing him she bumps her head on a cupboard and she then wraps a duster about her head, and sits before the fire looking very ill. The curious mouse creeps closer, is captured, and because the Mouse has teased Miss Moppet—Miss Moppet thinks she will tease the Mouse and she ties him up in the duster and tosses him about. However, the mouse makes his escape, and once out of reach. Although, critically, The Story of Miss Moppet is considered one of Potters lesser efforts, for children it is valued as an introduction to books in general. The character of Miss Moppet was released as a figurine in 1954. The book has published in a Braille version, translated into seven languages. First editions in the format are available through antiquarian booksellers. Helen Beatrix Potter was born on July 281866 to barrister Rupert William Potter and she was educated by governesses and tutors, and passed a quiet childhood reading, painting, drawing, tending a nursery menagerie of small animals, and visiting museums and art exhibitions. Her interests in the world and country life were nurtured with holidays in Scotland, the Lake District, and Camfield Place. Potters adolescence was as quiet as her childhood and she matured into a spinsterish young woman whose parents groomed her to be a permanent resident and housekeeper in their home. She continued to paint and draw, and experienced her first professional success in 1890 when she sold six illustrations of her pet rabbit to a greeting card publisher. In 1900, Potter revised a tale that she had written for a child in 1893, fashioning it into a book similar to the size. Potter continued to publish books with Warne, and by 1905 she found herself financially independent. Her books were selling well, and her income, combined with an inheritance, allowed her to buy Hill Top. When her longtime editor and fiancé Norman Warne died a few weeks after their engagement, she became depressedThe Story of Miss Moppet – First edition cover
141. Super Science Stories – Super Science Stories was an American pulp science fiction magazine published by Popular Publications from 1940 and 1943, and again from 1949 to 1951. Popular launched it under their Fictioneers imprint, which used for magazines paying writers less than one cent per word. Frederik Pohl was hired in late 1939, at 19 years old, to edit the magazine, he also edited Astonishing Stories, a companion science fiction publication. Pohl left in mid-1941, and Super Science Stories was given to Alden H. Norton to edit, Popular gave Pohl a very low budget, so most manuscripts submitted to Super Science Stories had already been rejected by the higher-paying magazines. This made it difficult to acquire good fiction, but Pohl was able to acquire stories for the issues from the Futurians. Super Science Stories was an success, and within a year Popular increased Pohls budget slightly. Pohl wrote many stories himself, to fill the magazine and to augment his salary and he managed to obtain stories by writers who subsequently became very well known, such as Isaac Asimov and Robert Heinlein. After Pohl entered the army in early 1943, wartime shortages led Popular to cease publication of Super Science Stories. The final issue of the first run was dated May of that year, in 1949 the title was revived with Ejler Jakobsson as editor, this version, which included many reprinted stories, lasted almost three years, with the last issue dated August 1951. There were also Canadian and British reprint editions of the incarnation of the magazine. The magazine was never regarded as one of the titles of the genre. Science fiction historian Raymond Thompson describes it as one of the most interesting magazines to appear during the 1940s, despite the variable quality of the stories. Critics Brian Stableford and Peter Nicholls comment that the magazine had an importance to the history of sf than the quality of its stories would suggest. By the end of the 1930s the field was booming, Frederik Pohl, a science fiction fan and aspiring writer, visited Robert Erisman, the editor of Marvel Science Stories and Dynamic Science Stories, to ask for a job. On October 25,1939, Pohl visited Rogers Terrill at Popular, Pohl was given two magazines to edit, Super Science Stories and Astonishing Stories. Popular was uncertain of the potential for the two new titles and decided to publish them under its Fictioneers imprint, which was used for lower-paying magazines. Super Science Stories first issue was dated March 1940, it was bimonthly, in Pohls memoirs he recalls Harry Steeger, one of the company owners, breaking down the budget for Astonishing for him, Two hundred seventy-five dollars for stories. A hundred dollars for black and white art, for Super Science Stories, Steeger gave him an additional $50 as it was 16 pages longer, so his total budget was $455 per issueSuper Science Stories – First issue cover; artist unknown
142. Tales of Wonder (magazine) – Tales of Wonder was a British science fiction magazine which was launched in 1937 with Walter Gillings as editor. It was published by The Worlds Work, a subsidiary of William Heinemann, as part of a series of titles that included Tales of Mystery and Detection. GIllings was able to some good material, despite the low payment rates he was able to offer. The magazine was more successful than the other genre titles issued by The Worlds Work. Arthur C. Clarke made his first professional sale to Tales of Wonder, Temples first story, some early material by John Wyndham, and The Prr-r-eet by Eric Frank Russell. With the advent of World War II, paper shortages and Gillings call up into the army made it difficult to continue. The first U. S. science fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, was imported into the U. K. from its launch in 1926, and other magazines from the U. S. market were also available from an early date. However, no British sf magazine appeared until 1934, when Pearsons launched Scoops, the failure of Scoops gave British publishers the impression that Britain could not support a science fiction publication. Despite this failure, only a later, George Newnes, Ltd. the publisher of The Strand magazine, decided to launch a group of four genre pulp magazines. He was asked to prepare a single issue of 80,000 words to test the market, the Worlds Work reprinted a good deal of American fiction and since they were only paying for reprint rights their rates were lower than was usual for new fiction. Gillings was given a budget of 10/6 per thousand words, the low rate discouraged those writers who could sell to the better-paying American magazines, newer writers were glad of the chance to develop a British market for their work, though most American writers were unimpressed. The first issue of Tales of Wonder appeared in June 1937, sales were good enough for The Worlds Work to continue publication, and from Spring 1938 the magazine appeared on a quarterly schedule, with occasional omissions. None of the titles in the Master Thriller series ever turned into a separate magazine. The success of Tales of Wonder led Newnes to believe that they had been wrong to turn down Gillings, and in 1938 they launched Fantasy as a competitor. Gillings was called up for service, and for a while he was able to edit the magazine from his army camp. The first issue contained The Perfect Creature, a story by John Wyndham, under the name John Beynon, as well as The Prr-r-eet. The second issue included Wyndhams novel Sleepers of Mars, and William F, Temples Lunar Lilliput, which was Temples first science fiction sale. Stenographers Hands, a story by David H. Keller, also appeared in the second issue, some new stories from American writers did appear, including Lloyd A. Eshbachs Out of the Past, and S. P. Meeks The Mentality MachineTales of Wonder (magazine) – The first issue of Tales of Wonder
143. Unknown (magazine) – Unknown was an American pulp fantasy fiction magazine, published from 1939 to 1943 by Street & Smith, and edited by John W. Campbell. The leading fantasy magazine in the 1930s was Weird Tales, which focused on shock and horror. Unknowns first issue appeared in March 1939, in addition to Sinister Barrier, it included H. L. Golds Trouble With Water, Golds story was the first of many in Unknown to combine commonplace reality with the fantastic. In May 1923, the first issue of Weird Tales appeared, Weird Tales was a pulp magazine that specialized in fantasy stories and material that no other magazine would accept. It was not initially successful, but by the 1930s had established itself and was regularly publishing science fiction as well as fantasy, Weird Tales was the first magazine to focus solely on fantasy, and it remained the pre-eminent magazine in this field for over a decade. In the meantime, science fiction was starting to form a separately marketed genre, with the appearance in 1926 of Amazing Stories, a pulp magazine edited by Hugo Gernsback. In 1930 pulp publisher Clayton Publications launched Astounding Stories of Super Science, the title was shortened to Astounding Stories, and it became the leading magazine in the science fiction field over the next few years under the editorship of F. Orlin Tremaine. At the end of 1937 John W. Campbell took over as editor, by 1938, Campbell was planning a fantasy companion to Astounding, Weird Tales was still the leader in the fantasy genre, though competitors such as Strange Stories were also being launched. Campbell began acquiring stories suitable for the new magazine, without a launch date in mind. When Eric Frank Russell sent him the manuscript of his novel Sinister Barrier, the first issue of Unknown appeared in March 1939. It was a monthly at first, but poor sales forced a switch to a bimonthly schedule beginning in February 1941. When wartime paper shortages became severe in late 1943, Campbell made the choice to keep Astounding monthly and cancel Unknown, the last issue was dated October 1943. Campbells plans for Unknown were laid out in the February 1939 issue of Astounding and he argued that it has been the quality of the fantasy that you have read in the past that has made the very word anathema. Will offer fantasy of a quality so far different from that which has appeared in the past as to change your understanding of the term. Campbell asked Russell for revisions to the story to emphasize the fantastic elements and this became a defining characteristic of the fiction published in Unknown, in Ashleys words, Campbell brought the science fiction rationale to fantasy. Under Campbells editorial supervision, the element in Unknown stories had to be treated rigorously. L. Ron Hubbard, Theodore Sturgeon, and L. Sprague de Camp were among the most prolific, de Camp, in collaboration with Fletcher Pratt, contributed three stories featuring Harold Shea, who finds himself in a world where magic operates by rigorous rules. The title of one of these, The Mathematics of Magic, is, according to sf critic John Clute, perfectly expressive of the terms under which magic found easy mention in UnknownUnknown (magazine) – The first issue of Unknown; cover art by H. W. Scott
144. Venture Science Fiction – Venture Science Fiction was an American digest-size science fiction magazine, first published from 1957 to 1958, and revived for a brief run in 1969 and 1970. Ten issues were published of the 1950s version, with six in the second run. It was founded in both instances as a companion to The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction, Robert P. Mills edited the 1950s version, and Edward L. Ferman was editor during the second run. A British edition appeared for 28 issues between 1963 and 1965, it reprinted material from The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction as well as from the US edition of Venture. There was also an Australian edition, which was identical to the British version, the original version was only moderately successful, although it is remembered for the first publication of Sturgeons Law. It succumbed to poor sales within less than two years, the second US version was no more successful, with less attractive cover art and little in the way of notable fiction, though it did publish Vonda McIntyres first story. By the end of 1970, Venture had ceased publication permanently, in late 1949, publisher Lawrence E. Spivak launched The Magazine of Fantasy, one of many new titles in a crowded field of genre magazines. The title was changed to The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction with the issue. The editors were Anthony Boucher and J. Francis McComas, in 1954, Joseph Ferman, a partner of Spivaks, bought the magazine from him. Ferman subsequently decided to launch a magazine, and gave it to Mills to edit. The new magazine was titled Venture Science Fiction, and the first issue was dated January 1957, Mills was managing editor of F&SF throughout Ventures first run, he became editor of F&SF shortly after Venture ceased publishing in July 1958. The editorial philosophy was laid out by Ferman in the issue, strong stories of action. Ferman hoped to take advantage of a gap in the science fiction magazine market opened up by the demise of Planet Stories, one of the last sf pulps, which had ceased publication in late 1955. Ed Emshwiller supplied eight of the ten covers, he had several covers to F&SF by this time. Some well-known writers appeared during this incarnation of Venture, including Isaac Asimov, Clifford Simak, Marion Zimmer Bradley, Robert Silverberg, not all the fiction was adventure oriented. These and other examples can be regarded as stories of character with strong themes, Venture was also the place that Sturgeons Law first saw print. This adage is now seen in the form 90% of everything is crap. It was formulated by Sturgeon in about 1951, and a version of it appeared in the March 1958 issue of Venture, under the name Sturgeons RevelationVenture Science Fiction – July 1958 issue of Venture, the last issue of the magazine's first version. The cover is by Ed Emshwiller, illustrating Lester del Rey 's "Lady of Space".
145. Vision in White – Vision In White is the first book of the Bride Quartet series of romance novels, written by Nora Roberts. A downloadable casual-play computer game based on the book was introduced by I-Play in 2010, in her thirty-year career, Roberts had published almost 200 novels. Vision in White was one of ten Roberts novels published in 2009, including five new releases, when it was released on April 28,2009, its cover premiered the use of a special logo to differentiate her new releases from reprints of her past works. The novel marked Roberts return to contemporary romance, the new series revolved around a wedding planning enterprise run by four childhood friends. This first story featured the developing relationship between wedding photographer Mackensie Mac Elliot and English professor Carter Maguire, like several other Roberts novels, Vision In White explored how a protagonist balanced a successful career with a dysfunctional family environment. Nora Roberts is an author of romance and futuristic suspense novels. From 1979 through 2008, almost 200 of her novels were published, on average, she completed a book every 45 days. She does not outline the novels in advance or create character biographies, according to Publishers Weekly, three of the top-ten bestselling mass market paperbacks of 2008 were Roberts novels. Her new releases focused primarily on paranormal and fantasy romance, in 2009, Roberts returned to the traditional contemporary romance subgenre with Vision in White. The novel was the first in her Bride Quartet, which also included Bed of Roses, Savor the Moment, each novel in the series focuses on the love story of a different founder of Vows, a fictional wedding planning business. Vision in White was released by Berkley Books on April 28,2009, the novel was one of ten Roberts books released that year. Five of the releases were paperback reprints of previously issued. Three were new hardcovers, including two published under the pseudonym J. D. Robb, Vision in White and its sequel, Bed of Roses, were released in trade paperback. To help readers differentiate the new releases from the reprints, the covers of the two trade paperbacks included a medallion with the initials NR, the novel follows the relationship of photographer Mackensie Mac Elliot and English teacher Carter Maguire. Mac and her childhood friends Parker, Emma, and Laurel are the founders of Vows, while accompanying his sister to a planning session at Vows, Carter renews his acquaintance with Mac, and confesses that he had been infatuated with her since high school. She is intrigued by his honesty and earnestness and decides to embark on a fling with him. After seeing her parents numerous failed marriages, Mac does not trust the idea of commitment and her determination to avoid emotional intimacy is reinforced as she struggles against her mothers continued tactics of emotional manipulation. Their relationship progresses slowly through the book, each protagonist receives much advice from a large circle of friends and familyVision in White – Vision In White
146. Western Chalukya literature in Kannada – A large body of Western Chalukya literature in Kannada language was produced during the reign of the Western Chalukya Empire in what is now southern India. Around 1183, the last Chalukya scion, Someshvara IV, overthrew the Kalachuris to regain control of the royal city. But his efforts were in vain, as other prominent Chalukya vassals in the Deccan, the Hoysalas, the Kakatiyas, Kannada literature from this period is usually categorised into the linguistic phase called Old-Kannada. It constituted the bulk of the Chalukya courts textual production and pertained mostly to writings relating to the development of the Jain faith. The earliest well-known writers belonging to the Shaiva faith are also from this period, the beginnings of the Vachana poetic tradition in the Kannada-speaking region trace back to the early 11th century. Kannada literature written in the metre, composed of prose and verse, was popularised by the Chalukyan court poets. However, with the advent of the Veerashaiva religious movement in the century, poets favoured the native tripadi, hadugabba. In addition to hundreds of poets, over thirty female poets have been recorded. Towards the end of the 10th century, a new Karnataka dynasty and their earliest inscription is dated to c.957 and is ascribed to a subordinate ruler, Tailapa II of Tardavadi, later to become the founding king of the empire, in the Bijapur district, Karnataka. These events, however, paved the way for Tailapa II to launch a rebellion against the Rashtrakuta King Karka II with the help of the Kadamba chief of Hangal. A century before these developments, the age of great Sanskrit and Prakrit epics and classics had come to an end. This productive period had made available a vast corpus of literature that could be expressed in the language of Kannada. Kannada, which had flourished both as a language of discourse and literature in the Rashtrakuta court, found enthusiastic support from the Chalukya kings. The influential Jains, who according to historian A. S, Sen, a research fellow at the Indian council of historical research, Kannada literature under the Chalukyas reached a perfection of form. Scholars Sheldon Pollock and Jan Houben have claimed that 90 percent of the Chalukyan royal inscriptions are in Kannada, the stranglehold that the Sanskritic models had over Kannada literature is best exemplified by Rannas lexicon Rannakanda, where native day-to-day Kannada words had been translated into Sanskrit. This implied that the form of the local language was not viewed as equal to Sanskrit. The mainstream literary style was to lose popularity during the mid-12th century Kalachuri rule, thus, written in native metres, in a language close to the spoken form of Kannada, the Vachana poems gained mass appeal. A new religious faith was propagated by the Veerashaivas whose ascendancy is called the Veerashaiva movement and their communicative genreWestern Chalukya literature in Kannada – Inscribed handwriting of poet Ranna (c. 982) reads Kavi Ratna (gem among poets) in Shravanabelagola
147. A Wizard of Earthsea – A Wizard of Earthsea is a young adult fantasy novel written by the American author Ursula K. Le Guin, first published by the small press Parnassus in 1968, the novel received highly positive reviews, initially as a work for children, and later among a general audience as well. Set in the archipelago of Earthsea, the story centers around a young mage named Ged. Displaying great power while still a boy, he joins the school of wizardry, during a magical duel, Geds spell goes awry and releases a shadow creature that attacks him. The novel follows his journey as he seeks to be free of the creature, the book has often been described as a Bildungsroman or coming of age story, as it explores Geds process of learning to cope with power and come to terms with death. A Wizard of Earthsea is widely regarded as a classic of fantasy, the book was widely influential within the genre of fantasy, Margaret Atwood, for instance, called A Wizard of Earthsea one of the wellsprings of fantasy literature. George Slusser has described the series as a work of high style, early concepts for the Earthsea setting were developed in two short stories, The Rule of Names and The Word of Unbinding, both published in Fantastic. The stories were collected in Le Guins anthology The Winds Twelve Quarters. It was also used as the setting for a story Le Guin wrote in 1965 or 1966, in 1967, Herman Schein asked Le Guin to try writing a book for older kids, giving her complete freedom over the subject and the approach. Drawing from her stories, Le Guin began work on A Wizard of Earthsea. Le Guin has said that the book was in part a response to the image of wizards as ancient and wise, and to her wondering where they come from. Le Guin later said that her choice of fantasy as a medium, the short stories published in 1964 introduced the world of Earthsea and important concepts in it, such as Le Guins treatment of magic. It also introduced Yevaud, a dragon who featured briefly in A Wizard of Earthsea, Le Guins depiction of Earthsea was influenced by her familiarity with Native American legends as well as Norse mythology. The influence of Norse lore can be seen in the characters of the Kargs, who are blonde and blue-eyed, Le Guins belief in Taoism is also visible in the idea of a cosmic balance in the universe of Earthsea. Earthsea itself is an archipelago or group of islands, in the fictional history of this world, the islands were raised from the ocean by Segoy, an ancient deity or hero. The world is inhabited by humans and dragons, and several among the humans are sorcerers or wizards. The world is shown as being based on a balance, which most of its inhabitants are aware of. The setting of Earthsea is preindustrial, and has many cultures within the widespread archipelago, most of the characters of the story are of the Hardic peoples, who are dark-skinned, and who populate most of the islandsA Wizard of Earthsea – Robbins cover of first edition
148. Little Tich – Harry Relph, professionally known as Little Tich, was a 4-foot-6-inch tall English music hall comedian and dancer during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He was best known for his acrobatic and comedic Big-Boot Dance, aside from his music hall appearances, he was also a popular performer in Christmas pantomimes and appeared in them annually at theatres throughout the English provinces. He repeated this success in London, where he appeared in three pantomimes at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane between 1891 and 1893 alongside Dan Leno and Marie Lloyd. Born in Cudham, Kent, Little Tich began performing aged ten when he developed a dance, in the early 1880s he formed a blackface act and gained popularity with performances at the nearby Rosherville Pleasure Gardens and Barnards Music Hall in Chatham. He travelled to London and appeared at the Foresters Music Hall in 1884, the terms titchy or titch were later derived from Little Tich, and are used to describe things that are small. In the 1890s he developed the Serpentine Dance and had a success with the Christmas pantomime Babes in the Wood in Manchester during the 1889–90 season. In 1891, he was recruited by the impresario Augustus Harris to appear in that years spectacular Theatre Royal and he starred in a further two productions at the theatre including Little Bo Peep and Robinson Crusoe. Between 1896 and 1902 Little Tich performed in his own theatre company, and spent much of his time in Paris. For his music hall acts, he created based on everyday observations. The characterisations used were The Gas Inspector, The Spanish Señora and The Waiter and he was married three times and fathered two children. In 1927 he suffered a stroke, which was triggered by a blow to the head which he had accidentally received during an evening performance at the Alhambra Theatre. He never recovered fully from the injury, and died the year at his house in Hendon. Little Tich was born Harry Relph in Cudham, Kent and he was the last of eight children born to Richard Relph, a farmer and publican, and his wife Mary, née Moorefield. The Relph family were close and lived in relative affluence, Richard Relph was a committed family man and was known in the village for his sharp business acumen. His early wealth, which was attributed to a series of successful horse-trading deals, enabled him to purchase his first public house, in 1818 he married Sarah Ashenden and they had eight children, she died in 1845. In 1851 he moved to Cudham, bought the Blacksmiths Arms and a farm, and started a new family with the 32-year-old Mary Moorefield. Little Tich was born with a digit on each hand. He reached 4 feet 6 inches in height by the age of ten and his physical differences from other children caused him to become socially withdrawn and lonelyLittle Tich – Little Tich in 1893
149. William Beach Thomas – Sir William Beach Thomas, KBE was a British author and journalist known for his work as a war correspondent and his writings about nature and country life. Beach Thomas was the son of a rural clergyman and he attended Shrewsbury School and the University of Oxford before embarking on a short-lived career as a schoolmaster. Finding that work unpleasant, he turned his attention to writing articles for newspapers and periodicals, during the early part of the First World War Beach Thomas defied military authorities to report news stories from the Western Front for his employer, the Daily Mail. As a result, he was imprisoned before being granted official accreditation as a war correspondent. His reportage for the remainder of the war received national recognition, despite being criticised by some and his book With the British on the Somme portrayed the English soldier in a very favourable light. Both France and Britain rewarded him with knighthoods after the war, Beach Thomass primary interest as an adult was in rural matters. He was conservative in his views, and feared that the post–Second World War socialist governments regarded the only from an economic perspective. He was an advocate for the creation of parks in England and Wales. He wrote extensively, particularly for The Observer newspaper and The Spectator and his book The English Landscape includes selections from his contributions to Country Life magazine. William Beach Thomas was born on 22 May 1868 in Godmanchester, in the county of Huntingdonshire and he was the second son of Daniel George Thomas, appointed rector of Hamerton in 1872, and Rosa Beart. The countryside location of his fathers parish inspired an affection in Beach Thomas, Beach Thomas was not a hyphenated double-barrelled name, he used his second name as part of his surname. Beach Thomas attended Shrewsbury School from 1882 and he was a keen sportsman there and was appointed huntsman to the Royal Shrewsbury School Hunt, the worlds oldest cross-country running club. He continued his interest in sports after earning an exhibition to Christ Church, Oxford in 1887 and became a Blue and he became president of the Oxford University Athletics Club and played association football, rugby union and cricket at college level. His exhibition was superseded by a scholarship but he was not academically successful, athletic prowess and the time spent in achieving it may have contributed to Beach Thomass poor academic performance but probably also assisted him in getting his first job. He taught at Bradfield School, a school, after leaving Oxford in 1891. Although he described teaching as uncongenial, he took a similar position at Dulwich College in 1897. Journalism became the object of his interest, he contributed columns for The Globe, The Outlook and The Saturday Review and he became a regular reviewer for The Times Literary Supplement from its formation in 1902. The Daily Mail took on Beach Thomas as a writer of material relating to the countryside, Lord Northcliffe, who owned the newspaper, recognised that Beach Thomas would need to live in a rural environment if he was to perform his duties wellWilliam Beach Thomas – William Beach Thomas in 1917, photographed by George Charles Beresford
150. P. G. Wodehouse – Sir Pelham Grenville Wodehouse KBE was an English author and one of the most widely read humorists of the 20th century. Born in Guildford, the son of a British magistrate based in Hong Kong, Wodehouse spent happy years at Dulwich College. After leaving school he was employed by a bank but disliked the work and his early novels were mostly school stories, but he later switched to comic fiction, creating several regular characters who became familiar to the public over the years. Although most of Wodehouses fiction is set in England, he spent much of his life in the US and used New York and Hollywood as settings for some of his novels and short stories. During and after the First World War, together with Guy Bolton and Jerome Kern and he began the 1930s writing for MGM in Hollywood. In a 1931 interview, his revelations of incompetence and extravagance at Hollywood studios caused a furore. In the same decade, his career reached a new peak. In 1934 Wodehouse moved to France for tax reasons, in 1940 he was prisoner at Le Touquet by the invading Germans. After his release he made six broadcasts from German radio in Berlin to the US, the talks were comic and apolitical, but his broadcasting over enemy radio prompted anger and strident controversy in Britain, and a threat of prosecution. From 1947 until his death he lived in the US, taking dual British-American citizenship in 1955 and he was a prolific writer throughout his life, publishing more than ninety books, forty plays, two hundred short stories and other writings between 1902 and 1974. He died in 1975, at the age of 93, in Southampton, Wodehouse worked extensively on his books, sometimes having two or more in preparation simultaneously. He would take up to two years to build a plot and write a scenario of about thirty thousand words, after the scenario was complete he would write the story. Early in his career he would produce a novel in three months, but he slowed in old age to around six months. Some critics of Wodehouse have considered his work flippant, but among his fans are former British prime ministers, the Wodehouses, who traced their ancestry back to the 13th century, belonged to a collateral branch of the family of the earls of Kimberley. Eleanor Wodehouse was also of ancient aristocratic ancestry and she was visiting one of her sisters in Guildford when Wodehouse was born there prematurely. The boy was baptised at the Church of St Nicolas, Guildford, Wodehouse wrote in 1957, If you ask me to tell you frankly if I like the name Pelham Grenville Wodehouse, I must confess that I do not. I was named after a godfather, and not a thing to show for it, the first name was rapidly elided to Plum, the name by which Wodehouse became known to family and friends. Mother and son sailed for Hong Kong, where for his first two years Wodehouse was raised by a Chinese amah, alongside his elder brothers Peveril and ArmineP. G. Wodehouse – Wodehouse in 1930 (aged 48)
151. All Hell Breaks Loose (Supernatural) – All Hell Breaks Loose is the joint title for the two-part second-season finale of The CW television series Supernatural. It consists of the twenty-first and twenty-second episodes of the second season, Part One was first broadcast on May 10,2007, and the second part aired the following week on May 17,2007. Azazel intends to find a leader for his army by having Sam. Sam is eventually killed, but is resurrected after Dean sells his soul, the sole survivor, Jake, is sent by Azazel to a cemetery protected against demons, where he opens a gateway to Hell. At the end of the episode, Azazel is finally killed by Dean with the mystical Colt revolver, the production process was plagued with problems, and changes had to be made throughout filming. Part Ones setting was altered after production learned of a pre-existing set, the choice of location in turn influenced the type of supernatural monster that was featured. The once-epic script of Part Two had to be toned down due to budgetary reasons, the scenes featuring the return of John Winchester had to be filmed weeks in advance using blue screen due to the actors limited availability. Despite receiving season-low ratings, the episodes garnered positive reviews from critics, the performances of Fredric Lehne and Ona Grauer were also applauded, with Jessica Harmon gaining a Leo Award nomination for her role. Sam Winchester is abducted by the yellow-eyed demon Azazel and taken to the town of Cold Oak. Ava had been abducted months earlier, but claims to have no knowledge of her whereabouts during the time gap. Lily tries to leave the town, but is killed by an Acheri demon, Azazel had come into Sams nursery and fed him his blood, with Mary Winchester walking in and recognizing the demon. Later, when Ava and Andy are alone together, she lets the Acheri demon into the building, and uses a new ability to command it to kill him. After revealing to Sam that she has actually been in the all the months she has been missing, killing off other psychic children that Azazel has sent there. However, Jake sneaks up behind her and uses his strength to break her neck. As Sam and Jake then start to leave the town, Jake attacks him out of distrust, however, as Sam is distracted by an arriving Dean and Bobby, Jake regains consciousness and fatally stabs him. Dean assures his brother that he take care of him. Desperate to save his brother, Dean sells his soul to a Crossroads Demon in exchange for Sams resurrection and they later conduct research at Bobbys home, hoping to determine Azazels plan. Ellen Harvelle, owner of the now-destroyed Roadhouse, then arrives, research also shows that railway lines connect all the churches in the form of a pentagram, creating a giant devils trap that demons cannot enterAll Hell Breaks Loose (Supernatural) – The demon Azazel is shot dead by Dean Winchester at the finale's end, bringing to a close a storyline running throughout the first two seasons.
152. Animaniacs – Steven Spielberg Presents Animaniacs is an American animated comedy television series created by Tom Ruegger. It is the animated series produced by Amblin Television in association with Warner Bros. Animation during the renaissance of the late 1980s and early 1990s. Animaniacs first aired on Fox Kids from 1993 to 1995 and new episodes later appeared on The WB from 1995 to 1998 as part of its Kids WB afternoon programming block, the series had a total of 99 episodes and one film, titled Wakkos Wish. Animaniacs is a variety show, with short skits featuring a large cast of characters, while the show had no set format, the majority of episodes were composed of three short mini-episodes, each starring a different set of characters, and bridging segments. Hallmarks of the series included its music, character catchphrases, the Warner siblings and the other characters lived in Burbank, California. However, characters from the series had episodes in various places, the Animaniacs characters interacted with famous persons and creators of the past and present as well as mythological characters and characters from modern television. Andrea Romano, the casting and recording director of Animaniacs, said that the Warner siblings functioned to tie the show together, by appearing in, each Animaniacs episode usually consisted of two or three cartoon shorts. Animaniacs had a large cast of characters, separated into individual segments, the Warners, Yakko, Wakko, and Dot, were three cartoon stars from the 1930s that were locked away in the Warner Bros. water tower until the 1990s, when they escaped. After their escape, they interacted with Warner Bros. studio workers, including Ralph, the security guard, Dr. Otto Scratchansniff, the studio psychiatrist. Pinky and the Brain are two genetically altered laboratory mice who continuously plot and attempt to take over the world, Slappy Squirrel is an octogenarian cartoon star who can easily outwit antagonists and uses her wiles to educate her nephew, Skippy Squirrel, about cartoon techniques. Additional principal characters included Rita and Runt, Buttons and Mindy, Chicken Boo, Flavio and Marita, Katie Ka-Boom, a trio of pigeons known as The Goodfeathers, the Animaniacs cast of characters had a variety of inspiration, from celebrities to writers family members to other writers. Executive producer Steven Spielberg said that the irreverence in Looney Tunes cartoons inspired the Animaniacs cast, Ruegger thought of the premise for Pinky and the Brain when wondering what would happen if Minton and Fitzgerald tried to take over the world. Deanna Oliver contributed The Goodfeathers scripts and the character Chicken Boo, Ruegger modeled the Warners personalities heavily after his three sons. Because the Warners were portrayed as cartoon stars from the early 1930s, Ruegger and other artists for Animaniacs made the images of the Warners similar to cartoon characters of the early 1930s. Simple black and white drawings were very common in cartoons of the 1920s and 1930s, such as Buddy, Felix the Cat, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, and the early versions of Mickey Mouse and Minnie Mouse. Sherri Stoner created Slappy the Squirrel when another writer and friend of Stoner, John McCann, when McCann joked that Sherri would be playing troubled teenagers when she was fifty years old, the latter developed the idea of Slappys characteristics as an older person acting like a teenager. Stoner liked the idea of a cartoon character because an aged cartoon star would know the secrets of other cartoons and have the dirt onAnimaniacs – Animaniacs had a wide cast of characters. Shown here are the majority of the characters from the series.
153. Bernard Quatermass – Professor Bernard Quatermass is a fictional scientist, originally created by the writer Nigel Kneale for BBC Television. An intelligent and highly moral British scientist, Quatermass is a pioneer of the British space programme and he continually finds himself confronting sinister alien forces that threaten to destroy humanity. The role of Quatermass was featured in three influential BBC science fiction serials of the 1950s, and again in a serial for Thames Television in 1979. A remake of the first serial appeared on BBC Four in 2005, the character also appeared in films, on the radio and in print over a fifty-year period. Kneale picked the characters surname from a London telephone directory. The character of Quatermass has been described by BBC News Online as Britains first television hero, remained a modern Mr Standfast, the one fixed point in an increasingly dreadful and ever-shifting universe. In 2005, an article in The Daily Telegraph suggested, You can see a line running through him and he shares elements with Sherlock Holmes and Ellen MacArthur. Little is revealed of Quatermasss early life during the course of the films, in The Quatermass Experiment, he at one point despairs that he should have stuck to his original career as a surveyor. In Nigel Kneales 1996 radio serial The Quatermass Memoirs, it is revealed that the Professor was first involved in experiments in the 1930s. According to The Quatermass Memoirs, during World War II Quatermass conducted top secret work for the British war effort, which he subsequently refused ever to discuss. By 1953 Quatermass is the head of the British Experimental Rocket Group, although Quatermass succeeds in launching a three-man crew, the rocket vastly overshoots its projected orbit and returns to Earth much later than planned, crash-landing in London. Despite this trauma, Quatermass continues with his programme, now called the British Rocket Group. In this serial we see his daughter, Paula Quatermass, who works as an assistant at the Rocket Group, but there is no sign of a wife or other children. In the fourth episode of the serial he mentions that he never reached his twenty-fifth wedding anniversary, tying in with The Quatermass Memoirs later assertion of his wifes early death. At the beginning of the serial, Quatermass and the Pit, Quatermasss funding is being cut back. It is not clear what happens to the Rocket Group immediately after this and he has recently become the guardian of his teenaged granddaughter Hettie after her parents were killed in a road accident in Germany. After Hettie runs away home, he travels to London in search of her. He presses the button to detonate it himself, with Hetties help, Kneale initially named his leading character Professor Charlton, but during the writing process decided he wanted something more striking and memorableBernard Quatermass – Reginald Tate, the first actor to portray Professor Bernard Quatermass.
154. Boogeyman 2 – Boogeyman 2 is a 2007 American supernatural horror film directed by Jeff Betancourt and the sequel to the 2005 film Boogeyman. The film was written by Brian Sieve and stars Danielle Savre, Matt Cohen, Tobin Bell, in the film, Savre portrays Laura Porter who as a child alongside her brother witnessed her parents murder, believing the killer to be the Boogeyman. Now an adult, Laura is in a group to get over her phobia of the Boogeyman. Casting began in December of the year with the casting of OConnor. Filming took place in Los Angeles over a four month period, beginning in January, according to Betancourt, unlike the original film which featured the Boogeyman as a supernatural entity, with this film they wanted to present a more grounded version of the mythical creature. Additionally, due to the low budget of $4.5 million, special attention was paid to the writing. Boogeyman 2 was released direct-to-video in the United States on January 8,2008, outside the United States, the film was released theatrically in Russia and Italy. It received mostly mixed reviews critics, most of which generally considered it to be an improvement over its predecessor. Despite an underwhelming performance, the film was followed by a sequel. The film focuses on Laura Porter, who as a child witnessed both her parents being murdered by a hooded man, along with her brother Henry. Henry, who was in the therapy group, seems to be doing fine and is seemingly cured. Henry goes off to a job interview, Laura struggles in facing her fear of the Boogeyman, the entity that Laura believes killed her parents. Soon, the group begins to get murdered, one by one. All of their deaths relate to their fears, mark falls down the elevator shaft, trying to escape from the darkness when the lights go out, and is torn in half. The next is Paul, who eats a cockroach after finding them in his bag of chips. The killer, a man wearing a Boogeyman mask and cloak, then hands him a bottle of cleaning solution. Laura begins to suspect these were not accidents, the lights go out at the hospital and all thats left is Laura, Alison, Darren, Nicky, Dr. Ryan and Gloria, the receptionist. Gloria goes to the basement to check the lights, Alison is killed when the Boogeyman ties her to the bed and places maggots on her arms, which crawl into Alisons skin using the cuts, forcing her to cut them out, killing herself in the processBoogeyman 2 – DVD release cover
155. Cape Feare – Cape Feare is the second episode in the fifth season of the American animated television series The Simpsons. It originally aired on the Fox network in the United States on October 7,1993, and has since been featured on DVD and VHS releases. Written by Jon Vitti and directed by Rich Moore, Cape Feare features the return of guest star Kelsey Grammer as Sideshow Bob, Cape Feare is a spoof of the 1962 film Cape Fear and its 1991 remake, and alludes to other horror films such as Psycho. The episode was pitched by Wallace Wolodarsky, who wanted to parody Cape Fear, originally produced for the fourth season, it was held over to the fifth and was therefore the last episode produced by the shows original writers, most of whom subsequently left. The production crew found it difficult to stretch Cape Feare to the duration of half an hour. In one such sequence, Sideshow Bob continually steps on rakes, the handles of which hit him in the face. The episode is considered one of the best of the entire series. After receiving numerous death threats in the mail, Bart becomes paranoid and it is revealed that the writer is his enemy, Sideshow Bob, who is incarcerated in Springfield State Prison. The next day, Sideshow Bobs parole hearing is held, the board is easily convinced that Sideshow Bob is no longer a threat. When the Simpson family goes to the cinema, Sideshow Bob sits in front of them, the Simpsons then realize that it was him who sent the letters, and Marge angrily tells him to stay away from Bart. The Simpsons opt for the Witness Relocation Program and relocate to Terror Lake, changing their surname to Thompson, however, unknown to the family as they drive cross-country to their new home, Sideshow Bob has strapped himself to the underside of the car. During the night, Sideshow Bob reaches the houseboat and cuts it loose from the dock, Bob then ties up Homer, Marge, Lisa, and Maggie, to ensure they will not interfere with his plan. Bob enters Barts room, ready to kill him, Bart flees out the window and tries to escape, but he cannot jump off the boat. As a last request, he has an idea, he compliments Sideshow Bob on his beautiful voice, pinafore, to stall for time as the houseboat floats to Springfield. After the performance, Bob advances on Bart again, but the boat runs aground, and Sideshow Bob is arrested, Sideshow Bob is a recurring character on The Simpsons. Executive producer Al Jean has compared Bobs character to that of Wile E. Coyote, the scene in which Bob is stomped on by multiple elephants and bounced right back up is a reference to the Wile E. Coyote character. In Planet Simpson, author Chris Turner writes that Bob is built into a snob and conservative Republican so that the writers can continually hit him with a rake. He represents high culture while Krusty, one of his archenemies, represents low culture, in the book Leaving Springfield, David L. GCape Feare – Kelsey Grammer voiced Sideshow Bob in the episode.
156. The Cat and the Canary (1927 film) – The Cat and the Canary is a 1927 American silent horror film adaptation of John Willards 1922 black comedy play of the same name. Directed by German Expressionist filmmaker Paul Leni, the film stars Laura La Plante as Annabelle West, Forrest Stanley as Charles Charlie Wilder, and Creighton Hale as Paul Jones. The plot revolves around the death of Cyrus West, who is Annabelle, Charlie, and Pauls uncle, Annabelle inherits her uncles fortune, but when she and her family spend the night in his haunted mansion they are stalked by a mysterious figure. Meanwhile, a known as the Cat escapes from an asylum. The film is part of a genre of horror films inspired by 1920s Broadway stage plays. Paul Lenis adaptation of Willards play blended expressionism with humor, a style Leni was notable for, Lenis style of directing made The Cat and the Canary influential in the old dark house genre of films popular from the 1930s through the 1950s. The film was one of Universals early horror productions and is considered the cornerstone of Universals school of horror, the play has been filmed five other times, with the most notable in 1939 starring comedic actor Bob Hope and Paulette Goddard. In a decaying mansion overlooking the Hudson River, millionaire Cyrus West approaches death and his greedy family descends upon him like cats around a canary, causing him to become insane. West orders that his last will and testament remain locked in a safe, as the appointed time arrives, Wests lawyer, Roger Crosby, discovers that a second will mysteriously appeared in the safe. The second will may only be opened if the terms of the first will are not fulfilled, the caretaker of the West mansion, Mammy Pleasant, blames the manifestation of the second will on the ghost of Cyrus West, a notion that the astonished Crosby quickly rejects. As midnight approaches, Wests relatives arrive at the mansion, nephews Harry Blythe, Charles Charlie Wilder, Paul Jones, his sister Susan Sillsby and her niece Cecily Young, Cyrus Wests fortune is bequeathed to the most distant relative bearing the name West, Annabelle. The will, however, stipulates that to inherit the fortune, she must be judged sane by a doctor, if she is deemed insane, the fortune is passed to the person named in the second will. The fortune includes the West diamonds which her uncle hid years ago, Annabelle realizes that she is now like her uncle, in a cage surrounded by cats. While the family prepares for dinner, a guard barges in, the guard tells Cecily, Hes a maniac who thinks hes a cat, and tears his victims like they were canaries. Meanwhile, Crosby suspects someone in the family try to harm Annabelle. Before he speaks the name, a hairy hand with long nails emerges from a secret passage in a bookshelf and pulls him in. When she explains what happened to Crosby, the family immediately concludes that she is insane, alone in her assigned room, Annabelle examines a note slipped to her which reveals the location of the family jewels, fashioned into an elaborate necklace. She follows the instructions and soon discovers the hiding placeThe Cat and the Canary (1927 film) – original 1927 window card
157. Chandralekha (1948 film) – Chandralekha is a 1948 Indian Tamil-language historical adventure film directed and produced by S. S. Vasan. Starring T. R. Rajakumari, M. K, the development of Chandralekha began in the early 1940s when, after two successive box office hits, Vasan announced that his next film would be titled Chandralekha. However, when he launched a campaign for the film. Veppathur Kittoo, one of his artists, eventually developed a story based on a chapter of George W. M. Reynolds novel Robert Macaire, or, The French bandit in England. The original director T. G. Raghavachari directed more than half of the film, then left the project because of disagreements with Vasan, originally made in Tamil and later in Hindi, Chandralekha was in production for five years from 1943 to 1948. It went through a number of changes to the script, cast, and production, Vasan mortgaged all of his property and even sold his jewellery to complete the film. Cinematography was by Kamal Ghosh and K. Ramnoth, the music was largely inspired by both Indian and Western classical music, it was composed by S. Rajeswara Rao and by M. D. Parthasarathy, with lyrics by Papanasam Sivan and Kothamangalam Subbu. Chandralekha was released on 8 April 1948 and received positive reviews. As a result, Vasan released the film in Hindi with some changes on 24 December of the year. South Indian cinema gained prominence throughout the country with the films release, the film inspired South Indian film producers to market their Hindi films in North India. It was dubbed in English, Japanese, Danish and other languages and was screened at Indian. Veerasimhan and Sasankan are the sons of a king, while passing through a village on his horse, Veerasimhan meets a village dancer named Chandralekha and they fall in love. At the palace, the king decides to abdicate in favour of Veerasimhan and this enrages the younger brother Sasankan, he forms a gang of thieves who embark on a crime spree. Chandralekhas father is injured in the chaos and dies soon after. Chandralekha, now orphaned, joins a band of travelling musicians whose caravan is raided by Sasankans men, Sasankan orders Chandralekha to dance for him, which she does only after being flogged, but she soon manages to escape. Later, Sasankan ambushes Veerasimhan and takes him prisoner, Chandralekha watches Sasankans men imprisoning Veerasimhan in a cave and sealing its entrance with a boulder. She rescues him with the help of elephants from a circus troupe. Veerasimhan and Chandralekha join the circus to hide themselves from Sasankans men, after returning to the palace, Sasankan imprisons his parents and declares himself kingChandralekha (1948 film) – International poster
158. The City of New York vs. Homer Simpson – The City of New York vs. Homer Simpson is the first episode of The Simpsons ninth season. The 179th episode of the overall, it was originally broadcast on the Fox network in the United States on September 21,1997. Writer Ian Maxtone-Graham was interested in making an episode where the Simpson family travels to New York to retrieve their lost car. Executive producers Bill Oakley and Josh Weinstein suggested that the car be found in Austin J. Tobin Plaza at the World Trade Center, great lengths were taken to make a detailed replica of the borough of Manhattan. The episode received positive reviews, and has since been on accolade lists of The Simpsons episodes. The Im Checkin In musical sequence won two awards, because of the World Trade Centers main role, the episode was taken off syndication in many areas following the September 11 attacks, but has come back into syndication in recent years. At Moes Tavern, Moe informs Homer and his friends that one of them must be a designated driver, after Barney drives the drunken men home in Homers car, Homer allows him to use it to drive himself home, expecting Barney to return it the following morning. In his distressed state, Barney disappears with the car, Two months later, Barney returns to Moes Tavern, unable to recall where he left the car. Homer later receives a letter from the New York City government, Homer reveals to the family that he had once been to New York before when he was 17 years old and had a horrible experience. Marge and the children persuade Homer to go retrieve the car, when the family arrives in Manhattan, they decide to split up. Upon arrival at his car, Homer discovers it has issued many parking tickets and has been wheel clamped. While waiting for an officer to come remove the clamp, Homer drinks an excessive amount of crab juice from a food vendor and needs to urinate. While he is doing that, the officer arrives at the car and, finding no one present, issues another ticket and leaves, meanwhile, the rest of the family tours the Statue of Liberty, Little Italy, Chinatown, and the Empire State Building. Bart leaves the group to visit the offices of Mad magazine, the family attends a Broadway musical about the Betty Ford Clinic, and then takes a carriage through Central Park to where they are planning to meet Homer. Upon returning to the car, Homer realizes he must make it to Central Park to find his family, ignoring the wheel clamp, he tries to accelerate and in the process destroys the cars fender. Homer stops by a construction crew and steals a jackhammer so he can use it to remove the clamp. The car is freed from the clamp, but further damaged as a result, Homer races to Central Park and reunites with his family. While driving back to Springfield, the family reflects on their wonderful time, writer Ian Maxtone-Graham, a former resident of New York, had conceived the idea of having the family travel to the city to locate their missing car and believed it to be a classic Manhattan problemThe City of New York vs. Homer Simpson – David Silverman was sent to Manhattan to take photographs of the area in city in order to make the episode more accurate.
159. Dark Angel (TV series) – Dark Angel is an American cyberpunk television series that premiered on the Fox network on October 3,2000. Created by James Cameron and Charles H. Eglee, it starred Jessica Alba in her breakthrough role, set in 2019, the series chronicles the life of Max Guevara, a genetically enhanced super-soldier who escapes from a covert military facility as a child. In a post-apocalyptic Seattle, she tries to lead a life, while eluding capture by government agents. Dark Angel was the first and only produced by the company Cameron/Eglee Productions. The high-budget pilot episode marked Camerons television debut and was promoted by Fox. The first season, which was shown on Tuesday nights in the U. S. received mainly positive reviews and won several awards, Albas portrayal of Max also received mostly positive reviews and several awards. For the second season the show was moved to the less desirable air time of Friday night and it suffered from a ratings drop, averaging 6 million viewers per episode, and was cancelled. A series of novels continued the storyline, and a game adaptation was also released. Ten years later in 2019 the now 19-year-old X5-452, who calls herself Max Guevara, struggles to search for her Manticore brothers and sisters. In a recovering United States which is now more than a Third World nation she tries to live a relatively normal life and evade capture by Manticore. Logan Cale, an underground cyber-journalist with the alias Eyes Only and she initially refuses but accepts after Cale is rendered a paraplegic attempting the assignment he was recruiting her for. A romantic interest buds between the two, while assisting Cale Max also makes a living as a bicycle messenger at Jam Pony, a courier company, along with her friends Original Cindy, Herbal Thought, and Sketchy. Other X5s are periodically introduced, most significantly the unit leader Zack, the Manticore hunt for the escaped X5s is led by Colonel Donald Lydecker. Near the end of the season Lydecker is betrayed by his superior, the more ruthless Elizabeth Renfro. He aids Max and Zack in an assault on Manticore headquarters, Max is badly wounded and captured. Zack, who has also captured, commits suicide to provide Max with his heart. Cale exposes Manticore to the world, Renfro decides to burn the facility to cover up the evidence and is killed in the process. Aided by Joshua, a transgenic with canine DNA, Max escapes the facility and frees the other transgenics including Alec, a fellow X5, when Max is reunited with Cale he immediately becomes ill and almost diesDark Angel (TV series) – Dark Angel
160. Deadalive – Deadalive is the fifteenth episode of the eighth season of the science fiction television series The X-Files. It was written by executive producers Chris Carter and Frank Spotnitz, Deadalive explores the series alien mythology story arc. Following its North American premiere on April 1,2001, it received a Nielsen household rating of 7.3 and was watched by 12.4 million viewers. Deadalive garnered mixed reviews from critics, while most were happy with the return of actor David Duchovny. It later won the shows last Emmy Award, for Outstanding Makeup, in this episode, agent Mulder is buried. After the body of alien abductee Billy Miles revives before an autopsy, when Mulders body is uncovered, weak vital signs are discovered. Meanwhile, rogue FBI agent Alex Krycek uses a nanobot infection in Skinners blood as leverage to make him kill Scullys unborn child, eventually, Mulder is revived and reunites with Scully. Deadalive was a milestone for the series, re-introducing Duchovny after his abduction by aliens planning to colonize Earth in the seventh-season finale Requiem. Spotnitz and Carter deliberately wrote and structured the episode in such a way so as to imply that Duchovny had been out of the series. Deadalive featured several scenes, which head make-up effects artist Matthew Mungle was given only six days to complete. In the seventh-season finale Requiem, FBI special agent Fox Mulder was abducted by aliens, in the eighth-season premiere Within, John Doggett took his place on the X-Files, and worked with Dana Scully to find Mulder. In This Is Not Happening, Scully, Doggett and FBI assistant director Walter Skinner discovered several returned abductees, although nearly all were in critical condition, a UFO cult, led by the mysterious Absalom, was using Jeremiah Smiths healing powers to treat the abductees. Scully headed to their compound, only to discover Mulders deceased body in the woods, three months after Mulders funeral, Doggett is offered a transfer from the X-Files. He realizes that if he leaves, the office will be closed, meanwhile, a fishing trawler finds the decomposing body of Billy Miles —an alien abductee who had been taken the same time as Mulder. When Miles revives on the table, Skinner, despite Doggetts objections, orders that Mulders body be exhumed and brought to a hospital. When the casket is opened, a decomposing Mulder, contrary to all scientific expectations, meanwhile, Scully notices that Miles has two heartbeats. At the FBI, Kersh unsuccessfully tries to convince Doggett to stop investigating Mulders apparent death, a short while later, as Skinner walks down a hallway, rogue agent Alex Krycek activates nanobots that he had previously placed in Skinners bloodstream as blackmail. Skinner stumbles in pain, and in an elevator, Krycek reveals himself to Skinner, however, he will only give it if Skinner can ensure that Scully does not give birth to her baby for reasons that he does not discloseDeadalive – The exhumed three-month-old body of Fox Mulder. The scene featured a double wearing a mask of David Duchovny 's head.
161. Enthiran – Enthiran is a 2010 Indian Tamil-language science fiction film directed by S. Shankar and co-written by him and Sujatha Rangarajan. The film stars Rajinikanth and Aishwarya Rai in lead roles, Danny Denzongpa, Santhanam, the project backfires when the robot falls in love with the scientists girlfriend, and is manipulated by Bohra, a rival scientist, into becoming homicidal. After being stalled in the development phase for nearly a decade, the film marked the debut of Legacy Effects studio in Indian cinema. Enthiran was released worldwide on 1 October 2010, along with its versions, Robot in Hindi. Produced by Kalanithi Maran, it was Indias most expensive film up to that point, the film received generally positive reviews upon release. Critics were particularly appreciative of Rajinikanths performance, Rathnavelus cinematography, Cyrils art direction, Enthiran emerged as the top-earning Indian film of 2010 and is the third highest-grossing South Indian film of all time after Baahubali, The Beginning and Kabali. It won two Indian National Film Awards, three Filmfare Awards, seven Vijay Awards and two Screen Awards, a spiritual successor, titled 2.0, is scheduled for release in 2017. After a decade of research, the scientist Dr. Vaseegaran creates an android robot with the help of his assistants, Siva and Ravi. He introduces the robot, named Chitti, at a conference in Chennai. Chitti helps Sana, Vaseegarans medical student girlfriend, cheat in her examination, Vaseegarans mentor, Professor Bohra, is secretly engaged in a project to create similar android robots for a terrorist organisation, but has so far been unsuccessful. Vaseegaran prepares Chitti for an evaluation by the Artificial Intelligence Research and Development Institute, during the evaluation, Chitti attempts to stab Vaseegaran at Bohras command, which convinces the evaluation committee that the robot is a liability and cannot be used for military purposes. Vaseegarans effort to prove Bohra wrong fails when he deploys Chitti to rescue people from a burning building. The robot saves most of them, including a girl named Selvi who was bathing at the time, Vaseegaran asks for one month to modify Chittis neural schema to enable it to understand human behaviour and emotions, to which Bohra agrees. While nearing the deadline, Chitti becomes angry with Vaseegaran, demonstrating to him that it can manifest emotions, Chitti uses Sanas textbooks to successfully help Sanas sister Latha give birth to a child. Bohra congratulates Vaseegaran on the achievement and allows Chitti to pass the AIRD evaluation, Chitti develops romantic feelings for Sana after she congratulates Chitti by kissing it. When Vaseegaran and Sana realise this, Sana explains to Chitti that they are only friends, saddened by her rejection, yet still in love with her, Chitti deliberately fails an evaluation conducted by the Indian Army. Enraged, Vaseegaran chops Chitti into pieces, which are dumped into a landfill site, Bohra visits the site to retrieve Chitti, which has now reassembled itself, albeit in a damaged state. Bohra embeds a red chip inside Chitti while reconstructing it, converting it into a ruthless killer and it then gatecrashes Vaseegaran and Sanas wedding, kidnaps Sana, creates replicas of itself and kills BohraEnthiran – Theatrical release poster
162. Episode 14 (Twin Peaks) – Episode 14, also known as Lonely Souls, is the seventh episode of the second season of the American mystery television series Twin Peaks. The episode was written by series co-creator Mark Frost and directed by series co-creator David Lynch, Twin Peaks centers on the investigation into the murder of schoolgirl Laura Palmer in the small rural town in Washington state after which the series is named. In this episode, during the investigation into Lauras death, FBI special agent Dale Cooper and Sheriff Truman continue to search for her killer, the demon Bob. Aided by Mike, Cooper and Truman arrest Benjamin Horne, believing him to be inhabited by Bob, later that night, Cooper is warned by The Giant that it is happening again, while Bobs real host, Leland Palmer, murders Madeline Ferguson. The episode was received, garnering positive reviews after its initial broadcast and in subsequent years. Academic readings of the entry have highlighted the theme of duality, the small fictional town of Twin Peaks, Washington, has been shocked by the murder of schoolgirl Laura Palmer and the attempted murder of her friend Ronette Pulaski. FBI special agent Dale Cooper has been sent to the town to investigate, Mike, a similar spirit, has spoken to Cooper and his FBI superior, Regional Bureau Chief Gordon Cole, explaining the nature of their existence. Meanwhile, Madeline Maddy Ferguson, Lauras cousin, has arrived in Twin Peaks from Missoula, Montana, Donna finds Harold Smith, one of Lauras friends to whom she had given a secret diary, and Donna and Maddy attempt to steal it from him. Agent Cooper, Chief Gordon Cole, Sheriff Harry S. Truman, Deputy Andy Brennan, Deputy Hawk, and Philip Gerard, Truman informs that preparations have been made for them at The Great Northern. Mike repeats his description of Bobs current location, Truman tells Hawk to search Harold Smiths apartment. Cooper tells Hawk to look for Laura Palmers secret diary, Cole bids all farewell and leaves for Bend, Oregon. Cooper, Doctor Hayward, Brennan, and Gerard / Mike are in the lobby of The Great Northern hotel attempting to find Bobs human host, the hotel is hosting a contingent of sailors who are bouncing rubber balls in the hotel lobby. Mike is seated while hotel guests are brought to him one by one for inspection, One after another, Mike turns each away. An angry Benjamin Horne enters the lobby demanding to know what is going on, just then, Gerard enters a fit and collapses while grasping at his missing arm. Meanwhile, Deputy Hawk visits the residence of Harold Smith and finds him hanging dead amongst his orchids, Maddy announces to Lauras parents Leland and Sarah Palmer that she is leaving Twin Peaks to return to her home in Missoula, Montana. Cooper, Truman, and a police team arrive at Smiths residence and they discover the torn-up remains of Laura Palmers secret diary and a suicide note that reads, Jai une âme solitaire. Cooper translates, I am a lonely soul, elsewhere, Bobby Briggs and Shelly Johnson discuss their financial concerns regarding Shellys catatonic husband Leo. Audrey Horne confronts her father Ben over his ownership of the casino, when Audrey asks him whether he killed Laura Palmer, he denies it but confesses that he and Laura had a sexual relationship and that he loved herEpisode 14 (Twin Peaks) – Leland Palmer inhabited by Killer Bob. The scene is the beginning of one which reveals the answer to the long-running plot arc of the series.
163. Evita (1996 film) – Evita is a 1996 American musical drama film based on Tim Rice and Andrew Lloyd Webbers musical of the same name. The film depicts the life of Eva Perón, detailing her beginnings, rise to fame, political career, after Stone stepped down from the project in 1994, Parker agreed to write and direct the film. Recording sessions for the songs and soundtrack took place at CTS Studios in London, England. Parker worked with Rice and Lloyd Webber to compose the soundtrack, reworking the songs by creating the music first. They also wrote a new song, You Must Love Me, principal photography commenced in February 1996, and concluded in May of that year. Filming took place on locations in Buenos Aires and Budapest, the films production in Argentina was met with controversy, as the cast and crew faced protests over fears that the project would tarnish Evas image. Evita held its premiere at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles, California, Hollywood Pictures gave the film a platform release which involved releasing it in select cities, before expanding distribution in the following weeks. The film had a release on December 25,1996. Evita was a success, grossing $141 million worldwide against a budget of $55 million. The film received a critical response, reviewers praised Madonnas performance. In a cinema in Buenos Aires on July 26,1952, as the nation goes into public mourning, Ché, a member of the public, marvels at the spectacle and promises to show how Eva did nothing, for years. At the age of 15, Eva lives in the town of Junín. She persuades a tango singer, Agustín Magaldi, with whom she is having an affair, after Magaldi leaves her, she goes through several relationships with increasingly influential men, becoming a model, actress and radio personality. She meets Colonel Juan Perón at a following the 1944 San Juan earthquake. Peróns connection with Eva adds to his populist image, since they are both from the working class. Eva has a show during Peróns rise and uses all her skills to promote him. The groundswell of support that Eva generates forces the government to release Perón, Perón wins election to the presidency and marries Eva, who promises that the new government will serve the descamisados. At the start of the Perón government, Eva dresses glamorously, soon after, she embarks on what is called her Rainbow Tour to EuropeEvita (1996 film) – United States Theatrical release poster
164. Film Booking Offices of America – Film Booking Offices of America, also known as FBO Pictures Corporation, was an American film studio of the silent era, a producer and distributor of mostly low-budget films. Robertson-Cole bought the Hallmark Exchanges from Frank J. Hall in 1920, Robertson-Cole initiated movie production in the United States in 1920. That year, it incorporated Robertson-Cole Studios, Inc. and bought 460 acres in Santa Monica, the property, which became known as the R. C. Ranch, enabled Robertson-Cole to centralize movie production, which previously had been scattered, the movie company had relied on equipment rentals to produce motion pictures. In 1923, the studio contracted with Western actor Fred Thomson, Thomson was just one of numerous screen cowboys with whom FBO became identified. The studio, whose market was Americas small towns, also put out many romantic melodramas, non-Western action pictures. In 1926, financier Joseph P. Kennedy led a group acquired the company. In June 1928, using RCA Photophone technology, FBO became only the second Hollywood studio to release a feature-length talkie, a few months later, Kennedy and RCA chief David Sarnoff arranged the merger that created RKO, one of the major studios of Hollywoods Golden Age. The company that would become FBO began as the U. S. -based movie subsidiary of the British importer, exporter and this organization was similar in structure to the French Pathé Exchange company, a subsidiary of the French Pathé Frères company. From its U. S. headquarters in New York City, R-C Pictures, as it was sometimes known, in 1919, the company forged an alliance with Exhibitors Mutual Distributing, a corporate descendant of the Mutual Film studio. The first of R-Cs own feature productions to be released was The Wonder Man, directed by John G. Adolfi and starring Georges Carpentier, which debuted May 29,1920. With its move into production, Robertson-Cole established a 13. 5-acre studio in Los Angeless fortuitously named Colegrove district, then adjacent to, in January 1921, Robertson-Cole absorbed Hallmark Pictures, which had acquired the Exhibitors Mutual interests the previous year. That year, the British owners of the studio entered into a relationship with Joseph P. Kennedy. Joseph Kennedy was then a broker at the New York banking firm of Hayden, Stone, as well as the owner of Maine–New Hampshire Theatres, though he failed to arrange the sale R-Cs general partners were looking for, Kennedys involvement with the studio was far from over. In 1922, Robertson-Cole underwent a reorganization as the companys founders departed. The flagship U. S. distribution business changed its name to Film Booking Offices of America, between the 1922 reorganization and October 1923, one of the companys new American investors, Pat Powers, was effectively in command. Powers had previously led his own filmmaking company, part of the merger that created the large Universal studio in 1912. Powers apparently changed the name of Robertson-Cole/FBO to the Powers Studio for a brief period, in 1923, the studio launched a series of boxing-themed shorts, Fighting Blood, starring George OHaraFilm Booking Offices of America – FBO logo from 1927.
165. Fresh Blood (Supernatural) – Fresh Blood is the seventh episode of the paranormal drama Supernaturals third season on The CW, and is the shows fifty-first episode overall. The episode was written by Sera Gamble and directed by Kim Manners, the narrative follows the series protagonists Sam and Dean Winchester as they have their final confrontation with hunter Gordon Walker, who has been turned into a vampire. It also features the demise of recurring antagonist Gordon Walker, Brown, who was forced to leave the show due to commitments to the Lifetime Television series Army Wives, was horrified at Gordons actions in the episode. Mercedes McNab of Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Angel fame made a cameo appearance, the episode received ratings near the season average, and garnered generally positive reviews from critics. Browns performance was praised, as well as the twist in his characters storyline, also applauded were both Sams confrontation with Dean over his recent reckless behavior and the resulting reconciliation at the episodes end. Many critics found the presence of character Bela Talbot in the episode to be pointless, while the critic for TV Guide enjoyed McNabs cameo and wished it had been longer. Hunter Gordon Walker, who believes that Sam Winchester will one day turn evil and become involved in a war against humanity. He tracks down Bela Talbot —a thief and frequent thorn in the Winchesters sides—and threatens to kill her unless she reveals the location of the brothers and she refuses at first, but eventually acquiesces in exchange for a priceless mojo bag. Meanwhile, Sam and Dean capture the vampire Lucy, who has taken two victims. They interrogate her, and discover that another vampire named Dixon spiked her drink with his own blood at a club, Dixon had taken her back to his home, but she escaped to feed. Lucy, still believing that she has only been drugged, is killed by Dean. The brothers locate and confront Dixon, but are interrupted by Gordon, Sam and Dean escape, but in the mayhem, Dixon kidnaps Gordon. The vampire later explains to Gordon that hunters killed his nest, though Dixon had planned on using Gordon as food, the hunters continuous taunting prompts him to feed him his blood. When the brothers—having been informed by Bela of Gordons location, which she discovered via Ouija board—arrive at Dixons hideout and he requests that he be allowed to live long enough to deal with Sam. Despite this, Kubrick attempts to him, so Gordon retaliates by punching into his guts. As night approaches, the brothers have not been able to find Gordon, Dean decides to go after Gordon while Sam stays hidden, but Sam refuses. He then confronts Dean about his reckless behavior since his deal with a Crossroads Demon, Dean claims that he is not scared of his impending death, but Sam challenges this. Dean eventually relents, agreeing to more like his old self againFresh Blood (Supernatural) – Mercedes McNab was at first reluctant to take on the role, stating, "How many times can you really play a vampire? It's pretty silly!"
166. Homicide: Life on the Street (season 2) – The second season of Homicide, Life on the Street, an American police procedural drama television series, originally aired in the United States between January 6 and January 27,1994. Due to low Nielsen ratings during the first season, NBC executives decided to only a four-episode season, after which they would evaluate the ratings. Homicide was moved to a new timeslot of Thursdays at 10 p. m. EST, NBC requested several changes from the series, including fewer episode subplots and less camera movements and jump cuts. The entire Homicide cast returned for the second season, the uncertainty over Homicides future was stressful for the cast and crew, and the logistics of scheduling the filming around the actors schedules was difficult. Daniel Baldwin publicly criticized NBC Entertainment president Warren Littlefield over the matter, the second season was the last to include original cast member Jon Polito, who was reportedly dismissed because NBC officials were unhappy with his physical appearance. Polito was publicly critical of the show after his dismissal, the second season marked the debut of Jean de Segonzac as director of photography and Chris Tergesen as music coordinator. Bop Gun differed from other Homicide episodes because it focused entirely on one story, the episodes See No Evil and Black and Blue featured a suspected police shooting, which was based on a real life incident in David Simons book Homicide, A Year on the Killing Streets. Homicide received generally positive reviews during the season, and the received one Emmy nomination for Outstanding Guest Actor in a Drama Series for Williams. The Bop Gun script won a Writers Guild of America Award, Homicide was often compared to the ABC police drama series NYPD Blue, which Baldwin called the knockoff of Homicide. While ratings improved during the season, NBC still demanded further changes to the show before committing to a third season. The first and second seasons of Homicide were released together in a four-DVD box-set on May 27,2003, Nielsen ratings for Homicide, Life on the Street had gradually declined throughout the first season, leaving the show at high risk of cancellation by the time the season concluded. NBC executives asked for several refinements – including fewer episode subplots and less camera movements, Fontana said, We were experimenting with our first nine episodes. Whenever you try something new, you tend to err on the side of breaking ground, but wed rather have more people watching, so the colors and lighting are slightly brighter, and the camera movements are not as jarring. However, both Levinson and Fontana insisted the changes were not entirely due to pressure, but rather were evolutionary developments for the series. NBC ordered a second season, which would be broadcast in January 1994 as a mid-year replacement. A decision about whether to renew the show for a season would then be made based on how those four episodes performed in the ratings. David P. Theres more here than there was last year, Littlefield said of Homicide, Its a show we think has tremendous potential that was not fully realized in the first nine episodes. And thats why we want to make more, Homicide was moved from its previous timeslot of Wednesdays at 9 p. m. EST to a new time on Thursdays at 10 p. mHomicide: Life on the Street (season 2) – Homicide executive producer Barry Levinson said NBC 's decision to evaluate the series after a four-episode season placed a great deal of pressure on the staff.
167. Into Temptation (film) – Into Temptation is a 2009 independent drama film written and directed by Patrick Coyle, and starring Jeremy Sisto, Kristin Chenoweth, Brian Baumgartner, Bruce A. It tells the story of a prostitute who confesses to a Catholic priest that she plans to kill herself on her birthday, the priest attempts to find and save her, and in doing so plunges himself into a darker side of society. The film was inspired by Coyles father, a kind. The script won the McKnight Screenwriting Fellowship from the IFP Minnesota Center for Media Arts, into Temptation was filmed and set in Coyles hometown of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Several supporting roles were filled with actors from the Minneapolis – Saint Paul theater area and it was produced by Ten Ten Films and Farnam Street II, and distributed by First Look International. With a budget of less than $1 million, filming began in May 2008, cinematography was provided by David Doyle, Russell Holsapple composed the score, and Lee Percy worked as editor. Into Temptation was optioned in Hollywood, but talks fell through due to complications from the global recession, the film did not receive a national release but played at theaters in several cities. The film received positive reviews. It was released on DVD on October 27,2009, Father John Buerlein is the mild-mannered Catholic priest of a small parish in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Overworked and underpaid, he has grown jaded with the profession and has trouble connecting with his parishioners, during confession, a mysterious and unnamed prostitute confesses to a sin she has not yet committed, she plans to commit suicide on her birthday. The confession ends abruptly, and he is unable to stop the woman before she disappears and he only knows she wears a crucifix and is an Aries, which means her birthday is soon. Father John grows obsessed with finding and helping this woman, on his way home, Father John meets a homeless man named Gus, but with no money for him, he gives him a rosary instead. Later, he seeks counsel from his friend Father Ralph OBrien, Father John returns to the red-light district and speaks to a prostitute named Miriam, who suggests a powerful pimp named James St. Clair might know about the woman. As they speak in a bar, the mysterious prostitute enters and solicits a john, as she goes, Father John catches a glimpse of the crucifix she is wearing and tries to chase her down. She leaves in the car before he can catch them. Back at church, his sermons start to grow more unorthodox, meanwhile, Father John is contacted by his ex-girlfriend Nadine Brennan, who tells him she is divorcing her husband and still harbors romantic feelings for Father John. Meanwhile, Linda visits her dying, elderly stepfather Donald Dupree, Linda confronts him about their past, but claims she has forgiven him his sins, even though he continues to deny any wrongdoing. A drunk Nadine goes to talk to Father John in confession about her loneliness and he admits to caring for her as well, but they agree to remain friendsInto Temptation (film) – DVD release cover
168. Kalidas (film) – Kalidas, also known as Kalidasa, is a 1931 Indian Tamil-language biographical film directed by H. M. Reddy and produced by Ardeshir Irani. It is notable for being the first Tamil language sound film, Kalidas, principally in Tamil, contained additional dialogue in Telugu and Hindi. While Rajalakshmi spoke Tamil, Venkatesan spoke only Telugu due to his lack of fluency in Tamil, the sound was recorded using German-made technology. Kalidas was shot in Bombay on the sets of Indias first sound film Alam Ara, Kalidas was released with high expectations on 31 October 1931, coinciding with Diwali day. It was the only Tamil film to be produced and released that year, despite numerous technical flaws, it received critical acclaim, with praise for Rajalakshmis singing performance, and it became a major commercial success. The success of Kalidas spawned other films based upon Kālidāsa, including Mahakavi Kalidasa, Mahakavi Kalidasu, in addition to its commercial success, Kalidas was a major breakthrough for Rajalakshmis career, and made her a bankable singing star. Because no print, gramophone record, or songbook of the film is known to survive, Vidhyadhari is the daughter of Vijayavarman, the king of Thejavathi. His minister wants the princess to marry his son but she refuses, annoyed, the minister sets out to find another potential husband for Vidhyadhari. In the forest, the finds a illiterate cowman sitting in a tree. The minister persuades the cowman to come to the palace and has Vidhyadhari marry him, when Vidhyadhari realises she has been cheated, and is married to a farmhand, she prays to the goddess Kali for a remedy. Kali appears before her, names her husband Kalidas and endows him with literary talents. Kalidas is the first sound film to be produced in South Indian cinema, and it was based on the life of the Sanskrit poet and playwright Kālidāsa. The film was produced by Ardeshir Irani, who directed Indias first sound film Alam Ara, P. G. Venkatesan was chosen to play the title role. L. V. Prasad—who later founded Prasad Studios—appeared in a role as a temple priest. Theatre artiste T. P. Rajalakshmi was chosen to play the female protagonist, according to film historian Randor Guy, before this, Rajalakshmi had acted in many silent films, and Kalidas was her first sound film. Supporting roles were played by Thevaram Rajambal, T. Susheela Devi, J. Sushila, the sound was recorded by German technicians using German-made equipment. Kalidas was shot in Bombay on the sets of Alam Ara, it was completed using either 6,000 feet or 10,000 feet of film, Film historian Film News Anandan stated that Kalidas was produced in a hurry, and was technically flawed. While Kalidas primary language was Tamil, the actors spoke a variety of languages, including Tamil, TeluguKalidas (film) – Kalidas
169. Kampung Boy (TV series) – Kampung Boy is a Malaysian animated television series first broadcast in 1997. It is about the adventures of a boy, Mat. The series is adapted from the best-selling graphical novel The Kampung Boy, a main theme of Kampung Boy is the contrast between the traditional rural way of life and the modern urban lifestyle. The series promotes the village lifestyle as an environment that is fun and conducive to the development of a healthy and it raises the issue of modernization, proposing that new values and technologies should be carefully examined by a society before being accepted. In 1979, the graphic novel The Kampung Boy was published. The story of a young Malay boys childhood in a kampung proved to be a commercial and critical success, the Kampung Boys success prompted Lat to consider using other media to reach out to the masses. The seeds for the adaptation of The Kampung Boy were sown in 1993 in a conversation between Lat and Ananda Krishman, founder of Measat Broadcast Network Systems. Recognising that the younger generation preferred colourful animations over static black and white drawings, after Krishnans company offered Lat financial support to start an animation project, the cartoonist began plans to adapt his trademark comic to the television screen. Lat imagined several stories that he wished to see in animated form, Lacewood Studio in Ottawa, Canada, was in charge of animating the pilot episode. World Sports and Entertainment of Los Angeles was involved as well, Norman Singer organised the production, bobdog Production was responsible for animating another five episodes. However, Krishman and Lat were disappointed with the results, which had two years of work to produce. They thought the pilot was slow-moving, Lat believed Lacewood had accommodated him too often during the production, accepting his input without question. They failed to inform him that although a slow pace worked for static cartoon drawings, in 1995, Lat and Krishman engaged Matinee Entertainment to complete the project, and Lat started to fly back and forth between Kuala Lumpur and Los Angeles to work closely with Matinees employees. His experience with Matinees team of writers and animators was positive, they were more proactive than Lacewoods, brainstorming his ideas and turning them into viable scripts, director Frank Saperstein performed the final edit, polishing up the scripts. He also enforced accuracy in the depictions of such as bullock carts. The storyboards were translated into animations by Philippine Animation Studios Incorporated in Manila, Lat again took several trips, this time to the Philippines, to advise the animators and ensure that everything was depicted accurately. Once the animation had been completed, the prints were sent to Vietnam for processing, finally, the films were delivered to Krishnans studio in Kuala Lumpur for voice recording in English and Bahasa Malaysia. Like Lat, Saperstein flew back and forth among the countries to coordinate effortsKampung Boy (TV series) – A frame from a Kampung Boy storyboard (from left to right): Ana, Mat, and Bo
170. Last Gasp (Inside No. 9) – Last Gasp is the fourth episode of the first series of British dark comedy anthology television programme Inside No.9. It first aired on 26 February 2014 on BBC Two, the story revolves around the ninth birthday of the severely ill Tamsin. Tamsins parents Jan and Graham have arranged with charity WishmakerUK for singer Frankie J Parsons to visit as a treat for their daughter. Frankie dies after blowing up a balloon, leading to arguments between Graham, WishmakerUK representative Sally and Frankies assistant Si over the balloon containing Frankies last breath. The story, written by Pemberton and Reece Shearsmith, was inspired by someone Pemberton had seen on television who collected air from different places, the episode is more comedic than others in the series, and critiques celebrity culture and human greed. Last Gasp received a negative critical response, in retrospect. Other reviewers gave a positive response, but a particularly scathing review by columnist Virginia Blackburn was published in the Daily Express. On its first showing, Last Gasp drew 872,000 viewers, Pemberton subsequently sold a balloon containing his own breath on eBay, with proceeds going to a Sport Relief charity. Last Gasp was inspired by someone Pemberton had seen on childrens programme Multi-Coloured Swap Shop who collected apparently empty jars which actually contained air taken from different places, the idea, which he considered bizarre but very special, had haunted him. This gave him the idea of collecting the breath of celebrities, the death of Michael Jackson and the death of Amy Winehouse, along with the associated collecting of memorabilia, also served as inspiration. For Pemberton, the family and house in Last Gasp were very normal, the episode was filmed on location in what director David Kerr called an utterly freezing house. The finished episode, for Kerr, had a degree of darkness in that, though the events unfold in a relatively unremarkable setting. At the same time, the characters lead to humour. Shearsmith described Last Gasp as like a My Family episode gone wrong, as the format of Inside No.9 requires new characters each week, the writers were able to attract actors who may have been unwilling to commit to an entire series. It was the first episode of the not to star Shearsmith. For Kerr, the difficulty associated with the use of child actors was not present in Last Gasp, for him. She was brilliant, she had maturity beyond her years, Pemberton and Shearsmith had been keen to use Inside No.9 as a vehicle to work with new people, and had been keen to collaborate with Greig for some time. Kerr said that one of the joys of Inside No.9 was the opportunity to see actors in very different roles to those in which they had previously starredLast Gasp (Inside No. 9) – The poster for "Last Gasp", designed by Matt Owen
171. Making Waves (TV series) – Making Waves is a British television drama series produced by Carlton Television for ITV. It was created by Ted Childs and chronicles the professional and personal lives of the crew of the Royal Navy frigate HMS Suffolk, the series remained in development hell for several years and was first broadcast on 7 July 2004. However, due to low ratings it was removed from the schedules after only three episodes, the remainder of the series going unaired on television in the United Kingdom, the series starred Alex Ferns as Commander Martin Brooke and Emily Hamilton as Lieutenant Commander Jenny Howard. The frigate HMS Grafton stood in for Suffolk and additional filming took place around HMNB Portsmouth with the full co-operation of the Royal Navy, a limited-edition DVD of all six episodes was released in December 2004. It was turned down by ITV because it was old-fashioned and did not fit in with the networks existing portfolio of dramas. Despite this, Childs and Carlton continued to develop the series and they brought it to the editors of BBC One. By that time, the top levels of the ITV drama department had changed and due to Carltons links with ITV, a six-episode series was commissioned in July 2002 by Nick Elliott at ITV. The project was managed by the MoDs Directorate of Corporate Communications. Throughout pre-production Fincher negotiated an agreement with Carlton, whereby a financial recovery was made for anything they used that was taxpayer-funded. This included use of ships, fuel, and personnel, another clause gave the Royal Navy a share of any royalties from the series, including advertising revenue and sales. There were four credited writers on the Carlton staff, with writers from the ITV network centre involved in the development of the scripts, the first episode was written in 2002 by Terry Cafolla, who later wrote Messiah IV, The Harrowing. The second episode was written by Damian Wayling of The Bill, Matthew Bardsley was the credited writer of the three unaired episodes. Although a second series was not made, storylines were planned for a potential commission, warrant Officer Dave Allport and Leading Seaman Sarah Worthy joined Fincher as advisers in January 2003. Actors were auditioned and hired in late 2002, and included Alex Ferns, Emily Hamilton, cast as executive officer Jenny Howard, was largely unknown to British television audiences at the time, her only notable role was in Russell T Daviess The Grand in the late 1990s. Lee Boardman took the role of the chef Art Francis to distance himself from his most well-known role, stephen Kennedy was already known for his role as Ian Craig in the BBC Radio 4 soap opera The Archers. He mentioned in an interview the differences between the two roles, before quipping that they were not that dissimilar, the crew of Grafton appeared as extras throughout the series and schoolchildren from St. Judes School, Southsea appeared in the families day scenes in episode six. The series producers scouted Portsmouth in 2002 for ship locations, potential main settings HMS Marlborough and HMS Dryad were put aside in favour of HMS Grafton and filming commenced on 24 March 2003 with 30 actors and 60 crew moving onto the ship for the shoot. The series was directed by Matthew Evans and Nigel Douglas and was shot on digital DV cameras, the production staff filmed approximately three hours of footage on every 12-hour day, editing it using Avid systems in the production offices at the naval baseMaking Waves (TV series) – Title card
172. The Million Second Quiz – The Million Second Quiz is an American game show hosted by Ryan Seacrest and broadcast by NBC. The series aired from September 9 to September 19,2013, for a titular million seconds, contestants attempted to maintain control of a money chair by winning trivia matches against other contestants, earning money for every second they occupied the chair. At any given moment, the four highest-scoring contestants other than the one in the chair were sequestered together, when time ran out, the four top scorers received the money they had accumulated and competed in a stepladder playoff for a top prize of $2,000,000. The series was cross-promoted through a number of NBCUniversal properties, and NBC broadcast a live prime time show for each night of the competition and a two-hour finale. Additionally, through an app, viewers could play the game against others. Outside of the time episodes, the program was also webcast throughout the competition by means of the Million Second Quiz app. The program itself also served as a vehicle for promoting NBCs then-upcoming lineup for the 2013-14 television season, geiger Engineers provided the structural engineering for the hourglass and other rooftop structures as well as the required rooftop shoring. The quiz was set in a structure located on a roof in midtown Manhattan. An indoor set in the building was also constructed for use during the non-prime time portions of the game and for any inclement weather situations. Contestants played in a competition that ran 24 hours a day for 1,000,000 seconds, or about eleven. At any given time, one contestant sat in the Money Chair, each bout lasted a set number of seconds, after a question was read, the contestants had five seconds to secretly lock in their answers on separate keypads. The contestant in the earned money at a rate of $10 per second, even when bouts were not being played. When this contestant lost a bout, he/she stopped earning money, only the four contestants with the highest total winnings kept their money once the countdown clock ran out of time. Each prime-time broadcast hour consists of three bouts, the Challenger bout, the Line Jumper bout, and the Winners Defense bout, questions start at one point each, with the value increasing by one every 100 seconds. At any time, either contestant may choose to instead of answering, doing so doubles that questions value. A doubled opponent may either answer or double back, quadrupling the point value, if a doubled or doubled-back contestant answers incorrectly or fails to act within five seconds, the points are awarded to his/her opponent. Contestants may double as often as they wish during a bout, at the end of the bout, the contestant with the higher score wins and either retains the Money Chair or replaces its current occupant. If the bout ends in a tie score, a question is askedThe Million Second Quiz – The Million Second Quiz
173. No Such Thing as Vampires – No Such Thing as Vampires is the pilot episode of the American paranormal romance television drama Moonlight, which premiered on CBS on September 28,2007, in the United States. It was written by series creators/executive producers Trevor Munson and Ron Koslow, the series, originally titled Twilight, was commissioned by Warner Bros. Television as a presentation lasting 14–20 minutes, alex OLoughlin, Shannon Lucio, Rade Šerbedžija and Amber Valletta were cast in the lead roles, and Rod Holcomb was hired as director. The project was renamed Moonlight when picked up by CBS for the 2007–2008 American television season, david Greenwalt joined the staff in May 2007 as showrunner and executive producer alongside Joel Silver, however, health reasons forced Greenwalt to leave the series. All of the original actors save for the lead role were recast in June 2007. With an almost entirely different cast, a retooled, full-length pilot for television audiences was re-shot, although received poorly by critics, the pilot managed to finish first among total viewers and adults 18–49 for its night. Many critics criticized the acting and the writing, one said that it had the worst writing of the new season, a few found that even though the series did not seem great, it had potential. Jason Dohrings performance was praised, and one critic wished that he had a bit more screen time. Mick St. Micks job leads him to the scene of the murder of a woman, where Beth. While walking around the scene, she meets Mick and tells him he looks very familiar, Beth gives the murder article a vampire theme, using the puncture wounds as inspiration. The article makes Josef, a 400-year-old vampire friend of Micks, to get more information on the murder, Mick goes to the morgue, where his friend Guillermo supplies him with blood. Mick does not detect any traces of vampire contact on the dead woman, Mick then comes across Beth at the dead womans apartment, where they find a necklace with a vial of blood inside. Professor Ellis, a lecturer of the woman, gives a eulogy at her funeral. Chloe, a friend of the woman, attacks Ellis and slashes his neck. Beth tracks down Chloe, who explains that the professor has a blood cult. Later, Mick finds Chloes dead body, who was murdered by Ellis, knowing that Beth has gone to Elliss class, he rushes to save her. After the class, Beth talks to Ellis about vampires and the womans murder. Ellis attacks Beth and although she escapes, she is kidnapped by the teaching assistantNo Such Thing as Vampires – Beth Turner (Sophia Myles) tries to take a picture of the body of a murdered young woman.
174. The Other Woman (Lost) – The Other Woman is the 78th episode of the serial drama television series Lost and the sixth episode of the shows fourth season. It aired on March 6,2008 on the American Broadcasting Company in the United States, the episode was written by co-executive producer Drew Goddard and executive story editor Christina M. Kim, and was directed by Eric Laneuville. The narrative begins on December 24,2004,94 days after the crash of Oceanic Airlines Flight 815, recent island arrivals Daniel Faraday and Charlotte Lewis leave the survivors camp without notice for the Dharma Initiative electrical station called the Tempest. In flashbacks that depict events on the island, Juliet Burke discovers that her boss Ben Linus, the writers advanced several story lines with The Other Woman. The episode furthers Juliets back story and relationships, sheds light on the seasons new characters. The introduction of the Tempest further develops the series mythology, specifically the purge, in the third season, the purge was mentioned in episode Enter 77 and seen in The Man Behind the Curtain. The Other Woman was watched by 15 million Americans and received mixed reviews, another criticism was that audiences actually learned more about Ben than Juliet, despite the focus on Juliet. Emerson also received praise for his acting than Mitchell, who plays Juliet, however. Positive reviews commended the action in the episodes climax, the episode opens with flashbacks to Juliets life on the island following her recruitment in September 2001 by the Others. Juliet has an affair with an Other named Goodwin, who is married to therapist Harper Stanhope, Harper discovers the affair, and warns Juliet that their leader Ben will punish Goodwin because he has a crush on Juliet. Following the crash of Flight 815, Ben sends him to infiltrate a group of surviving passengers, in October 2004, Ben invites Juliet to what he initially describes as a dinner party, but is actually a private date. Ben leads Juliet to Goodwins impaled corpse, where she accuses him of having wanted Goodwin to die, Ben then subsequently reveals his love for her. Juliet and the survivors leader Jack Shephard notice their absence from the beach camp. After hearing the whispers, Harper approaches Juliet and she tells her that Daniel and Charlotte intend to kill everyone on the island by deploying a lethal gas at the Tempest and that Bens orders are for Juliet to kill them. On a trek back to the beach in the morning, Kate encounters Daniel, Jack and Juliet come across Kate and they split up, Juliet continues for the Tempest alone, as Jack minds Kate. Inside the station, Juliet finds Daniel in a suit at a computer. Jack arrives at the Tempest and Juliet explains that those on the freighter came to the island to wage war against Ben and she fears for Jack because Ben thinks that she belongs to him, but Jack shows no worry and kisses her. In the Barracks, Ben bargains with 815 survivor John Locke for his freedom and he reveals that Charles Widmore —the father of Desmond Humes girlfriend, Penny —owns the freighter and hopes to exploit the islandThe Other Woman (Lost) – Before the episode was broadcast, Mitchell said "keep in mind, it is a little bit of a slowdown, but there's some good stuff in there with Ben. He will completely creep you out."
175. Pah Wongso Pendekar Boediman – Pah Wongso Pendekar Boediman is a 1941 detective film from the Dutch East Indies. The first production by Star Film, it was produced by Jo Eng Sek, starring L. V. Wijnhamer, Jr. Elly Joenara, and Mohamad Arief, it followed the social worker Pah Wongso as he investigated a murder to clear his protégés name. The first film of its genre to be produced in the Indies, Pah Wongso Pendekar Boediman was made to capitalize on the popularity of Wijnhamer and Hollywood characters such as Charlie Chan and Mr. Moto. Released in April 1941 to popular acclaim, it had a critical reception. A sequel to this film, which is possibly lost, Pah Wongso Tersangka, was released later that year, Pah Wongso is a nut seller, social worker, and schoolmaster who lives in Batavia and takes care of the local poor. One day, his young protégé Wisnoe saves the life of a woman named Siti when she is almost hit by a carriage. In thanks, her father Haji Abdullah gives Wisnoe a job at his rice mill, Wisnoes zeal and diligence quickly make him stand out from his fellow employees, and he begins to woo Siti, who returns his affections. However, Wisnoes cousin Bardja is envious of his newfound success, a gambler who frequents prostitutes, Bardja is smitten with Siti, who does not love him. Hoping to eliminate his competition, Bardja hires some thugs to kill Wisnoe, this attempt fails and he decides to steal from his rich uncle, but is caught in the act. In the ensuing struggle, he kills the man, then frames Wisnoe for the murder. Wisnoe is arrested, and soon Pah Wongso – warned by Siti of Bardjas previous treachery – begins to investigate the case, ultimately he discovers that Bardja is the true murderer and confronts him, resulting in a battle to the death. Wongso emerges victorious, and Wisnoes name is cleared, Pah Wongso Pendekar Boediman was produced by Jo Eng Sek, a businessman who had produced the film Si Tjonat in 1929. Cinematography on this film was handled by Cho Chin Hsin. The film was the first production of Star Film, a studio which Jo and Cho had established in Prinsenland and this led Jo to make a detective film which he thought would be successful with ethnic Chinese audiences. For this, he approached L. V. Wijnhamer, Jr. Wijnhamer accepted the role, to support Wongso, stage actress Elly Joenara was cast as Siti, making her film debut, while Mohamad Arief appeared as Wisnu. Other cast members included Djoenaedi, R. Sukran, and Miss Satijem, to ensure that fight scenes went smoothly, Jo hired members of Primo Oesmans silat and boxing group to perform as criminals, Oesman, a professional boxer, also appeared in the film. Pah Wongso Pendekar Boediman was rated for audiences over the age of 17 and it premiered at the Rex Theatre in Batavia on 1 April 1941, following a short speech by Wijnhamer. It had reached Surabaya by June, where it was advertised as a film of intrigue, life, although intended predominantly for domestic consumption, it was also screened in China, Singapore and British MalayaPah Wongso Pendekar Boediman – Poster
176. Parks and Recreation (season 1) – The first season of Parks and Recreation originally aired in the United States on the NBC television network between April 9 and May 14,2009. Produced by Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, the series was created by Greg Daniels and Michael Schur, the comedy series focuses on Leslie Knope, the deputy director of the parks and recreation department of the fictional town of Pawnee, Indiana. The season consisted of six 22-minute episodes, all of which aired at 8,30 p. m. on Thursdays, Daniels and Schur conceived the show when NBC officials asked Daniels to produce a spin-off of his comedy series The Office, on which Schur was a writer. During development, the decided the new show would be a stand-alone series. Like that show, Parks and Recreation encouraged improvisation among its cast members, early test screenings were poor, and many critics and industry observers were skeptical about the shows chances of success. The first season received mixed reviews, and several commentators found it too similar to The Office. The premiere episode was watched by 6.77 million households, a season low of 4.25 million households watched the final episode, Rock Show. Despite the low rating, Rock Show received the best reviews of the season and convinced some critics that the series had finally found the right tone. Amy Poehler as Leslie Knope, the deputy director of the Pawnee parks department and she has a strong love for her home town of Pawnee, and desires to use her position to improve it. Rashida Jones as Ann Perkins, a nurse who begins a friendship with Leslie after she and she slowly becomes more involved in the Pawnee government due to her friendship with Leslie. Paul Schneider as Mark Brendanawicz, a city planner with the Pawnee municipal government and he has long been disillusioned with government after being unable to achieve his career ambitions. Leslie harbors a crush on Mark due to a romantic encounter they had several years ago. Mark assists Leslie with her plan to turn the pit next to Anns house into a park, Aziz Ansari as Tom Haverford, Leslies self-absorbed and underachieving subordinate. While he is an employee at the department, he cares little about his job. He takes great pride in his appearance and regularly pursues women despite being married. Nick Offerman as Ron Swanson, the director of the parks department. Due to his negative view of politics, he regularly works to make his department as inefficient as possible. This leads him to butt heads with Leslie on a number of occasions, despite that, both he and Leslie have a large amount of respect for one anotherParks and Recreation (season 1) – DVD cover art
177. Partners in Crime (Doctor Who) – Partners in Crime is the first episode of the fourth series of the British science fiction television series Doctor Who. It was broadcast on BBC One on 5 April 2008, the episode reintroduced comedian Catherine Tate as Donna Noble, who had previously appeared in The Runaway Bride. Donna and the Doctor meet while separately investigating Adipose Industries, a company that has created a revolutionary diet pill. Together, they attempt to stop the death of thousands of people in London after the head of the company, the episodes alien creatures, the Adipose, were created using the software MASSIVE, commonly used for crowd sequences in fantasy and science fiction films. The episode received positive reviews. Most critics liked the effects used to create the Adipose. Critics also praised Tates subdued acting in comparison to The Runaway Bride, critics opinions were split over the episodes plot, opinion on executive producer Russell T Davies writing ranged from pure pleasure to the back of a fag packet. Donna Noble has become disenchanted with her life for two years since meeting the Doctor in The Runaway Bride. She finds herself regretting her decision to decline the Doctors invitation to travel in the TARDIS and she has started investigating conspiracy theories in the hope that she will find him again. She confides her regrets to her grandfather Wilfred Mott, who met the Doctor before in Voyage of the Damned, the Doctor and Donna, neither one aware of the others involvement, both investigate Adipose Industries, which is marketing a special diet pill to the people of London. They find that the slogan, The Fat Just Walks Away, is literal. The pills use latent body fat to create small white aliens called Adipose that spawn at night. The Doctor and Donna separately infiltrate the offices of Adipose Industries, Donna hides out in a toilet cubicle until they close, the Doctor stays in a storage room. As they explore the building, they encounter each other through opposite windows in an office. They are confronted by Miss Foster, an alien who is using Britains overweight population to create the Adipose babies for the Adiposian First Family, Miss Foster pursues the Doctor and Donna around the building, finally catching them in an office. She tells the Doctor that the Adipose lost their breeding planet, the Doctor uses Miss Fosters sonic pen and his sonic screwdriver to create a diversion and escape. Miss Foster accelerates her plans, knowing that the Doctor will attempt to stop her, throughout London, the Adipose begin to spawn and soon number several thousand. The Adiposian First Family arrive in a spaceship and begin collecting their young, the Doctor refrains from killing the young Adipose because they are children, to which Donna remarks that his previous companion Martha Jones made him more humanPartners in Crime (Doctor Who) – The Adipose, CGI aliens depicted using MASSIVE, march through Central London towards Adipose Industries.
178. Persuasion (1995 film) – Persuasion is a 1995 period drama film directed by Roger Michell and based on Jane Austens 1817 novel of the same name. In her theatrical debut, the British actress Amanda Root stars as protagonist Anne Elliot, while Ciarán Hinds plays her romantic interest. The film is set in 19th century England, nine years after Anne was persuaded by others to reject Wentworths proposal of marriage, Persuasion follows the two as they become reacquainted with each other, while supporting characters threaten to interfere. The film was adapted by the writer Nick Dear, who considered the more mature than Austens other novels. He characterised it as one of realism and truthfulness, particularly in telling the story of two separated and then reunited. As Austens narrative style conveys Annes thoughts internally, Dear and Root felt compelled to express the characters emotions using comparatively little dialogue, Persuasion was shot in chronological order, allowing the actress to portray Annes development from being downtrodden to happy and blossoming. Originally the BBC was the producer of Persuasion, until it partnered with the American company WGBH Boston. This decision gave the production a larger budget and allowed it to be filmed at locations featured in the novel, including Lyme Regis, Michell believed this was Austens most emotional and poignant novel, as well as her most autobiographical. While directing, he avoided what he felt was the polished, artificial feel of other 19th-century depictions, Costume designer Alexandra Byrne produced clothing that appeared lived-in, winning a BAFTA for her efforts. Persuasion was filmed during a period of popularity for Austens works, the film originally aired on 16 April 1995, when it broadcast on the British television channel BBC Two. Sony Pictures Classics released the film in American cinemas on 27 September 1995, persuasions cinematic release attracted the attention of film critics, and it received generally positive reviews, with many praising Roots performance. Film scholars have observed significant changes from the source material, as well as class. The film opens by cutting back and forth between scenes of a ship carrying Admiral Croft, and a buggy carrying Mr. Shepherd. Shepherd and Clay are accosted by creditors due to the debts owed by the owner, Sir Walter Elliot. Sir Walter, a vain foppish baronet, is faced with financial ruin unless he retrenches, Wentworth is now wealthy from serving in the Wars, and has returned to England, presumably to find a wife. Later, Anne expresses to Lady Russell her unhappiness at her familys current financial predicament, Anne visits her other sister Mary, a hypochondriac who has married into a local farming family. Captain Wentworth comes to dine with the Musgroves, but Anne avoids going when she volunteers to nurse Marys injured son. The following morning at breakfast, Anne and Mary are suddenly met briefly by Wentworth, Anne later hears that Wentworth thought her so altered that he would not have known againPersuasion (1995 film) – Theatrical release poster
179. Pilot (Supernatural) – Pilot is the first episode of the television series Supernatural. It premiered on The WB on September 13,2005, and was written by series creator Eric Kripke, Kripke was developing the concept for ten years before it was greenlit as a television series. Before it could be filmed, the script underwent numerous revisions, the episode was produced in Los Angeles, though future episodes were filmed in Vancouver, British Columbia, to save money. The episode established the tradition of a rock-music soundtrack. It received mixed reviews, with praising the horror elements. In 1983 in Lawrence, Kansas, Mary Winchester investigates a sound coming from her infant son Sams nursery and she sees a figure standing over his crib, and confronts him. Her husband, John, is awoken by her screams and finds her pinned to the ceiling with a slash across her stomach. She bursts into flames, and John is forced to evacuate the house with Sam and his son, Dean. Twenty-two years later, Sam and his girlfriend Jessica Moore celebrate his high LSAT score, later that night, Dean shows up at Sams home. Though the brothers have not spoken in years, Dean comes looking for help in finding their father, after Sam hears a voicemail from his father that contains electronic voice phenomenon of a woman saying, I can never go home, he agrees to help Dean in the search. The brothers head to Johns last known town of Jericho—where he had been investigating the disappearances of young men along a single stretch of road over ten years. Sam and Dean discover a local legend of a girl who has returned as a homicidal. Research points to Constance Welch, who jumped to her death off a bridge after drowning her children. While they stakeout the bridge that night, Sam tells Dean he does not want to return to hunting supernatural creatures and he points out that finding whatever creature killed their mother—a task their father has dedicated his life to—will not bring her back. The two are interrupted by a woman jumping off the bridge. Sam and Dean later check into a motel, and discover their father is also renting a room there. They break into it and discover his research scattered all over the room, when Dean leaves the room to get food, he is arrested by the police, who believe he is connected to the disappearances. At the police station, they show him Johns journal, as Dean is interrogated, Sam tracks down Constances husband, and learns the locations of both her grave site and the house in which she drowned their childrenPilot (Supernatural) – Mary Winchester is killed in the episode's teaser. A papier-mâché replica of the actress was ignited on a fake ceiling to accomplish the effect.
180. The Real Adventures of Jonny Quest – The Real Adventures of Jonny Quest is an American animated action-adventure television series produced by Hanna-Barbera and broadcast on Cartoon Network from August 26,1996 to April 16,1997. Action also takes place in the realm of QuestWorld, a three-dimensional cyberspace domain rendered with computer animation. Conceived in the early 1990s, Real Adventures suffered a long, Hanna-Barbera dismissed creator Peter Lawrence in 1996 and hired new producers to finish the show. John Eng and Cosmo Anzilotti completed Lawrences work, David Lipman, Davis Doi, each team produced half of the shows fifty-two episodes. While Lawrences team crafted stories of mystery and exploration, later writers used science fiction. Turner supported the show through a marketing campaign with thirty-three licensees. Real Adventures debuted with a wide release on Cartoon Network, TBS. Critics have debated the merits of the animation, writing, and spirit compared to classic Quest. Real Adventures failed to gain ratings with its targeted demographics and its merchandise performed poorly. Turner Home Entertainment and Warner Home Video have released eight VHS tapes, two laserdiscs, and twenty-six DVD episodes, reruns have appeared on Toonami, CNX, all 52 episodes were made available for digital purchase on the iTunes Store in 2013. Turner received copious fan mail and phone inquiries about Quest, the show was also Hanna-Barberas most popular venture in the action-adventure genre, no other contemporary series featured realistic children enjoying lifelike adventures. With William Hanna and Joseph Barberas blessings, the company planned a new series, live action film, combined with a substantial marketing campaign, the project would be their largest initiative since Turner acquired H-B. Turner Home Entertainment President Philip Kent claimed Quest would be a consumer-products bonanza, Real Adventures, the live-action film, and release of classic episodes on VHS would constitute a Year of Jonny Quest marketing blitz. Delayed until 1996, the project echoed 1994s Year of the Flintstones, Production on Real Adventures commenced in 1993. Turner hired a team led by director Dick Sebast, writer Peter Lawrence, the firm appointed Stephanie Sperber head of the Quest task force in 1994. Hanna-Barbera President Fred Seibert allowed Lawrence to create a new team of companions for Jonny, Sebast and Lawrence decided to make the series as realistic as possible through accurate physics and depictions of machinery. The creative team researched child psychology, ensuring they could depict realistic action, Seibert described the shows theme as The X-Files for kids, citing difficult questions and mysteries to be posed in each episode. Departures from the series included new character designs and the introduction of a new character to the Quest familyThe Real Adventures of Jonny Quest – Lance Falk, season two writer
181. Rejoined – Rejoined is the 78th episode of the American science fiction television series Star Trek, Deep Space Nine, the sixth of the fourth season. It originally aired on October 30,1995, in broadcast syndication, the episode received a record volume of feedback from viewers for the series, both positive and negative, as it marked one of the first televised lesbian kisses. Set in the 24th century, the series follows the adventures on Deep Space Nine, the plot of Rejoined expands on the Trill species, of which Jadzia Dax is a member. They are formed of a host and a symbiont, with the symbiont passed from host to host as the previous one dies, in the episode, Dax is reunited with Lenara Kahn, the ex-wife of one of its former hosts. The two struggle with their feelings for one another because of the taboo in their species against reuniting with loved ones of former hosts. The episode was the first that writers Ronald D. Moore and René Echevarria wrote together, in the first draft, Daxs former partner was written as male, but after this was changed, the story was cleared through studio executives. The Trill taboo was intended to be an allegory for homosexuality, Rejoined received a Nielsen rating of seven percent on the first broadcast in syndication. Reviews have been positive towards the episode because of its message. Captain Benjamin Sisko notifies Lieutenant Commander Jadzia Dax that a group of Trill scientists will be arriving soon at Deep Space Nine to perform experiments related to wormhole physics, the Trill are a species formed of both a humanoid host and a symbiont, which are implanted into them. The symbionts live far longer than the hosts, and are moved into a new host when the old one dies, Jadzia is the eighth host of the Dax symbiont. Sisko tells Dax that the head scientist is Lenara Kahn, and offers to grant Dax a leave of absence while the Trill scientists are aboard, but she turns it down. Upon Dax and Kahns first meeting, Major Kira Nerys notices that they are familiar with each other. A party is held for the team, and Dax and Kahn warm to one anothers company once more, afterward, they begin to socialize as they work together on Kahns wormhole experiment aboard USS Defiant. They agree to have dinner, but to also bring Bashir along as a chaperone, at the dinner, Bashir feels out of place and is effectively ignored by the two Trills. Returning to the tests, Kahn creates the first artificial wormhole in history, Kahns brother Bejal, who is on the science team, speaks to her separately and highlights his concerns regarding her contact with Dax. Despite this, Kahn goes to Daxs quarters and a discussion between the two leads to a kiss, Kahn leaves before it goes any further, Dax confides in Sisko that she knows she is in love with her former wife. Kahn and Dax continue to work on the experiment, but it goes wrong, Kahn is injured in the explosion, but Dax rigs a force field across a plasma fire that allows her to reach Kahn, coming to the realization that the relationship is worth exile. After returning to the station, Kahn recuperates from her injuries and she decides against resuming her relationship with Dax, and—with the experiments complete—departs with the science team, leaving Dax heartbrokenRejoined – Terry Farrell was happy to support the LGBT community through the storyline in "Rejoined".
182. Sardines (Inside No. 9) – Sardines is the first episode of British dark comedy anthology series Inside No.9. Written by Steve Pemberton and Reece Shearsmith, it premiered on BBC Two, the episode features a stand-alone plot revolving around a group of adults, who are non-recurring characters, playing sardines at an engagement party. Rebecca, the bride-to-be, finds a man named Ian in a wardrobe, he introduces himself as a colleague of Jeremy. The pair are joined by family, friends and colleagues of Rebecca. As more people enter the room and step into the wardrobe, secrets shared by some of the characters are revealed, with allusions to incestuous relationships, child sexual abuse. The humour is both dark and British, with references to past unhappiness and polite but awkward interactions, the story takes place entirely in the bedroom of a country house, with much of the filming taking place inside the wardrobe. Pemberton and Shearsmith wrote the episode with the intention of evoking a feeling of claustrophobia in viewers, the cast and writing were praised by television critics, and the episode was chosen as pick of the day in a number of publications. On its first showing, Sardines was watched by 1.1 million viewers, David and Maureen took place entirely in a single room, and it was filmed in only two shots. The writers were keen to explore other stories in this episode or TV play format. At the same time, the concept of Inside No, thats appealing, because as a viewer you might not like this story, but youve got a different one next week. The format of the series pays homage to Tales of the Unexpected, The Twilight Zone. During the filming of Sardines, Shearsmith professed excitement to be working on Inside No,9, saying that being in the middle of filming a third series of Psychoville would be utterly depressing. Pemberton and Shearsmith aimed for an experience than Psychoville, describing Sardines by saying the episode is just about some good actors in a wardrobe with a good story. As each episode of Inside No.9 features new characters, West had previously starred in Tales of the Unexpected, and Shearsmith said that, due to this prior appearance, it was a great nod to have West in the episode. Sardines has more characters than any episode of the first series. Pemberton recalls the fun he had in selecting a cast for the episode, Pemberton described the concept of Sardines as a simple idea, and he was happy that the pair did not have to worry about the consequences of it, due to the format of the series. The writers were inspired by a wardrobe in their workspace. The story was not initially about the game of sardines, Pemberton said that the writers talked about various ideas of why were in a wardrobe, but that the pair were certainly not working out Freudian psychobabbleSardines (Inside No. 9) – Episode poster, designed by Graham Humphreys
183. Sesame Street research – In 1969, the childrens television show Sesame Street premiered on the National Educational Television network in the United States. Unlike earlier childrens programming, the producers used research and over 1,000 studies and experiments to create the show. CTW researchers invented tools to measure young viewers attention to the program, based on these findings, the researchers compiled a body of data and the producers changed the show accordingly. The formative research on Sesame Street was the first time childrens television viewing was studied scientifically, as CTW researcher Gerald S. Lesser stated in 1974, early tests conducted on the show suggested that Sesame Street was making strides towards teaching what it had set out to teach. According to author Louise A. Gikow, Sesame Streets use of research to create individual episodes, co-creator Joan Ganz Cooney called the idea of combining research with television production positively heretical because it had never been done before. Scriptwriters of these shows had no training in education or child development, seminar participants were television producers and child development experts. Some Muppet characters were created during the seminars to fill specific curriculum needs, Lesser reported that Jim Henson had a particular gift for creating scenes that might teach. The shows research staff and producers conducted regularly-scheduled internal reviews and seminars to ensure that their goals were being met. As of 2001, ten seminars had been conducted specifically to address the needs of preschool children. Curriculum seminars prior to Sesame Streets 33rd season in 2002 resulted in a change from the shows format to a more narrative format. There have been over 1,000 studies as of 2001 which examine the impact on childrens learning. Most of these studies were conducted by the CTW and remain unpublished, the most important studies that found negative effects of Sesame Street were conducted by educator Herbert A. Sprigle and psychologist Thomas D. Cook during its first two seasons. Both studies found that the show increased the gap between poor and middle-class children. Morrow reported that studies had little impact on the public discussion about Sesame Street. Another criticism was made by journalist Kay Hymowitz in 1995, who reported that most of the research conducted on the show has been done by the CTW. She charged that the studies conducted by the CTW hint at advocacy masquerading as social science, shortly after beginning Sesame Street, its creators developed the CTW model, a system of planning, production, and evaluation which only emerged after the shows first season. According to Cooney, Without research, there would be no Sesame Street, Cooney credited Palmer and his colleague at Harvard, Gerald S. Lesser, whom CTW hired to write the programs educational objectives, for bridging the gap between producers and researchers. She described the collaboration as an arranged marriage, the shows staff worked to create a non-adversarial relationship between producers and researchers, each side contributed, as Fisch stated, its own unique perspective and expertiseSesame Street research – Sign at entrance to ETS headquarters; ETS conducted early summative studies on Sesame Street.
184. Soeara Berbisa – Soeara Berbisa is a 1941 film from the Dutch East Indies. Produced by Ang Hock Liem for Union Films and directed by R Hu, this film starred Raden Soekarno, Ratna Djoewita, Oedjang. The story, written by Djojopranoto, follows two men who compete for the affections of a woman before learning that they are long-lost brothers. Completed between September and October 1941, Soeara Berbisa featured keroncong music and was partly in western Java. It was released to coincide with the Eid al-Fitr holiday, advertisements emphasised the films appeal to both Native and Dutch audiences, and a review in De Indische Courant was positive. Although the film – Unions penultimate production – was screened as late as 1949, the young athlete Mitra and his sweetheart Neng Mardinah are to be wed. However, a man named Mardjohan has fallen in love with Mardinah. In the backlash over the rumours, Mitra abandons the city and his beloved, there, Mitra finds work at a factory which is, coincidentally, owned by Mardjohan. Refusing the romantic advances of a worker there, he leaves the factory, one day, he comes across Mardjohan, gravely injured following an accident. Mitra saves the man, then him for treatment. Mardjohans mother, seeing Mitra, believes that he is her son who went missing when he was aged three and she finds several witnesses who testify of the resemblance, and is ultimately able to prove her suspicions. Meanwhile, Mitras name is cleared, and he is reunited with Mardinah, the screenplay was written by Djojopranoto, who replaced Unions former screenwriter Saeroen after the latter left for rival company Star Film following Wanita dan Satria. The film began production by September 1941, and by October it was nearly complete, Soeara Berbisa starred Raden Soekarno and Ratna Djoewita, and featured the acting talents of Oedjang and Soehaena. This black-and-white film included several songs, and was partly shot in the Preanger region of west Java. A review in the Surabaya edition of De Indische Courant, however and that newspaper gave a positive review, describing Soeara Berbisa as a tense film with humorous moments and beautiful scenery. Its review ended with a recommendation that people and their parents see the film. Soeara Berbisa was open to audiences of all ages, to reach educated audiences, Union claimed to have paid attention to dialogue, arranged it as best as possible in accordance with the wants of the Indonesian people. Unions final production, Mega Mendoeng, was directed by Boen and it again starred Soekarno, though this time alongside the new find SofiatiSoeara Berbisa – Newspaper advertisement
185. Sorga Ka Toedjoe – Sorga Ka Toedjoe is a 1940 film from the Dutch East Indies directed by Joshua and Othniel Wong for Tans Film. It follows a couple who are reunited after years of separation by another, younger couple. The black-and-white film, the first production by Tans Film after the departure of Rd Mochtar and it was a commercial and critical success. Roekiah and Djoemala took leading roles in three films before Tans closed in 1942. Sorga Ka Toedjoe is now thought lost, Rasminah is living with her blind aunt Hadidjah in Puncak, a village south-east of Buitenzorg. Hadidjah has been separated from her husband, Kasimin, for several years, now she sings the kroncong song Sorga Ka Toedjoe, which Kasimin declared to be a symbol of his love, at 5 p. m. every day. Unknown to Hadidjah, Kasimin is alive and well, he also sings Sorga Ka Toedjoe every day at the same time. Following an encounter with the rich and detestable Parta, who intends to take her as his second wife, several days later, having found work, she returns to Puncak to pick up Hadidjah and take her to Batavia. However, Parta and his cohort Doel are waiting in ambush, when Rasminahs carriage is stuck in a rut, the two begin to chase after her. Rasminah runs into the woods and, after several close calls, there she rests the night, without seeing the owner. The following morning, Rasminah is awakened by the sound of a guitar, played by the houses owner, afraid that he is collaborating with her pursuer, she sneaks outside, only to be confronted by Parta and Doel. Retreating, she is chased by the pair, Hoesin intervenes and, after a fierce fight, defeats the two and chases them away. He then reassures Rasminah and escorts her home, over the following days Hoesin repeatedly visits Rasminah, and slowly the two begin to fall in love. When Rasminah takes her aunt to Batavia to live, Hoesin follows and they begin discussing their future together, but Rasminah insists that she will only marry when her aunt is reunited with Kasimin. Kasimin and Hadidjah are reunited, allowing Hoesin and Rasminah to begin their own preparations, Sorga Ka Toedjoe was directed by brothers Joshua and Othniel Wong for Tans Film, a company owned by the ethnic Chinese brothers Khoen Yauw and Khoen Hian. The Tan brothers, who owned a pair of cinemas, had been active in the industry since Njai Dasima in 1929. The Wongs had worked for Tans since 1938, when they directed the hit film Fatima, Sorga Ka Toedjoe was shot in black-and-white, with some scenes filmed at Telaga Warna, near Buitenzorg. The film starred Roekiah, Rd Djoemala, Kartolo, and Annie Landouw and featured Titing, Ismail, Roekiah had regularly been paired on-screen with Rd. Mochtar – despite being married to Kartolo – beginning with Terang BoelanSorga Ka Toedjoe – Newspaper advertisement
186. Space Seed – Space Seed is an episode of the American science fiction television series Star Trek. It is the 22nd episode of the first season and was first broadcast by NBC on February 16,1967, Space Seed was written by Gene L. Coon and Carey Wilber and directed by Marc Daniels. Set in the 23rd century, the series follows the adventures of Captain James T, Kirk and his crew aboard the Starfleet starship USS Enterprise. In this episode, the Enterprise crew encounter a ship holding selectively bred superpeople from Earths past. Their leader, Khan Noonien Singh, attempts to control of Enterprise. The episode also guest stars Madlyn Rhue as Lt. Marla McGivers, Wilber conceived the general plot for a different series, Captain Video and His Video Rangers, which featured humans from Ancient Greece who were preserved in cryogenic suspension and revived. The script changed numerous times during preproduction as producer Bob Justman felt that it would be too expensive to film, eventually Gene L. Coon and series creator Gene Roddenberry also made alterations. These revisions include the marooning of the criminals at the end of the episode, Roddenberry attempted to claim the primary writing credit for Space Seed, a request turned down by the Writers Guild of America. Montalbán was the directors first choice for Khan and described the role as wonderful. Despite being planned as a bottle episode, the special sets and shots using starship miniatures caused the episode to go over budget. On first broadcast, the episode held second place in the ratings for the first half-hour with 13.12 million viewers, Space Seed has been named one of the best episodes of the series by Cinefantastique, IGN, and other publications. The 1982 film Star Trek II, The Wrath of Khan serves as a sequel to this episode. Plot elements of the episode and The Wrath of Khan were also used in the 2013 film Star Trek Into Darkness, on stardate 3141.9, the Federation starship USS Enterprise finds the derelict SS Botany Bay floating in space. Botany Bay was launched from Earth in the 1990s, a landing party comprising Captain James T. Kirk, Doctor Leonard McCoy, Chief Engineer Montgomery Scott, and historian Lieutenant Marla McGivers beams over to the freighter. The landing party finds a cargo of 84 humans,72 of whom are alive in suspended animation after nearly 200 years, the occupant begins to revive, but Kirk brings him to Enterprise for a medical examination when his chamber fails. Kirk has Botany Bay taken in tow by a tractor beam, in sickbay, the groups leader awakens and attacks McCoy but, impressed by McCoys bravery, releases the doctor and introduces himself as Khan. Lt. McGivers marvels over Khan, a relic from the 20th century. First Officer Spock discovers that their guest is Khan Noonien Singh who, the genetic superhumans instead became warlords and conquered more than a third of the planet, sparking the Eugenics Wars, Earths last major global conflictSpace Seed – The Writers Guild of America denied permission for Gene Roddenberry to get a writing credit on the script for "Space Seed".
187. Supernatural (season 1) – The first season of Supernatural, an American fantasy horror television series created by Eric Kripke, premiered on September 13,2005, and concluded on May 4,2006 after 22 episodes. It focuses on brothers Sam and Dean Winchester as they track down their father, John, during their travels, they use their fathers journal to help them carry on the family business—saving people and hunting supernatural creatures. Jared Padalecki and Jensen Ackles star as Sam and Dean, with Jeffrey Dean Morgan recurring as their father, John, and Nicki Aycox as the demonic Meg Masters. This is the season to air on The WB Television Network, with all subsequent seasons airing on The CW Television Network. The first sixteen episodes of the season aired on Tuesdays at 9,00 pm ET in the United States, overall, the season averaged about 3.81 million American viewers. The season gained many award nominations, among them two Primetime Emmy Awards for work done on the pilot episode, while some critics did not like the mostly anthology-like format, others praised the show for the emotional moments and noted the brotherly chemistry between the lead actors. The season was internationally syndicated, airing in the United Kingdom on ITV, in Canada on Citytv, the first season was released on DVD as a six-disc box set on September 5,2006, by Warner Home Video in Region 1. Although the season was split into two releases in Region 2, the complete set was released on October 2,2006. The episodes are available through digital retailers such as Apples iTunes Store, Microsofts Xbox Live Marketplace. U. S. viewers in millions refers to how many Americans watched the live or on the day of broadcast. The first seasons mythology mainly follows Sam and Deans search for their missing father, Series creator Eric Kripke summarized this storyline as merely find Dad, which he deemed simple, emotional, and clean. However, he found the self-enclosed episodes—independent stories which attain closure at the end of each episode and add little to the overarching storylines—to be hit, because the first ten episodes consist of self-enclosed stories, the series mythology does not begin until the eleventh episode, Scarecrow. This episode introduces the demon Meg Masters, which executive producer Kim Manners felt was desperately needed, though uncertain at exactly what direction to take the character, the writers intended Meg to be an antagonist for the Winchesters throughout her story arc. The series mythology further expands with the addition of the demon-killing Colt handgun near the seasons end, although the weekly adversaries for the Winchesters were often based on urban legends, the writers tried to put their own spin on the stories for each of the episodes. For example, Kripke combined the well-known urban legend of the vanishing hitchhiker with the Mexican legend of La Llorona to give the spirit more motivation and characterization in the pilot. The episode Hook Man, however, borrowed three or four elements from the variations of the Hook Man legend. The figure is a mental patient in the traditional myth. They also added a poltergeist element by having him attached to the emotions of the guest star—she wears a crucifix made from his melted hookSupernatural (season 1) – DVD cover art
188. Triangle (The X-Files) – Triangle is the third episode of the sixth season of the American science fiction television series The X-Files. It premiered on the Fox network on November 22,1998, written and directed by series creator Chris Carter, Triangle is a Monster-of-the-Week episode, a stand-alone plot which is unconnected to the overarching mythology of The X-Files. Triangle earned a Nielsen household rating of 10.8, being watched by 18.20 million viewers in its initial broadcast, the episode generally received positive reviews, with many critics commenting on the episodes unique directing style. The show centers on FBI special agents Fox Mulder and Dana Scully, Mulder is a believer in the paranormal, and the skeptical Scully has been assigned to debunk his work. However, the two have developed a close friendship, in this episode, Mulder races to a luxury passenger liner which has mysteriously appeared on the edge of the Bermuda Triangle. Once there, he realizes he has traveled back in time to September 3, German soldiers have boarded the ship in search of Thors Hammer, something that could ensure victory in the coming conflict. Meanwhile, Scully, after being informed of Mulders disappearance by The Lone Gunmen, Triangle is notable for the unique style in which it was filmed. Inspired by the 1948 Alfred Hitchcock film Rope, with shots filmed and edited to appear as one single take. In addition, Triangle features the main and recurring cast members such as Anderson, Davis, Chris Owens, James Pickens Jr. and Mitch Pileggi, who played their contemporary characters as well as distinctly different characters from 1939 on board the luxury liner. Fox Mulder lies unconscious in the sea after wrecking his raft and he is taken aboard a passenger ship, the Queen Anne, by its British crew members. When he is sent to meet the captain, Mulder tries to explain that the Queen Anne vanished in the Bermuda Triangle in 1939, the crew dismisses Mulders story and suspect he is a Nazi spy. At that moment, the Queen Anne is boarded by SS troops under the control of a Oberführer resembling The Smoking Man, the crew of the Queen Anne lock Mulder in the captains quarters, where he listens to a radio broadcast announcing the start of World War II. Mulder realizes that the Queen Anne did not travel to 1998, meanwhile, in the present, The Lone Gunmen inform Dana Scully that they have lost contact with Mulder, who had set out in search of the Queen Anne. Scully first turns to Walter Skinner, unsuccessfully, then attempts to confront Assistant Director Alvin Kersh and she finally threatens Agent Jeffrey Spender before Skinner shows up and provides her with the information from the Pentagon. Scully leaves with the Gunmen to find Mulder, on the Queen Anne, a British sailor tells Mulder that the Germans are looking for what they believe is a weapon called Thors Hammer. Mulder tells him that Thors Hammer is not a weapon, but a scientist that will build a weapon, the sailor, however, turns out to be a German spy and locks Mulder in the engine room with the ships crew. Eventually, Mulder is taken to the ballroom by the Nazis, once there, he is ordered to identify the scientist, or the Nazis will begin shooting passengers. After they have killed two men, a woman who looks strikingly like Scully tells the Nazis that they are killing innocent people for nothing, Mulder tells the Nazis that one of the men they shot was the scientist, but the true scientist steps forwardTriangle (The X-Files) – The scenes aboard the Queen Anne were actually filmed on board the RMS Queen Mary.
189. True Detective (season 1) – The first season of True Detective, an American anthology crime drama television series created by Nic Pizzolatto, premiered on January 12,2014 on the premium cable network HBO. Its principal cast consisted of Matthew McConaughey, Woody Harrelson, Michelle Monaghan, Michael Potts, the season had eight episodes, and its initial airing concluded on March 9,2014. As an anthology, each True Detective season possesses its own self-contained story, engineered as a nonlinear narrative, season one focuses on the lives of Louisiana State Police homicide detectives Rustin Rust Cohle and Martin Marty Hart. During this time, Harts infidelity threatens his marriage to Maggie, Pizzolatto initially conceived True Detective as a novel, but felt it was more suitable for television. The episodes, directed by Cary Joji Fukunaga, were filmed in Louisiana over a three-month period, the series received positive reviews from critics and was cited as one of the strongest dramas of the 2014 television season. Inspired by HBOs series The Wire, The Sopranos, and Deadwood, he working on a short story collection that he later published as Between Here. Several years later he wrote a novel titled Galveston, published in 2010. His earlier attempts at writing were unsuccessful because of a lack of money. Pizzolattos first major gig in television writing came in 2011, as a screenwriter for AMCs series The Killing and he credits the show with giving him a glimpse of the inner workings of the television industry. Pizzolatto grew increasingly dissatisfied with the creative direction, and left two weeks into staff writing sessions for its second season. True Detective was intended to be a novel, but once the project took form, Pizzolatto thought the narratives shifts in time. The writer pitched an adaptation of Galveston to two executives, and from May to July 2010 he developed six screenplays, including an early, Pizzolatto secured a development deal with HBO for a potential pilot series shortly thereafter. By April 2012, following a heated bidding period, HBO commissioned eight episodes of True Detective, Pizzolatto did not hire a writing staff because he believed a collaborative approach would not work with his isolated, novelistic process, and that a group would not achieve his desired result. After working alone for three months, the final copy of the project script was 500 pages long. Because the series is an anthology, each possesses a self-contained narrative. Pizzolatto began contemplating the lead roles while he was pitching the series to networks in early 2012, Woody Harrelson and Matthew McConaughey were among the actors Pizzolatto considered for star billing. McConaughey, who had finished filming Killer Joe, was contracted well before HBO commissioned the season. Impressed with his performance in The Lincoln Lawyer, Pizzolatto at first assigned him to play Hart, when asked in a Variety interview about his decision to switch parts, the actor replied, I wanted to get in that dudes headTrue Detective (season 1) – Promotional poster and home media cover art
190. The Turn of the Screw (2009 film) – The Turn of the Screw is a British television film based on Henry Jamess 1898 ghost story of the same name. Commissioned and produced by the BBC, it was first broadcast on 30 December 2009, the novella was adapted for the screen by Sandy Welch, and the film was directed by Tim Fywell. The films story is told in flashbacks during consultations between the institutionalised Ann and Dr Fisher, Ann tells how she was hired by an aristocrat to care for the orphans Miles and Flora. She is met at the home, Bly, by Mrs Grose. Ann soon begins to see unknown figures around the manor, critics were divided in their reviews of The Turn of the Screw. The acting and tone of the production were praised. A particular disagreement concerned the films elements, some critics considered it to be genuinely scary. The original story has been much analysed owing to its ambiguity, academic analyses found the film considerably less ambiguous than the novella. The Turn of the Screw was released on DVD on 1 March 2010 in the UK, the Turn of the Screw fits into this mini-genre of the Christmas horror film. The film was commissioned by Stephenson and Jay Hunt, then controller of BBC One and it was directed by Tim Fywell, and produced by Colin Wratten, the executive producer was Jessica Pope. The film is an adaptation of Henry Jamess 1898 novella The Turn of the Screw, as one of his more popular stories it had already been adapted for films and television many times, although not previously by the BBC. The adaptation was screenwritten by Sandy Welch, who set the film in the early 1920s and this allowed the introduction of the Freudian psychiatrist interviewing the main character, this framing device is not used by James, but both the novella and the film share a first-person narrator. The updated setting also allowed the First World War to account for the lack of staff at the house. Further, Welch added an element not present in Jamess story, Anns father is a preacher. The psychiatrist, by contrast, is an atheist, when he asks Ann about her faith, she replies that she believes in the Devil. The changes to the story were mostly superficial, and the adaptation generally mirrors the novellas tone, the film utilises subtle horror, including details such as a broken doll on a window ledge, and the fact that viewers never discover certain elements of the story. This, for Baylis, ties to the title of the film, its the writer who puts the screw in the hole, the Turn of the Screw was filmed on location in the West Country of England, beginning in August 2009. The scenes at Bly were filmed at Brympton dEvercy, a house near YeovilThe Turn of the Screw (2009 film) – UK release DVD cover
191. Nancy Cartwright – Nancy Jean Cartwright is an American voice actress, film and television actress, and comedian. She is known for her role as Bart Simpson on the animated television series The Simpsons. Cartwright also voices other characters for the show, including Nelson Muntz, Ralph Wiggum, Todd Flanders, Kearney, Cartwright was born in Dayton, Ohio. Cartwright moved to Hollywood in 1978 and trained alongside voice actor Daws Butler, after continuing to search for acting work, in 1987, Cartwright auditioned for a role in a series of animated shorts about a dysfunctional family that was to appear on The Tracey Ullman Show. Cartwright intended to audition for the role of Lisa Simpson, the middle child, Matt Groening, the series creator, allowed her to audition for Bart and offered her the role on the spot. She voiced Bart for three seasons on The Tracey Ullman Show, and in 1989, the shorts were spun off into a show called The Simpsons. In 2000, she published her autobiography, My Life as a 10-Year-Old Boy and she also co-produced the one-woman play In Search of Fellini. Cartwright was born in Dayton, Ohio, on October 25,1957 and she grew up in Kettering, Ohio, and discovered her talent for voices at an early age. While in the grade, she won a school-wide speech competition with her performance of Rudyard Kiplings How the Camel Got His Hump. Cartwright attended Fairmont West High School, and participated in the schools theater and she regularly entered public speaking competitions, placing first in the Humorous Interpretation category at the National District Tournament two years running. The judges often suggested to her that she should perform cartoon voices, Cartwright graduated from high school in 1976 and accepted a scholarship from Ohio University. She continued to compete in public speaking competitions, during her sophomore year, in 1976, Cartwright landed a part-time job doing voice-overs for commercials on WING radio in Dayton. A representative from Warner Bros. Records visited WING and later sent Cartwright a list of contacts in the animation industry, one of these was Daws Butler, known for voicing characters such as Huckleberry Hound, Snagglepuss, Elroy Jetson and Yogi Bear. Cartwright called him, and left a message in a Cockney accent on his answering machine, Butler immediately called her back and agreed to be her mentor. He mailed her a script and instructed her to him a tape recording of herself reading it. Once he received the tape, Butler critiqued it and sent her notes, for the next year they continued in this way, completing a new script every few weeks. Cartwright described Butler as absolutely amazing, always encouraging, always polite, Cartwright returned to Ohio University for her sophomore year, but transferred to the University of California, Los Angeles so she could be closer to Hollywood and Butler. Her mother, Miriam, died late in the summer of 1978, Cartwright nearly changed her relocation plans but, on September 17,1978, joylessly left for Westwood, Los AngelesNancy Cartwright – Nancy Cartwright in 2007
192. Bradley Cooper – Bradley Charles Cooper is an American actor and producer. He was one of the worlds highest-paid actors for three years, and has been nominated for various accolades, including four Academy Awards, two BAFTA Awards and two Golden Globe Awards. Cooper appeared in Forbes Celebrity 100 on two occasions and Times list of 100 most influential people in the world in 2015, Cooper enrolled in the MFA program at the Actors Studio, New York City in 2000. His career began with a guest role in the television series Sex and he first gained recognition as Will Tippin in the spy-action television show Alias, and achieved minor success with a supporting part in the comedy film Wedding Crashers. His breakthrough role came in 2009 with The Hangover, a successful comedy which spawned two sequels in 2011 and 2013. Coopers portrayal of a writer in the thriller Limitless and a rookie police officer in the crime drama The Place Beyond the Pines drew praise from critics. He found greater success with the romantic comedy-drama Silver Linings Playbook, the comedy crime film American Hustle. For his work in films, Cooper was nominated for Academy Awards—two Best Actor, one Best Supporting Actor. Cooper became the actor to receive an Academy Award nomination in three consecutive years. In 2014, he portrayed Joseph Merrick in a Broadway revival of The Elephant Man, Cooper was born on January 5,1975, in Philadelphia, and grew up in the nearby communities of Jenkintown and Rydal. His mother, Gloria, worked for the local NBC affiliate and his father, Charles Cooper, who died in January 2011, worked as a stockbroker for Merrill Lynch. Charles Cooper was of Irish descent, while Gloria Cooper is of Italian ancestry, Cooper has an older sister, Holly. He was raised as a Roman Catholic and he had cholesteatoma in his ear soon after his birth, and punctured his eardrum when he started diving at an early age. Describing himself as a child, Cooper has said, I never lived the life of Oh, People thought I was a girl when I was little, because I looked like a girl—maybe because my mother would keep my hair really long. He excelled at basketball, and enjoyed cooking, I used to have come over after kindergarten. I prided myself in taking whatever was in the fridge and turning it into lasagna and he initially wanted to attend a military academy and move to Japan to become a ninja. At an early age, his father introduced him to films like The Elephant Man, while attending Germantown Academy, he worked at the Philadelphia Daily News. He says that in school he was neither the smartest person nor the coolest kid, after graduating from the academy in 1993, Cooper studied at Villanova University for a year before transferring to Georgetown UniversityBradley Cooper – Cooper at the Paris premiere of American Hustle in February 2014
193. D. Djajakusuma – Djadoeg Djajakusuma, generally credited as D. Djajakusuma, was an Indonesian film director and promoter of traditional art forms. Born to a nobleman and his wife in Temanggung, Central Java, Djajakusuma became interested in the arts at a young age, in 1951, Djajakusuma joined the National Film Corporation at the invitation of Usmar Ismail. After making his debut with Embun, Djajakusuma released a further eleven films with the company before leaving in 1964. He then returned to traditional Indonesian theatre, including wayang, although he continued to direct movies independently of Perfini, most of his energies were dedicated to promoting traditional art forms and teaching cinematography. After over a decade of poor health and high pressure, Djajakusuma collapsed during a ceremony. He was buried in Karet Bivak Cemetery, the dedicated but easily angered Djajakusuma was influenced by Usmar Ismails realist views, although he focused more on traditional aspects of life. His theatrical performances attempted to modernise traditional forms so that they could be received in a modern world. He is credited with revitalising the Betawi theatre form lenong and received awards for his filmmaking, including a lifetime achievement award at the Indonesian Film Festival. Djajakusuma was born on 1 August 1918 in Parakan, Temanggung, Central Java, Dutch East Indies, to a father, Raden Mas Aryo Djojokoesomo. Djajakusuma was the child of six born to the couple. While young he enjoyed watching stage performances, such as wayang puppetry, with his friends, he would act out the bedtime stories his mother told him. When imported Hollywood films began to be screened, he was a viewer, watching Westerns. Owing to his position as the son of a nobleman, Djajakusuma was able to receive an education and he completed his studies in Semarang, Central Java, graduating from the natural sciences programme at a senior high school there in 1941. Although his family hoped that he would become a government employee like his father and he returned to his hometown for a short time before realising that he would have little opportunity in Parakan. Accordingly, in early 1943 – almost a year after the Indies were occupied by the Empire of Japan – Djajakusuma moved to the political centre, Jakarta. Djajakusuma became employed at the Cultural Centre as a translator and actor under Armijn Pane, among the works he translated were several pieces by the Swedish playwright August Strindberg and Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen, as well as a history of Japan and several kabuki stage plays. While with the Centre, Djajakusuma wrote several of his own stage plays, in his free time, Djajakusuma helped establish the amateur theatre company Maya, together with artists such as HB Jassin, Rosihan Anwar, and Usmar Ismail. The troupe, formed in response to a desire for artistic freedom, performed translations of European works and original works by IsmailD. Djajakusuma – Djajakusuma, 1950s
194. Michael Hordern – Sir Michael Murray Hordern, CBE was an English stage and film actor whose career spanned nearly 60 years. He is best known for his Shakespearean roles, especially that of King Lear and he then successfully assumed the role on television five years later. He often appeared in film, rising from a bit actor in the late 1930s to a member of the main cast. His later work was predominantly in television and radio, born in Hertfordshire into a family with no theatrical connections, Hordern was educated at Windlesham House School where he became interested in drama. He went on to Brighton College where his interest in the theatre developed, after leaving the college he joined an amateur dramatics company, and came to the notice of several influential Shakespearean directors who cast him in minor roles in Othello and Macbeth. During the Second World War he served on HMS Illustrious where he reached the rank of lieutenant commander, upon his demobilisation he resumed his acting career and made his television debut, becoming a reliable bit-part actor in many films, particularly in the war film genre. Hordern came to prominence in the early 1950s when he took part in a competition at the Arts Theatre in London. The following season Hordern joined Michael Benthalls company at the Old Vic where, among other parts, he played Polonius in Hamlet, and the title role in King John. In 1958 he won a best actor award at that years British Academy Television Awards for his role as the barrister in John Mortimers courtroom drama The Dock Brief. Along with his theatrical responsibilities Hordern had regular roles in various films including Cleopatra. In the late 1960s Hordern met the British theatre director Jonathan Miller, who cast him in Whistle and Ill Come to You, Horderns next major play was Jumpers which appeared at the Royal National Theatre at the start of 1972. His performance was praised by critics and he reprised the role four years later and his television commitments increased towards the end of his life. His credits include Paradise Postponed, the BAFTA award-winning Memento Mori, and he was appointed a CBE in 1972 and was knighted eleven years later. Hordern suffered from disease during the 1990s and died from it in 1995 at the age of 83. Horderns mother, Margaret Murray, was descended from James Murray, the invention earned him a knighthood and brought the family great wealth. Margaret grew up in England, and attended St Audries School for Girls in Somerset, Horderns father, Edward, was the son of a Lancastrian priest who was the rector at the Holy Trinity Church in Bury. As a young man Edward joined the Royal Indian Marines and gained the rank of lieutenant, during a short break on home-leave he fell in love with Margaret, after they were introduced by one of his brothers. The courtship was brief and the couple married in Burma on 28 November 1903Michael Hordern – Sir Michael Hordern CBE
195. Hrithik Roshan – Hrithik Roshan is an Indian actor who appears in Bollywood films. The son of the filmmaker Rakesh Roshan, he has portrayed a variety of characters and is known for his dancing ability and he is one of the highest-paid actors in India and has won many awards, including six Filmfares. Roshan has frequently collaborated with his father and he made brief appearances as a child actor in several films throughout the 1980s, and later worked as an assistant director on four of his fathers films. His first leading role was in the box-office success Kaho Naa, pyaar Hai, for which he received several awards. Performances in the 2000 terrorism drama Fiza and the 2001 ensemble melodrama Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham, consolidated his reputation but were followed by several poorly received films. The 2003 science fiction film Koi, mil Gaya, for which Roshan won two Filmfare Awards, was a turning point in his career, he also appeared in its highly successful sequels, Krrish and Krrish 3. Further success came with the 2011 drama Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara, the 2012 revenge film Agneepath, Roshan has also performed on stage and debuted on television with Just Dance. As a judge on the latter, he became the film star on Indian television. He is involved with a number of causes, endorses several brands. Roshan was married for fourteen years to Sussanne Khan, with whom he has two children and he is among the most popular Indian celebrities. Roshan was born on 10 January 1974 in Mumbai to a Punjabi family prominent in Bollywood and his father, film director Rakesh Roshan, is the son of music director Roshanlal Nagrath, his mother, Pinky, is the daughter of producer and director J. Om Prakash. Roshan has a sister, Sunaina, and was educated at the Bombay Scottish School. Although Roshan practices Hinduism, he says that Im not religious, but I hope there is a superpower. Roshan felt isolated as a child, he was born with a thumb on his right hand which led some of his peers to avoid him. He has stammered since the age of six, this caused him problems at school and he was helped by daily speech therapy. Roshans grandfather, Prakash first brought him on-screen at the age of six in the film Aasha, he danced in a song enacted by Jeetendra, Roshan made uncredited appearances in various family film projects, including his fathers production Aap Ke Deewane. In Prakashs Aas Paas, he appeared in the song Shehar Main Charchi Hai, the actors only speaking role during this period came when he was 12, he was seen as Govinda, the title characters adopted son, in Prakashs Bhagwaan Dada. Roshan decided that he wanted to be an actorHrithik Roshan – Roshan at the launch of Rado HyperChrome in Mumbai, November 2013
196. Catherine Zeta-Jones – Catherine Zeta-Jones, CBE is a Welsh actress. Born and raised in Swansea, Zeta-Jones aspired to be an actress from a young age, in her early teens, she played roles in the West End productions of the musicals Annie and Bugsy Malone. She studied musical theatre at the Arts Educational Schools, London and her screen debut came in the unsuccessful French-Italian film 1001 Nights, and she went on to find greater success as a regular in the British television series The Darling Buds of May. Dismayed at being typecast as the pretty girl in British films. Zeta-Jones initially established herself in Hollywood with roles that highlighted her sex appeal such as in the action film The Mask of Zorro, critics praised her portrayal of a vengeful pregnant woman in Traffic and a murderous singer in the musical Chicago. The latter won her Academy and BAFTA Awards for Best Supporting Actress, parts in smaller-scale features were followed by a decrease in workload, during which she returned to stage and portrayed an ageing actress in A Little Night Music, winning a Tony Award. Zeta-Jones continued to work intermittently in the 2010s, starring in the psychological thriller Side Effects and she supports various charities and causes, and is a prominent celebrity endorser of brands. Her struggle with depression and bipolar II disorder has been well-documented by the media and she is married to the actor Michael Douglas with whom she has two children. Zeta-Jones was born in Swansea, Wales, on 25 September 1969 to David Jones, the owner of a factory, and his wife Patricia. Her father is Welsh and her mother is of Irish Catholic descent and she was named after her grandmothers, Zeta Jones and Catherine Fair. She has a brother, David, and a younger brother, Lyndon. Zeta-Jones was raised in the area of Mumbles. Because Zeta-Jones was a child, her mother sent her to the Hazel Johnson School of Dance when she was four years old. She was educated at the Dumbarton House School, a school in Swansea. The family came from a modest background, but their fortunes improved when they won £100,000 in a competition, allowing them to pay for Zeta-Jones dance. Zeta-Jones participated in stage shows from a young age and gained local media attention when her rendition of a Shirley Bassey song won a Junior Star Trail talent competition. As part of a troupe, she routinely took trips to London. At the age of nine, she was selected to one of the orphan girls in a West End production of the musical AnnieCatherine Zeta-Jones – Zeta-Jones at the 2012 Tribeca Film Festival.
197. 1988 Atlantic hurricane season – The 1988 Atlantic hurricane season was a moderately active season that proved costly and deadly, with 15 tropical cyclones directly affecting land. The season officially began on June 1,1988, and lasted until November 30,1988, the June through November dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. The first cyclone to tropical storm status was Alberto on August 8. The final storm of the year, Tropical Storm Keith, became extratropical on November 24, the season produced 19 tropical depressions of which 12 attained tropical storm status. One tropical storm was classified as a tropical depression but was reclassified in post-analysis. Five tropical cyclones reached hurricane status of three became major hurricanes reaching Category 3 on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. The most notable cyclone of the season was Hurricane Gilbert, which at the time was the strongest Atlantic hurricane on record, the hurricane tracked through the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico and caused devastation in Mexico and many island nations, particularly Jamaica. Its passage caused US$5 billion in damage and more than 300 deaths, Hurricane Joan, striking Nicaragua as a Category 4 hurricane, caused about US$2 billion in damage and more than 200 deaths. The hurricane crossed into the eastern Pacific Ocean and was reclassified as Tropical Storm Miriam, forecasts of hurricane activity are issued before each hurricane season by noted hurricane experts such as Dr. William M. Gray and his associates at Colorado State University. A normal season as defined by NOAA has six to fourteen named storms of which four to eight reach hurricane strength, the June 1988 forecast was that eleven storms would form and that seven would reach hurricane status. The forecast did not specify how many hurricanes would reach hurricane status. The Atlantic hurricane season began on June 1, but activity in 1988 began two days earlier with the formation of Tropical Depression One on May 30. It was an average season in which 19 tropical depressions formed. Twelve depressions attained tropical storm status, and five of these attained hurricane status, Four hurricanes and three tropical storms made landfall during the season and caused 550 deaths and $7 billion in damage. The last storm of the season, Tropical Storm Keith, dissipated on November 24, the activity in the first two months of the season was limited because of strong wind shear from an upper tropospheric flow. Although vigorous tropical waves moved off the coast of Africa, most of them quickly diminished in intensity as they crossed the tropical Atlantic Ocean, as a result, no tropical depressions formed in June or July. Decreased wind shear in August allowed tropical waves to develop into tropical cyclones, the official storm track forecast errors were 30 to 40 percent lower than the average for the previous 10 years. The 24-, 48-, and 72-hour forecasts were the most accurate in more than 18 years and were more accurate than in each subsequent season until 19961988 Atlantic hurricane season
198. Cyclone Ada – The 1969–70 Australian region cyclone season saw above average activity. Resorts and boats were destroyed or severely damaged at Hayman, Daydream and South Molle Islands, about 80% of buildings in the mainland centres of Shute Harbour, Airlie Beach and Cannonvale were severely damaged. Some damage occurred also inland at Proserpine where, following 24-hours of heavy rain accompanied the storm. Fourteen people died and property damage was estimated at A$390 million, like Tropical Cyclone Tracy that devastated Darwin on Christmas Eve 1974, Ada was small in diameter and damage from her path was limited to a comparatively small geographical area. The wind from Tropical Cyclone Ada was not felt in Bowen or Mackay, however the heavy rains did cause flooding in the Pioneer River and the Don River. Before degenerating into a rainstorm Cyclone Ada travelled further inland to the Cathu State Forest and caused damage to the eucalypts, rainforestCyclone Ada – Map plotting the track and intensity of the storm according to the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale
199. Cyclone Althea – Severe Tropical Cyclone Althea was a powerful tropical cyclone that devastated parts of North Queensland just before Christmas 1971. One of the strongest storms ever to affect the Townsville area, Althea was the fourth system, AEST on Christmas Eve, Althea struck the coast of Queensland near Rollingstone, about 50 km north of Townsville. Althea produced copious rainfall over central and western Queensland as it turned toward the southeast, after briefly re-intensifying, the system dissipated on 29 December. Upon moving ashore, Althea generated wind gusts as high as 196 km/h that damaged thousands of homes around Townsville, almost all of the buildings on the island were damaged to some degree. A severe 3.66 m storm surge battered the mainland, while pounding surf destroyed roads, beaches receded by as much as 15.8 m due to coastal erosion. In Townsville, thousands of homes were damaged and many were destroyed, the most common damage was to roofs, which were often poorly or not at all secured. The destruction wrought by Althea prompted Queensland to develop drastically stricter statewide building codes, in addition to the coastal effects, Althea triggered extensive river flooding in interior Queensland. Most major roads in portions of the state were cut off by floodwaters. In the aftermath of the cyclone,600 Australian Army soldiers aided recovery efforts in Townsville and Magnetic Island, three people were killed and damage totaled $120 million. Cyclone Althea originated in an area of thunderstorm activity that formed near the Solomon Islands in mid-December 1971. Just after 23,00 UTC on 21 December, imagery from the United States ESSA-8 satellite showed the first indications of an eye feature. Althea tracked southwest toward the coast of Queensland around a ridge to the south. Near 18,00 UTC on 22 December, it reached its intensity with 10-minute maximum sustained winds of 165 km/h. Late on 22 December, the eye remained obscured to satellite imagery by the canopy of cirrus clouds while the cyclone passed north of Lihou Reef, early the next day, it tracked just south of the automated weather station on Flinders Reef. Althea likely continued to organise until landfall, which occurred at 23,00 UTC on 23 December –9 a. m. local time on Christmas Eve – near Rollingstone, the landfall point placed the city and offshore Magnetic Island in the cyclones powerful left-front quadrant. Because of the pressure gradient between Althea and the high pressure area to the south, gale-force winds extended well to the south of the cyclones centre. While the system was moving ashore, land-based radar imagery identified an ongoing eyewall replacement cycle, the strongest winds were likely situated under the contracting outer ring, which shrank from 55 to 39 km between 21,00 and 23,00 to become the dominant eyewall. Consequently, extreme winds initially extended relatively far from the centre, the storm quickly weakened as it continued southwest, passing just north of Charters Towers City, though it continued to produce heavy rainfall over interior QueenslandCyclone Althea – 1971–72 Australian region cyclone season
200. Effects of Hurricane Isabel in North Carolina – The effects of Hurricane Isabel on North Carolina were the worst from a hurricane since Hurricane Floyd made landfall in 1999. Hurricane Isabel formed from a wave on September 6,2003 in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. It moved northwestward, and within an environment of light wind shear, after fluctuating in intensity for four days, Isabel gradually weakened and made landfall on the Outer Banks of North Carolina with winds of 105 mph on September 18. It quickly weakened over land and became extratropical over western Pennsylvania the next day, Isabel produced moderate to heavy damage across eastern North Carolina, totaling $450 million. Damage was heaviest in Dare County, where storm surge flooding and strong winds damaged thousands of houses, the storm surge produced a 2,000 foot wide inlet on Hatteras Island, isolating Hatteras by road for two months. Strong winds downed hundreds of trees of across the state, leaving up to 700,000 residents without power, most areas with power outages had power restored within a few days. The hurricane directly killed one person and indirectly killed two in the state, initially, forecasters predicted a landfall in the northeastern portion of the state, though as the hurricane neared land the predicted landfall position was much closer to where it ultimately was. From three days in advance, the track forecast error for its landfall was only 36 miles. Strong confidence in Isabels final landfall prompted the National Hurricane Center to issue a hurricane watch for the entire North Carolina coastline about 50 hours before Isabel struck land. 38 hours before the hurricane made landfall, the National Hurricane Center upgraded the watch to a warning for the landfall area. The Newport Weather Forecast Office issued a flood potential statement two days before landfall, which indicated a threat for flash flooding, the office began preparing for the hurricane one week before landfall, and brought additional staff members to assist with hurricane related duties. Evacuation orders began on September 16, when issued a voluntary evacuation for portions of four counties. By around 24 hours before landfall, mandatory evacuations were ordered for eight counties, all of which, all coastal counties from Cape Fear northward were under a mandatory evacuation. The two primary reasons stated for the residents evacuation decisions were the strength and track. The media and statements from officials were two other reasons, 70% of people along the Outer Banks heard the official evacuation notices, though only 30% of residents near the Pamlico Sound heard the notices. A majority of the respondents to the survey who heard the evacuation notices left the area, none of the surveyed evacuees from the Outer Banks went to a public shelter, 60% went to a friend or a relatives house and 24% went to a motel. Evacuees on the Outer Banks generally went elsewhere in North Carolina or to Virginia, for evacuees around the Pamlico Sound, only 9% left for a public shelter, while 75% left for a friend or relatives house. Most near the Pamlico Sound remained in their own neighborhood or own county, of the 19 North Carolina counties issuing evacuation orders, the duration of the evacuation process varied between 3 hours to 12 hours in Dare CountyEffects of Hurricane Isabel in North Carolina – Hurricane Isabel approaching North Carolina's Outer Banks
201. Hurricane Carmen – Hurricane Carmen was the most intense tropical cyclone of the 1974 Atlantic hurricane season. A destructive and widespread storm, Carmen originated as a disturbance that emerged from Africa toward the end of August. The disturbance traveled westward, spawning a depression east of the Lesser Antilles on August 29. Carmen moved ashore on the Yucatán Peninsula, where, despite striking a sparsely populated region, it caused significant crop damage, before the storms arrival, officials had set up several evacuation centers, and many residents had moved to higher ground. Upon entering the Gulf of Mexico, Carmen turned northward and re-intensified as it approached the United States, initially threatening the major city of New Orleans, it veered westward and made landfall on the marshland of southern Louisiana, eventually dissipating over eastern Texas on September 10. Tropical cyclone watches and warnings had been issued for the storm, damage was lighter than first feared, but the sugar industry suffered substantial losses. Throughout its course, the hurricane killed 8 people and caused $162 million in damage, due to the severity of the storm, the name Carmen was retired from the list of Atlantic tropical cyclone names. The origins of Hurricane Carmen can be traced to a disturbance over Africa during the middle of August 1974. The disturbance moved westward with little convective activity initially, although upon entering the Atlantic Ocean. The wave had intensified and broadened by August 25, and it split into two components, the northernmost of which consolidated into an organized storm system. Moving westward, the system developed into a depression on August 29. Due to favorable outflow from a nearby, the depression gradually strengthened as it moved through the Lesser Antilles. It attained tropical storm status on August 30, south of Puerto Rico, at first, the storms proximity to Hispaniola prevented further strengthening, but by August 31, it had managed to intensify into a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. As Carmen passed south of Jamaica, an eye feature briefly appeared, on September 1, the hurricane began to rapidly deepen over warm waters of the Caribbean Sea, by 1800 Coordinated Universal Time, it had strengthened to Category 4 intensity. Continuing westward, the storm passed north of Swan Island later that day, early on September 2, a double eyewall appeared on satellite imagery. Atmospheric steering currents became increasingly weaker, and Carmen slowed to a drift, later on September 2, the hurricane made landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula, its northern jog spared Belize City from a direct hit. The storms center passed a few north of Chetumal, Quintana Roo. The cyclone drifted inland, deteriorating to a storm on September 3Hurricane Carmen – Hurricane Carmen as a Category 4 storm on September 1
202. Hurricane Daniel (2006) – Hurricane Daniel was the second strongest hurricane of the 2006 Pacific hurricane season. The fourth named storm of the season, Daniel originated on July 16 from a wave off the coast of Mexico. It tracked westward, intensifying steadily to reach winds of 150 mph on July 22. At the time, the characteristics of the cyclone resembled those of an annular hurricane, initial predictions suggested that the cyclone would pass through the Hawaiian Islands as a tropical storm, however, Daniels remnants dissipated southeast of Hawaii. The storm brought light to moderate precipitation to the islands of Hawaii and Maui, causing minor flooding, Hurricane Daniel began as a tropical wave that moved off the west coast of Africa on July 2. The wave moved across the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea with little associated convection, convection increased on July 13, and two days later the system began to exhibit signs of tropical development to the south of Mexico. It tracked westward at about 15 mph, and on July 16, with convective rainbands near an associated low-level circulation, it is estimated the tropical wave spawned a tropical depression late on July 16. At the time, it was located about 525 miles south-southwest of Manzanillo, classified as Tropical Depression Five-E, the system tracked westward under the steering currents of a mid-level ridge. In the hours after formation, the depression lacked a concentration of deep convection near the center, conditions favored development, including warm sea surface temperatures, very low amounts of wind shear, and an established anticyclone over the cyclone. Convection became more centralized, coinciding with the improvement of upper-level outflow, based on Dvorak classifications, it is estimated that the cyclone intensified into Tropical Storm Daniel at 1200 UTC on July 17. Daniel quickly became organized, exhibiting increased thunderstorm activity and banding features. A central dense overcast developed, and a well-defined rainband wrapped around the center of circulation, based on the formation of an eye feature, the National Hurricane Center upgraded Daniel to hurricane status late on July 18 while it was located about 885 miles south-southwest of Cabo San Lucas. On July 19, the eye of Daniel became apparent on satellite imagery, later that day, Hurricane Daniel organized into a very symmetric cyclone with a distinct eye about 30 miles in diameter. On July 21 the hurricane underwent another eyewall replacement cycle, after completing the cycle, Daniel attained its peak winds of 150 mph early on July 22. It maintained peak winds for about 18 hours, and Daniel began a trend as it crossed into an area of progressively cooler water temperatures. The eye became more distinct on July 23, before the cloud tops again warmed as the winds decreased, the hurricane crossed into the area of forecast responsibility of the Central Pacific Hurricane Center on July 24, and upon doing so, its eye disappeared from satellite imagery. Daniel was forecast to track through the Hawaiian Islands as a storm as water temperatures near the islands were warmer. However, it decelerated as the ridge to its north weakened, later that day, no active convection remained near the exposed circulation center, and early on July 26 it weakened to tropical depression statusHurricane Daniel (2006) – Hurricane Daniel near peak intensity
203. Hurricane Emily (1993) – Hurricane Emily in 1993 caused record flooding in the Outer Banks of North Carolina while remaining just offshore. The fifth named storm and first hurricane of the hurricane season. It moved northwestward and strengthened into a storm on August 25. Emily then curved to the southwest but quickly resumed its northwest trajectory while strengthening into a hurricane, late on August 31, the hurricane reached peak winds of 115 mph on its approach to North Carolina. Although part of the eye passed over Hatteras Island in the Outer Banks, gradually weakening, the hurricane swerved away from the coast toward the northeast and later east. Emily stalled again, this time northeast of Bermuda, and dissipated on September 6 to the southeast of Newfoundland, the threat of Emily prompted hurricane warnings for much of the North Carolina coast and northward through Delaware. A mandatory evacuation for Ocracoke and Hatteras islands displaced 160,000 people during the busy Labor Day weekend, about 1,600 residents on these islands rode out the storm in their homes, and emergency officials stayed behind. Most of the went to hotels or stayed with friends or relatives, causing an increase in business across southeastern Virginia. Due to uncertainty in forecasting Emilys path, there were also evacuations from the coasts of Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, while bypassing the Outer Banks, Emily produced strong winds that coincided with high tides during a full moon, causing severe flooding along the Pamlico Sound. In Buxton, the left behind water marks as high as 10.54 ft. The storm downed thousands of trees and wrecked 553 homes—168 of which completely destroyed—leaving a quarter of the Cape Hatteras population homeless, structural damage in North Carolina was estimated at $35 million. Along the coasts of North Carolina and Virginia, three swimmers drowned as a result of Emily, Hurricane Emily originated from an African tropical wave that passed through the Cape Verde Islands on August 17,1993. On August 25, the depression became nearly stationary in response to weakening steering currents, the NHC named the storm Emily and upgraded it to a hurricane the following day, based on reports of 75 mph winds from a second reconnaissance mission. Upon becoming a hurricane, Emily was centered roughly 1,000 mi east of the Florida peninsula, a ridge of high pressure began to mature to its north, forcing the hurricane westward on August 27. Traversing warm sea temperatures, the hurricane continued to improve in appearance on satellite images. Emily retraced toward the northwest on August 29, when a shortwave trough eroded the southern periphery of the contiguous ridge. The NHC expressed uncertainty in forecasting Emilys track, stating that South Carolina, North Carolina, as high pressure re-established itself off the North Carolina coast, Emily briefly turned west-northwestward on August 30 before initiating a prolonged curve toward the north. By that time, the NHC forecast Emily to remain offshore, early on August 31, a reconnaissance flight indicated that Emily had become a Category 2 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson scale, and further intensification was expected because of warm watersHurricane Emily (1993) – Hurricane Emily off North Carolina coastline