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1. Annunciation (Memling) – The Annunciation is an oil-on-oak panel painting attributed to the Early Netherlandish master Hans Memling. Completed c. A hovering dove. The painting expands upon the Annunciation wing of Rogier van der Weyden's c. 1455 Saint Columba altarpiece. According to historian Maryan Ainsworth, the work presents a "startlingly original image, rich in connotations for the viewer or worshiper." The simple iconography centers on the Virgin's purity; the Incarnation, the Virgin as mother and her role as bride and Queen of Heaven. Her swoon foreshadows the Crucifixion of Jesus. In 1847 Gustav Friedrich Waagen described it as one of Memling's "most original works". In 1902 it was exhibited in Bruges at the Exposition des primitifs flamands à Bruges, after which it underwent cleaning and restoration. At that time it had been pierced with an arrow and required restoration. In Byzantine art, Annunciation scenes depict the Virgin dressed in royal regalia. In later centuries she was shown in enclosed spaces: the temple, the garden. Memling's depiction is nearly identical to van der Weyden's Columba Altarpiece. The archangel Gabriel appears to Mary to inform her that she shall bear the Son of God. He is dressed in vestments.Annunciation (Memling) – The Annunciation, 76.5 × 54.6 cm (30 1/8 × 21 1/2 in.), Hans Memling, c. 1480s, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
2. Beaune Altarpiece – The Beaune Altarpiece, often called The Last Judgement, is a large polyptych altarpiece by the Flemish artist Rogier van der Weyden. It was painted in oil with parts later transferred to canvas. It consists of fifteen paintings on nine panels; six are painted on both sides. It retains some of its original frames. Six outer panels are hinged, when folded they show an view of saints and the donors. The inner panels are arranged across two registers. The central panel that spans both registers shows Christ seated on a rainbow in judgement, with his feet resting on a golden globe. Below him the Archangel Michael holds scales as he weighs souls. The panel on Christ's right shows the gates of Heaven, that to his far left the entrance to Hell. The panels of the lower register form a continuous landscape, with figures depicted moving from the central panel after receiving judgement. It is one of van der Weyden's most ambitious works, lost Justice of Trajan and Herkinbald. It remains in the hospice today, although not in its original position. It has suffered from the wearing and darkening of its colours, an accumulation of dirt. In addition, a heavy layer of over-paint was applied during restoration. Nicolas Rolin was appointed Chancellor of Burgundy by Philip the Good in 1422, a position he held for the next 33 years.Beaune Altarpiece – The Beaune Altarpiece, c. 1445–1450. 220cm x 548cm (excluding frames). Oil on oak, Hospices de Beaune, interior view
3. Bramshill House – Bramshill House, in Bramshill, northeast Hampshire, England, is one of the largest and most important Jacobean prodigy house mansions in England. It was partly destroyed by fire a few years later. The design shows the influence of the Italian Renaissance, which became popular in England during the 16th century. The house was designated a Grade I listed building in 1952. The mansion's southern façade is notable for its decorative architecture, which includes at its centre a oriel window above the principal entrance. Numerous friezes are found throughout the mansion, while several rooms have large tapestries depicting historical figures and events on their panelled walls. The house is set in 262-acre of grounds containing an 18-acre lake. The wider park was landscaped from the 17th to the 20th century and contains woodland. Bramshill appears to have been social venue since the 16th century. It was later home to the European Police College. As a result, many campus buildings have been added to the estate. Owing to escalating maintenance costs the property was sold to the property developers City & Country in August 2014. Bramshill House is at the approximate centre of a shape formed by Reading, Basingstoke and Farnborough, about 47 miles by road southwest of central London. The longitudinal location is 51 ° 19' 57.9 "N 0 ° 54' 43.2 "W or also, 51.332759, -0.911991. William de Port, died in 1346 without leaving a male heir.Bramshill House – Bramshill House, south façade with oriel window in centre
4. Britomart Redeems Faire Amoret – Britomart Redeems Faire Amoret is an oil painting on canvas by English artist William Etty, first exhibited in 1833 and now in Tate Britain. It remains in the collection of Tate Britain. William Etty was born in 1787, the son of a miller and baker. Etty gained acceptance in early 1807. After a year spent studying under renowned painter Thomas Lawrence, Etty returned to the Royal Academy, drawing at the life class and copying other paintings. In 1821 the Royal Academy exhibited The Arrival of Cleopatra in Cilicia. Many of Etty's fellow artists greatly admired him. He was elected a full Royal Academician in 1828, ahead of John Constable. He became well respected for his fascination with contrasts in skin tones. Following the exhibition of Cleopatra, Etty attempted concentrating on painting further history paintings containing nude figures. All but one contained at least one nude figure. The supposed reaction of the lower classes to his nude paintings caused concern throughout the 19th century. Many critics condemned his repeated depictions of female nudity as indecent, although his portraits of male nudes were generally well received. Britomart Redeems Faire Amoret was intended by Etty to illustrate the virtues of honour. It shows the moment in which Busirane is interrupted by Britomart as he prepares to kill Amoret.Britomart Redeems Faire Amoret – Britomart Redeems Faire Amoret, 1833, 90.8 by 66 cm (35.7 by 26.0 in)
5. Brougham Castle – Brougham Castle is a medieval building about 2 miles south-east of Penrith, Cumbria, England. The castle was founded by Robert de Vieuxpont in the 13th century. The site, near the confluence of the rivers Eamont and Lowther, had been chosen by the Romans for a Roman fort called Brocavum. The castle is scheduled as an Ancient Monument, along with the fort, as "Brougham Roman fort and Brougham Castle". In its earliest form, the castle consisted with an enclosure protected by an earthen bank and a wooden palisade. When the castle was built, Robert de Vieuxpont was one of only a few lords loyal to the king in the region. The Vieuxponts also owned the castles of Appleby and Brough. In 1264 his property was confiscated by Henry III. With the outbreak of the Anglo-Scottish Wars in 1296, Brougham became an military base for Robert Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford. He began refortifying the castle: the large stone gatehouse was added. The importance of Brougham and Roger Clifford was such that in 1300 he hosted Edward I at the castle. In 1388 the castle was captured and sacked. Following this, the Cliffords began spending more time in Yorkshire. Brougham descended through several generations of Cliffords, intermittently serving as a residence. The castle was briefly restored to such an extent that James I was entertained there in 1617.Brougham Castle – Brougham Castle seen from the north east, across the River Eamont
6. The Combat: Woman Pleading for the Vanquished – A woman, also near-nude, clutches the victorious warrior to beg him for mercy. Nevertheless, it failed to find a buyer at the Summer Exhibition, was instead bought by fellow artist John Martin. The painting proved too large for Martin's house, in 1831 he sold it on to the Royal Scottish Academy. It was transferred in 1910 to the National Gallery of Scotland, where it remains. William Etty was born in miller. He began as an apprentice printer in Hull. In 1821 the Royal Academy exhibited The Arrival of Cleopatra in Cilicia. The painting was extremely well received, many of Etty's fellow artists greatly admired him. Pandora Crowned by the Seasons secured the position of Associate at the Royal Academy of Arts. Many critics condemned his repeated depictions of female nudity as indecent, although his portraits of male nudes were generally well received. The Combat: Woman Pleading for the Vanquished is a large painting, 399 cm across. It depicts a defeated soldier, kneeling in front of another soldier. The defeated fighter strains to free himself from the grip of the victorious warrior, who stands, raising a sword. A kneeling woman clutches the waist of the victorious soldier, raising her face to him to beg him to spare his defeated foe. The vanquished soldier's sword lies on the ground.The Combat: Woman Pleading for the Vanquished – The Combat: Woman Pleading for the Vanquished, William Etty (1825), 304 by 399 cm (10 ft by 13 ft 1 in)
7. Crucifix (Cimabue, Santa Croce) – Crucifix is a wooden crucifix, painted in distemper, attributed to the Florentine painter and mosaicist Cimabue. It is one of two large crucifixes attributed to him. The work is built from a complex arrangement of five main and eight ancillary timber boards. It is renowned for its technical innovations and humanistic iconography. The monumentality of the cross links it to the Byzantine tradition. Christ's static pose is reflective of this style, while the work overall incorporates more naturalistic aspects. The work presents a physically imposing depiction of the passion at Calvary. Christ is shown nearly naked: his eyes are closed, his face defeated. His body slumps in a position contorted by prolonged pain. It remains despite conservation efforts. Both of Cimabue's surviving crucifixes were commissioned by the Franciscan order. Founded by Saint Francis of their reformist, religious and social views had a profound effect on the visual arts in the century after his death. The son of Francis abandoned his inheritance to take up preaching in his mid-twenties. He developed a deep appreciation for the beauty of nature. Byzantine depictions tended to show Christ as invincible, even in death.Crucifix (Cimabue, Santa Croce) – Crucifix, 1287-1288. Distemper on wood panel, 448 cm × 390 cm (176.4 in × 153.5 in). Basilica di Santa Croce, Florence
8. The Dawn of Love (painting) – While a few critics praised elements of its composition and execution, The Dawn of Love was very poorly received when first exhibited. In 1889 it has remained in the collection of the Russell-Cotes Art Gallery & Museum ever since. William Etty was born in 1787, miller. He began in Hull. In 1821 the Royal Academy exhibited one of Etty's works in the Summer Exhibition, The Arrival of Cleopatra in Cilicia. Many of Etty's fellow artists greatly admired him. He became well respected for his ability to capture flesh tones accurately for his fascination with contrasts in skin tones. Following the exhibition over the next decade Etty tried to replicate its success by painting nude figures in biblical, literary and mythological settings. Many critics condemned his repeated depictions of female nudity as indecent, although his portraits of male nudes were generally well received. The Dawn of Love illustrates an early passage from a 1634 masque by John Milton. Comus is a tale in which the female protagonist, referred to only as "The Lady", becomes separated from her family. She encounters the debauched magician Comus who uses all the means at his disposal to try to inflame her sexual desires. Using her reason and sense of morals resists Comus's efforts to draw her into intemperance or surrender to desire. Etty's painting is not a direct illustration of a scene from Comus. Night hath better sweets to prove, Venus now wakens Love".The Dawn of Love (painting) – The Dawn of Love, 1828, 88.8 by 96 cm (35.0 by 37.8 in)
9. Denbies – Denbies is a large estate to the northwest of Dorking in Surrey, England. It was still a substantial building though, with almost 100 rooms on three storeys. What remained of the estate -- about 635 acres -- was bought by Biwater, a water-treatment company. Two years later the company chairman Alan White established Denbies Wine Estate, using 268 acres to plant vines. A farmhouse originally owned by John Denby in the mid-16th century, after whom the estate is named, stood at the heart of Denbies. The lands were sold to Jonathan Tyers in 1734 to be developed as a weekend retreat. A two-storey house in the Georgian style was built by converting some of the old farm buildings. Set on top of a hillside about two miles northwest of Dorking, the house backed onto Ranmore Common. On that day it contained water to a depth of twenty-two feet supplied from a spring. Scant information is available about it; the garden established by Tyers, however, gained notoriety. In contrast to the cheerful, lit atmosphere of Vauxhall, the garden Tyers developed at Denbies was of a more Gothic nature. The development was given the name of "The Valley of the Shadow of Death". Just outside the entrance to the wood was a small hermitage known as The Temple of Death. At the end of the temple farthest from the door was a substantial monument to a renowned 18th-century horticulturist. The iron gate was mounted between two upended stone coffins supporting the portico, each one topped by a human skull, one male one female.Denbies – The mansion on the estate in about 1840, when it was owned by the Denison family
10. Dresden Triptych – The Dresden Triptych is a very small hinged-triptych altarpiece by the Early Netherlandish painter Jan van Eyck. It consists of five individual panel paintings: two double-sided wings. It is in the permanent collection of the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden, with the panels still in their original frames. The only non-portrait signed with his personal motto, ALC IXH XAN. The triptych can be placed at the midpoint of his known works. Elisabeth Dhanens describes it as "the delicate and appealing work by Jan van Eyck that has survived". The paintings on the two outer wings become visible when the triptych is closed. The three inner panels are set in an ecclesiastical interior. In the inner panel Mary is seated and holds the Christ Child on her lap. On the left wing Archangel Michael presents a kneeling donor, while on the right St. Catherine of Alexandria stands reading a prayer book. The interior panels are outlined with two layers of painted bronze frames, inscribed with mostly Latin lettering. The work may have been intended for private devotion, perhaps as a portable altarpiece for a migrant cleric. That the frames are so richly decorated with Latin inscriptions indicates that the donor, whose identity is lost, was cultured. The Dresden Triptych was probably in the possession of the Giustiniani family in the mid- to late-15th century. In the mid-19th century the Dresden catalogues first attribute it a few years later to Jan..Dresden Triptych – View of the inner wings. The two outer wings contain an Annunciation scene in grisaille. Oil on oak panel, 1437. Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden. 33.1cm × 13.6cm; 33.1cm × 27.5cm; 33.1cm × 13.6cm
11. Geology Hall – At present, the building houses the university's geological museum. One of the oldest collegiate geology collections in the United States, was founded by state geologist and Rutgers professor George Hammell Cook in 1872. Its exhibits showcase the natural history of New Jersey; focusing geology, anthropology. Exhibits include fluorescent zinc minerals from Franklin and Ogdensburg, a mastodon from a dinosaur trackway discovered in Towaco, a Ptolemaic era Egyptian mummy. In 1864 the State of New Jersey named Rutgers College as their sole land college. A professor of chemistry and natural sciences, influenced the state to select Rutgers over the College of New Jersey. Cook later became the college's vice president. With new funding for scientific studies, Cook expanded his research and teaching into geology and agriculture. Six years later, the college's board of trustees decided to erect a building to house the college's scientific programs. With these funds, the trustees commissioned a design from Henry Janeway Hardenbergh, a young architect from New Brunswick. Hardenbergh received these contracts through family connections, as several members of his family were graduates, trustees, or associated with the school. The building was completed at a cost of US$63,201.54. Geology Hall's first floor housed the college's armory. The first-floor classrooms would accommodate the college's physics, geology departments. Geology Hall's second floor was designed to provide sufficient space to house geological specimens as a museum.Geology Hall – Professor George H. Cook was instrumental in Rutgers becoming the state's only land-grant college and developing the college's programs in the sciences and agriculture.
12. Head VI – Head VI is an oil-on-canvas painting by the Irish-born English figurative artist Francis Bacon, the last of six panels making up his "1949 Head" series. This gives the effect of a man suffocated by his surroundings, screaming into an airless void. Head VI contains many motifs that were to reappear in Bacon's work. The object, which may be a light switch or curtain tassel, can be found even in his late paintings. The geometric cage is a motif that appears late as his 1985 -- 86 masterpiece, Study for a Self-Portrait -- Triptych. In 1989 Lawrence Gowing wrote that the "shock of the picture, when it was seen with a whole series of heads... was indescribable. It was unpardonable. The paradoxical appearance at once of iconoclasm was indeed one of Bacon's most original strokes." Curator David Sylvester described it as a seminal piece from Bacon's unusually productive 1949 -- 50 period, one of Bacon's finest popes. Bacon's output is characterised by sequences of images. He told Sylvester that "images breed other images in me". His series were not always painted in sequence; sometimes paintings are grouped for convenience but vary in execution and tone. The idea for the series came after he returned penniless, late in 1948, from a stay in Tangier. In the previous three years he had been unable to find a voice; the last surviving canvas from this period is his Painting. Gallerist Erica Brausen offered the opportunity of a solo show for the opening of her new Hanover Gallery.Head VI – Head VI, 1949. 93.2 × 76.5 cm (36.7 × 30.1 in), Arts Council collection, Hayward Gallery, London
13. Literary Hall – Literary Hall is a mid-19th-century brick library building and museum in Romney, West Virginia. It is located at the intersection of West Main Street. Literary Hall was constructed by the Romney Literary Society. In 1846, the society constructed a building which housed its library. During the war, many of its 3,000 volumes were either scattered or destroyed. After a reorganization in 1869, the society commenced construction of the present Literary Hall in downtown Romney. The Romney Literary Society's last meeting was held at Literary Hall in 1886. In 1973, the building was purchased by prominent Romney lawyer Ralph Haines, who used it as museum. From 1937 to the early 1940s the building also housed a library. Literary Hall was listed on May 29, 1979. Literary Hall's basic design incorporates Federal and Greek Revival styles along with Victorian details. The Old National Building is located to the immediate south of Literary Hall across West Main Street. Literary Hall stands at an elevation of 820.3 feet above level. Literary Hall was built upon a lot designated "Lot 56" to the immediate west of the public square of Romney. In 1790, the trustees of the Town of Romney commissioned John Mitchel to draft a cadastral map of Romney.Literary Hall – Literary Hall
14. Melbourne Castle – Melbourne Castle was a medieval castle in Melbourne, Derbyshire. From the early century, Melbourne Castle was mainly in the possession of the Earls and Dukes of Lancaster or the crown. The building was in generally good condition throughout the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. The castle was in decline by the end of the reign of Elizabeth I. Although the stonework was sound, minimal maintenance had led to significant deterioration of other parts of the structure. The manor was purchased by Henry Hastings, 5th Earl of Huntingdon, who had his own castle in nearby Ashby-de-la-Zouch. The Melbourne property was then used as a source for building materials. The site is a scheduled monument. There is no public access to the site. As recorded in the Domesday Book, the manor of its lands were the property of King Edward the Confessor prior to the Norman Conquest. The property then passed into the hands of William I of England. After creating the Diocese of Carlisle in 1133, Henry I gave the manor for life to Æthelwold, the first bishop. Some time later, the diocese built a palace nearby on the site of what is now Melbourne Hall. When Bishop Æthelwold died in about 1156, the manor reverted to the crown. At some later date, the manor appears to have been granted before passing to Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, the King's son.Melbourne Castle – 1733 print of a drawing from around 1580
15. Oviri (Gauguin) – Oviri is an 1894 ceramic sculpture by French artist Paul Gauguin, the original cast is in the Musée d'Orsay. Gauguin shows her with wild eyes. In Tahitian mythology Oviri was the goddess of mourning. Gauguin shows her either embracing a wolf with her feet, as she tightly clutches another cub in her arms. Art historians have presented multiple interpretations of the work; usually that he intended it as an epithet to reinforce his self-image as a "civilised savage". Possible influences include preserved skulls from the Marquesas Islands, a 9th-century Mahayana Buddhist temple in central Java. Gauguin made three casts in 1894, each in partially glazed stoneware. Other copies exist in bronze. A cast was not placed there until 1973. Oviri was exhibited at the 1906 Salon d'Automne where it influenced Pablo Picasso, who based one of the figures in Les Demoiselles d'Avignon on it. Gauguin was foremost a painter; he came around 1886 when he was taught by ceramist Ernest Chaplet. They had been introduced by Félix Bracquemond who, inspired by the French pottery, was experimenting with the form. During that winter of 1886–87, Gauguin visited Chaplet's workshop at Vaugirard, where they collaborated on stoneware pots with applied figures or ornamental fragments and multiple handles. Attracted by the beauty of Tahitian women undertook a set of mask-like portraits on paper. They evoke both melancholy and death, conjure the state of faaturuma; imagery and moods later used in the Oviri ceramic.Oviri (Gauguin) – Paul Gauguin, Oviri (Sauvage), 1894, partially glazed stoneware, 75 x 19 x 27 cm (29.5 x 7.5 x 10.6 in), Musée d'Orsay, Paris
16. Palmyra – Palmyra is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria. The city was first documented in the early second millennium BC. Palmyra changed hands before becoming a subject of the Roman Empire in the first century AD. The city grew wealthy from trade caravans; the Palmyrenes were operated throughout the Roman Empire. Palmyra's wealth enabled the construction of monumental projects, such as the Great Colonnade, the distinctive tower tombs. The Palmyrenes were a mix of Amorites, Arabs. Its inhabitants spoke Palmyrene; Greek was used for commercial and diplomatic purposes. The culture of Palmyra was produced distinctive art and architecture that combined eastern and western traditions. The city's inhabitants worshiped Mesopotamian and Arab gods. The king was succeeded by regent Queen Zenobia, who established the Palmyrene Empire. In 273, Roman emperor Aurelian destroyed the city, later restored at a reduced size. The city became a Roman colonia during the third century, leading to the incorporation of Roman governing institutions, before becoming a monarchy in 260. Following its destruction in 273, Palmyra became a minor center under later empires. Its destruction by the Timurids in 1400 reduced it to a small village. Under French Mandatory rule in 1932, the ancient site became available for excavations.Palmyra – The ruins of Palmyra in 2010
17. Pitfour estate – It was purchased by James Ferguson of Badifurrow, who became the first Laird of Pitfour. The estate was substantially renovated by the following two generations of his family. The original house was extended before being rebuilt. The first three lairds transformed the estate into a valuable asset. The second laird, purchased additional lands including Deer Abbey and Inverugie Castle. James Ferguson, who became the third laird, continued to improve and expand the estate by adding the lake and bridges, establishing planned villages. The extravagant lifestyles of the sixth lairds led to the sequestration of the estate, sold off piecemeal to pay their debts. What remained of the estate was sold after the First World War. Its stone used to build council houses in Aberdeen. The lake is used by members of a private fishing club. The Pitfour estate in Mintlaw encompassed most of the extensive Longside Parish. The Pitfour estate is shown as Petfouir or Petfour. However, writing in 1887 Cadenhead states the lands were sold by Ricardus Mouet, also known as Richard Lownan. During the next three centuries the lands had different owners. John, inherited the property.Pitfour estate – A side view of Pitfour House, c. late 19th century
18. Saint Francis Receiving the Stigmata (van Eyck) – The panels are nearly identical, apart from a considerable difference in size. The earliest evidence is in the 1470 inventory of Anselme Adornes of Bruges's will; he may have owned both panels. From the 19th to mid-20th centuries, most scholars attributed them from a design by the master. Behind him are rock formations, shown in great detail, a panoramic landscape that seems to relegate the figures to secondary importance. This treatment of Francis is the first such to appear in northern Renaissance art. The arguments attributing the works to van Eyck are circumstantial and based mainly on the quality of the panels. A third version is in the Museo del Prado in Madrid, but is weaker and strays significantly in tone and design. Between 1989 the paintings underwent technical examination and were extensively restored and cleaned. After nearly 500 years, the paintings were reunited in an exhibition at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. The consensus is that both were painted by the same hand. The paintings may have belonged to the Adornes family of Bruges. A copy of a will written by Anselme Adornes, a member of one of the leading families in Bruges, was found in 1860. As he left to Jerusalem, Adornes bequeathed to his two daughters in convents two paintings he describes as by van Eyck. He described one as "with a portrait of St Francis, made by the hand of Jan van Eyck". On their return the Adornes brothers funded a replica of Jerusalem's Church of the Holy Sepulchre built in Bruges, known as the Jerusalem chapel.Saint Francis Receiving the Stigmata (van Eyck) – Saint Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stigmata, c. 1430–32. 29.3 cm × 33.4 cm (11.5 in × 13.1 in), Sabauda Gallery, Turin, Italy
19. Saint Luke Drawing the Virgin – The figures are positioned in a bourgeois interior which leads out towards a courtyard, river, landscape. Luke takes centre stage; his face is accepted as van der Weyden's self-portrait. Three near contemporary versions are in the Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, the Alte Pinakothek, the Groeningemuseum, Bruges. The Boston panel is widely considered the original from underdrawings that are both heavily absent in other versions. It is in relatively poor condition, having suffered considerable damage, which remains despite extensive cleaning. The painting's historical significance rests both on its merging of earthly and divine realms. The panel became widely influential with near copies by the Master of the Legend of Hugo van der Goes. It may have been commissioned to celebrate the artist's appointment for Brussels. Northern European painters' guilds were considered to be under his protection. In the 15th-century images of Luke painting the Virgin were more commonly found in Northern rather than Italian art. Luke was credited with painting the original of the immensely popular Italo-Byzantine Cambrai Madonna, to which numerous miracles were attributed. Within four years at least 15 high quality copies had been made. Contemporary painters strove to emulate him in their depictions of Mary. Popular belief held that the essence of the Virgin was captured in Luke's portrait of her. Van der Weyden closely follows van Eyck's c. 1435 Madonna of Chancellor Rolin, though there are significant differences.Saint Luke Drawing the Virgin – Saint Luke Drawing the Virgin, c. 1435–1440. 137.5 x 110.8cm. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
20. September Morn – Matinée de Septembre is a controversial oil painting on canvas completed in 1911 by the French artist Paul Émile Chabas. Painted over several summers, it depicts a nude girl or young standing in the shallow water of a lake, prominently lit by the morning sun. It has also been considered a disingenuous pose permitting the "fetishisation of innocence". In the aftermath of the October Revolution of 1917 was feared lost. As of 2014 it is not on display. From 1913 on, reproductions of the painting caused controversy in the United States. Another in New York was targeted by anti-vice crusader Anthony Comstock, both after displaying September Morn. Although several women claimed to be the model for September Morn, Chabas never revealed her identity. He responded positively to statements that it was his masterpiece. Later writers, however, have described the painting as valuable only as a historic artifact. The figure is fully visible, if a little darker than her surroundings. Chabas's signature is located in the lower left. By the time he painted September Morn, Paul Émile Chabas already had an established reputation as an academic artist. He regularly submitted to the Paris Salon, first participating in 1886. In subsequent years Chabas spent the winters working in Paris, while he passed his summers painting young women along the shores of rivers, seas.September Morn – September Morn
21. The Sirens and Ulysses – The Sirens and Ulysses is a large oil painting on canvas by the English artist William Etty, first exhibited in 1837. While traditionally the Sirens had been depicted as human -- animal chimeras, Etty portrayed them on an island strewn with decaying corpses. The painting divided opinion with some critics greatly admiring it while others derided it as tasteless and unpleasant. His brother donated The Sirens and Ulysses to the Royal Manchester Institution. The Sirens and Ulysses was painted using an experimental technique, which caused it to begin to deteriorate soon as it was complete. Strongly influenced by the works of Titian and Rubens, he became famous for painting nude figures in biblical, mythological settings. While many of his peers elected him a full Royal Academician in 1828, others condemned the content of his work as indecent. From 1832 onwards Myers regularly wrote to Etty to suggest potential subjects for paintings. Myers was encouraged Etty to make such works. The Sirens were famous for the beauty of their singing, which would lure sailors to their deaths. In his depiction of the scene, he probably makes destruction please. / Unblest the man whom music wins to stay / Nigh the curs'd shore, listen to the lay... In verdant meads they sport, wide around / Lie human bones that whiten all the ground. / The ground polluted floats with human gore / And human carnage taints the dreadful shore." The Sirens and Ulysses shows three Sirens singing on an island, surrounded by the rotting corpses of dead sailors.The Sirens and Ulysses – The Sirens and Ulysses, 1837, 442.5 cm by 297 cm (14 ft 6 in by 9 ft 9 in)
22. St Botolph's Church, Quarrington – St Botolph's Church is an Anglican place of worship in the village of Quarrington, part of the civil parish of Sleaford in Lincolnshire, England. The Abbey claimed the right to present the rector in the 13th century. With capacity for 124 people, the church serves the ecclesiastic parish of Quarrington with Old Sleaford and, as of 2009, had an average congregation of 50. Recognised for its tracery, the church has been designated a grade II * listed building. It consists of a spire with a nave and north aisle spanning eastwards and ending at a chancel. The oldest parts of the building date to the 13th century, although substantial rebuilding took place over the following century. The local architect Charles Kirk the Younger carried out restoration work in 1862 -- 63, when he added the chancel in his parents' memory. Dedicated to St Botolph, the church is on Town Road. The rectory has a study area used as the parish office. In 2004 a log cabin-style building was constructed by Pinelog Ltd using funds from the Parochial Church Council. It can be used as a meeting room for up to 30 people. Equipped with disabled toilet facilities, the building also serves as a Sunday School. The antiquarian Edward Trollope did not like the spire's design, saying that it "looks as if it had slipped down". Built in a Decorated Gothic style, the tower joins to the nave with a triple-chamferred arch. The nave contains elements from a range of periods.St Botolph's Church, Quarrington – St Botolph's Church, Quarrington
23. St Helen's Church, Ashby-de-la-Zouch – St Helen's Church is the Anglican parish church of Ashby-de-la-Zouch, in the deanery of North West Leicestershire and the Diocese of Leicester. Its nave is wider than it is long due to the extra Victorian aisles. Other fixtures carved heads by Thomas Earp. The finger pillory is a rare item, once seen as a humane form of punishment. The "Puritan Earl" brought a series of radical figures including Anthony Gilby and Arthur Hildersham. St Helen's Church is a nationally important building, with a Grade listing for its exceptional architectural interest. St is recorded in Domesday that the church dedicated to St Helen consisted only of a nave. The new, larger church chapels adjoining the chancel. The tower, some buttresses and windows still remain from the fifteenth century. The English Reformation inevitably affected St Helen's Church. Damage during the Civil War was minimal, although there are pike marks on the stonework. The church may have been fortified as part of the defences of a Royalist stronghold. Rich crimson hangings in the church had earlier attracted the attention of a thief. The cost of these works has been estimated between # 16,000 and more than # 18,000. St Helen's Church is the parish church of the English town of Ashby-de-la-Zouch in Leicestershire.St Helen's Church, Ashby-de-la-Zouch – From the southeast
24. The Triumph of Cleopatra – It is now in the Lady Lever Art Gallery in Port Sunlight across the River Mersey from Liverpool. Despite having exhibited since 1811 he attracted little commercial or critical interest. In 1820 he exhibited The Coral Finder, which showed nude figures on a gilded boat. This painting attracted the attention of Sir Francis Freeling, who commissioned a similar painting on a more ambitious scale. Although not universally admired in the press, the painting was an immediate success, making Etty famous almost overnight. William Etty was born in 1787, the son of a miller and baker. Etty gained acceptance in early 1807. Every painting he submitted for the Summer Exhibition was rejected. In 1811, Telemachus Rescues Antiope from the Fury of the Wild Boar, was finally accepted for the Summer Exhibition. However, he generated little interest over the next few years. At the 1820 Summer Exhibition Etty exhibited The Coral Finder: her Youthful Satellites Arriving at the Isle of Paphos. Strongly inspired by Titian, The Coral Finder depicts Venus Victrix lying nude in a golden boat, surrounded by scantily-clad attendants. It was sold to piano manufacturer Thomas Tomkinson for # 30. While superficially similar to The Coral Finder, Cleopatra is more closely related to the style of Jean-Baptiste Regnault, with its deliberately crowded composition. As well as from Regnault, the work borrows elements from Titian, classical sculpture.The Triumph of Cleopatra – The Triumph of Cleopatra, 1821, 106.5 by 132.5 cm (41.9 by 52.2 in)
25. Ukiyo-e – The ukiyo-e genre of art flourished in Japan from the 17th through 19th centuries. The ukiyo-e translates as "picture of the floating world". Edo became the seat of government for the military dictatorship in the 17th century. The class at the bottom of the social order benefitted most from the city's rapid economic growth. Many indulged in the entertainments of kabuki theatre, geisha of the pleasure districts. The ukiyo came to describe this hedonistic lifestyle. The earliest success was in monochromatic prints of beautiful women. Colour in prints came gradually—at first added by hand for special commissions. By the 1740s, artists such as Masanobu used multiple woodblocks to print areas of colour. From the 1760s the success of Harunobu's "brocade prints" led to full-colour production becoming standard, each print made with numerous blocks. Specialists have prized the portraits of actors by masters such as Kiyonaga, Utamaro, Sharaku that came in the late 18th century. Most works were prints. Ukiyo-e was central to forming the West's perception of Japanese art in the 19th century -- especially the landscapes of Hokusai and Hiroshige. Prints since the 20th century have continued in an individualist vein, often made with techniques imported from the West. The Kanō school of painting incorporated features of both.Ukiyo-e
26. Witches' Sabbath (The Great He-Goat) – Witches' Sabbath or The Great He-Goat are names given to an oil mural by the Spanish artist Francisco Goya, probably completed between 1821 and 1823. It explores themes of violence, intimidation, death. Satan hulks, in moonlit silhouette over a coven of ugly and terrified witches. A withdrawn young girl in black withdrawn from the other women; perhaps in defiance. Goya was then around 75 years old, suffering from acute mental and physical distress. It is one of the fourteen Black Paintings that Goya applied on the plaster walls of his house, the Quinta del Sordo. The paintings were completed in secret: he did not leave record of his intentions in creating them. Some fifty years after his death, the plaster murals were taken down and transferred to canvas supports. Witches' Sabbath was much wider before transfer – it was the broadest of the Black Paintings. During the transfer about 140 cm of the painting was cut from the right-hand side. Goya did not title any of the fourteen Black Paintings; their modern names came about after his death. There are no records of him speaking of them. The title El Gran Cabron was given by painter Antonio Brugada. The historical record of Goya's later life is relatively scant; no accounts of his thoughts from this time survive. Goya withdrew from public life during his final years.Witches' Sabbath (The Great He-Goat) – Witches' Sabbath, 1821–23. Oil on plaster wall, transferred to canvas; 140.5 × 435.7 cm (56 × 172 in). Museo del Prado, Madrid
27. The World Before the Flood – Behind the courting group, an oncoming storm looms, a symbol of the destruction which the lovers are about to bring upon themselves. When first exhibited at the 1828 Royal Academy Summer Exhibition the painting attracted strongly divided critical opinion. It was greatly praised by many critics, who counted it in the country. Other reviewers condemned it as crude, offensive and poorly executed. The painting was bought by the Marquess of Stafford. The two paintings were exhibited together in 2011 -- 12. William Etty was born in 1787, miller. In 1821 the Royal Academy exhibited one of Etty's works, The Arrival of Cleopatra in Cilicia. Many of Etty's fellow artists greatly admired him. He was elected a full Royal Academician in 1828, at that time the most prestigious honour available to an artist. He became well respected for his fascination with contrasts in skin tones. In the decade following the exhibition of Cleopatra Etty tried to replicate nude figures in biblical, literary and mythological settings. Many critics condemned his repeated depictions of female nudity as indecent, although his portraits of males in a similar state of undress were generally well received. The World Before the Flood illustrates lines 580–97 from Book XI of John Milton's Paradise Lost. Etty worked through various configurations before settling on his final design.The World Before the Flood – The World Before the Flood, 1828, 140 by 202.3 cm (55.1 by 79.6 in)
28. Jean Bellette – Jean Bellette was an Australian artist. Born in Tasmania, she was educated in Hobart and Julian Ashton's school in Sydney, where her teachers included Thea Proctor. In London she studied under painters Bernard Meninsky and Mark Gertler. Bellette was influential in mid-twentieth century Sydney art circles. She frequently painted scenes influenced by the Greek tragedies of Euripedes, Sophocles and Homer. She helped was its inaugural judge. Bellette married critic Paul Haefliger in 1935. Bellette grew up an only child in rural Tasmania with her artist mother and postmaster father. She was subsequently a student at Julian Ashton's school in Sydney. Her teachers included Thea Proctor, while fellow students included artist John Passmore. Her watercolours displayed in the 1934 student art exhibition attracted favourable comment from The Sydney Morning Herald art critic. At Ashton's art school, in 1935, they married. In 1938, her husband studied life drawing at Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris. Bellette and Haefliger returned just before the outbreak of World War II. Shortly after her arrival, Bellette held an exhibition at Sydney's Macquarie Galleries.Jean Bellette – Chorus without Iphigenia (circa 1950)
29. O. G. S. Crawford – Crawford worked briefly in that field before devoting himself professionally to archaeology. Employed by the philanthropist Henry Wellcome, he oversaw the excavation of Abu Geili in Sudan before returning shortly before the First World War. In 1920 Crawford was employed by the Ordnance Survey. In this position Crawford toured Britain to plot the location of archaeological sites in the process identifying several previously unknown sites. He came under the influence of Marxism and for a time became a Soviet sympathiser. During the Second World War Crawford worked with the National Buildings Record, photographically documenting Southampton. After retiring in 1946, Crawford wrote several further books prior to his death. His photographic archive remained of use into the 21st century. A biography of Crawford by Kitty Hauser was published in 2008. O. G. S. Crawford was born on 28 October 1886 at a suburb of Bombay in British India. The child's great-uncle was the politician Robert Wigram Crawford. Alice Luscombe Mackenzie, was the daughter of a Scottish army doctor and his Devonshire wife. In Britain, Crawford spent the next seven years with two paternal aunts who lived together near to Portland Place in the Marylebone district of central London. Like his father, they were devout Christians, having been the children of a Scottish clergyman. Under their guardianship he had little contact with men.O. G. S. Crawford – O.G.S. Crawford in 1912.
30. Homer Davenport – Homer Calvin Davenport was a political cartoonist and writer from the United States. He is known for drawings that satirized figures of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era, most notably Ohio Senator Mark Hanna. Although Davenport had no formal training, he became one of the highest paid political cartoonists in the world. Davenport also was one of one of the founders of the Arabian Horse Club of America. A native Oregonian, Davenport developed interests as a young boy. Hanna elevated to the Senate; Davenport continued to draw his sharp cartoons during the 1900 presidential race, though McKinley was again victorious. The 27 horses Davenport brought to America had a profound and lasting impact on Arabian horse breeding. He was a lifelong lover of animals and of living; he not only raised horses, but also exotic poultry and other animals. Davenport was born of Silverton, Oregon. His parents were Florinda Willard Davenport. His parents had previously lost two other children in infancy. Timothy Davenport served as an Oregon state representative, state senator, an Indian agent. He ran unsuccessfully in 1874. Florinda was an admirer of the political cartoons of Thomas Nast that appeared in Harper's Weekly. While pregnant with Homer, she developed a belief, which she viewed as a prophecy, that her child would become as famous a cartoonist as Nast.Homer Davenport – Davenport in 1912
31. William Etty – William Etty RA was an English artist best known for his history paintings containing nude figures. He was the first British painter of nudes and still lifes. Born in York, he left school at the age of 12 to become an apprentice printer in Hull. He moved to London, where in 1807 he joined the Royal Academy Schools. There he trained by copying works by other artists. Cleopatra's Arrival in Cilicia, painted in 1821, featured numerous nudes and was exhibited to great acclaim. Its success prompted further depictions of historical scenes with nudes. He continued to paint both male and female nudes, which caused severe condemnation from some elements of the press. Etty rarely socialised and never married. Until his death he lived with his niece Betsy. The quality of his work deteriorated throughout this period. As his health progressively worsened he retired in 1848. He died in 1849, shortly after a major exhibition. In the immediate aftermath of his death his works sold for large sums. Imitators soon abandoned his style.William Etty – William Etty, self-portrait based on an October 1844 photograph by Hill & Adamson
32. Stefan Lochner – Stefan Lochner was a German painter working in the late "soft style" of the International Gothic. Based in a commercial and artistic hub of northern Europe, Lochner was one of the most important German painters before Albrecht Dürer. Extant works include single panel oil paintings, illuminated manuscripts, which often feature fanciful and dark blue winged angels. Some thirty-seven individual panels are attributed to him with confidence. Less is known of his life. Records indicate that his career was cut short by an early death. We know that he was commissioned by the Cologne council to provide decorations for the visit of Emperor Frederick III, a major city occasion. Records from the following years indicate the purchase of a number of properties around the city. Thereafter he seems to have fallen into debt. Lochner's reputation were lost until a revival of 15th century art during the early 19th century romantic period. One of Dürer's diary entries became key, 400 years later, in the 20th establishment of Lochner's identity. None are signed. His influence on successive generations of northern artists was substantial. Lochner's work was praised by Friedrich Schlegel and Goethe for its qualities, especially the "grace" of his Madonnas. His identity was not established until the 19th century.Stefan Lochner – Last Judgement, c. 1435. 124.5 × 172 cm. Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne. This doom painting was originally the center panel of a polyptych altarpiece with the two panels of the The Martyrdom of the Apostles as wings
33. James B. Longacre – James Barton Longacre was an American portraitist and engraver, from 1844 until his death the fourth Chief Engraver of the United States Mint. Longacre was born in Pennsylvania in 1794. He ran away at age 12 becoming an apprentice in a bookstore. He was released to apprentice in an engraving firm. He struck out in 1819 making a name providing illustrations for popular biographical books. He portrayed the leading men of his day; support from some of them, such as South Carolina Senator John C. Calhoun, led to his appointment as chief engraver after the death of Christian Gobrecht in 1844. In Longacre's first years as a chief engraver, the Philadelphia Mint was dominated by Chief Coiner Franklin Peale. Conflict between the two men developed after Congress ordered a new gold dollar and double eagle, with both to be designed by Longacre. The chief engraver was able to convince Treasury Secretary William M. Meredith that he should be retained. Both Patterson and Peale left the Mint in the early 1850s, ending the conflict. In 1856, Longacre designed the Flying Eagle cent. When that design proved difficult to strike, Longacre was responsible for the Indian Head cent, issued beginning in 1859. Other coins designed by Longacre include the silver and nickel three-cent pieces, the two-cent piece. In 1866–1867, he redesigned the coins of Chile.James B. Longacre – James Barton Longacre
34. Mortimer Wheeler – Sir Robert Eric Mortimer Wheeler CH, CIE, MC, TD, FSA, FRS, FBA was a British archaeologist and officer in the British Army. Born to a middle-class family, he was raised largely in Yorkshire before relocating to London in his teenage years. After studying Classics at University College London, Wheeler began specializing in the Romano-British period. In 1934, Wheeler established the Institute of Archaeology as part of the federal University of London, adopting the position of Honorary Director. In this period, Wheeler oversaw excavations of the Roman sites at the Iron Age hill fort of Maidan Castle. Returning in 1948, Wheeler divided his time between lecturing for the Institute of Archaeology and acting as archaeological adviser to Pakistan's government. Appointed Honorary Secretary of the British Academy, Wheeler was appointed British representative for several UNESCO projects. Further, Wheeler is widely acclaimed as a major figure in the establishment of South Asian archaeology. Mortimer Wheeler was born on 10 September 1890 in the city of Glasgow, Scotland. Wheeler was the first child of his second wife Emily Wheeler. Initially working as a lecturer in English literature, Robert turned to journalism after his first wife died in childbirth. Emily, shared her husband's interest in English literature, was the niece of Thomas Spencer Baynes, a Shakespearean scholar at St. Andrews University. Their marriage was emotionally strained, a situation exacerbated by their financial insecurity. Within two years of their son's birth, the family moved to Edinburgh, where a daughter named Amy was born. The couple Amy being "Totsy".Mortimer Wheeler – Mortimer Wheeler in 1956
35. Armillaria gallica – Armillaria gallica is a species of honey mushroom in the Physalacriaceae family of the Agaricales order. It is found in temperate regions of Europe. The species forms fruit bodies singly or in groups in soil or rotting wood. The fungus has been inadvertently introduced to South Africa. Armillaria gallica has had a confusing taxonomy, due in part to historical difficulties encountered in distinguishing between similar Armillaria species. This individual is a tourist inspiration for an annual mushroom-themed festival in Crystal Falls. On the underside of the caps are gills that are white to creamy or pale orange. Confusion has surrounded the nomenclature and taxonomy of the species now known as Armillaria gallica, paralleling that surrounding the genus Armillaria. Because several research groups had worked with this widely distributed species, it was assigned several different names. These specimens were later demonstrated to be the same species as the EBS E of Korhonen; EBS B was later determined to be A. cepistipes. Therefore, the bulbosa was a misapplied name for EBS E. In 1987 Romagnesi and Marxmüller renamed EBS E to Armillaria gallica. Another synonym, A. lutea, had originally been described by Claude Casimir Gillet in 1874, proposed as a name for EBS E. A. inflata may represent another synonym, but the type specimens were not preserved, so it is considered a dubious name. As of 2010, both the Index Fungorum and MycoBank consider Armillaria gallica Marxm.Armillaria gallica – Armillaria gallica
36. Astraeus hygrometricus – Astraeus hygrometricus, commonly known as the hygroscopic earthstar, the barometer earthstar, or the false earthstar, is a species of fungus in the Diplocystaceae family. Young specimens unopened. The false earthstar is an ectomycorrhizal species that grows in association with various trees, especially in sandy soils. A. hygrometricus is common in temperate and tropical regions. The rays have an irregularly cracked surface, while the spore case is pale brown and tear at the top. The gleba is white initially, but turns powdery when the spores mature. The spores are reddish-brown, roughly spherical with minute warts, measuring 7.5–11 micrometers in diameter. Despite a overall appearance, A. hygrometricus is not related to the true earthstars of genus Geastrum, although historically, they have been taxonomically confused. The species was first described as Geastrum hygrometricus. Research has revealed the presence of several chemical compounds in the fruit bodies. North American field guides typically rate A. hygrometricus as inedible. Because this species resembles the earthstar fungi of Geastrum, it was placed in that genus starting with Christian Hendrik Persoon in 1801. Accordingly, Morgan set Persoon's Geaster hygrometricum in 1889. Despite Morgan's publication, some authorities in the following decades continued to classify the species in Geastrum. The only feature of those outlined in which the species differs from others of Geastrum is the somewhat primitive hymenium.Astraeus hygrometricus – Astraeus hygrometricus
37. Auriscalpium vulgare – The fungus is widely distributed in Europe, Central America, temperate Asia. Although common, nondescript colors lead it to be easily overlooked in the pine woods where it grows. Some historical literature says it used to be consumed in France and Italy. The fruit bodies grow on conifer cones that may be partially or completely buried in soil. The brown cap of the small, spoon-shaped mushroom is covered with fine brown hairs, reaches a diameter of up to 2 cm. The dark brown and hairy stem, 2 mm thick, attaches to one edge of the cap. The mushroom produces a white print out of roughly spherical spores. Growth is inhibited by excesses of either light or darkness. Fruit bodies change three times during their development, which helps ensure that the teeth ultimately point downward for optimum spore release. When grown in culture, the fungus can be induced to produce fruit bodies under suitable conditions. The species was first described in the scientific literature under the name Hydnum auriscalpium in his 1753 Species Plantarum. Linnaeus placed three other tooth fungi in the genus Hydnum: H. imbricatum, H. tomentosum. In the process, its name was changed to Auriscalpium vulgare. Other names given to now considered synonyms include Hydnum fechtneri, named by Josef Velenovský in 1922, later combinations based on this name. A. vulgare is the species of the widely distributed genus of eight species that it belongs to.Auriscalpium vulgare – Auriscalpium vulgare
38. Imleria badia – On the cap underside are small yellowish pores that bruise dull blue-grey when injured. The cylindrical stipe, measuring 4 -- 9 cm long by 1 -- 2 cm thick, is coloured like the cap, but paler. Some varieties have been described from eastern North America, differing from the main type in both microscopic morphology. The bay bolete is not particularly closely related to species in that genus. Its mushrooms are less often infested by maggots than other boletes. European studies have demonstrated that the mushroom can bioaccumulate some trace metals from the soil, such as mercury, cobalt, nickel. The bolete was first named as Boletus castaneus ß badius by Elias Magnus Fries in 1818. Fries later renamed it as a variety of Boletus castaneus before assigning it distinct species status in his 1832 work Elenchus Fungorum. In 1931, many sources still list it thus. The genus was not accepted by some mycologists. The name comes from the Latin limatulus, "rather polished" or "refined". Macrostipitatus were described from Nova Scotia, Canada, in 1976. The name is the Latin adjective badia, meaning "chestnut brown". The common name is likewise derived from the colour of the cap, likened to the coat of a horse. It is known as bolet bai in French.Imleria badia – Imleria badia
39. Boletus aereus – Boletus aereus, the dark cep or bronze bolete, is a highly prized and much sought-after edible mushroom in the family Boletaceae. The bolete is widely generally throughout the Mediterranean. Some populations in North Africa have been classified as B. mamorensis, although they are phylogenetically very close. The oak is a key host. The fungus produces spore-bearing fruit bodies above ground in autumn. The body has a large dark brown cap, which can reach 30 cm in diameter. The pore surface of the body is whitish when young, but ages to a greenish-yellow. Stem, is up to 15 cm tall and 10 cm thick and partially covered with a raised network pattern, or reticulation. French mycologist Pierre Bulliard described Boletus aereus in 1789. The epithet is the Latin adjective aerěus, meaning "made with bronze or copper". The starting date for all the mycota had been set as 1 January 1821, the date of Fries' work. These belong in a different porcini lineage. Boletus aereus is classified alongside close relatives such as B. reticulatus, B. edulis, B. pinophilus. A genetic study of the four European species found that B. aereus was sister to B. reticulatus. Molecular analysis suggests that B. reticulatus/Chinese B. "edulis" lineages diverged around 6 to 7 million years ago.Boletus aereus – Boletus aereus
40. Calvatia sculpta – It is edible when young, before the spores inside the body disintegrate into a brownish powder. The spores have wart-like projections on their surfaces. Originally described from the Sierra Nevada, C. sculpta was found in a Brazilian dune in 2008. Similar species include Calvatia arctica and immature specimens of Amanita magniverrucata. The species was first described in 1885 under the name Lycoperdon sculptum. Harkness, who called it "strikingly beautiful species", found fruit bodies growing at elevations between 1,800 and 2,400 meters in the Sierra Nevada mountains. Harkness's type collections were destroyed in the fires following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. The mushroom is known including the "sculpted puffball", the "sculptured puffball", the "pyramid puffball", the "Sierran puffball". In 1992, German mycologist Hanns Kreisel, in his survey of the genus Calvatia, defined the Sculpta to contain C. sculpta and C. subcretacea. Two years later he merged the Cretacea into Sculpta when it was shown that C. subcretacea was synonymous with the arctic-alpine species C. arctica. The white pear - or egg-shaped body of C. sculpta may be 8 to 15 cm tall by 8 to 10 cm wide. The warts bear parallel horizontal lines towards the base. Mycologist David Arora opined that C. sculpta resembled "a giant glob of meringue." In age, the peridium exposes a brownish spore mass. The interior of the gleba, is firm and yellowish-white when young, but gradually becomes powdery and deep olive-brown as it matures.Calvatia sculpta – Calvatia sculpta
41. Clathrus ruber – Clathrus ruber is a species of fungus in the stinkhorn family, the type species of the genus Clathrus. The species was illustrated in the scientific literature during the 16th century, but was not officially described until 1729. The body initially appears like a whitish "egg" attached by cords called rhizomorphs. The fruit body can reach heights of up to 20 cm. The color of the body, which can range from pink to red, results primarily from the carotenoid pigments lycopene and beta-carotene. The gleba has a fetid odor, somewhat like rotting meat, which attracts flies and other insects to help disperse its spores. Although the edibility of the fungus is not known with certainty, its odor would deter most from consuming it. C. ruber was not regarded highly in tales in southern European folklore, which suggested that those who handled the mushroom risked contracting various ailments. Clathrus ruber was illustrated early by the Swiss naturalist Conrad Gesner in his Nomenclator Aquatilium Animantium -- Gesner mistook the mushroom for a marine organism. Since Persoon used the specific epithet ruber, the correct name for the species is Clathrus ruber. Clathrus ruber is the type species of the genus Clathrus, is part of the group of Clathrus species known as the Laternoid series. The generic name Clathrus is derived from Ancient Greek κλειθρον or "lattice", the specific epithet is Latin ruber, meaning "red". The mushroom is commonly known as the "red cage". Clathrus was known as veštičije srce or srce meaning "witch's heart". This is still the case in parts of rural France, where it is known as cœur de sorcière.Clathrus ruber – Clathrus ruber
42. Coprinellus micaceus – Coprinellus micaceus is a common species of fungus in the family Psathyrellaceae with a cosmopolitan distribution. The fruit bodies of the saprobe typically grow on or near rotting hardwood tree stumps or underground tree roots. The caps, marked with radial grooves that extend nearly to the center, rest atop whitish stems up to 10 cm long. Although small and with thin flesh, the mushrooms are usually bountiful, as they typically grow in dense clusters. A few hours after collection, the gills will begin to slowly dissolve into a black, spore-laden liquid -- an enzymatic process called autodigestion or deliquescence. Cooking will stop the autodigestion process. Chemical analysis of the fruit bodies has revealed the presence of enzyme-inhibiting compounds. Fungorum in Pannoniis observatorum brevis historia. Clusius erroneously classified it as a genus of Fungi perniciales. The species was first described scientifically by French botanist Jean Baptiste François Pierre Bulliard in 1786 as Agaricus micaceus in his work Herbier la France. In 1801, Christian Hendrik Persoon grouped together all of the gilled fungi that auto-digested into the section Coprinus of the genus Agaricus. The species became known as Coprinus micaceus. Molecular studies published in the 1990s demonstrated that many of the coprinoid mushrooms were in fact unrelated to each other. This culminated in a 2001 revision of the genus Coprinus, split into four genera; C. micaeus was transferred to Coprinellus. The German botanist Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link misinterpreted what he had seen.Coprinellus micaceus – Coprinellus micaceus
43. Cortinarius violaceus – Cortinarius violaceus, commonly known as the violet webcap or violet cort, is a fungus in the webcap genus Cortinarius native across the Northern Hemisphere. The fruit bodies are purple mushrooms with caps up to 15 cm across, sporting gills underneath. The stalk measures 6 to 12 centimetres with a thicker base. The dark flesh has a reminiscent of cedar wood. Forming symbiotic relationships with the roots of various plant species, C. violaceus is found predominantly in deciduous forests in Europe. Though they are edible, the appearance of these mushrooms is more distinctive than their taste. The species has undergone several name changes. Cortinarius is readily distinguished from other species in the genus by its dark colouration and distinct cystidia. No genetic divergence between the two has been found. Agaricus violaceus was one of the fungal species named by Carl Linnaeus in his 1753 work Species Plantarum. The specific epithet violaceus refers to the deep colour of its cap. In English, Cortinarius is commonly known as the violet webcap, or cort. Thus the species was written as Cortinarius violaceus Gray. Hence, the name is thus written as Cortinarius violaceus Gray. German botanist Friedrich Otto Wünsche described the species in 1877.Cortinarius violaceus – Cortinarius violaceus
44. Gomphus clavatus – The fruit body is vase- or fan-shaped with wavy edges to its rim, grows up to 15 cm wide and 17 cm tall. Typically found in coniferous forests, G. clavatus is associated with tree species in a variety of coniferous genera, particularly spruces and firs. It is more common in moist, shady areas with plenty of leaf litter. Although widespread, G. clavatus has extinct in the British Isles. German naturalist Jacob Christian Schäffer described Elvela purpurascens in 1774. He recorded that poor people ate it, giving the local name hare's ear. In 1796, mycologist Christian Hendrik Persoon described G. clavatus as Merulius clavatus, noting that it grew in woods. He noted it was the same species that Schäffer had described. The specific epithet -- derived from the Latin word clava and "club-shaped" -- refers to the shape of young fruit bodies. In his 1801 Synopsis fungorum, Persoon placed Merulius clavatus in the section Gomphus within Merulius. British botanist Samuel Frederick Gray used Persoon's name, transferring the chanterelle to the genus Gomphus in 1821. As it was the first named member of the genus it became the species. Thus the species was written as Gomphus clavatus Gray. Hence, the name longer requires the ratification of Fries' authority. Persoon followed suit in treating Gomphus as a separate genus in his 1825 work Mycologia Europaea.Gomphus clavatus – Gomphus clavatus
45. Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca – Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca, commonly known as the false chanterelle, is a species of fungus in the family Hygrophoropsidaceae. It is found across several continents, growing in heathland, sometimes on woodchips used in gardening and landscaping. Fruit bodies are yellow -- orange across that has a felt-like surface. The thin, often forked gills down the length of the otherwise smooth stipe. Reports on the mushroom's edibility vary -- it can be mildly poisonous. Austrian naturalist Franz Xaver von Wulfen described the false chanterelle in 1781, noting both its resemblance with people's propensity to confuse them. Genetic analysis has confirmed that it is more closely related to boletes. The specific epithet is the Latin word aurantiacus, meaning "orange". James Sowerby gave it the name Agaricus subcantharellus, describing it as a "perhaps unfavourable" variety of A. cantharellus. The fungus then Cantharellus by Elias Fries in 1821. Bernhard Studer-Steinhäuslin concluded it could only be classified based on its white spores, decurrent gills and lack of a ring. Martin-Sans concurred with Maire's assessment of Hygrophoropsis, suggesting that it was thus worthy of generic ranking. The genus name refers to the genus Hygrophorus. It is commonly known as the false chanterelle. Pale forms of the fungus are sometimes referred to as var. pallida.Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca – Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca
46. Imperator torosus – Imperator torosus, commonly known as the brawny bolete, is a species of bolete fungus in the family Boletaceae. It is native to southern Europe east to the Caucasus and Israel. It is generally associated in warm, dry locales. Although generally rare in Europe, it appears to be relatively common in Hungary. Christopher Theodor Hök first described this species as Boletus torosus in 1835, a name by which it was known for many years. Raw mushrooms of this species leads to vomiting and diarrhea. Gastrointestinal symptoms have also occurred after eating cooked specimens, though some people have eaten it without ill-effects. Swiss mycologist Louis Secretan described the brawny bolete in his 1833 work Mycographie Suisse. The specific epithet torosus, which derives from Latin, means "muscular". In the United Kingdom, it is known commonly as the "brawny bolete". The German Ochsen-Röhrling means "oxen bolete" and the French bolet vigoureux is "strong bolete". French naturalist Lucien Quélet transferred the species in 1886, which resulted in the synonym Dictyopus torosus. Others, however, regard a distinct species. They hence selected a neotype specimen from this region. This indicated that its relatives needed to be placed in a new genus.Imperator torosus – Imperator torosus
47. Lactarius torminosus – Lactarius torminosus, commonly known as the woolly milkcap or the bearded milkcap, is a large agaric fungus. A common and widely distributed species, it is found in North Africa, northern Asia, North America. A variety, L. torminosus var. nordmanensis, is known from the United States, Canada, Switzerland. L. torminosus officially became the species of Lactarius in 2011 after molecular studies prompted the taxonomic reshuffling of species between several Russulaceae genera. The caps of L. torminosus mushrooms attain a diameter of up to 10 cm. A blend of the cap sometimes has concentric zones of alternating lighter and darker shades. The edge of the cap is rolled inward, shaggy when young. On the underside of the cap are narrow flesh-colored gills that are crowded closely together. When injured, the fruit bodies ooze a bitter white latex that does not change color upon exposure to air. The variety nordmanensis, in contrast, has latex that changes from white to yellow. The toxins, also responsible for the strongly acrid taste, are destroyed by cooking. Studies have identified several chemicals present including ergosterol and derivatives thereof, the pungent-tasting velleral. German naturalist Jacob Christian Schäffer was the first to describe the species, placing it in Agaricus in 1774. According to Index Fungorum, another synonym is Samuel Frederick Gray's Lactarius necans. Gray also gave its modern name when he transferred it to Lactarius in his 1821 Natural Arrangement of British Plants.Lactarius torminosus – Lactarius torminosus
48. Lycoperdon perlatum – Lycoperdon perlatum, popularly known as the common puffball, warted puffball, gem-studded puffball, or the devil's snuff-box, is a species of puffball fungus in the family Agaricaceae. It is off-white with a top covered in "jewels", which are easily rubbed off to leave a netlike pattern on the surface. The puffball grows in fields, along roadsides, as well as in grassy clearings in woods. L. perlatum can usually be distinguished from similar puffballs by differences in surface texture. Laboratory tests indicate that extracts of the puffball have antifungal activities. The species was first described by mycologist Christiaan Hendrik Persoon. Synonyms include Lycoperdon gemmatum; the variety Lycoperdon gemmatum var. perlatum; Lycoperdon bonordenii; and Lycoperdon perlatum var. bonordenii. L. perlatum is the species of the genus Lycoperdon. Molecular analyses suggest a close phylogenetic relationship with L. marginatum. The specific perlatum is Latin for "widespread". Because some indigenous peoples believed that the spores caused blindness, the puffball has some local names such as "blindman's bellows" and "no-eyes". It has a stem-like base. The outer surface of the body is covered in short cone-shaped spines that are interspersed with granular warts. The spines, which are gray, or brown, can be easily rubbed off, leave reticulate pock marks or scars after they are removed. The base of the puffball has internal chambers.Lycoperdon perlatum – Lycoperdon perlatum
49. Marasmius rotula – Marasmius rotula is a common species of agaric fungus in the family Marasmiaceae. The wiry black hollow stems measure up to 8.0 cm long by 1.5 mm thick. On the underside of the caps are widely spaced white gills that are attached to a collar encircling the stem. The mushrooms sticks, moss-covered logs, stumps. Unlike other mushrooms known to release spores in response to a rhythm, spore release in M. rotula is dependent upon sufficient moisture. Although M. rotula mushrooms are not generally considered edible, they produce a unique enzyme, attracting research interest for possible use in bioengineering applications. The species was first described as Agaricus rotula in 1772. In 1821 Elias Magnus Fries redescribed the mushroom in Systema Mycologicum, later transferred it in his 1838 Epicrisis Systematis Mycologici. In 1946 Alexander H. Smith and Rolf Singer proposed to conserve the name Marasmius over Micromphale; the latter had nomenclatorial priority as it was published first. The generic name Marasmius, with M. rotula as the lectotype species, was later conserved on Botanical Nomenclature. M. rotula is also the species of section Marasmius within the genus. Several varieties of M. rotula have been described. Miles Berkeley and Moses Ashley Curtis named var. fuscus in 1869 for its brown cap. In 1887 Pier Andrea Saccardo described var. microcephalus from Italy, with caps half the normal size. It is now understood, however, that body morphology is variable and dependent upon environmental conditions.Marasmius rotula – Marasmius rotula
50. Morchella rufobrunnea – Morchella rufobrunnea, commonly known as the blushing morel, is a species of ascomycete fungus in the family Morchellaceae. M. rufobrunnea grows in woodchips used in landscaping, suggesting a saprophytic mode of nutrition. Reports from the Mediterranean under olive trees, however, suggest the fungus may also be able to form facultative tree associations. Young fruit bodies have grayish caps covered with pale ridges and dark pits; mature specimens are yellowish to ochraceous-buff. The surface of the body often bruises brownish orange to pinkish where it has been touched, a characteristic for which the fungus is named. Mature fruit bodies grow to a height of 9.0–15.5 cm. A process to cultivate morels now known to be M. rufobrunnea was patented in the 1980s. The type locality is a mesophytic forest containing oak, sweetgum, Clethra and alder at an altitude of 1,350 m. Kuo suggests that M. rufobrunnea is the correct name for the M. deliciosa used by western American authors. Other North American morels formerly classified as deliciosa have since been recategorized into two distinct species, M. sceptriformis. The elata clade. All known morel species evolved from a similar ancestor. M. rufobrunnea is genetically closer to the yellow morels than the black morels. M. anatolica, described in 2012, is a closely related sister species. The specific rufobrunnea derives from the Latin roots ruf - and brunne -.Morchella rufobrunnea – Morchella rufobrunnea
51. Myriostoma – It is a fungal genus in the family Geastraceae. The genus containing the single species Myriostoma coliforme. Myriostoma is an earthstar, so named because the spore-bearing sack's outer wall splits open into the shape of a star. The body, initially shaped like a puffball, is encased within an outer covering that splits open from the top to form rays. These rays curve down to expose an inner papery spore case, which contains the gleba. Myriostoma reaches diameters of up to 12 cm. Its spherical spores have elongated warts that create a ridge-like pattern on their surface. The spores are dispersed when falling water hits the outer wall of the spore sac, creating puffs of air that force the spores through the holes. The species was first mentioned in the scientific literature in 1696. Myriostoma was first described scientifically as a new species in 1776 from collections made by James Dickson, who named it Lycoperdon coliforme. He found it growing among nettles in Suffolk and Norfolk. Nicaise Auguste Desvaux first published the new genus Myriostoma in 1809, with the species renamed Myriostoma anglicum. Christian Hendrik Persoon had previously placed the species in Geastrum in 1801, while Samuel Frederick Gray would in 1821 describe the genus Polystoma for it. Myriostoma coliforme received its final name when August Carl Joseph Corda moved Dickson's name to Myriostoma in 1842, replacing Desvaux's name. In 1897, Melville Thurston Cook also reported having collected the year before from "Albino Beach".Myriostoma – Myriostoma
52. Omphalotus nidiformis – Omphalotus nidiformis, or ghost fungus, is a gilled basidiomycete mushroom most notable for its bioluminescent properties. It was reported from India in 2012. The fan - or funnel-shaped fruit bodies are across with cream-coloured caps overlain with shades of orange, brown, purple, or bluish-black. The white or cream gills run down the length of the stipe, which tapers in thickness to the base. First described scientifically in 1844, the fungus has been known by several names in its taxonomic history. It was assigned its current name by Jr. in 1994. Its scientific name is derived from the Latin nidus "nest", hence ` shaped'. Unlike oyster mushrooms, O. nidiformis is poisonous; while not lethal, its consumption leads to severe cramps and vomiting. The toxic properties of the mushroom are attributed to compounds called illudins. O. nidiformis is one of several species in the cosmopolitan Omphalotus, all of which have bioluminescent properties. The fungus was initially described in 1844 by English naturalist Miles Joseph Berkeley as Agaricus nidiformis. Berkeley remarked it was a "far more magnificent species". Material was originally collected by Scottish naturalist James Drummond in 1841 along the Swan River. More material collected near the base of a "sickly but living" shrub was named as Agaricus lampas by Berkeley. He noted both were closely related species.Omphalotus nidiformis – Omphalotus nidiformis
53. Paxillus involutus – Paxillus involutus, commonly known as the brown roll-rim, common roll-rim, or poison pax, is a basidiomycete fungus widely distributed across the Northern Hemisphere. It has been unintentionally introduced to Australia, South America, where it has likely been transported in soil with European trees. Although it has gills, it is more closely related than to typical gilled mushrooms. It was given its current binomial name by Elias Magnus Fries in 1838. Genetic testing suggests that Paxillus involutus may be a complex rather than a single species. These benefit from the symbiosis as the fungus increases resistance to pathogens such as Fusarium oxysporum. An antigen in the mushroom triggers the immune system to attack red blood cells. Potentially fatal complications include acute renal failure, shock, acute respiratory failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation. James Bolton published a description of what he called Agaricus adscendibus in 1788; the taxonomical authority Index Fungorum considers this to be synonymous with P. involutus. Additional synonyms include Rhymovis involuta, published by Gottlob Ludwig Rabenhorst in 1844. It was thus written Paxillus involutus Fr. Hence the name longer requires the ratification of Fries' authority. The genus was later placed by French mycologist René Maire who held it to be related to both agarics and boletes. The specific epithet involutus, ` inrolled', refers to the cap margin. Common names include the naked brimcap, poison paxillus, inrolled pax, poison pax, common roll-rim, brown chanterelle.Paxillus involutus – Paxillus involutus
54. Russulaceae – The Russulaceae are a diverse family of fungi in the order Russulales, with roughly 1,900 known species and a worldwide distribution. They comprise well-known mushroom-forming fungi that include some edible species. These gilled mushrooms are characterised by the brittle flesh of their fruitbodies. In addition to these agaricoid forms, the family contains species with fruitbodies that are laterally stiped, closed, or crust-like. Molecular phylogenetics has discovered new, distinct lineages. An important group of ectomycorrhizal fungi in forests and shrublands around the world includes Lactifluus, Multifurca, Russula, Lactarius. All wood-decay fungi, have basal positions in the family. The Russulaceae was first validly named in 1907 by Dutch botanist Johannes Paulus Lotsy, who included three genera: Russula, Lactarius, Russulina. He emphasised features such as the granular flesh, thick gills, milky hyphae and rounded cells. Synonyms of Russulaceae include: Ernst Albert Gäumann's Lactariaceae, Fernand Moreau's Asterosporaceae, David Pegler and Thomas Young's Elasmomycetaceae. The latter family was proposed to contain species with symmetric spores, including the gasteroid genera Elasmomyces, Gymnomyces, Martellia, Zelleromyces. Calonge and Martín reduced the Elasmomycetaceae to synonymy with the Russulaceae when molecular analysis confirmed the genetic relationship between the gasteroid and agaricoid genera. The family's sister group within the order appears to be the crust-like Gloeocystidiellaceae. A 2008 molecular study clarified the relationships among the mushroom-forming species of the family. Nevertheless, some of these genus names are still in use, as many of the concerned species have not yet formally been synonymised with Lactarius or Russula.Russulaceae – Russulaceae
55. Suillus bovinus – Suillus bovinus, also known as the Jersey cow mushroom or bovine bolete, is a pored mushroom of the genus Suillus in the family Suillaceae. A common native to Europe and Asia, Suillus has been introduced to North America and Australia. Suillus was initially given its current binomial name by Henri François Anne de Roussel in 1806. Suillus is an edible mushroom, though highly regarded. The fungus grows in pine plantations in countries where it has become naturalised. Suillus bovinus produces spore-bearing fruit bodies, often in large numbers, above ground. The mushroom has a convex grey-yellow or cap reaching up to 10 cm in diameter, which flattens with age. The pore surface is yellow. More slender than those of other Suillus boletes, lacks a ring. The specific epithet is derived from meaning "cattle". The fungus was reclassified in the genus Suillus in 1796. It is derived from the word "swine". Lucien Quélet classified it in 1886. The starting date for all the mycota had been set as 1 January 1821, the date of Fries's work. Furthermore, as Roussel's description of Suillus predated this well, the authority for the genus was assigned to Otto Kuntze.Suillus bovinus – Suillus bovinus
56. Suillus luteus – Suillus luteus is a bolete fungus, the type species of the genus Suillus. Commonly referred in English-speaking countries, its names refer to the brown cap, characteristically slimy in wet conditions. The fungus, initially described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753, is now classified in a different family as well as genus. Suillus luteus is edible, though not highly regarded as other bolete mushrooms, is commonly prepared and eaten in soups, stews or fried dishes. The coating, however, may cause indigestion if not removed before eating. The fungus grows in pine plantations in countries where it has become naturalized. Suillus forms ectomycorrhizal associations with living trees by enveloping the tree's underground roots with sheaths of fungal tissue. The fungus produces spore-bearing fruit bodies, often in large numbers, above ground in autumn. The fruit cap often has a distinctive conical shape before flattening with age, reaching up to 13 cm in diameter. The pore surface is yellow, covered by a membranous partial veil when young. Stem, measures up to 10 cm tall and 3 cm thick and bears small dots near the top. Unlike most other boletes, Suillus bears a distinctive membranous ring, tinged brown to violet on the underside. The specific epithet is the Latin adjective lūtěus, meaning "yellow". The fungus was reclassified as the genus Suillus in 1796. It is derived from swine.Suillus luteus – Suillus luteus
57. Suillus salmonicolor – Suillus salmonicolor, commonly known as the slippery Jill, is a fungus in the family Suillaceae of the order Boletales. Suillus has not been determined with certainty whether S. salmonicolor is distinct from the species S. cothurnatus, described by Rolf Singer in 1945. S. salmonicolor is a mycorrhizal fungus—meaning it forms a symbiotic association with the roots of plants such that both organisms benefit from the exchange of nutrients. The fruit bodies of the fungus appear scattered or in groups on the ground near the trees. The fungus is found in North America, Asia, the Caribbean, South Africa, Central America. Suillus has been introduced to several of those locations via transplanted trees. The mushroom's dingy yellow to brownish cap is rounded to flattened in slimy when wet, grows up to 9.5 cm wide. The small pores on the underside of the cap are yellow before becoming olive-brown. The stem is covered with reddish-brown glandular dots. Young specimens are covered with a grayish, partial veil that later ruptures and leaves a sheathlike ring on the stem. Although the mushroom is generally considered edible -- especially if partial veil are first peeled off -- opinions about its palatability vary. Similar Suillus species include S. acidus, S. subalutaceus, S. intermedius. In a 1983 publication, mycologist Roy Halling declared Boletus subluteus and Suillus pinorigidus to be synonymous. The specific salmonicolor is a Latin color term meaning "pink with a dash of yellow". The mushroom is commonly known as the "slippery Jill".Suillus salmonicolor – Suillus salmonicolor
58. Suillus spraguei – Suillus spraguei is a species of fungus in the Suillaceae family. Suillus is known including the painted slipperycap, the red and yellow suillus. Suillus spraguei has had a complex taxonomical history, is also frequently referred to Suillus pictus in the literature. On the underside of the cap are small, yellow, angular pores that become brownish as the mushroom ages. The stalk is typically covered with soft scales. Suillus is found throughout the range of the host tree. The mushroom is edible, although opinions about its quality vary. Suillus spraguei has had a complex taxonomic history. In a publication that appeared the following year, American mycologist Charles Horton Peck named the species Boletus pictus. The name was officially switched to Suillus spraguei in 1986. The results indicate that S. spraguei is most closely related to S. decipiens. S. placidus lie to that containing S. spraguei. These results were extended in later publications that assessed the relationships including S. spraguei. The specific spraguei is an homage to the Sprague, while pictus means "painted" or "colored". Suillus spraguei is commonly known as the "red and yellow suillus".Suillus spraguei – Suillus spraguei
59. Tricholoma pardinum – It is generally found in beech woodland in autumn. Two subspecies have been described from southern Europe. First officially described by Christiaan Hendrik Persoon in 1801, Tricholoma pardinum has had a taxonomic history that extends over two centuries. The gills are not attached to the stout white to pale grey-brown stalk. The spore print is white. Ingesting T. pardinum—even in small quantities—results in a severe, persistent gastroenteritis caused by an unknown mycotoxin. Christiaan Hendrik Persoon described this species as Agaricus myomyces var. pardinus in 1801, although he queried whether it was a distinct species. The illustration accompanying the name fits what we now know as Tricholoma pardinum, although the description is less clear. French mycologist Lucien Quélet reclassified it as a species in 1873, giving its current binomial name. He has proposed the fungus be written as Tricholoma pardinum Quél. However, Secretan's works are not recognised for nomenclatural purposes because he did not use binomial nomenclature consistently. There has been confusion over which scientific name to use for over hundred years. Tricholoma tigrinum has been applied in error to this species. Molecular analyses suggest that T. pardinum is closely related to T. huronense, T. venenatum. It is found in southern Europe, where it associates with spruce trees.Tricholoma pardinum – Tricholoma pardinum
60. Turbinellus floccosus – Turbinellus floccosus, sometimes known as the shaggy, scaly, or woolly chanterelle, is a cantharelloid mushroom of the family Gomphaceae native to Asia and North America. It was known until 2011 when it was found to be only distantly related to the genus's type species, G. clavatus. It was consequently transferred to Turbinellus. The orange-capped vase - or trumpet-shaped fruiting bodies may reach 30 cm wide. The hymenium, is covered in wrinkles and ridges rather than gills or pores, is pale buff or yellowish to whitish. Though mild-tasting, they generally cause gastrointestinal symptoms of nausea, diarrhea when consumed. T. floccosus is eaten by local people in northeastern India, Nepal and Mexico. Its specific epithet is derived from the Latin floccus, meaning "flock, of wool". A large specimen collected by Charles James Sprague was described as Cantharellus princeps in 1859 by Berkeley and Moses Ashley Curtis. In 1891, C. floccosus as Merulius floccosus. Franklin Sumner Earle made C. floccosus the species of the new genus Turbinellus in 1909, in which he placed two other North American species. This was not widely taken up, as Earle's new combination was not published validly according to nomenclatural rules. American mycologist Elizabeth Eaton Morse described Cantharellus bonarii in 1930. The type locality was General Grant National Park in California. In 1945 Morse's C. bonarii were transferred to Gomphus by Rolf Singer.Turbinellus floccosus – Turbinellus floccosus
61. Banksia aculeata – A shrub up to 2 m tall, it leaves with very prickly serrated margins. Pendent flower spikes, known as inflorescences, are generally hidden in the foliage and appear during the early summer. Banksia aculeata is found in gravelly soils in elevated areas. Native to a habitat burnt by periodic bushfires, it is killed by fire and regenerates from seed afterwards. In contrast to other Australian banksias, it appears to have some resistance to dieback from the soil-borne water mould Phytophthora cinnamomi. A bushy shrub, Banksia aculeata grows up to 2 m tall, with fissured grey bark on its trunk and branches. Unlike other banksia species, it does not have a woody base, or lignotuber. The leaves are from 4–9 cm long, 0.8–3 cm wide, with sharply pointed rigid lobes on the margins. These floral units are made up of a tubular perianth that envelopes the flower's sexual organs. The perianth is 3.0 -- 4.3 cm pink at the base grading into cream. In late bud, the end of the perianth has a four-angled appearance. It then splits at anthesis to reveal the straight pistil, slightly shorter than its enveloping structure at 3.0 -- 4.2 cm long. Oval in shape, the follicles are covered with fine hair. They are 3.0 -- 4.5 cm long, 2 -- 2.5 cm wide. The obovate seed is 4 -- 5 cm fairly flattened.Banksia aculeata – Banksia aculeata
62. Banksia attenuata – Commonly a tree, it is often a shrub in dryer areas 0.4 to 2 m high. It has long flower spikes, held above the foliage, which appear in spring and summer. The flower swell with the development of the woody follicles. Within the genus Banksia, the close relationships and exact position of B. attenuata is unclear. The banksia is pollinated by and provides food for a wide array of vertebrate and invertebrate animals in summer months. Several species of honeyeater visit the flower spikes, as does the possum, which has an important role as a pollinator. It regenerates from bushfire from epicormic buds within its trunk. Plants may have a lifespan of 300 years. A form is commercially available in nurseries. Banksia attenuata is generally encountered as a tree up to 10 m tall. In the north of its range as the climate becomes dryer, it is often a stunted multistemmed shrub 0.4 to 2 m tall. There is otherwise a marked demarcation. In the Wheatbelt and east of the Stirling Range, it is a stunted tree. Tree forms have a solid trunk, generally bent, with 1 -- 2 cm thick crumbly orange-grey bark, a red-brown underneath. It regenerates from its fire-tolerant trunk.Banksia attenuata – Candlestick banksia or biara
63. Banksia caleyi – Banksia caleyi, commonly known as the red lantern banksia or Caley's banksia, is a species of woody shrub of the family Proteaceae native to Western Australia. First described in 1830, Banksia caleyi was named in honour of the English botanist George Caley. No subspecies are recognised. It is four related species with hanging inflorescences, an unusual feature within the genus. Found south and east through to the vicinity of Jerramungup, Banksia caleyi grows in a habitat burnt by periodic bushfires. Plants are regenerate by seed afterwards. The species is classified as Not Threatened under the Wildlife Conservation Act of Western Australia. Banksia caleyi grows with crumbly grey bark. Rarely, plants of up to 4 m have been found. The new growth generally occurs in summer. The branchlets become smooth after around two years. The stiff leaves are measure 5 -- 14 cm in length by 1.3 -- 2.4 cm wide. The leaf margins are serrated, with many teeth measuring 0.4 -- each. Flowering takes place between September and January. The inflorescences eventually turn grey, the old flowers remaining as up to 25 large woody follicles develop.Banksia caleyi – Caley's banksia
64. Banksia lemanniana – Banksia lemanniana, commonly known as the yellow lantern banksia or Lemann's banksia, is a species of woody shrub of the family Proteaceae native to Western Australia. Banksia generally grows to five metres high with stiff serrated leaves, unusual hanging inflorescences. Flowering occurs over summer, the greenish buds developing into oval flower spikes before turning grey and developing the characteristic large woody follicles. Banksia occurs on the southern coast of the state. Banksia lemanniana is killed from seed. First described in 1856, Banksia was named in honour of English botanist Charles Morgan Lemann. Banksia is one of four related species all with pendent inflorescences, an unusual feature within the genus. No subspecies are recognised. Banksia lemanniana is classified as Not Threatened under the Wildlife Conservation Act of Western Australia. Banksia lemanniana grows with a spreading habit. The trunk can reach a diameter of 15 cm. Lower-growing plants that reach 1.6 m in height have been reported from coastal areas of Fitzgerald River National Park. The new growth is predominantly seen in summer, before losing its hair and becoming glabrous over two years. The stiff leaves measure 3 to 9 cm in length by 1.2 -- 3.5 cm wide. The leaf margins are serrated, with many teeth measuring 0.1 to each.Banksia lemanniana – Banksia lemanniana
65. Banksia marginata – It ranges from the islands of Bass Strait. It grows in various habitats, including Eucalyptus forest, scrub, moorland. Banksia marginata varies widely in habit, 20 cm high, to a large tree, 12 m tall. The yellow inflorescences occur from late summer to early winter. The flower spikes develop woody follicles bearing the winged seeds. Originally described by Antonio José Cavanilles in 1800, further collections of B. marginata were described by Robert Brown in 1810. However, all were reclassified by George Bentham in 1870. No distinct subspecies have been recognised by Banksia expert Alex George, who nonetheless concedes that further work is needed. Many species in particular honeyeaters, forage at the flower spikes, as do native and European honeybees. The response to bushfire varies. Others regenerate from lateral roots. Although it has been used for timber, Banksia marginata is most commonly seen with dwarf forms being commercially propagated and sold. Banksia marginata is a highly variable species, usually ranging from a small shrub around a metre tall to a 12-metre-high tree. Shrubs reach only 2 m high in Gibraltar Range National Park. The bark is initially smooth before becoming finely tessellated with age.Banksia marginata – Silver Banksia
66. Banksia oblongifolia – Banksia oblongifolia, commonly known as the fern-leaved, dwarf banksia or rusty banksia, is a species in the plant genus Banksia. A many-stemmed shrub up to 3 m high, it has leathery serrated rusty-coloured new growth. The yellow flower spikes, known as inflorescences, most commonly appear in early winter. Seed pods, develop on the spikes after flowering. Some plants grow between fires from seed shed spontaneously. Spanish botanist Antonio José Cavanilles described B. oblongifolia in 1800, though it was known as Banksia asplenifolia in New South Wales for many years. However, Banksia oblongifolia has been universally adopted as the correct scientific name since 1981. These have not been generally accepted. A wide array of mammals, invertebrates visit the inflorescences. Though easily grown as a plant, it is not commonly seen in horticulture. The smooth bark is reddish-brown fading to greyish-brown with age. New branchlets are covered with a rusty fur. The leaves lose their fur and are alternately arranged along the stem. Teeth are 1 -- 2 mm long. The underside is whitish with a reticulated vein pattern and a raised central midrib.Banksia oblongifolia – Fern-leaved banksia
67. Banksia sessilis – Banksia sessilis, commonly known as parrot bush, is a species of shrub or tree in the plant genus Banksia in the Proteaceae family. It had been known until 2007 when the genus Dryandra was sunk into Banksia. The Noongar peoples know the plant as Budjan or Butyak. Widespread throughout southwest Western Australia, it is found on sandy soils over limestone, often as an understorey plant in open forest, woodland or shrubland. Encountered as a small tree up to 6 m in height, it has prickly dark green leaves and dome-shaped cream-yellow flowerheads. The cycle of Banksia sessilis is adapted to regular bushfires. Regenerating by seed afterwards, each shrub generally produces many flowerheads and a massive amount of seed. It may grow in thickets. Banksia sessilis has a somewhat complicated taxonomic history. Four varieties are recognised. None of the varieties are commonly seen in cultivation. A profuse producer of nectar, B. sessilis is valuable to the beekeeping industry. Banksia sessilis grows without a lignotuber. Leaves are dark green. Leaf size ranges from 2 to 6 cm in length, 0.8–4 cm in width.Banksia sessilis – Banksia sessilis
68. Banksia speciosa – Banksia speciosa, commonly known as the showy banksia, is a species of large shrub or small tree in the family Proteaceae. It occurs on the south coast of Western Australia between the Great Australian Bight, growing on white or grey sand in shrubland. The cream-yellow flower spikes known as inflorescences appear throughout the year. As they age they develop up to each that store seeds until opened by fire. Banksia speciosa. Large populations of plants have succumbed to the disease. Described by Robert Brown in the early 19th century, Banksia speciosa is classified in the series Banksia within the genus. Its closest relative is B. baxteri. Banksia speciosa plants regenerate from seed. The flowers attract a variety of insects. In cultivation, Banksia speciosa grows well in a sunny location on well-drained soil in areas with dry summers. It can not be grown in areas with humid summers, though it has been grafted onto B. integrifolia. Banksia speciosa grows as a small tree anywhere from 1 to 6 or rarely 8 m high. It has an many-branched habit, arising from a single stem or trunk with smooth grey bark. Unlike many banksias, it does not have a lignotuber.Banksia speciosa – showy banksia
69. Banksia sphaerocarpa – Banksia sphaerocarpa, commonly known as the Fox Banksia or Round-fruit Banksia, is a species of shrub or tree in the plant genus Banksia. It is generally encountered as a 1 -- 2 is usually smaller in the north of its range. This species has brownish, orange or yellow round flower spikes which may be seen from January to July. It is widely distributed across the southwest of Western Australia, growing exclusively in sandy soils. It is usually the dominant plant in low woodland. It is pollinated by, is a source for, birds, mammals, insects. At present, most authorities recognise five varieties; the largest variety, B. sphaerocarpa var. dolichostyla, is sometimes given species rank as B. dolichostyla. Latifolia has been declared a Priority Two – Poorly Known taxon, var. dolichostyla has been Declared Rare Flora. None of the varieties are commonly seen in cultivation. Banksia sphaerocarpa is a variable species that differs across its range. The variability is marked enough that five varieties are recognised. This species is generally a shrub 0.4–2 m tall. All varieties bear a swollen starchy root crown from which the plant resprouts after bushfire. The new stems become smooth with maturity. The leaves are stiff, measure 2.5 -- 10 cm in length, on a petiole 2 -- 3 mm long.Banksia sphaerocarpa – Fox Banksia
70. Banksia telmatiaea – The shrub grows in Western Australia. A little species, not much is known of its ecology or conservation biology. Reports do suggest, however, that it is pollinated by a variety of small mammals. Like many members of Abietinae, it has not been considered to have much horticultural potential and is rarely cultivated. B. telmatiaea grows as an upright bush up to 2 high. It has hairy stems and branchlets, straight, about a millimetre wide. The leaves have white hairy undersurface. The new growth is pale brown, later turning green. Flowers occur in "flower spikes", inflorescences made up of hundreds of flower pairs densely packed around a woody axis. The styles are hooked rather than straight, break free at anthesis. The species generally flowers to August although flowers have been observed as late as November. They take five to six weeks then reach anthesis over a period of two weeks. The flowers produce unusually large quantities of nectar; indeed some flowers produce much that it drips to the ground. The fruiting structure is a stout woody "cone", with a hairy appearance caused by the persistence of withered flower parts. Up to 70 woody follicles, each of which contains a single seed, may be embedded in the cone.Banksia telmatiaea – Swamp Fox Banksia
71. Isopogon anemonifolius – Isopogon anemonifolius, commonly known as broad-leaved drumsticks, is a shrub of the family Proteaceae, found only in eastern New South Wales in Australia. It occurs naturally in woodland, open forest, heathland on sandstone soils. I. anemonifolius usually ranges between 1 and 1.5 metres in height, generally being smaller in exposed heathland. Its leaves are divided and narrow, though broader than those of the related Isopogon anethifolius, have a purplish tinge during the cooler months. The yellow flowers appear during late spring or early summer and are displayed prominently. They are followed by grey cones, which give its common name drumsticks. The small hairy seeds are found in the old flower parts. A long-lived plant reaching an age of up to 60 years, I. anemonifolius resprouts from its woody base, known as a lignotuber, after bushfire. Seedlings appear in the year following a fire. Although I. anemonifolius was collected by Daniel Solander in 1770, it was not described until 1796 by Richard Salisbury. Several varieties have been named, though none are now recognised as distinct. It was first cultivated in the United Kingdom in 1791. I. anemonifolius grows readily in the garden if located with good drainage. Isopogon anemonifolius is restricted on exposed heaths and headlands. The leaves are 5–11 cm long and fork after 2–5 cm into three segments, then often fork a second time.Isopogon anemonifolius – Isopogon anemonifolius
72. Isopogon anethifolius – Isopogon anethifolius, commonly known as narrowleaf- or narrow-leafed drumsticks, is a shrub in the family Proteaceae. The species is found only to the immediate west. Isopogon heathland on sandstone soils. It can reach to 3 m in height, with terete leaves that are divided and narrow. The yellow flowers are prominently displayed. They are followed by grey cones, which give the plant its common name of drumsticks. The small hairy seeds are found in the old flower parts. Isopogon anethifolius regenerates by resprouting from its woody base, known as a lignotuber, as well as from seed. Isopogon was first grown in the United Kingdom the same year. Isopogon anethifolius is a shrub usually between 3 m high with an upright habit. Isopogon generally shorter in more exposed areas. New growth in winter is tinged with reddish and tan tones. The leaves are less than 1 mm in diameter. They branch twice in their 16 cm length. The yellow flowerheads, known as inflorescences, appear at the ends of branches in spring and early summer, though occasionally at other times of year.Isopogon anethifolius – Isopogon anethifolius
73. Persoonia linearis – Persoonia linearis, commonly known as the narrow-leaved geebung, is a shrub native to New South Wales and Victoria in eastern Australia. It has thick, dark grey papery bark. The yellow flowers appear in summer and autumn, followed by small green fleshy fruit known as drupes. Within the genus Persoonia, it is a member of the Lanceolata group of 58 closely related species. P. linearis interbreeds with other species where they grow together. The fruit are consumed by vertebrates such as kangaroo, currawongs. As with other members of the genus, P. linearis is rare in cultivation as it is very hard to propagate, either by seed or cuttings. It adapts readily to cultivation, preferring acidic soils with at least a partly sunny aspect. He had been given a plant in flower by J. Robertson of Stockwell, who had grown it from seed in 1794. The name is the Latin linearis "linear", referring to the shape of the leaves. The genus name derived from the Greek penta - "five" and refers to the five-lobed cotyledons. This is now thought to have been incorrectly recorded. Gandoger described 212 taxa of Australian plants, almost all of which turned out to be species already described. In 1870, George Bentham published the infrageneric arrangement of Persoonia in Volume 5 of his landmark Flora Australiensis. He divided the genus into three sections, placing P. linearis in P. sect.Persoonia linearis – Narrow-leaved geebung
74. Akodon spegazzinii – Akodon spegazzinii, also known as Spegazzini's akodont or Spegazzini's grass mouse, is a rodent in the genus Akodon found in northwestern Argentina. It occurs in grassland and forest at 400 to 3,500 m above sea level. After the species was first named in 1897, several other names were given to various populations now included in A. spegazzinii. They are now all recognized as part of a single, widespread and variable species. Akodon spegazzinii is related to Akodon boliviensis and other members of the A. boliviensis species group. It reproduces year-round. Because it is widely distributed and common, Akodon spegazzinii is listed as "Least Concern" on the IUCN Red List. Akodon spegazzinii is medium in size for the A. boliviensis species group. The coloration of its upperparts varies considerably, from light to dark and from yellowish to reddish brown. The underparts are yellow-brown to gray. The eyes are surrounded by a ring of yellow fur. The skull contains an hourglass-shaped interorbital region and various features of the skull distinguish the species from its close allies. Head and body length is 93 to 196 mm and body mass is 13.0 to 38.0 g. A. spegazzinii has 40 chromosomes. Four years later, Joel Asaph Allen named Akodon tucumanensis from Tucumán Province, comparing it to various species now synonymized under Abrothrix olivaceus.Akodon spegazzinii – Akodon spegazzinii
75. Ambondro mahabo – Ambondro mahabo is a mammal from the middle Jurassic of Madagascar. The premolar consists on the lingual, side of the tooth. The molars also have such a lingual cingulum. Features of the talonid suggest that Ambondro had tribosphenic molars, the basic arrangement of molar features also present in marsupial and placental mammals. Upon its description in 1999, Ambondro was interpreted as a primitive relative of Tribosphenida. Ambondro mahabo was described by a team led by John Flynn in a 1999 paper in Nature. The scientific name derives from the village of Ambondromahabo, close to which the fossil was found. This unit has also yielded crocodyliform and plesiosaur teeth and remains of the sauropod Lapparentosaurus. Ambondro was described on the basis of a fragmentary right mandible with three teeth in it, interpreted as the last premolar and the first two molars. It is in the collection of the University of Antananarivo as specimen UA 10602. Relative to other primitive mammals, it is small. Each of the teeth has a prominent cingulum on the inner side. The p-last has a strong central cusp. There is a cuspule on the back of the tooth and probably another on the inner front corner. This tooth resembles the molars of symmetrodonts, a group of primitive mammals, but the back cusp is smaller than the metaconid of symmetrodonts.Ambondro mahabo – Ambondro mahabo Temporal range: Middle Jurassic
76. Archaeoindris – Archaeoindris fontoynontii is an extinct giant lemur and the largest primate known to have evolved on Madagascar, comparable in size to a male gorilla. It was most closely related to the second largest type of sloth lemur. Along with the other lemurs, Archaeoindris was related to the living indri, sifakas, woolly lemurs, as well as the recently extinct monkey lemurs. Archaeoindris, translates to "ancient indri-like lemur", even though it probably became extinct recently, around 350 BCE. Archaeoindris was first described by Herbert F. Standing in 1909 based on subfossil fragmentary jaws, although Charles Lamberton later discovered a complete skull. Excavations in the 1980s offered no leads for new finds. Its remains have been found at only one location: a subfossil site in central Madagascar. These errors were gradually corrected between the 1980s. The skeleton of Archaeoindris shared many traits with that of Palaeopropithecus. No hand or foot bones have been found for comparison with the other sloth lemurs. Limited remains have resulted in varying opinions about the way Archaeoindris moved in its environment, ranging from tree-dwelling to ground-dwelling. Its skeleton suggests it was a deliberate climber that visited the ground to travel. Its habitat -- prior to human arrival -- was a mix of woodlands, bushlands, savanna, rich in lemur diversity. Lemur diversity is very low in the nearest protected area, Ambohitantely Special Reserve.Archaeoindris – Archaeoindris fontoynontii
77. Babakotia – Babakotia is an extinct genus of medium-sized lemur, or strepsirrhine primate, from Madagascar that contains a single species, Babakotia radofilai. Together with Palaeopropithecus, Archaeoindris, Mesopropithecus, it forms the Palaeopropithecidae, commonly known as the sloth lemurs. The Babakotia comes from the Malagasy name for the indri, babakoto, to which it and all other sloth lemurs are closely related. All other sloth lemurs share many traits with living sloths, demonstrating convergent evolution. It had long forearms, highly mobile hip and ankle joints. Its skull was more heavily built than that of indriids, but as much as in the larger sloth lemurs. Its dentition is similar to that of all sloth lemurs. It shared its range with at least two other sloth lemur species, Palaeopropithecus ingens and Mesopropithecus dolichobrachion. Babakotia radofilai was primarily a leaf-eater, though it also ate hard seeds. The name of the genus Babakotia derives for the Indri, babakoto, a close relative of Babakotia. This family in turn belongs to the infraorder Lemuriformes, which includes all the Malagasy lemurs. Their teeth were very specialized and unlike those of the indriids. The larger lemurs, on the other hand, retained a dentition similar to living indriids, yet differed by having more robust and specialized skulls. In many ways, it had an intermediate level of adaptations for suspensory behavior between the small sloth lemurs. This includes ankle joints, as well as other specializations in the vertebral column, pelvis, limbs.Babakotia – Babakotia radofilai
78. Camas pocket gopher – First described in 1829, it is endemic to the Willamette Valley of northwestern Oregon in the United States. The herbivorous gopher forages for vegetable and matter, which it collects in large, fur-lined, external cheek pouches. Surplus food is hoarded in an extensive system of underground tunnels. The dull-brown-to-lead-gray coat changes texture over the year. The mammal's characteristically large, protuberant incisors are well adapted in the hard clay soils of the Willamette Valley. The gophers make chattering sounds with their teeth; the young make twittering sounds. Born toothless, hairless, the young grow rapidly before being weaned at about six weeks of age. Although the camas gopher is fiercely defensive when cornered, it may become tame in captivity. It is host to several parasitic arthropods and worms. Scientists believe that the gopher's evolutionary history was disrupted when the Missoula Floods washed at the end of the last ice age. The floods completely inundated its geographic range, which may have caused a genetic bottleneck as survivors repopulated the region after the waters receded. There are six genera of North American pocket gophers: Cratogeomys, Geomys, Orthogeomys, Pappogeomys, Thomomys, Zygogeomys. The camas gopher is a smooth-toothed pocket gopher of the genus Thomomys, within the pocket-gopher family Geomyidae. The camas gopher is a member of the subgenus Megascapheus, established in 1903, at that time for the camas pocket gopher alone. Taxonomists subsequently assigned other gophers to the same subgenus.Camas pocket gopher – Camas pocket gopher
79. Cryptoprocta spelea – In 1935 was recognized from the living fossa. C. spelea is larger than the fossa, but otherwise similar. The two have not always been accepted as distinct species. The species is known from subfossil bones found in a variety of caves in southern, Madagascar. In some sites, it occurs with remains of C. ferox, but there is no evidence that the two lived at the same time. C. spelea would have been able to prey on larger animals than its smaller relative could have, including the recently extinct giant lemurs. In 1902, Guillaume Grandidier described subfossil carnivoran remains from two caves on Madagascar as a larger "variety" of the living fossa, C. ferox var. spelea. G. Petit, writing in 1935, considered spelea to represent a distinct species. The specific name spelea means "cave" and was given because of the location of its discovery. Steven Goodman and colleagues, using larger samples, compiled another set of Cryptoprocta measurements, published in a 2004 article. They found that some subfossil Cryptoprocta fell outside the range of variation of living C. ferox, identified those as representing C. spelea. Lamberton recognized a third species, Cryptoprocta antamba, on the basis of a mandible with abnormally broad spacing between the condyloid processes at the back. He also referred two femora and a tibia intermediate in size between C. spelea and C. ferox to this species. Goodman and colleagues could not locate Lamberton's material of Cryptoprocta antamba, but suggested that it was based on an abnormal C. spelea. DNA sequence studies suggest that the Eupleridae form a single natural group and are most closely related to the mongooses of Eurasia and mainland Africa.Cryptoprocta spelea – The fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox) is a smaller relative of C. spelea that still survives.
80. Dermotherium – Dermotherium is a genus of fossil mammals closely related to the living colugos, a small group of gliding mammals from Southeast Asia. In addition, a single upper molar from the Early Oligocene of Pakistan has been tentatively assigned to D. chimaera. Other features are shared with only one of the two. The fourth lower premolar instead resembles the lower molars. The two species also differ in the configuration of the back corner of the lower molars. The upper molars are triangular teeth bearing a number of small cusps, particularly on the second upper molar, with wrinkled enamel. Colugos are a small group of Southeast Asian gliding mammals closely related to the primates. Their fossil record is exceptionally poor. In that year, colleagues described a jaw fragment from the Eocene of Thailand as a new genus and species of colugo, Dermotherium major. Colleagues reaffirmed the colugo affinities of Dermotherium in 2005 on the basis of detailed similarities in molar morphology. In 2006, colleagues described a second species of Dermotherium, D. chimaera, from material from the Oligocene of Thailand. They gave the specific name chimaera because it shares characters with both the Philippine colugo and Sunda colugo, the two living colugo species. Known material of Dermotherium includes a handful of isolated teeth. Dermotherium major is known only from a fragment of the left lower jaw bearing a poorly preserved second lower molar. The holotype of Dermotherium chimaera is a lower fragment in which remnants of the deciduous third lower premolar are visible.Dermotherium – A Sunda colugo (Galeopterus variegatus), a living relative of Dermotherium
81. European hare – The European hare, also known as the brown hare, is a species of hare native to Europe and parts of Asia. It is adapted to temperate, open country. Hares feed mainly on grasses and herbs, supplementing these with twigs, buds, bark and field crops, particularly in winter. Their natural predators include large birds of prey, felids. They rely on high-speed endurance running to escape from their enemies; having large nostrils. During this frenzy, they sometimes strike one another with their paws. A female can bear three litters a year, with hares living for up to twelve years. The breeding season lasts to August. However, populations have been declining in mainland Europe since the 1960s, partly due to changes in farming practices. The European hare was first described by German zoologist Peter Simon Pallas. It shares the genus Lepus with jackrabbits being the name given to some species of hare native to North America. They are distinguished from other leporids by their longer legs, wider nostrils and young. There is some debate as to whether the Cape hare are the same species. It is possible that the genetic differences between the European and Cape hare are due to geographic separation rather than actual divergence. It has been speculated that in the Near East, hare populations are experiencing gene flow.European hare – European hare
82. Euryoryzomys emmonsae – Euryoryzomys emmonsae, also known as Emmons's Rice Rat or Emmons' Oryzomys, is a rodent from Amazonian Brazil in the genus Euryoryzomys of the family Cricetidae. Initially misidentified as E. macconnelli or E. nitidus, it was formally described in 1998. A rainforest species, it may be scansorial, climbing but also spending time on the ground. Euryoryzomys emmonsae is a relatively large rat, weighing 46 to 78 g, with a distinctly long tail and relatively long, tawny brown fur. The incisive foramina are broad. Its karyotype is similar to that of other Euryoryzomys. Deforestation may pose a threat to this species. In 1998, Guy Musser, Michael Carleton, Alfred Gardner reviewed the taxonomy of species previously lumped under "Oryzomys capito". The new species was placed in what they termed the "Oryzomys nitidus group", which also included O. macconelli, O. russatus. In 2000, James Patton, Jay Malcolm reported on mammals collected at the Rio Juruá in western Brazil. In this report, they provided further information including sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The average difference between the three O. emmonsae studied was 0.8 %. Thus, the species is now known as Euryoryzomys emmonsae. As a species of Euryoryzomys, it is classified within the tribe Oryzomyini, which includes over a hundred species, mainly from South and Central America. Oryzomyini in turn is part of the subfamily Sigmodontinae of Cricetidae, along with hundreds of other species of mainly small rodents.Euryoryzomys emmonsae – Euryoryzomys emmonsae
83. Fork-marked lemur – Fork-marked lemurs or fork-crowned lemurs are strepsirrhine primates; the four species comprise the genus Phaner. Like all lemurs, they are native to Madagascar, where they are found only in east sides of the island. Only one species was recognized, until three subspecies described in 1991 were promoted to species status in 2001. New species may yet be identified, particularly in northeast Madagascar. They are the most phylogenetically distinct of the cheirogaleids, considered a sister group to the rest of the family. Aside from their forked stripe, they have large membranous ears. Males have a scent gland on their throat, but only use it during social grooming, not for marking territory. Instead, they are very vocal, making repeated calls at the beginning and end of the night. Like the other members of their family, they sleep during the day. Monogamous pairing is typical for fork-marked lemurs, females are dominant. Females are thought to have only one offspring every two years or more. These lemurs live in a wide variety of habitats, ranging from dry deciduous forests to rainforests, run quadrupedally across branches. Three of the four species are endangered and the other is listed as vulnerable. Their populations are in decline due to habitat destruction. Like all lemurs, they are protected against commercial trade under CITES Appendix I.Fork-marked lemur – Fork-marked lemur
84. Giant mouse lemur – The giant mouse lemurs are a genus of strepsirrhine primates. Two species have been formally described; the northern giant mouse lemur and Coquerel's giant mouse lemur. First described as a single species, they were grouped with mouse dwarf lemurs. In 1870, British zoologist John Edward Gray assigned them to their own genus, Mirza. The classification was not widely accepted until the 1990s, which followed the revival of the genus by American paleoanthropologist Ian Tattersall in 1982. Giant mouse lemurs have a bushy tail. They are most closely related to a family of nocturnal lemurs. Giant mouse lemurs forage alone for fruit, tree gum, insects, small vertebrates. Unlike many other cheirogaleids, they do not enter a state of torpor during the dry season. The northern species is generally more social than the southern species, though females may form pair bonds. Home ranges often overlap, with related females living closely together while males disperse. Giant mouse lemurs are vocal, although they also scent mark using secretions from the anogenital scent gland. Predators of giant mouse lemurs include the Madagascar buzzard, the narrow-striped mongoose. Giant mouse lemurs reproduce once a year, with two offspring born after a 90-day gestation. Babies are initially left in the nest while the mother are later parked in vegetation while she forages nearby.Giant mouse lemur – Giant mouse lemur
85. Hartebeest – The hartebeest, also known as kongoni, is an African antelope, first described by the German zoologist Peter Simon Pallas in 1766. Eight subspecies have been described, including two sometimes considered to be independent species. The hartebeest has a typical head-and-body length of 200 to 250 cm. The weight ranges from 100 to 200 kg. It has a particularly elongated forehead and oddly shaped horns, short neck, pointed ears. Its legs, which often have black markings, are unusually long. The coat is generally short and shiny. Coat colour varies from the sandy brown of the western hartebeest to the brown of the Swayne's hartebeest. Both sexes of all subspecies have horns, with those of females being more slender. Horns can reach lengths of 45–70 cm. Apart from its long face, the large chest and the sharply sloping back differentiate the hartebeest from other antelopes. Gregarious animals, hartebeest form herds of 20 to 300 individuals. They are very alert and non-aggressive. They are primarily grazers, with their diets consisting mainly of grasses. Mating in hartebeest depends upon local factors.Hartebeest – Hartebeest
86. Lundomys – Lundomys molitor, also known as Lund's amphibious rat or the greater marsh rat, is a semiaquatic rat species from southeastern South America. The Argentine form may have been distinct from the living form from Brazil and Uruguay. It is not currently threatened. Within the family Cricetidae and Sigmodontinae, it is a member of a group of specialized oryzomyine rodents that also includes Holochilus, Noronhomys, Carletonomys, Pseudoryzomys. Lund placed it in the same genus as what is now Pseudoryzomys simplex and two species of Calomys. Subsequently, it was rarely mentioned in the literature on South American rodents; those authors who did mention it placed it in either Oryzomys or Calomys. In 1926, American zoologist Colin Campbell Sanborn collected some rodents in Uruguay, which he identified as Holochilus vulpinus in his 1929 report on the collection. Since then, the species has been known as Lundomys molitor. For the first time, diagnosed the tribe Oryzomyini in a phylogenetically valid way. Voss and Carleton had found some support for a close relationship between Holochilus, Lundomys, Pseudoryzomys within Oryzomyini. In subsequent years, the related species Holochilus Noronhomys vespuccii were discovered, providing additional evidence for this grouping. Subsequently, Carletonomys cailoi was described as an additional relative of Holochilus and Lundomys. In Holochilus brasiliensis, which occurs in the same area, the tail is longer than the head and body. There is no difference in color between the upper and lower side. The coat, long, soft, is yellow -- brown at the sides, but becomes darker on the upperparts and lighter on the underparts.Lundomys – Lundomys molitor Temporal range: Late Pleistocene to Recent
87. Macrotarsomys petteri – Macrotarsomys petteri, also known as Petter's big-footed mouse, is a Malagasy rodent in the genus Macrotarsomys. With body mass of 105 g, Macrotarsomys petteri is the largest species of its genus. The underparts are white to yellowish. The animal has long whiskers, long hindfeet. The tail ends in a prominent tuft of light hairs. The molars are low-crowned and cuspidate. Competition with introduced species may have led to the shift in its distribution. The only place where it is still known to occur, is threatened by human development. During a 2003 biological inventory of the Mikea Forest, a region of southwestern Madagascar, a single specimen of the rodent genus Macrotarsomys was collected. Accordingly, Voahangy Soarimalala named it in 2005 as a new species, Macrotarsomys petteri. Petteri, honors French zoologist François Petter for his contributions to the study of Malagasy rodents. The largest species in the genus, is most similar to M. ingens, which may be its closest relative. Macrotarsomys petteri is a terrestrial rodent with long hindfeet. The upperparts are covered with short, brown fur. Most cover hairs are dark brown for the two-thirds closest to then light brown, with a short dark brown tip.Macrotarsomys petteri – Macrotarsomys petteri
88. Mesopropithecus – It is an extinct genus of small to medium-sized lemur, or strepsirrhine primate, from Madagascar that includes three species, M. dolichobrachion, M. globiceps, M. pithecoides. Together with Palaeopropithecus, Archaeoindris, Babakotia, Mesopropithecus is part of the sloth family. The proportions were different. M. pithecoides also ate fruit and occasionally seeds. M. globiceps ate a mix of leaves, as well as a larger quantity of seeds than M. pithecoides. M. dolichobrachion was the most distinct of the three species due to its longer arms. It was still slightly larger than the largest living lemurs. Known only from subfossil remains, Mesopropithecus died out on the island probably due to hunting pressure and habitat destruction. It is a genus within the sloth family, which includes three other genera: Palaeopropithecus, Archaeoindris, Babakotia. This family in turn belongs to the infraorder Lemuriformes, which includes all the Malagasy lemurs. Mesopropithecus was named in 1905 by Herbert F. Standing using four skulls found at Ampasambazimba. He noted that the animal had characteristics of the living sifakas. In 1936, Charles Lamberton defined Neopropithecus globiceps and N. platyfrons. He thought that Neopropithecus was a intermediate genus between Mesopropithecus and Propithecus.Mesopropithecus – Mesopropithecus
89. Mindomys – Mindomys hammondi, also known as Hammond's rice rat or Hammond's oryzomys, is a species of rodent in the tribe Oryzomyini of family Cricetidae. Mindomys hammondi is known only from Ecuador, where it occurs in montane forest; a record from the Amazonian lowlands is dubious. Reportedly, it is associated with water; other suggest it lives in trees. Its fur is buff above and abruptly lighter below. The front part of the skull is heavily built. The species is named after Gilbert Hammond. He supplied natural history specimens to others. Reviewing the genus Nectomys in 1944, Philip Hershkovitz considered its placement in Nectomys as dubious. Hershkovitz published again on Nectomys in 1948 including the holotype of N. hammondi. He now considered the latter to be a species of Oryzomys, but distinctive enough to be placed in its own subgenus. Noting that the species was "extremely long-tailed", he introduced the subgeneric name Macruroryzomys for hammondi. He also wrote that Oryzomys aphrastus, then known only from Costa Rica, may be the closest relative of hammondi. Nevertheless, Macruroryzomys remains a nomen nudum. In 1982, Steadman and Ray reaffirmed its relationship to Megalomys. In 2006, Marcelo Weksler published a cladistic analysis of Oryzomyini, the group to which hammondi and the related species mentioned above belong.Mindomys – Mindomys hammondi
90. Monticolomys – Monticolomys is a genus of rodents within the subfamily Nesomyinae of the family Nesomyidae, is closely related to Macrotarsomys. Monticolomys koopmani, also known as the Malagasy mountain mouse or Koopman's montane voalavo, is found in the highlands of eastern Madagascar. M. koopmani is dark brown on the upperparts and dark gray below. It has small, rounded, densely haired ears and broad feet with well-developed pads. The long tail lacks a tuft at the tip. The skull lacks crests and ridges on its roof. It is now known to have a broad distribution. Active during the night, it feeds on fruits and seeds. It climbs trees but also lives on the ground. Although destruction may pose a threat, it is classified as "Least Concern" on the IUCN Red List. However, they never published their results. In 1993, Michael Carleton finally published a formal description. They named the animal Monticolomys koopmani, as the sole member of a new genus. Common names in use for the animal include "Koopman's Montane Voalavo" and "Malagasy Mountain Mouse". Monticolomys, however, does not follow this pattern, in that it is closely related to the gerbil-like genus Macrotarsomys of western Madagascar.Monticolomys – Monticolomys
91. Myotis alcathoe – The Alcathoe bat is a European bat in the genus Myotis. It is difficult to distinguish from them. However, it is clearly different in characters of its karyotype and DNA sequences. With body mass of 3.5 to 5.5 g, Myotis alcathoe is a small bat. The fur is usually more grayish in juveniles. The inner side of the ear is pale at the base. The baculum is short and broad. Usually found in old-growth deciduous forest near water, Myotis alcathoe mostly eats flies. The animal roosts in cavities high in trees. Although there are some winter records from caves, it may also spend the winter in tree cavities. Several parasites have been recorded on M. alcathoe. In 2001, the species was described from Greece and Hungary. However, the more recent discovery of M. alcathoe further to the west renders it possible that an older name may be discovered. On the basis of mitochondrial DNA analysis, Myotis alcathoe first appeared close to Geoffroy's bat of southern Europe, North Africa, southwestern Asia. She was associated with small streams, the preferred habitat of Myotis alcathoe in Greece.Myotis alcathoe – The whiskered bat (Myotis mystacinus) is very similar to Myotis alcathoe.
92. Noronhomys – Noronhomys vespuccii, also known as Vespucci's rodent, is an extinct rat species from the islands of Fernando de Noronha off northeastern Brazil. Fragmentary fossil remains of the animal, of uncertain but probably Holocene age, were discovered in 1973 and described in 1999. Noronhomys vespuccii was a fairly large rodent, larger than the black rat. On this island, identified as Fernando de Noronha, he saw "big rats and lizards with two tails, some snakes". The record of snakes most likely refers to Amphisbaena ridleyi, actually an amphisbaenian instead of a snake. Oryzomyini is one of several tribes recognized within the subfamily Sigmodontinae, which encompasses hundreds of species found into southern North America. They used a cladistic analysis to examine its relationships within Oryzomyini, also including two species of Holochilus, five other oryzomyines. They found that Noronhomys appeared closest to Holochilus, with Lundomys more distantly related. Eighteen shared characters supported the grouping of Noronhomys with Holochilus. Another form is likely to fall outside the Holochilus -- Noronhomys clade. In 1998, a fragmentary fossil of another species of this same group of oryzomyines was found in eastern Argentina. Noronhomys vespuccii is known including five skulls, damaged to various degrees, many isolated jaws and other bones. Skull shape is strikingly different from both Holochilus and Lundomys, resulting from both of these taxa in statistical analyses of measurement data. In three individuals measured, a measure of skull length, varies from 38.0 to 39.2 mm, averaging 38.5 mm. The width of the braincase is 13.4 to 14.8 mm, averaging 14.1 mm.Noronhomys – View of Morro do Pico on Fernando de Noronha.
93. Olympic marmot – The closest relatives of this species are the Vancouver Island marmot. In 2009, it was declared the endemic mammal of Washington. This marmot is about the size of a domestic cat, typically weighing about 8 kg in summer. The species shows the greatest sexual dimorphism found in marmots, with adult males weighing 23 % more than females. It can be identified by a wide head, small eyes and ears, a long, bushy tail. Its sharp, claws aid in digging burrows. The Olympic marmot has a diet consisting mainly including dry grasses, which it also uses as bedding in burrows. Its main predator today is the coyote. The Olympic marmot is rated a species of the least concern on the IUCN Red List. It is protected in the Olympic National Park, which contains most of its habitat. The burrows of this marmot are made in colonies, which differ in size. A colony may contain as few as one marmot family or multiple families with up to 40 marmots. Olympic marmots are very sociable animals which often engage in fighting vocalize four different whistles to communicate. During beginning in September, they are in a deep sleep and do not eat, causing them to lose half their body mass. Adults emerge in June.Olympic marmot – Olympic marmot
94. Oryzomys antillarum – Oryzomys antillarum, also known as the Jamaican rice rat, is an extinct rodent of Jamaica. O. antillarum is also known from three specimens collected live in the 19th century. Some historical records of Jamaican rats may pertain to it. Oryzomys antillarum was a medium-sized rat, similar in most respects to Oryzomys couesi. The skull was about 30 mm long. The upperparts were graded into the yellowish underparts. The tail was about as long as the head and body, darker above than below. The species differed in having longer nasal bones, shorter incisive foramina, more robust zygomatic arches. In his 1877 monograph on North American rodents, Elliott Coues mentioned two specimens of Oryzomys in the collections of the United States National Museum. According to Coues, the specimens were different in color. He wrote that it was related to the mainland Central American O. couesi. Philip Hershkovitz came in a 1966 paper. Oryzomys antillarum was a medium-sized rodent, about as large as O. couesi. According to Thomas's description, the upperparts were reddish, more grayish on the head. The color of the upperparts graded into that of the underparts, which were yellowish.Oryzomys antillarum – The brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) may have contributed to the extinction of Oryzomys antillarum.
95. Oryzomys couesi – It is usually found in wet habitats, such as marshes, but also lives in drier forests and shrublands. Weighing about 43 to 82 g, O. couesi is a medium-sized to large rat. The coarse fur is buff to reddish above and white to buff below. The hindfeet show some specializations for life in the water, such as reduced ungual tufts of hair around the digits. It has 56 chromosomes. There is much geographic variation in size, proportions, color, skull features. Oryzomys couesi is active during the night and builds nests of vegetation that are suspended among reeds about 1 m above the ground. It is an excellent swimmer and dives well, but can also climb in vegetation. An omnivore, it eats both plant and animal food, including seeds and insects. It breeds throughout the year; females give birth to about four young after a pregnancy of 21 to 28 days. The species may be infected by several different parasites and by two hantaviruses. The species was first described in 1877, the first of many related species from the region described until the 1910s. Generally, Oryzomys couesi is common and of no conservation concern, it is even considered a plague species in places, but some populations are threatened. Oryzomys couesi and at least six more narrowly distributed species with peripheral distributions together form the O. couesi group within the genus Oryzomys. The eighth species of the genus, the marsh rice rat is the only member of its own group.Oryzomys couesi – Oryzomys couesi Temporal range: Late Pleistocene to Recent
96. Oryzomys dimidiatus – Oryzomys dimidiatus, also known as the Nicaraguan oryzomys, Thomas's rice rat, or Nicaraguan rice rat, is a rodent in the genus Oryzomys of the family Cricetidae. It is known from only three specimens, all collected since 1904. With a head and length of 110 to 128 mm, Oryzomys dimidiatus is a medium-sized rice rat. The underparts are grayish, not buffy as in O. couesi. The tail is slightly darker above than below. The species may be semiaquatic, spending some time in the water. Its status is currently assessed as "Least Concern". He placed it in the genus Nectomys, commenting that it was otherwise similar to previously known members of that genus. The species was listed as a Nectomys including a 1944 review of the genus by Philip Hershkovitz. After examining the holotype in London, Hershkovitz instead placed the species in 1948. He hence classified it in its own subgenus Micronectomys. J. Hernández-Camacho described a second species of Micronectomys, Oryzomys borreroi, in 1957. Nevertheless, Micronectomys remains a nomen nudum. Hershkovitz also noted that while O. dimidiatus resembles a juvenile Nectomys in external anatomy, it is otherwise similar to the marsh rat. He did not think it closely related to O. dimidiatus.Oryzomys dimidiatus – The marsh rice rat (Oryzomys palustris) is similar to O. dimidiatus.
97. Oryzomys gorgasi – Oryzomys gorgasi, also known as Gorgas's oryzomys or Gorgas's rice rat, is a rodent in the genus Oryzomys of family Cricetidae. Oryzomys gorgasi is a brownish species with large, specialized feet. It differs from other Oryzomys species in several features of its skull. Its diet includes crustaceans, insects, plant material, parasitic nematodes infect it. In 1971, Field Museum zoologist Philip Hershkovitz described Oryzomys gorgasi, on the basis of an old male. He named the animal after physician William Crawford Gorgas, the namesake of the Gorgas Memorial Laboratory. They confirmed that O. gorgasi is a distinct species related to the O. palustris group. In 2001, Donald McFarlane and Adolphe Debrot described a new Oryzomys species from the Dutch island of Curaçao off northwestern Venezuela. For their description, they used subfossil material including several hemimandibles. They referred the species to Oecomys, a group of arboreal, mainly South American rodents related to Oryzomys. O. curasoae has also been known as the "Curaçao Rice Rat" and the "Curaçao Oryzomys". They also kept O. curasoae in the genus and suggested that it may not be distinct from O. gorgasi. The tree placed O. curasoae and O. gorgasi sister than to the marsh rice rat. Accordingly, they placed O. curasoae as a junior synonym of the earlier described O. gorgasi. Oryzomys gorgasi is the southeasternmost representative of the genus Oryzomys, which extends north into the eastern United States.Oryzomys gorgasi – The marsh rice rat (Oryzomys palustris) is closely similar to O. gorgasi.
98. Paraceratherium – Paraceratherium is an extinct genus of hornless rhinoceros, one of the largest terrestrial mammals that has ever existed. It lived to late Oligocene epoch; its remains have been found across Eurasia between China and the Balkans. It is classified as a member of the hyracodont Indricotheriinae. "Paraceratherium" means "in reference to Aceratherium, a genus, once thought similar. The exact size of Paraceratherium is unknown because of the incompleteness of the fossils. Its weight is estimated to have been 15 to 20 tonnes at most; the height was about 4.8 metres, the length about 7.40 metres. The legs were pillar-like. The long neck supported a skull, about 1.3 metres long. It had a nasal incision that suggests it had a prehensile upper lip or proboscis. The lifestyle of Paraceratherium may have been similar to that of large mammals such as the elephants and extant rhinoceroses. Because of its size, it would have had a slow rate of reproduction. It was a browser, eating mainly leaves, shrubs. It lived in habitats ranging to subtropical forests. Various factors have been proposed. The taxonomy of the genus and the species within has a complicated history.Paraceratherium
99. Pennatomys – Pennatomys nivalis is an extinct oryzomyine rodent from the islands of Sint Eustatius, Saint Kitts, Nevis in the Lesser Antilles. There are several historical records of rodents from Saint Kitts and Nevis that could conceivably refer to Pennatomys. The animal apparently belongs to a group within the tribe Oryzomyini that includes many island-dwelling species. Pennatomys nivalis was a medium-sized species without distinctive adaptations. The nasal bones were blunt-ended. A bony plate at the side of the skull, was broad. The bony palate was flat. The root of the lower incisor was housed in the capsular process. The molars possess accessory crests such as mesolophs. The upper molars all had three roots. Oryzomyini, also known as rice rats, is a diverse grouping of North, Central, American rodents within the family Cricetidae. The systematic relationships among those animals are poorly understood, many species remain unnamed. Rice rat fossils were first recorded from Saint Kitts in 1907 by archeologist C.W. Branch and were later found in abundance in Amerindian archeological sites on nearby Nevis and Sint Eustatius. The rat of these islands was formally described and named as Pennatomys nivalis in a 2010 article by zoologist Samuel Turvey and coworkers.Pennatomys – Pennatomys
100. Plesiorycteropus – Plesiorycteropus, also known as the bibymalagasy or Malagasy aardvark, is a recently extinct eutherian mammalian genus from Madagascar. Molecular evidence instead suggests that it is related to the tenrecs. Two species are currently recognized, the larger P. madagascariensis and the smaller P. germainepetterae. They probably overlapped in distribution, as subfossil remains of both species have been found in the same site. Knowledge of the skeletal anatomy is limited, as only limb and partial pelvis and skull bones have been recovered to date. Plesiorycteropus was probably a digging animal that fed on insects such as termites and ants. It also shows adaptations for climbing and sitting. Estimates of its mass range from 6 to 18 kilograms. When and why it became extinct remains unknown. One bone has been radiocarbon dated to 200 BCE; forest destruction by humans may have contributed to its extinction. French naturalist Henri Filhol first described Plesiorycteropus madagascariensis in 1895 on the basis of a partial skull found at the cave of Belo. His description was vague even by 19th-century standards, but he placed the animal close to the aardvark. The generic name combines Ancient Greek plesio- "near" with Orycteropus, the genus of the aardvark, the specific name refers to Madagascar. The two species differ in a number of morphological characters in addition to size. Remains of Plesiorycteropus have been misidentified as rodents and primates.Plesiorycteropus
101. Poitevin horse – The Poitevin, also called Mulassier, Poitevin Mulassier or Trait Mulassier is a draft horse from the Poitou area of France. It is a late-maturing breed with strong bones, known for its calm nature. Poitevins are used mainly for driving, although some are used for riding and therapy. Enthusiasts claim descent from the horses painted on the cave walls of Lascaux, though this has not been verified by scientific studies. The regional type was preferred in medieval times. During the 19th century, the population of the Poitevin increased, reaching 50,000 pure and crossbred mares by 1867. A studbook was created for the breed in 1884, was closed in 1922. A breeders' association was created in 1923. The population between 1990 varied between 250 and 300 animals, with still lower levels seen in the early 1990s. A genetic study released in 1994 led to the establishment of a plan. Despite a slight increase in popularity at the beginning of the 21st century, the Poitevin is still in danger of extinction, with a slightly downward-trending population. The body of the Poitevin is longer than French draft breeds. It stands 15.3 to 17.1 hands high, with stallions averaging 16.2 hands and mares 15.3 hands. The head is strong, with thick, long ears. The neck is long and the shoulders are sloping.Poitevin horse – Poitevin
102. Pseudoryzomys – Pseudoryzomys simplex, also known as the Brazilian false rice rat or false oryzomys, is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae from south-central South America. It is found in lowland palm savanna and scrub habitats. The IUCN has assessed its status as being of least concern, although almost nothing is known of its diet or reproduction. Together, they form a unique assemblage within the oryzomyine tribe, a very diverse group mainly in South America. This tribe is part of the subfamily Sigmodontinae and Cricetidae, which include many more species, mainly from Eurasia and the Americas. This was confirmed in 1991 that both names pertained to the same species. Pseudoryzomys simplex has had a taxonomic history. In 1921, British mammalogist Oldfield Thomas described Oryzomys wavrini as a new species of Oryzomys from Paraguay. In 1980, Argentinean zoologist Elio Massoia suggested that the living Pseudoryzomys wavrini are in fact the same species. When Voss and Carleton formally characterized Oryzomyini two years later, they did place Pseudoryzomys in the group, even though it lacks complete mesolophs. The mesolophid is the corresponding structure on the lower molars. Oryzomyini is now one of several tribes recognized within the subfamily Sigmodontinae, which encompasses hundreds of species found into southern North America. Noronhomys and Carletonomys, described in 1999 and 2008 respectively, were also recognized as members of the group. In 2006, a broad morphological and phylogenetic study of Oryzomyini provided further support for the relationship between Holochilus, Lundomys, Pseudoryzomys. Together, the three genera form part of a large group of oryzomyines, which contains tens of other species.Pseudoryzomys – The marsh rice rat (Oryzomys palustris) of the eastern United States is similar in appearance to Pseudoryzomys.
103. Salanoia durrelli – Salanoia durrelli, also known as Durrell's vontsira, is a Madagascan mammal in the family Eupleridae of the order Carnivora. It is most closely related to the brown-tailed mongoose, with which it forms the genus Salanoia. The two are morphologically distinct, leading scientists to recognize them as separate species. S. durrelli was described as a new species in 2010. It is found only in the Lac Alaotra area. In the only two weighed specimens, mass was 600 g and 675 g. It is a marsh-dwelling animal that may feed on mollusks. S. durrelli may also be endangered by competition with introduced species. Therefore, two specimens were caught by the DWCT. One was killed to facilitate morphological comparisons. Durrelli, honors Gerald Durrell, a noted conservationist and the founder of the DWCT. Salanoia durrelli was placed in the genus Salanoia, which previously included only the brown-tailed mongoose of eastern Madagascar. The mitochondrial DNA of the two species is very similar. The discoverers chose to recognize the Lac Alaotra population as a separate species in view of its morphological differentiation. Salanoia durrelli most closely resembles the brown-tailed mongoose, a small, mongoose-like carnivoran.Salanoia durrelli – Salanoia durrelli
104. Small-toothed sportive lemur – The small-toothed sportive lemur, or small-toothed weasel lemur, is a primate species in the family Lepilemuridae that—like all lemurs—is endemic to Madagascar. The species can be found in Ranomafana and Andringitra National Parks. Described in 1894, it was considered throughout most of the 20th century. According to the original description, some of its teeth are smaller than those in other sportive lemurs. It is difficult to visually distinguish from the weasel sportive lemur. The species measures 55 to 64 cm from head to tail. Its fur is mostly chestnut color, with a dark stripe running from its head down its back. Its neck are lighter in color. Like other sportive lemurs, it is nocturnal, sleeping in concealed tangles of vegetation well as tree holes. The small-toothed lemur is solitary and eats leaves, fruits, flowers. It is also protected from international commercial trade under CITES Appendix I. Its primary threats are habitat loss to slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting. The species microdon is derived from the Ancient Greek micro -, meaning "small" and - odon, meaning "tooth." Until the 1990s, there was some dispute over the taxonomic status of the species. For much of the 20th century, the small-toothed lemur was considered a subspecies of the weasel sportive lemur.Small-toothed sportive lemur – Small-toothed sportive lemur
105. Springbok – The springbok /ˈsprɪŋˌbɒk/ is a medium-sized antelope found mainly in southern and southwestern Africa. The sole member of the genus Antidorcas, this bovid was first described in 1780. Three subspecies are identified. Long-legged antelope, the springbok reaches 71 to 86 cm at the shoulder and weighs between 27 and 42 kg. Both sexes have a pair of black, long horns that curve backward. Active mainly at dawn and dusk, form harems. In earlier times, springbok of Karoo would migrate in large numbers across the countryside, a practice known as trekbokken. The springbok feeds on shrubs and succulents; this antelope can live without drinking water for years, meeting its requirements through eating succulent vegetation. Breeding takes peaks in the rainy season, when forage is most abundant. Springbok inhabit the dry areas of southwestern Africa. The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources classifies the springbok as a Least species. They are valued for their meat and skin. The springbok is the national animal of South Africa. The common name "springbok" comes from the Afrikaans words bok; the first recorded use of the name dates to 1775. In fact, it is this physical feature that distinguishes the springbok from true gazelles.Springbok – Springbok
106. Subfossil lemur – Subfossil lemurs are lemurs from Madagascar that are represented by recent remains dating from nearly 26,000 years ago to approximately 560 years ago. They include both extinct species, although the term more frequently refers to the extinct giant lemurs. Extinct species are estimated to have ranged in size to roughly 160 kg. Even the subfossil remains of living species are more robust than the skeletal remains of modern specimens. Despite their size, the giant lemurs shared many features with living lemurs, including rapid development, poor day vision, lack of male dominance. The giant lemurs likely filled ecological niches now left vacant, particularly dispersal for plants with large seeds. There were three distinct families of giant lemur, including the Palaeopropithecidae, Archaeolemuridae. Two other types were more closely similar in appearance to living lemurs: the giant aye-aye and Pachylemur, a genus of "giant ruffed lemurs". Giant lemur species were not formally described until the 1890s. Discoveries waned during the mid-20th century, although paleontological work resulted in the discovery of new species and a new genus. Research has recently focused on diets, lifestyle, other aspects of biology. The remains of the subfossil lemurs are relatively recent, with most species dating within the last 2,000 years. Yet recent sightings by Malagasy villagers are still reported, suggesting either lingering populations or very recent extinctions. Until recently, giant lemurs existed in Madagascar. All 17 extinct lemurs were larger including the largest living lemurs, the indri and diademed sifaka, which weigh up to 9.5 kg.Subfossil lemur – Palaeopropithecus ingens, an extinct species of sloth lemur
107. Taxonomy of lemurs – Having undergone their independent evolution on Madagascar, lemurs have diversified to fill many niches normally filled by other types of mammals. They once included some of the largest. Concerns over conservation have affected lemur taxonomy, since distinct species receive increased conservation attention compared to subspecies. The relationship between the rest of the lemurs has had the greatest impact on lemur taxonomy at the family rank and above. Genetic analysis of this relationship supports the hypothesis that lemurs rafted to Madagascar. Despite general agreement on phylogeny, the taxonomy is still under debate. A number of additional genera have been recognized since then. Currently living lemur species are divided into 15 genera. If the subfossil lemurs are included, three families, eight genera, 17 species would be added to the count. Not everyone in the scientific community supports these taxonomic changes, with some preferring instead an estimate of 50 living species. Since their arrival on a biogeographically isolated island with a unique mammalian fauna, lemurs have diversified both in behavior and morphology. Their diversity rivals that of the apes found throughout the rest of the world, especially when the recently extinct subfossil lemurs are considered. They went on to fill many niches normally occupied by monkeys, squirrels, large grazing ungulates. In addition to the incredible diversity between lemur families, there has also been great diversification among closely related lemurs. Due to habitat destruction and hunting, many others have become threatened.Taxonomy of lemurs – The ring-tailed lemur was one of the first lemurs to be classified by Carl Linnaeus in 1758.
108. Thomasomys ucucha – Thomasomys ucucha, also known as the ucucha thomasomys, is a rodent in the genus Thomasomys of the family Cricetidae. Found only in the Cordillera Oriental of Ecuador, a range, it lives in forests and grasslands at 3,380 to 3,720 m above sea level. It may occur with seven other species of Thomasomys. First collected in 1903, Thomasomys ucucha most closely resembles T. hylophilus, which occurs further to the north. Habitat destruction may threaten T. ucucha, so that it is listed on the IUCN Red List. Medium-sized, long-tailed, Thomasomys ucucha can be distinguished from all other species of Thomasomys by its large, broad, procumbent upper incisors. Body mass is 24 to 46 g. The tail is scarcely furred. The front part of the skull is flat, broad. Openings at the front of the palate, are short, the palate itself is broad and smooth. The root of the lower incisor is contained in a prominent process. The first three specimens of Thomasomys ucucha were collected in 1903 by L. Söderström. The mammal fauna of the region remains poorly known. T. ucucha most closely resembles T. hylophilus, found further north in Colombia and Venezuela. Both are members of a diverse genus that occurs in the northern Andes, from Bolivia to Venezuela.Thomasomys ucucha – Thomasomys ucucha
109. Transandinomys – Transandinomys is a genus of rodents in the tribe Oryzomyini of family Cricetidae. It includes two species—T. Bolivaris and T. talamancae—found in forests from Honduras in Central America south and east to southwestern Ecuador and northwestern Venezuela in northern South America. They may be most closely related to genera like Hylaeamys and Euryoryzomys, which contain very similar species. Both species of Transandinomys have had taxonomic histories. T. talamancae are medium-sized, soft-furred rice rats. The upperparts -- reddish in T. talamancae -- are much darker than the whitish underparts. Those of T. bolivaris are particularly long. In addition to whisker length and color, several other morphological differences distinguish the two, including the wider first upper molar in T. bolivaris. Species of Hylaeamys and Euryoryzomys also have shorter whiskers. Species of Transandinomys are active during the night, eat both plant and animal matter, construct nests of vegetation. Both are hosts to external parasites. They have been assessed as "Least Concern" in the IUCN Red List. The first species of Transandinomys to be scientifically described was T. talamancae, named by Joel Asaph Allen in 1891. It has again been recognized as a separate species since 1983.Transandinomys
110. Transandinomys talamancae – Transandinomys talamancae is a rodent in the genus Transandinomys that occurs from Costa Rica to southwestern Ecuador and northern Venezuela. Its habitat consists of lowland forests up to 1,525 m above sea level. With a body mass of 38 to 74 g, it is a medium-sized rice rat. The fur is soft and is reddish to brownish on the upperparts and white to buff on the underparts. The tail is dark brown above and lighter below and the ears and feet are long. The vibrissae are very long. In the skull, the rostrum is long and the braincase is low. The number of chromosomes varies from 34 to 54. The species was first described in 1891 by Joel Asaph Allen and thereafter a variety of names, now considered synonyms, were applied to local populations. It was lumped into a widespread species "Oryzomys capito" from the 1960s till the 1980s and the current allocation of synonyms dates only from 1998. It shares this genus with Transandinomys bolivaris, which has even longer vibrissae; the two overlap broadly in distribution and are morphologically similar. Active during the night, Transandinomys talamancae lives on the ground and eats plants and insects. Males move more and have larger home ranges than females. It breeds throughout the year, but few individuals survive for more than a year. After a gestation period of about 28 days, two to five young are born, which reach sexual maturity within two months.Transandinomys talamancae
111. Voalavo gymnocaudus – Formally described in 1998, it is the type species of genus Voalavo; its closest relative is Voalavo antsahabensis of the Central Highlands. DNA sequence data suggests it may be more closely related than to other species of the closely related genus Eliurus. V. gymnocaudus is found at 1,250 in montane wet and dry forest in the Marojejy and Anjanaharibe-Sud massifs. Solitary, it lives mainly on the ground, but can climb, probably eats plant matter. Despite a small range, much of its range is within protected areas. Voalavo gymnocaudus is a mouse-like rodent with soft, gray fur, only slightly darker above than below. The ears are rounded. The long tail lacks a distinct tuft, present in Eliurus. It differs mainly in the values of some measurements. The skull is delicate, with a long, narrow rostrum, no development of ridges on the braincase. The molars are relatively high-crowned. Mass is 17 to 25.5 g. The rodent fauna of the Northern Highlands of Madagascar remained totally unstudied until the 1990s. Both species were formally described by Michael Carleton and Steven Goodman. In 2000, the species was also recorded from the nearby Marojejy National Park.Voalavo gymnocaudus – Voalavo gymnocaudus
112. Australian raven – The Australian raven is a passerine bird in the genus Corvus native to much of southern and northeastern Australia. Measuring 46 -- 53 centimetres in length, it has all-black plumage, mouth, as well as strong grey-black legs and feet. Its black feathers have grey bases. The Australian raven is distinguished from the Australian species by its throat hackles, which are prominent in adult birds. Nicholas Aylward Vigors and Thomas Horsfield described the Australian raven in 1827, its name highlighting its similarity with the carrion crow. Two subspecies are recognised, which are quite divergent genetically. The preferred habitat is open transitional zones. It is a common city bird in Sydney, Canberra and Perth. An opportunistic feeder, it eats a wide variety of plant and animal material, as well as food waste from urban areas. It has been blamed for killing lambs. However, the raven most often scavenges for afterbirth and stillborn animals as well as newborn lamb faeces. The Australian raven is territorial, with pairs generally bonding for life. Breeding takes place between July and September, with almost no variation across its range. The nest is a bowl-shaped structure of sticks sited high in a tree, or occasionally in a man-made structure such as a other building. Its specific epithet coronoides "crow-shaped" is derived from the Greek corone / eidos / είδος "shape" or "form".Australian raven – Australian raven
113. Bee-eater – The bee-eaters are a group of near-passerine birds in the family Meropidae containing three genera and 27 species. Most species are found with a few in southern Europe, Australia, New Guinea. They usually elongated central tail feathers. All have long down-turned bills and medium to long wings, which may round. Female plumages are usually similar. As their name suggests, bee-eaters predominantly eat flying especially bees and wasps, which are caught in the air by flights from an open perch. The stinger is removed by repeatedly rubbing the insect on a hard surface. During this process, pressure is applied to the insect thereby extracting most of the venom. Most bee-eaters are gregarious. They form colonies, nesting in burrows tunnelled into sandy banks, often at the side of a river, or in flat ground. As they mostly live in colonies, large numbers of nest holes may be seen together. The eggs are white, with typically five to the clutch. Most species are monogamous, both parents care for the young, sometimes from related birds in the colony. Bee-eaters may be killed by raptors, their nests are raided by snakes, they can carry various parasites. Their conspicuous appearance means that they have been incorporated into mythology.Bee-eater – Bee-eater
114. Black currawong – The black currawong, also known locally as the black jay, is a large passerine bird endemic to Tasmania and the nearby islands within the Bass Strait. One of three currawong species in the genus Strepera, it is closely related to the Australian magpie within the family Artamidae. It is a crow-like bird, around 50 cm long on average, with yellow irises, a heavy bill, black plumage with white wing patches. The male and female are similar in appearance. Three subspecies are recognised, Strepera fuliginosa colei of King Island, is vulnerable to extinction. Within its range, the black currawong is generally sedentary, although populations at higher altitudes relocate to lower areas during the cooler months. The habitat includes forested areas as well as alpine heathland. It is rare below altitudes of 200 m. Omnivorous, it has a diet that includes a variety of berries, invertebrates, small vertebrates. Less arboreal than the pied currawong, the black currawong spends more time foraging on the ground. It breeds in trees. The black currawong was first described by ornithologist John Gould in 1836 as Coronica fuliginosa. The specific epithet is the Late Latin adjective refers to the black plumage. Subsequent authors have considered a separate species, although Richard Schodde and Ian Mason describe it as forming a superspecies with the pied currawong. Common names include black currawong, sooty currawong, black bell-magpie, black or sooty crow-shrike, muttonbird.Black currawong – Black currawong
115. Black vulture – Despite the similar appearance, this species is unrelated to the Eurasian black vulture. The latter species is an Old World vulture in the Accipitridae, whereas the American species is a New World vulture. It is the only extant member of the genus Coragyps, in the Cathartidae. It inhabits relatively open areas which provide scattered shrublands. With a wingspan of 1.5 m, the black vulture is a large bird though relatively small for a vulture. It has black plumage, a short, hooked beak. The black vulture is a scavenger and will also eat eggs or kill newborn animals. In areas populated by humans, it also feeds at garbage dumps. It finds its meals either by following other vultures, which possess a keen sense of smell. Lacking a syrinx -- the vocal organ of birds -- its only vocalizations are low hisses. It generally raises two chicks each year, which it feeds by regurgitation. In the United States, the vulture receives legal protection under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918. This vulture also appeared in Mayan codices. The common name "vulture" is derived from the Latin word vulturus, a reference to its feeding habits. Atratus, means "clothed in black," from the Latin ater ` black'.Black vulture – Black vulture
116. Brazza's martin – Brazza's martin is a passerine bird in the swallow family, Hirundinidae. It is 12 cm long with grey-brown upperparts, a brownish tint to the breast plumage. Juvenile birds have more diffuse breast streaking and reddish-brown edges to the feathers of the back and wings. The song consists of a series of short notes of increasing frequency, followed by a complex buzz, sometimes completed by a number of clicks. The range of this species falls within the African countries of Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Nesting in burrows in river banks, it lays a clutch of three white eggs. This bird may hunt over rivers or open savanna. It is readily identified by its combination of brown upperparts, streaked underparts and a square tail. The species does not appear to be facing any serious short-term threats. Phedina, is derived from the Greek phaios "brown" and the Italian rondine "swallow". The name commemorates Italian-born French explorer Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza, later to become governor-general of the French Congo, who collected the type specimen. This invites confusion with the Congo sand martin or Congo martin, Riparia congica. DNA sequence studies suggest that there are three major groupings within the Hirundininae, broadly correlating with the type of nest built. The Phedina nest in burrows and therefore belong to the "core martins" group. The Brazza's martin is 12 cm long with wings averaging 100.5 mm.Brazza's martin – Brazza's martin
117. Common tern – The common tern is a seabird of the tern family Sternidae. This bird has its four subspecies breeding in temperate and subarctic regions of Europe, Asia and North America. It is migratory wintering in coastal tropical and subtropical regions. Breeding adults have light grey upperparts, white to very light grey underparts, a black cap, a narrow pointed bill. Depending on the subspecies, the bill may be all black. There are a number including the partly sympatric Arctic tern, which can be separated on plumage details, leg and bill colour, or vocalisations. It is often lined or edged with whatever debris is available. Up to three eggs may be laid, their dull colours and blotchy patterns providing camouflage on the open beach. Incubation is by 22 days, longer if the colony is disturbed by predators. The downy chicks fledge in 22–28 days. Young are vulnerable to predation by mammals such as rats and American mink, large birds including gulls, owls and herons. Common terns may be infected by lice, mites, although blood parasites appear to be rare. Despite international legislation protecting the common tern, in some areas populations are threatened by habitat loss, the disturbance of breeding colonies. Family Sternidae, are small to medium-sized seabirds closely related to the gulls, skimmers and skuas. They are gull-like in appearance, but typically have a lighter build, long pointed a deeply forked tail, slender legs, webbed feet.Common tern – Common tern
118. Crescent honeyeater – The crescent honeyeater is a passerine bird, of the honeyeater family Meliphagidae, native to south-eastern Australia. A member of the genus Phylidonyris, it is most closely related to the white-cheeked honeyeater. Two subspecies are recognized, with P. p. halmaturinus restricted in range in South Australia. The species exhibits sexual dimorphism, with the female being duller in colour than the male. Juvenile birds are similar to the female, though the yellow wing patches of male nestlings can be easily distinguished. The male has a variable song, heard throughout the year. It sings during the breeding season performs song flights. It often stays committed to one breeding site for several years. The female does most of the caring for the two to three young, which become independent within 40 days of egg-laying. Nestlings can be taken by snakes, kookaburras, currawongs, or cats. The honeyeater was originally described by ornithologist John Latham in 1801 as Certhia pyrrhoptera, because of an assumed relationship with the treecreepers, Certhia. The generic term comes from the French phylidonyre, which combines the names for a sunbird. The specific epithet is derived from the Ancient Greek stems pyrrhos, pteron, meaning "wing", in reference to the yellow wing patches. A molecular study showed its close relatives to be the New Holland honeyeater and the white-cheeked honeyeater, the three forming the now small genus Phylidonyris. Analysis has shown honeyeaters to be related to the Pardalotidae, Acanthizidae, Maluridae in a large Meliphagoidea superfamily.Crescent honeyeater – Crescent honeyeater
119. Cuban macaw – It may also have been identical, to the hypothetical Jamaican red macaw. A few subfossil remains have been found on Cuba. At about 45–50 centimetres long, the Cuban macaw was one of the smallest macaws. It had a red, orange, green, brown, blue body. It may have been restricted to the central and western parts of the island. It was mainly reported from the vast Zapata Swamp, where it inhabited open terrain with scattered trees. The Cuban macaw was traded and hunted by Amerindians, by Europeans in the 15th century. 19 museum skins exist today. It had become rare by the mid-19th century due to pressure from hunting, trade, destruction. Hurricanes may also have contributed to its demise. Early explorers such as Christopher Columbus and Diego Álvarez Chanca, mentioned macaws on Cuba in 14th - and 15th-century writings. Cuban macaws were illustrated in several early accounts about the island. In 1811, Johann Matthäus Bechstein scientifically named the species Psittacus tricolor. Bechstein's description was based on the bird's entry in Histoire Naturelle des Perroquets. Many are of unclear provenance.Cuban macaw – Cuban macaw
120. Delichon – Delichon is a small genus of passerine birds that belongs to the swallow family and contains three species named as house martins. These are chunky, short-tailed birds, blackish-blue above with a contrasting white rump, with white or grey underparts. They have feathering on the tarsi, characteristic of this genus. The house martins are closely related to other swallows that build mud nests, particularly the Hirundo swallows. They breed only in Europe, the mountains of North Africa. The common and Asian house martins, migrate south in winter, while the Nepal house martin is resident in the Himalayas year-round. The house martins nest in colonies on buildings, constructing feather - or grass-lined mud nests. The typical clutch is three white eggs; both parents build the nest, incubate the eggs and feed the chicks. These martins are aerial hunters of small insects such as aphids. Despite their flying skills the Delichon martins are sometimes caught by fast-flying birds of prey. They may carry internal parasites. None of the species are considered threatened, although widespread reductions in common martin numbers have been reported from central and northern Europe. DNA studies suggest that there are three major groupings within the Hirundininae, broadly correlating with the type of nest built. The suggested taxonomic sequence of the mud-building swallows has been recommended by at least two taxonomic committees. The two other house martins were moved from the genus Chelidon in which they had been placed up to that time.Delichon – Delichon
121. Elfin woods warbler – The elfin woods warbler is a bird endemic to Puerto Rico where it is a local and uncommon species. Described in 1972, it is the most recently described species of New World warbler. Angelae, is a tribute to Angela Kepler, one of its discoverers. An insectivore, it feeds by gleaning small insects off leaves. The elfin woods warbler is one of many species in the genus Setophaga of the New World warbler Parulidae. On May 1971, a specimen was captured in El Yunque National Forest, which at the time was believed to be its only habitat. A year later Kepler and Parkes named the species making it the most recent warbler of the genus Setophaga discovered in the New World. Also, it is the first Puerto Rican species described in the 20th century. Angelae, is a tribute to Angela Kepler. Reinita de Bosque Enano is the Spanish name. This revised classification was adopted by the International Ornithologists’ Union. The warbler's upper body is predominantly black with white areas while its underparts are white with black streaks. Characteristic of Antillean warblers, the species features short, round wings. Among Setophaga spp. only S. adelaidae has a shorter wing length average than the elfin woods warbler. Juveniles differ from adults, retaining a grayish-green back for approximately a year and partially molting to October.Elfin woods warbler – Elfin woods warbler
122. Eurasian blackcap – The Eurasian blackcap usually known simply as the blackcap, is a common and widespread typical warbler. Differences between the five subspecies are small. Both sexes have a neat coloured cap to the head, reddish-brown in the female. The blackcap's closest relative is the warbler, which looks quite different but has a similar song. Its preferred habitat is mature deciduous woodland. The male holds a territory when breeding, defended against garden warblers well as other blackcaps. The chicks are cared for by both adults for some time after leaving the nest. Some German birds have adapted to spending the winter in gardens in Great Britain and Ireland. , for the rest of the year, blackcaps survive primarily on small fruit. Garden birds also eat fat and peanuts in winter. It has featured in literature, films and music. In Messiaen's Saint François d'Assise, the saint is represented by themes based on the blackcap's song. The typical warblers, forms part of a large family of Old World warblers, the Sylviidae. These species have a breeding range which extends farther northeast than all other Sylvia species except the lesser whitethroat and common whitethroat. The blackcap was first described by Linnaeus as Motacilla atricapilla.Eurasian blackcap – Eurasian blackcap
123. Eurasian crag martin – The Eurasian crag martin or just crag martin is a small passerine bird in the swallow family. It breeds in the mountains of southern Asia. It is larger with brighter tail spots and different plumage tone. Most Asian breeders are migratory, wintering in northern Africa, the Middle East or India. The Eurasian martin builds a adherent to the rock under a cliff overhang or increasingly onto a man-made structure. It makes a half-cup nest with an inner soft lining of feathers and dry grass. Nests are often solitary, although a few pairs may breed relatively close together at good locations. Two to five brown-blotched white eggs are incubated mainly by the female, both parents feed the chicks. This species does not form large breeding colonies, but is gregarious outside the breeding season. Adults and young may be hunted and eaten by birds of prey or corvids, this species is a host of blood-sucking mites. With its very large and expanding range and large population there are no significant conservation concerns. The specific rupestris means "of rocks", from the Latin rupes "rock". There are no generally recognised subspecies. Fossils of this species have been found in Late Pleistocene deposits in Bulgaria, in central France in layers dated at 242,000 to 301,000 years ago. DNA studies suggest that there are three major groupings within the Hirundininae, broadly correlating with the type of nest built.Eurasian crag martin – Eurasian crag martin
124. Eurasian rock pipit – The Eurasian rock pipit, or just rock pipit, is a small species of passerine bird that breeds in western Europe on rocky coasts. It is similar in appearance to other European pipits. There are three subspecies, of which only the Fennoscandian form is migratory, wintering in shoreline habitats further south in Europe. The Eurasian pipit is territorial at least in the breeding season, year-round where it is resident. Males will sometimes enter an adjacent territory to assist the resident in repelling behaviour only otherwise known from the African fiddler crab. Although insects are occasionally caught in flight, the pipits feed mainly on small invertebrates picked from shallow water. The Motacillidae consists of the wagtails, pipits and longclaws. The largest of these groups is the pipits in the genus Anthus, which are typically terrestrial insectivores. The Eurasian pipit is closely related to the meadow, red-throated and rosy pipits as well as its former subspecies. The formal description naming this species was by English naturalist George Montagu in 1798. He gave it the scientific name Alauda petrosus. The scientific name of the Eurasian pipit is from Latin. The specific petrosus means "rocky", from petrus, "rock". A. p. kleinschmidti is sometimes merged with A. p. petrosus. There is a geographical trend in appearance, with longer-billed, darker birds at the western end of the range, shorter-billed, paler individuals in the east.Eurasian rock pipit – Eurasian rock pipit
125. Eurasian tree sparrow – Young birds are a duller version of the adult. Although several subspecies are recognised, the appearance of this bird varies little across its extensive range. The typical clutch is six eggs which hatch in under two weeks. Invertebrates are also consumed, particularly during the breeding season. In western Australia, this species is sometimes viewed as a pest, although it is also widely celebrated in oriental art. The brown wings have two distinct narrow white bars. The bill is lead-blue in summer, becoming almost black in winter. The change in mass is due to an increase in volume to support active feather growth, a generally higher water content in the body. Its vocalisations include an excited series of tschip calls given by unpaired or courting males. The flight call is a harsh teck. This may have resulted from a consequent loss of genetic diversity. Its members are typically found in open, lightly wooded, habitats, although several species, notably the sparrow have adapted to human habitations. Most species in the genus are typically 10 -- 20 cm long, predominantly greyish birds with short square tails and stubby conical beaks. They are primarily ground-feeding seed-eaters, although they also consume invertebrates, especially when breeding. The Eurasian species is not closely related to the American sparrow, an American sparrow.Eurasian tree sparrow – Eurasian tree sparrow
126. European nightjar – The generic name refers to the old myth that the nocturnal nightjar suckled goats, causing them to cease to give milk. The six subspecies differ clinally, the birds becoming paler towards the east of the range. All populations are migratory, wintering in sub-Saharan Africa. The preferred habitat is open country with some trees and small bushes, such as heaths, forest clearings or newly planted woodland. The European nightjar occupies a territory in spring and advertises his presence with a distinctive sustained churring trill from a perch. He patrols his territory with wings held in a V and tail fanned, calling. Wing clapping also occurs when the male chases the female in a spiralling flight. The European nightjar feeds on a wide variety of flying insects, which it seizes in flight, often fly-catching from a perch. It hunts by sight, silhouetting its prey against the sky. Its eyes are relatively large, each with a reflective layer, which improves vision. It appears not to rely on its hearing to does not echolocate. Bathing take place during flight. Caprimulgidae, are a large family of mostly nocturnal insect-eating birds. The largest and most widespread genus is Caprimulgus, characterised around the mouth, long pointed wings, a comb-like middle claw and patterned plumage. The males, sometimes females, often have white markings in the tail.European nightjar – European nightjar
127. European storm petrel – The European storm petrel, British storm petrel or just storm petrel is a seabird in the storm petrel family, Hydrobatidae. It is the only member of the genus Hydrobates. The Mediterranean population is inseparable from its Atlantic relatives; its strongholds are Filfla Island, Sicily and the Balearic Islands. The storm lays a single white egg, usually on bare soil. The adults share the lengthy incubation and both feed the chick, not normally brooded after the first week. This petrel is strictly oceanic outside the breeding season. It feeds on small zooplankton while pattering on the sea's surface, can find oily edible items by smell. The food is converted to an orange liquid, regurgitated when the chick is fed. The petrel was first described from by Linnaeus in his Systema naturae as Procellaria pelagica. It was moved to the genus Hydrobates by Friedrich Boie in 1822. Petrel, first recorded in 1602, is a corruption of pitteral, referring to the bird's pitter-pattering across the water. The suggestion that the word refers to St Peter walking on the waves is a later invention. Storm arises from seamen's association of this bird with bad weather. In English, the name of the species was written as "stormy petrel" by some 19th-century authors. The scientific name derives from Greek; Hydrobates is from hudro, water, bates, walker, pelagicus is from pelagikos, of the sea.European storm petrel – European storm petrel
128. Forest raven – The forest raven is a passerine bird in the family Corvidae native to Tasmania and parts of southern Victoria, such as Wilsons Promontory and Portland. Populations are also found in parts including Dorrigo and Armidale. Measuring 50 -- 53 cm in length, it has all-black plumage, legs. As with the other two species of raven in Australia, its black feathers have grey bases. Adults have white irises; younger birds have dark then hazel irises with an inner blue rim. New South Wales populations are recognised as a subspecies C. tasmanicus boreus, but appear to be nested within the Tasmanian subspecies genetically. The raven lives in a wide variety of habitats in Tasmania but is restricted to more closed forest on mainland Australia. Breeding takes place in summer, occurring later in Tasmania than in New South Wales. The nest is a bowl-shaped structure of sticks sited high in a tree. An opportunistic feeder, it eats a wide variety of plant and animal material, as well as food waste from urban areas and roadkill. It is unprotected under Tasmanian legislation. The raven is sedentary, with pairs generally bonding for life and establishing permanent territories. Tasked as the expedition's naturalist, Anderson had died of tuberculosis in 1778 before the return home. Notes were lost or pieced together many years later. German naturalist Johann Friedrich Gmelin gave the name Corvus australis in the 13th edition of Systema naturae in 1788.Forest raven – Forest raven
129. Fulvous whistling duck – It has mainly reddish brown plumage, long legs and a long grey bill, shows a distinctive white band across its black tail in flight. Like other members of its ancient lineage, it has a whistling call, given in flight or on the ground. The preferred habitat is shallow lakes, paddy fields or other wetlands with plentiful vegetation. The nest, unlined, is placed in a hole. The typical clutch is around ten whitish eggs. The breeding adults, which pair for life, take turns to incubate, the eggs hatch in 24–29 days. The fulvous whistling duck feeds in wetlands by day or night on seeds and other parts of plants. It is sometimes regarded as a pest of rice cultivation, is also shot for food in parts of its range. The fulvous whistling duck forms a superspecies with the wandering whistling duck. The genus name is derived from the Ancient Greek dendron, "tree", Latin cygnus, "swan", bicolor is Latin for "two-coloured". "Fulvous" means reddish-yellow, is derived from the Latin equivalent fulvus. Regional names include large whistling teal, brown tree duck, Spanish cavalier. The fulvous whistling duck is 45–53 cm long; the male weighs 748–1,050 g, the female averages marginally lighter at 712–1,000 g. It is an obvious line down the back of its neck. It has whitish stripes on its flanks, a long grey bill and grey legs.Fulvous whistling duck – Fulvous whistling duck
130. Goldcrest – The goldcrest is a very small passerine bird in the kinglet family. Several subspecies are recognised across the very large range that includes much of Eurasia and the islands of Macaronesia. Birds from the east of its breeding range migrate to winter further south. This kinglet has two white wingbars. The latter's bronze shoulders and strong face pattern are distinctive. The song is a repetition of thin notes, slightly higher-pitched than those of its relative. The goldcrest breeds in coniferous woodland and gardens, building its compact, three-layered nest on a tree branch. The chicks are fed by both parents; second broods are common. In winter it is often found with flocks of tits. The goldcrest is 8.5 -- 9.5 cm in length, with a 13.5 -- 15.5 cm wingspan and a weight of 4.5 -- 7.0 g. It is similar in appearance to a warbler, with conspicuous black irises. The legs are dark flesh-brown. The juvenile is similar to the adult, but lacks the coloured crown. Although the flight feathers may be retained into the first winter, by then the young birds are almost indistinguishable from adults in the field. The flight is distinctive; it consists of whirring wing-beats with sudden changes of direction.Goldcrest – Goldcrest
131. Grey currawong – The grey currawong is a large passerine bird native to southern Australia and Tasmania. One of three currawong species in the genus Strepera, it is closely related to the Australian magpie of the family Artamidae. The male and female are similar in appearance. All grey currawongs have clinking call. Within its range, the grey currawong is sedentary although it is a winter visitor in the southeastern corner of Australia. Comparatively little studied, much of its behaviour and habits is poorly known. Omnivorous, it has a diet that includes a variety of berries, small vertebrates. Less arboreal than the pied currawong, the grey currawong spends more time foraging on the ground. It builds nests high in trees, which has limited the study of its breeding habits. Unlike its more common relative, it has declined in much of its range. The habitat includes all kinds of forested areas well as scrubland in dryer parts of the country. The grey currawong was first described by ornithologist John Latham in 1801, who gave it the common name of "variable crow". The specific versicolor means ` of variable colours' in Latin. Other common names include grey crow-shrike, leaden crow-shrike, mountain magpie, black-winged currawong, clinking currawong, squeaker. The black-winged currawong was known as wati-eri, the word meaning "to sneak" or "to track".Grey currawong – Grey currawong
132. Hoopoe starling – The three apparently originated in Southeast Asia. The bird was long thought to be related to the hoopoe, from which its name is derived. Although a number of affinities have been proposed, it was confirmed as a starling in a DNA study. The hoopoe starling was 30 cm in length. Its plumage was primarily white and grey. It had a mobile crest, which curled forwards. The bird is thought to have been sexually dimorphic, with males larger and having more curved beaks. The juveniles were more brown than the adults. Little is known about hoopoe behaviour. Reportedly living in large flocks, it inhabited humid marshes. The hoopoe starling was omnivorous, feeding on matter insects. Its pelvis was robust, its jaws strong, indicating that it foraged near the ground. The birds were hunted by settlers on Réunion, who also kept them as cagebirds. Nineteen specimens exist in museums around the world. The hoopoe starling was probably extinct before the 1860s.Hoopoe starling – Hoopoe starling
133. King Island emu – The small size of the King Island emu may be an example of insular dwarfism. The King Island emu had darker plumage than the mainland emu. Its chicks were striped like those on the mainland. The subspecies was distinct including size. The behaviour of the King Island emu probably did not differ much from that of the mainland emu. The birds gathered to forage and during breeding time. They fed on berries, seaweed. They could defend themselves by kicking. The nest consisted of dead leaves and moss. Seven to nine eggs were laid, which were incubated by both parents. Hunting pressure and fires started by early settlers on King Island likely drove the wild population by 1805. The two captive specimens in Paris both are believed to have been the last of their kind. The French also referred to both emus and cassowaries at the time, which has led to further confusion. Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot coined the binomial Dromaius ater in 1817. William Vincent Legge also coined a name for these at a later date.King Island emu – King Island emu
134. Lesser Antillean macaw – Austin Hobart Clark described the species in 1905. Historical sources distinguishing between the red macaws of Guadeloupe and the scarlet macaw of the mainland were identified, further supporting its validity. According to contemporary descriptions, the wings were red, blue and yellow. The tail feathers were between 51 cm long. The bird ate fruit -- including the poisonous manchineel, was monogamous, laid two eggs once or twice a year. It was becoming rare by 1760, only survived in uninhabited areas. Hunting by humans are thought to have eradicated it shortly afterwards. The Lesser Antillean macaw is one of 13 extinct macaw species that have been proposed to have lived in the Caribbean islands. The Lesser Antillean macaw is well-documented compared to most extinct Caribbean macaws, since it was mentioned and described by several contemporary writers. In 1774, the French naturalist Comte de Buffon stated that the Italian explorer Christopher Columbus had found macaws in Guadeloupe. The French botanist Jean-Baptiste Du Tertre illustrated the bird and other animals found in Guadeloupe. The French clergyman Jean-Baptiste Labat also described the bird in 1742. Writers such as John Latham also mentioned the presence of red and blue macaws on the islands off America. He wrote that it was different in several ways from the superficially similar scarlet macaw, well as the green-winged macaw and the Cuban macaw. Clark suggested the species might have existed on the islands of Dominica and Martinique, based on accounts of red macaws there, well as on Guadeloupe.Lesser Antillean macaw – Lesser Antillean macaw
135. Long-tailed ground roller – The long-tailed ground roller is a species of bird in the ground roller family Brachypteraciidae, placed in the monotypic genus Uratelornis. Endemic to arid spiny forests near the coast in southwestern Madagascar, this roller occurs throughout its habitat. This species requires shade and a deep layer of leaves on the ground, it is absent from parts of the spiny forest lacking these features. It has no recognized subspecies, its closest relative is the scaly ground roller. The long-tailed roller is the only roller to definitively display sexual dimorphism. It is a medium-sized bird with a plump silhouette and a long tail. The upperparts are dark brown with black streaks while the underparts are light gray. The white throat is framed by black malar stripes and a black breastband, a white stripe is present at the base of the bill. Sky-blue feathers are visible at the edge of the wings and the tail. Calls are rarely made outside of the breeding season, though multiple courtship calls are made. The ground roller primarily runs through its habitat on its strong legs, as its wings are relatively weak. The long-tailed ground roller is a monogamous species, it defends a territory during the breeding season of October to February. Two to four eggs are laid. After the chicks fledge, the birds continue living before dispersing more widely across the scrubland. This bird is threatened by destruction.Long-tailed ground roller – Long-tailed ground roller
136. Mangrove swallow – The mangrove swallow is a passerine bird that breeds in coastal regions from Mexico through Central America to Panama. It is very territorial when breeding, much like the related tree swallow. The juveniles have white washed underparts. These swallows can frequently be found perching near water between foraging attempts. They eat unusually large prey for their size. They usually feed in groups when not breeding. It is classified as least concern for its extremely large population. Little is known about predation of this species. The mangrove swallow was formally described in 1863 by American amateur ornithologist George Newbold Lawrence. The new genus Tachycineta was created by German ornithologist Jean Cabanis in 1850. The specific albilinea is from Latin albus, "white", linea, "line". DNA sequence studies suggest that there are three major groupings within the Hirundininae, broadly correlating with the type of nest built. The Tachycineta species belong to the "nest-adopter" group. It is also differentiated by its lack of a supraloral white line and by its slight difference in size. A relatively small swallow, averages 13 centimetres long and weighs about 14 grams.Mangrove swallow – Mangrove swallow
137. Mascarene grey parakeet – It has been classified from the islands. Apart from their size, the bones were very similar to those of other Mascarene parrots. The Mascarene grey parakeet was grey, was larger than other species of the Psittacula genus, which are usually green. The grey parrots were said to be easy to hunt, as the capture of one would result in its calling out to summon the whole flock. Being such easy prey meant that they were extensively hunted. Coupled with deforestation, this pushed them into extinction. This had happened by the 1760s on Mauritius. They were placed by 1908. Because of their similarities, Holyoak considered all these genera to be closely related. The holotype specimen is a mandibular symphysis, with the specimen number 577a. Other known remains include upper mandibles, tarsometatarsi. Old, vague accounts of several now-extinct Mascarene parrots have created much confusion for the scientists who subsequently examined them. In 1967, American ornithologist James Greenway speculated that 17th - and 18th-century reports of grey parrots on Mauritius referred to the broad-billed parrot. Further study of contemporary accounts had multiple colours. Hume coined the common name "Thirioux's grey parrot" in honour of the original collector.Mascarene grey parakeet – Mascarene grey parakeet
138. Mascarene parrot – The Mascarene parrot or Mascarin is an extinct species of parrot, endemic to the Mascarene island of Réunion in the western Indian Ocean. The taxonomic relationships of this species has been subject to debate. It has been connected to the Psittaculini parrots based on anatomical grounds, but based on genetic grounds. The exact placement is unresolved. The Mascarene parrot was 35 cm in length with long, rounded tail feathers. It had naked red skin around the eyes and nostrils. The colouration of the body, wings and head is unclear. The white part of the tail had two dark central feathers. In contrast, descriptions based on stuffed specimens do not mention the dark central tail feathers. This may be due to the specimens having changed colour as a result of aging and exposure to light, well as other forms of damage. Very little is known about the bird in life. Live specimens were later brought to Europe, where they lived in captivity. The species was scientifically described in 1771. Only two stuffed exist today in Paris and Vienna. The cause of extinction for the Mascarene parrot is unclear.Mascarene parrot – Mascarene parrot
139. Mistle thrush – The mistle thrush is a bird common to much of Europe, Asia and North Africa. Eastern populations migrate south for the winter, often in small flocks. It is black spots on its pale yellow and off-white underparts. The sexes are similar in plumage, its three subspecies show only minimal differences. The male has a far-carrying song, delivered even in windy weather, earning the bird the old name of "stormcock". Found in open woods, cultivated land, the mistle thrush feeds on a wide variety of invertebrates, seeds and berries. Its preferred fruits including those of the mistletoe, holly and yew. In winter, a mistle thrush will vigorously defend a holly tree as a reserve for when times are hard. The open nest is fearlessly defended against potential predators, sometimes including humans or cats. The clutch, typically of three to five eggs, is incubated for 12–15 days, mainly by the female. The chicks fledge about 14–16 days after hatching. There are normally two broods. Given very large range, this thrush is classified as being of least concern. The mistle thrush was first described under its current scientific name. The bird's liking for mistletoe berries is indicated by both its English and scientific names.Mistle thrush – Mistle thrush
140. Newton's parakeet – Newton's parakeet or the Rodrigues parakeet is an extinct species of parrot, endemic to the Mascarene island of Rodrigues in the western Indian Ocean. Several of its features diverged from related species, indicating long-term isolation on subsequent adaptation. The rose-ringed parakeet of the same genus is a close probable ancestor. Newton's parakeet may itself have been ancestral to the endemic parakeets of nearby Mauritius and Réunion. Around 40 centimetres long, Newton's parakeet was roughly the size of a rose-ringed parakeet. Its plumage was mostly greyish or blue in colour, unusual in Psittacula, a genus containing mostly green species. Mature males might have possessed red patches on the wing like the Alexandrine parakeet. This was clearer in the male. The iris yellow. It may have fed on the nuts of the bois d'olive tree, along with leaves. It was able to mimic speech. Newton's parakeet was only mentioned a few times by other writers afterwards. The specific name "exsul" is a reference to Leguat, exiled from France. Only two life drawings exist, both of a single specimen held in the 1770s. The species was scientifically described with a female specimen as the holotype.Newton's parakeet – Newton's parakeet
141. Pacific swift – The Pacific swift is a bird which breeds in eastern Asia. This swift is migratory spending the northern hemisphere's winter in Southeast Asia and Australia. The general shape and plumage recall its relative, the common swift, from which it is distinguished by a white rump band and heavily marked underparts. The sexes are identical in appearance, although young birds can be identified to the wing feathers that are absent in adults. This swift's main call is a typical of its family. It is one of a group of closely related Asian swifts formerly regarded as one species. The Pacific swift is found in a wide range of climatic habitats. It breeds under the roofs of houses. The nest is a half-cup of dry grass and other material, gathered in flight, cemented with saliva and attached to a vertical surface. Three white eggs are incubated for about seventeen days to hatching. Subsequently, the chicks have a variable period in the nest before they are fully fledged. When the parents can not find sufficient food in bad weather, the young can survive without being fed by metabolising body fat. Like all members of its family, the Pacific swift feeds exclusively on insects caught in flight. It tends to hunt higher than most of its relatives other than the white-throated needletail. The Pacific swift faces few threats from predators or human activities.Pacific swift – Pacific swift
142. Pale crag martin – The pale crag martin is a small passerine bird in the swallow family, resident in northern Africa and in southwestern Asia east to Pakistan. It breeds mainly in the mountains, but also at lower altitudes, especially in rocky areas and around towns. Unlike most swallows, it is often found far from water. The sexes are similar in appearance, but juveniles have pale fringes to the upperparts and flight feathers. It was formerly considered to be the northern subspecies of the martin of southern Africa, although it is smaller, whiter-throated than that species. The pale crag martin hunts along cliff faces for flying insects using a slow flight with much gliding. Its call is a soft twitter. This martin builds a neat quarter-sphere against wall. It is often reused for subsequent broods or in later years. Small groups may breed together in suitable locations. Both parents then feed the chicks. Fledging takes another 22–24 days, although the young birds will return to the nest to roost for a few days after the first flight. The pale martin was first formally described by German ornithologist Jean Cabanis as Cotyle obsoleta using a specimen collected from near Cairo, Egypt. It was moved to the new genus Ptyonoprogne, created by German ornithologist Heinrich Gustav Reichenbach, in the same year. The specific name obsoleta means "worn" in Latin.Pale crag martin – Pale crag martin
143. Pallas's leaf warbler – The Pallas's leaf warbler or Pallas's warbler is a leaf warbler that breeds in mountain forests from southern Siberia east to northern Mongolia and northeastern China. It is named for German zoologist Peter Simon Pallas, who first formally described it. Pallas's warbler is one of the smallest Eurasian warblers, with short tail. It has greenish upperparts and yellow double wingbars, supercilia and central crown stripe. It is similar to Asian warblers, including some that were formerly considered to be its subspecies, although its distinctive vocalisations aid identification. The female builds a cup nest in a tree or bush, incubates the four to six eggs, which hatch after 12–13 days. The chicks are fed mainly by the female and fledge when they are 12–14 days old; both parents then bring food for about a week. Pallas's warbler is feeding on the adults, larvae and pupa of small insects and spiders. Birds forage in trees, catching prey in short flights or while hovering. The Pallas's leaf warbler has a large range, its numbers are believed to be stable. It therefore is evaluated as of "least concern" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The English name of Pallas's warbler commemorates Peter Simon Pallas, who found it on the Ingoda River in Siberia in May 1772. He named the new species as Motacilla proregulus when he finally published his findings in 1811. The genus name Phylloscopus is from Ancient Greek phullon, skopos, "seeker". The specific proregulus is from Greek pro, "close to", the name regulus, referring to the similar-looking goldcrest, Regulus regulus.Pallas's leaf warbler – Pallas's leaf warbler
144. Red-backed fairywren – The red-backed fairywren is a species of passerine bird in the family Maluridae. The male adopts brown wings. The female has brownish upperparts and paler underparts. The male in eclipse plumage and the juvenile resemble the female. Some males remain in non-breeding breeding. The red-backed fairywren mainly supplements its diet with small fruit. The preferred habitat is savannah, particularly where tall grasses provide cover. Groups consist of a socially monogamous pair with one or more helper birds who assist in raising the young. These helpers remain or more years after fledging. The red-backed fairywren is sexually promiscuous, each partner may mate with other individuals and even assist in raising the young from such pairings. Older males in plumage are more likely to engage in this behaviour than are those breeding in plumage. As part of a display, the male wren displays them to females. The first three names were synonymised into Malurus melanocephalus by Gould who maintained his form as a separate species. An intermediate form from north Queensland was described as pyrrhonotus. Ornithologist Tom Iredale proposed the common name "elfin-wren" in 1939, however this was not taken up.Red-backed fairywren – Red-backed fairywren
145. Red-throated loon – The red-throated loon or red-throated diver is a migratory aquatic bird found in the northern hemisphere. The most widely distributed member of the family, it breeds primarily in Arctic regions, winters in northern coastal waters. Ranging from 55–67 centimetres in length, the red-throated loon is the smallest and lightest of the world's loons. In winter, it is a nondescript bird, greyish above fading to white below. During the breeding season, it acquires the reddish patch, the basis for its common name. Fish form the bulk of its diet, though plant material are sometimes eaten as well. A monogamous species, the red-throated loon forms long-term pair bonds. Both members of the pair help to feed the hatched young. The red-throated loon has a global range, though some populations are declining. Oil spills, habitat fishing nets are among the major threats this species faces. Natural predators -- including both red and Arctic foxes, will take young. The species is protected by a number of international treaties. First described in 1763, the red-throated loon is a monotypic species, with no distinctive subspecies despite its Holarctic range. Pontoppidan initially placed the species in the now-defunct Colymbus, which contained grebes well as loons. It is thought to have evolved in the Palearctic, then to have expanded into the Nearctic.Red-throated loon – Red-throated diver
146. Rock martin – The rock martin is a small passerine bird in the swallow family, resident in central and southern Africa. Juveniles have pale fringes to the upperparts and flight feathers. The northern subspecies are smaller, paler, whiter-throated than southern African forms, are now usually split as a separate species, the pale crag martin. The martin hunts along cliff faces for flying insects using a slow flight with much gliding. Its call is a soft twitter. This martin builds a neat quarter-sphere against a vertical rock face or wall. It is often reused in later years. Small groups may breed close together in suitable locations. Both parents then feed the chicks. The young birds will return to the nest to roost for a few days after the first flight. The specific fuligula means "sooty-throated", from Latin fuligo "soot" and gula "throat". DNA sequence studies suggest that there are three major groupings within the Hirundininae, broadly correlating with the type of nest built. The Ptyonoprogne species therefore belong to the last group. Races interbreed where their ranges meet. The southern forms of the martin can weigh more than twice as much as the smallest northern subspecies of pale crag martin.Rock martin – Rock martin
147. Rodrigues solitaire – The Rodrigues solitaire is an extinct, flightless bird, endemic to the island of Rodrigues, east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean. Genetically within the family of doves, it was most closely related to the also extinct dodo of Mauritius, the two forming the subfamily Raphinae. The Nicobar pigeon is their closest living genetic relative. Rodrigues solitaires demonstrated pronounced sexual dimorphism. Its plumage was brown; the female was paler than the male. Its neck and legs were long. Both sexes were highly territorial, with large bony knobs on their wings that were used in combat. The Rodrigues solitaire laid a single egg, incubated by both sexes. Gizzard stones helped digest its food, which included fruit and seeds. It was hunted by humans and was extinct by the late 18th century. Thousands of bones have subsequently been excavated. It is the only extinct bird with a former constellation named after it, Turdus Solitarius. The bird was scientifically named in 1789 as a species of dodo by Johann Friedrich Gmelin in the thirteenth edition of Systema Naturae. Alexander Gordon Melville suggested the common descent of the Rodrigues solitaire and the dodo in 1848. They dissected the only known dodo specimen with soft tissue, comparing it with the few Rodrigues solitaire remains then available.Rodrigues solitaire – Rodrigues solitaire Temporal range: Late Holocene
148. Rodrigues starling – The Rodrigues starling is an extinct species of starling, endemic to the Mascarene island of Rodrigues. Its closest relatives were the hoopoe starling from nearby islands; all three appear to be of Southeast Asian origin. The bird was only reported by French sailor Julien Tafforet, marooned from 1725 to 1726. Tafforet observed it on the offshore islet of Île Gombrani. Subfossil remains found on the mainland were suggested to belong to the bird mentioned by Tafforet. There was much confusion about its taxonomic relations throughout the 20th century. The Rodrigues starling had a stout beak. It was described as having a white body, partially black wings and tail, legs. Little is known about its behaviour. Its diet included dead tortoises, which it processed with its strong bill. Predation by rats introduced to the area was probably responsible for the bird's extinction some time in the 18th century. It first became extinct on mainland Rodrigues, then on its last refuge. In the report, he described encounters including a white and black bird which fed on eggs and dead tortoises. He stated that it was confined to the offshore islet of Île Gombrani, then called au Mât. No people who later traveled to the island mentioned the bird.Rodrigues starling – Rodrigues starling
149. Russet sparrow – The russet sparrow, also called the cinnamon or cinnamon tree sparrow, is a passerine bird of the sparrow family Passeridae. A chunky seed-eating bird with a thick bill, it has a body length of 14 to 15 cm. Its plumage is mainly warm rufous grey below. It exhibits sexual dimorphism, with the plumage of both sexes patterned similarly to that of the corresponding sex of sparrow. Its vocalisations are musical chirps, which when strung together form a song. Three subspecies are recognised, differing chiefly in the yellowness of their underparts. The sparrow is the typical sparrow of human habitations in towns where the house and Eurasian tree sparrows are absent. In the north it breeds by the sea. The sparrow is known well enough in the Himalayas to have a distinct name in some languages, is depicted in Japanese art. It also eats berries and insects, particularly during the breeding season. This diet makes a minor pest in agricultural areas, but also a predator of insect pests. While breeding, it is not social, as its nests are dispersed. It forms flocks when not breeding, although it associates with other bird species infrequently. In some parts of its range, the sparrow migrates, at least to lower altitudes. Its nest is located in a hole in a cliff or building.Russet sparrow – Russet sparrow
150. Saxaul sparrow – The saxaul sparrow is a passerine bird of the sparrow family Passeridae, found in parts of Central Asia. At 14 -- 25 -- 32 grams, it is among the larger sparrows. Both sexes have plumage ranging from pale brown legs. Females have less boldly coloured plumage and bills, lacking the pattern of black stripes on the male's head. The head markings of both sexes make the saxaul sparrow unlikely to be confused with any other bird. Vocalisations include a comparatively soft and musical chirping call, a flight call. Three subspecies are recognised, differing in the head striping of the female. The subspecies ammodendri occurs in the west of the saxaul sparrow's range, while stoliczkae and nigricans occur in the east. This distribution falls into six probably disjunct areas across Central Asia, in China. A bird of the saxaul sparrow favours areas with shrubs such as the saxaul, near rivers and oases. Though it has lost parts of its range to destruction caused by agriculture, it is not seriously threatened by human activities. Little is known of the saxaul sparrow's behaviour. Often hidden in foliage, it forages on the ground. It feeds mostly on as well as insects while breeding and as a nestling. When not breeding it forms wandering flocks, but it is less social than other sparrows while breeding, often nesting in isolated pairs.Saxaul sparrow – Saxaul sparrow
151. Sind sparrow – The Sind sparrow is a passerine bird of the sparrow family Passeridae, found around the Indus valley region in South Asia. It is also known as rufous-backed sparrow. Very similar to the related sparrow, it has distinguishing plumage features. As in the sparrow, the male has brighter plumage including black markings and a grey crown. Distinctively, the male has a chestnut stripe running down its head behind the eye, the female has a darker head than other sparrow species do. Its main vocalisations are soft chirping calls that are extended into longer songs with other sounds interspersed by breeding males. Historically, this species was thought to be very closely related to the house sparrow, but its closest evolutionary affinities may lie elsewhere. Discovered around 1840, this species went undetected for several decades after its discovery. Since this species is fairly common and expanding its range, it is assessed as least concern on the IUCN Red List. The Sind sparrow is social during its dispersal. It feeds mostly on seeds and less often on insects, foraging close to the ground. Nests are made in the branches of thorny trees, are untidy globular masses constructed from grass or other plant matter and lined with softer material. Both sexes are involved in caring for the young, usually raise each breeding season. The Sind sparrow is 13 cm long, while the common South Asian subspecies of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus indicus, is about 15 cm long. Wingspans range to 7.0 cm, tarsi measure 1.6 -- 1.9 centimetres.Sind sparrow – Sind sparrow
152. Snoring rail – The snoring rail also known as the Celebes rail or Platen's rail is a large flightless rail, the only member of the genus Aramidopsis. It is an Indonesian endemic found in dense vegetation in wet areas of Sulawesi and nearby Buton. The rail has grey underparts, a white chin, a rufous patch on the hindneck. The female has a brighter neck patch and a differently coloured bill and iris. The typical call is the ee-orrrr sound that gives the bird its English name. Little is known of its behaviour. The breeding behaviour is unrecorded. It feeds on probably other small prey such as lizards. The rails are a very widespread family, with nearly 150 species. Their short bodies are often flattened laterally to help them move through dense vegetation. Island species readily become flightless; of recently extinct taxa restricted to islands, 32 have lost the ability to fly. Aramidopsis derives from the genus name of the limpkin, the Greek suffix opsis, "resembling". The snoring rail weighs 143 -- 160 g. It is flightless, with short wings, strong legs and feet. The belly, flanks and undertail have white barring.Snoring rail – Snoring rail
153. Spotted green pigeon – The spotted green pigeon or Liverpool pigeon is a species of pigeon of unknown provenance, most likely extinct. It was first described in 1783 by John Latham, who claimed to have seen two specimens and a drawing depicting the bird. The species is only known from a specimen kept in World Museum, Liverpool. Overlooked for much of the 20th century, it was only recognised by the IUCN Red List in 2008. The surviving specimen has very dark, brownish plumage with a green gloss. Most of the feathers on the upperparts and wings have a yellowish spot on their tips. The end of the tail has a pale band. It has long wings. There is no evidence for this. Unlike the Nicobar pigeon, mainly terrestrial, the physical features of the green pigeon suggest it was mainly arboreal, fed on fruits. The green pigeon was first mentioned and described by the English ornithologist John Latham in his 1783 work A General Synopsis of Birds. After Davies' death, his specimen was bought by the 13th Earl of Derby in 1812, who kept it in Knowsley Hall. Smith-Stanley's collection was transferred in 1851 where the specimen was prepared from the original posed mount into a study skin. Banks' specimen is now lost. The green pigeon was scientifically named by Johann Friedrich Gmelin in 1789, based on Latham's description.Spotted green pigeon – Spotted green pigeon
154. Tahiti rail – The Tahiti rail, Tahitian red-billed rail, or Pacific red-billed rail is an extinct species of rail that lived on Tahiti. It was first recorded around the world, on which it was illustrated by Georg Forster and described by Johann Reinhold Forster. No specimens have been preserved. As as the documentation by the Forsters, there have been claims that the bird also existed on the nearby island of Mehetia. Its colouration was unusual for a rail. The upper parts were black with white dots and bands. The nape was ferruginous, the breast was grey, it had a black band across the lower throat. The legs were fleshy pink. The Tahiti rail nested on the ground. It is said to have been seen in coconut plantations. Its diet appears to have consisted mainly of insects and occasionally copra. The extinction of the Tahiti rail introduced cats and rats. It appears to have become extinct some time after 1844 on Tahiti, perhaps late as the 1930s on Mehetia. The bird was illustrated by Georg Forster, who accompanied the German naturalist Johann Reinhold Forster. The son were tasked with recording natural history during the voyage, with Georg as draughtsman.Tahiti rail – Tahiti rail
155. White-breasted nuthatch – The white-breasted nuthatch is a small songbird of the nuthatch family which breeds in old-growth woodland across much of temperate North America. It is a stocky bird, with a large head, short tail, strong feet. The face and underparts are white. It has a chestnut lower belly. The nine subspecies differ mainly in the color of the plumage. Like other nuthatches, the white-breasted nuthatch is able to move head-first down trees. Seeds form a substantial part of its diet, as do acorns and hickory nuts that were stored by the bird in the fall. The breeding pair may smear insects around the entrance as a deterrent to squirrels. Carolinensis means "of Carolina" in Latin. The white-breasted nuthatch was first described by English ornithologist John Latham in the Index Ornithologicus. Nuthatch taxonomy is complex, with geographically separated species sometimes closely resembling each other. A study published in 2012 showed that four distinct lineages could represent different species, recognizable by morphology and song. The adult male of S. c. carolinensis, has pale blue-gray upperparts, a glossy black cap, a black band on the upper back. The underparts are white. The outer tail feathers are black with broad white bands across the outer three feathers, a feature readily visible in flight.White-breasted nuthatch – White-breasted nuthatch
156. White-eyed river martin – The white-eyed river martin is a passerine bird, one of only two members of the river martin subfamily of the swallows. Since it has significant differences from the African martin, it is sometimes placed in its own genus, Eurochelidon. It may possibly still breed in China or Southeast Asia, but a Chinese painting initially thought to depict this species was later reassessed as showing pratincoles. It has a bright greenish-yellow bill. The juvenile is generally browner than the adult. It may nest before the summer rains. It may have been overlooked prior to its discovery because it tended to feed at dawn or dusk rather than during the day. The martin's apparent demise may have been hastened by the construction of dams. The white-eyed martin was discovered by Thai ornithologist Kitti Thonglongya, who gave the bird its current binomial name. The Thai species also has a hard gape unlike the softer, much less prominent gape of the African river martin. The new genus was not subsequently widely adopted by other authors, although BirdLife International uses Eurochelidon. The white-eyed martin is a medium-sized swallow, 18 cm long, with mainly silky black plumage and a white rump. The back is green-glossed black, is separated by a narrow white rump band. The head is darker than the back, with a velvet-black chin leading to black underparts. These expand slightly at the tips to give narrow racquets 4.9–8.5 cm long.White-eyed river martin – Specimen at Chulalongkorn University Museum of Natural History
157. Yellowhammer – The eastern subspecies is partially migratory, with much of the population wintering further south. The male yellowhammer has a bright yellow head, streaked brown back, chestnut rump and yellow underparts. Other plumages are duller versions of the same pattern. The yellowhammer forms small flocks in winter. It has a characteristic song with an "A little bit of no cheese" rhythm. The song is very similar to that of the pine bunting, with which it interbreeds. Breeding commences mainly in April and May, a lined cup nest in a concealed location on or near the ground. The 3–5 eggs are patterned with a mesh of fine dark lines, giving rise to the old name for the bird of "scribble lark". The female broods the altricial downy chicks until they fledge 11 -- 13 days later. Both adults raise two or three broods each year. The adults are hunted by birds of prey. Yellowhammers feed on the ground, usually in flocks outside the breeding season. The diet is mainly seeds, supplemented by invertebrates in the breeding season. Its characteristic song has influenced works by Beethoven and Messiaen. The children's writer Enid Blyton helped to popularise the English representation of the song.Yellowhammer – Yellowhammer
158. Yellow-tailed black cockatoo – The yellow-tailed black cockatoo is a large cockatoo native to the south-east of Australia measuring 55–65 cm in length. It has a short crest on the top of its head. It has prominent yellow cheek patches and a yellow tail band. The body feathers are edged with yellow giving a scalloped appearance. The female has a bone-coloured beak and grey eye-rings. In flight, black cockatoos flap deeply and slowly, with a peculiar heavy fluid motion. Their eerie wailing calls carry for long distances. Birds of subspecies funereus have darker plumage overall, while those of xanthanotus have more prominent scalloping. Unlike other cockatoos, they also eat seeds. They nest in hollows situated high in trees with fairly large diameters, generally Eucalyptus. They can often be seen in parts of urban Sydney and Melbourne. It is not commonly seen in aviculture, especially outside Australia. Like most parrots, it is protected by an international agreement, that makes trade, export, import of listed wild-caught species illegal. The French zoologist Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest reclassified it in 1826. The genus name is derived from the Greek words καλυπτός "hidden" and ῥύγχος "beak".Yellow-tailed black cockatoo – Yellow-tailed black cockatoo
159. Zino's petrel – The Zino's petrel or freira is a small seabird in the gadfly petrel genus, endemic to the island of Madeira. This long-winged petrel has wings, with a dark "W" marking across the wings, a grey upper tail. Separating these two Macaronesian species at sea is very challenging. It is Europe's most endangered seabird, with breeding areas restricted to a few ledges high in the central mountains of Madeira. Zino's petrel nests in burrows which are visited only to the accompaniment of their haunting calls. The white egg is incubated by both adults, one sitting during the day while the other feeds on fish and squid at sea. In the past have been taken for food by local shepherds. However, conservation efforts had a major setback in August 2010 when fires killed 65 % of the chicks. The gadfly petrels in the genus Pterodroma are seabirds of tropical oceans. Their often similar appearance have caused the taxonomy of the group to be rather fluid. Nunn and Zino estimated that the two Macaronesian species diverged at the end of the Early Pleistocene, 850,000 years ago. Although their reproductive isolation has allowed the evolutionary development of the two species, genetic evidence shows the three Macaronesian petrels are each other's closest relatives. The species was formally described by Australian amateur ornithologist Gregory Mathews in 1934. The genus Pterodroma is derived from Greek πτερον, pteron, "a wing", δρομος, dromos, "running", refers to the bird's swift erratic flight. The specific madeira refers to the island on which it breeds.Zino's petrel – Track to the breeding ledges
160. Ankylosaurus – Ankylosaurus is a genus of armored dinosaur. The only species classified in the genus is A. magniventris. The genus name means the specific name means "great belly". A complete skeleton has not been discovered. Though other members of Ankylosauria are represented by more extensive fossil material, Ankylosaurus is often considered the archetypal member of its group. The largest known ankylosaurid, Ankylosaurus weighed 6 tonnes. It was a quadrupedal animal, with a robust body. The front part of the jaws were covered in a beak, further behind it. It had a large club on the end of its tail. This feature is the source of the genus name. Its closest relatives appear to be Anodontosaurus and Euoplocephalus. Ankylosaurus is thought to have been a moving animal, able to make quick movements when necessary. Its broad muzzle indicates it was a non-selective browser. Sinuses and nasal chambers in the snout played a role in vocalization. The tail club is thought to have been used in intraspecific combat.Ankylosaurus
161. Apatosaurus – Apatosaurus is a genus of extinct sauropod dinosaurs that lived in North America during the Late Jurassic period. Apatosaurus had an average length of 21 -- an average mass of 16.4 -- 22.4 t. A few specimens indicate a maximum length of 11–30% greater than average and a mass of 32.7–72.6 t. The tail was held during normal locomotion. Apatosaurus had a single claw on three on each hindlimb. The skull of Apatosaurus, long thought to be similar to Camarasaurus, is much more similar to that of Diplodocus. Apatosaurus was a generalized browser that likely held its head elevated. To lighten its vertebrae, Apatosaurus had air sacs that made the bones internally full of holes. Like that of other diplodocids, its tail may have been used as a whip to create loud noises. Henry Fairfield Osborn went on to mount a skeleton of Apatosaurus with a Camarasaurus skull cast. Until 1970, Apatosaurus skeletons were mounted with speculative skull casts, when McIntosh showed that more robust skulls assigned to Diplodocus were more likely from Apatosaurus. Apatosaurus is a genus in the Diplodocidae. It is one of the more basal genera, with only Amphicoelias, possibly a unnamed genus more primitive. While the subfamily Apatosaurinae was named in 1929, the group was not used validly until an extensive 2015 study. Only Brontosaurus is also with the other genera being considered as synonyms or reclassified as diplodocines.Apatosaurus
162. Carnotaurus – The only species is Carnotaurus sastrei. Known from a single well-preserved skeleton, it is one of the best-understood theropods from the Southern Hemisphere. The skeleton, found in 1984, was uncovered in the Chubut Province of Argentina from rocks of the La Colonia Formation. Derived from the Latin carno and taurus, the name Carnotaurus means "meat-eating bull", alluding to its bull-like horns. The phylogenetic relations of Carnotaurus are uncertain; it may have been closer to either Majungasaurus or Aucasaurus. Carnotaurus was bipedal predator, weighing at least 1.35 metric tons. As a theropod, Carnotaurus was highly specialized and distinctive. It had a very deep skull sitting on a muscular neck. Carnotaurus was further characterized by slender hindlimbs. The skeleton is preserved with extensive skin impressions, showing a mosaic of small, non-overlapping scales measuring approximately 5 mm in diameter. The mosaic was interrupted by large bumps that lined the sides of the animal, there are no hints of feathers. The distinctive horns and the muscular neck may have been used in fighting conspecifics. Carnotaurus was well adapted for running and was possibly one of the fastest large theropods. Carnotaurus was a large but lightly built predator. The only known individual was about 8–9 metres in length, making Carnotaurus one of the largest abelisaurids.Carnotaurus
163. Dromaeosauroides – Dromaeosauroides is a genus of dromaeosaurid theropod dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of what is now Denmark. It was discovered in the Jydegaard Formation on the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea. Dromaeosauroides is the only one, scientifically named. It is one of the first known uncontested dromaeosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Europe. It is known from two teeth, the first of, found in 2008. Based on the first tooth, the species Dromaeosauroides bornholmensis was named in 2003. The species name means "from Bornholm". After this discovery, tracks of more dinosaurs were found in several formations on Bornholm. Some teeth from the United Kingdom that have been referred to the genus Nuthetes may also belong to this animal. Coprolites containing fish remains found in the Jydegaard Formation may belong to Dromaeosauroides. The second tooth is 15 millimetres. They are finely serrated. In life, Dromaeosauroides weighed about 40 kilograms. As a dromaeosaur it had a large sickle claw on its feet like its relatives Dromaeosaurus and Deinonychus. It lived with sauropods as evidenced by a possible titanosaur tooth.Dromaeosauroides
164. Giganotosaurus – The holotype specimen was discovered in the Candeleros Formation of Patagonia in 1993, is almost 70% complete. The animal was named G. carolinii in 1995; the genus name translates as "giant southern lizard" and the specific name honours the discoverer, Rubén D. Carolini. Some tracks, discovered before the holotype, were later assigned to this animal. The genus attracted much interest and became part of a scientific debate about the maximum sizes of theropod dinosaurs. The dentary bone that belonged to a supposedly larger individual has been used to extrapolate a length of 13.2 m. The skull was low, with rugose nasal bones and a ridge-like crest on the lacrimal bone in front of the eye. The front of the lower jaw was flattened, had a downwards projecting process at the tip. The teeth were compressed sideways and had serrations. The neck was strong and the pectoral girdle proportionally small. Giganotosaurus is thought to have been homeothermic, with a metabolism between that of a mammal and a reptile, which would have enabled fast growth. It may have been relatively slow-moving, with a running speed of 14 metres per second. It would have been capable of bringing down prey by delivering powerful bites. The "chin" may have helped in resisting stress when a bite was delivered against prey. It may have fed on sauropod dinosaurs. It is therefore impossible to determine with certainty whether it was larger than Tyrannosaurus, for example, considered the largest theropod historically.Giganotosaurus
165. Heterodontosaurus – Heterodontosaurus is a genus of heterodontosaurid dinosaur that lived during the Early Jurassic period, 200–190 million years ago. Heterodontosaurus tucki, was named in 1962 based on a skull discovered in South Africa. The genus name means "different toothed lizard", in reference to its unusual, heterodont dentition; the specific name honors G. C. Tuck, who supported the discoverers. Further specimens have since been found, including an almost complete skeleton in 1966. The body was short with a long tail. The five-fingered forelimbs were relatively robust, whereas the hind-limbs were long, slender, had four toes. The skull was elongated, triangular when viewed from the side. The front of the jaws were covered in a horny beak. It had three types of teeth; in the upper jaw, incisor-like teeth were followed by long, canine-like tusks. A gap divided the tusks from the chisel-like "cheek teeth". Heterodontosaurus is the best known member of the family Heterodontosauridae. This family is considered one of the most basal groups within the order of ornithischian dinosaurs. In spite of the large tusks, Heterodontosaurus is thought to have been herbivorous, or at least omnivorous. Though it was formerly thought to have been capable of quadrupedal locomotion, it is now thought to have been bipedal.Heterodontosaurus
166. Opisthocoelicaudia – Opisthocoelicaudia /ɒˌpɪsθoʊsɪlᵻˈkɔːdiə/ is a genus of sauropod dinosaur of the Late Cretaceous Period discovered in the Gobi Desert of Mongolia. The only species is Opisthocoelicaudia skarzynskii. Tooth marks on this skeleton indicate that large carnivorous dinosaurs had fed on the carcass and possibly had carried away the now-missing parts. To date, much less complete specimens are known, including a part of a fragmentary tail. A relatively small sauropod, Opisthocoelicaudia measured about 11.4 metres in length. The Opisthocoelicaudia means "posterior cavity tail", alluding to the opisthocoel condition of the anterior tail vertebrae that were concave on their posterior sides. Skeletal features lead researchers to propose that Opisthocoelicaudia was able to rear on its hindlegs. Its exact relationships within Titanosauria are contentious, but it may have been close to the North American Alamosaurus. All Opisthocoelicaudia fossils stem from the Nemegt Formation. Despite being rich in dinosaur fossils, the only other sauropod from this rock unit is Nemegtosaurus, known from a single skull. Since the skull of Opisthocoelicaudia remains unknown, several researchers have suggested that Nemegtosaurus and Opisthocoelicaudia may represent the same species. Like other sauropods, Opisthocoelicaudia had a long tail. It was relatively small for a sauropod; the specimen was estimated at 11.4 m to the tip of the tail. The mass has been estimated at 8.4 t, 10.5 t, 22 t, 25.4 t in separate studies. The anterior vertebrae of the tail were opisthocoelous, which means they were convex on their anterior sides and concave on their back sides, forming ball-and-socket joints.Opisthocoelicaudia
167. Paranthodon – Paranthodon is a genus of extinct stegosaurian dinosaur that lived in South Africa during the Early Cretaceous, between 145.5 and 136.4 million years ago. Discovered in 1845, it was one of the first stegosaurians found. A partial skull and isolated teeth, were found in the Kirkwood Formation. Several years later, Hungarian paleontologist Franz Nopcsa, unaware of Broom's new name, similarly concluded that it named it Paranthodon owenii. The genus name combines the Greek para with the genus name Anthodon, to represent the initial referral of the remains. In identifying the remains as those of Palaeoscincus, Broom initially classified Paranthodon as a statement backed by the research of Coombs in the 1970s. In 1929 however, Nopcsa identified the taxon as a stegosaurid, which most modern studies agree with. In 1981, the genus was found to be a valid genus of stegosaurid. Paranthodon was a small relative of larger stegosaurids such as Stegosaurus. Thomas R. Holtz Jr. estimated that the animal weighed between 454 and 907 kg. The snout is elongated, though not convex on top. The external nares are large. The teeth have a primary ridge. An incomplete premaxilla is also preserved. The partial snout resembles the extension of the palate.Paranthodon – Hypothetical restoration based on related stegosaurians
168. Stegoceras – The type species S. validum was based on these remains. The specific name means "strong". These have since been moved to other genera or deemed junior synonyms. Currently only S. validum and S. novomexicanum, named from fossils found in New Mexico, remain. The validity of the latter species has also been debated. Stegoceras weighed around 10 to 40 kilograms. It had a stiffened tail. The pelvic region was broad, perhaps due to an extended gut. The skull had a thick, broad, relatively smooth dome on the top. It had a thick ridge over the eyes. The largest formed small horns on the shelf. The teeth were serrated. The skull is thought to have grown into a dome with age. A complete Stegoceras skull with associated parts of the skeleton was found in 1924, which shed more light on these animals. Pachycephalosaurs are today grouped with the horned ceratopsians in the Marginocephalia.Stegoceras
169. Teleost – The teleosts or Teleostei are by far the largest infraclass in the class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes, make up 96 percent of all fish. Members are arranged in about 40 orders and 448 families. Over 26,000 species have been described. Teleosts inhabit the ocean depths, estuaries, rivers, lakes and even swamps. This is of great advantage, enabling them to draw it into the mouth. Other bones further back in the mouth serve to swallow food. Another difference is that lower lobes of the tail fin are about equal in size. The spine ends at the caudal peduncle, distinguishing this group from other fish in which the spine extends into the upper lobe of the tail fin. Teleosts have adopted a range of reproductive strategies. Most use external fertilisation: the female lays a batch of eggs, the larvae develop without any further parental involvement. A fair proportion of teleosts are hermaphrodites, transitioning to males at some stage, with a few species reversing this process. Teleosts are economically important to humans as is shown over the centuries. The industry harvests them for food and anglers attempt to capture them for sport. This method of production is likely to be increasingly important in the future. Others are used in research, especially in the fields of genetics and developmental biology.Teleost
170. Grasshopper – Grasshoppers are insects of the order Orthoptera, suborder Caelifera. They are sometimes referred to as short-horned grasshoppers to distinguish them from the katydids which have much longer antennae. They are typically ground-dwelling insects with hind legs which enable them to escape by leaping vigorously. At high population densities and under environmental conditions, some species can change colour and behaviour and form swarms. Under these circumstances they are known as locusts. Other species such as the rainbow grasshopper have warning coloration which deters predators. Many predatory creatures feed on both adults. The eggs are the subject of attack by parasitoids and predators. Grasshoppers have had a long relationship with humans. Swarms of locusts have had dramatic effects that have changed the course of history, even in smaller numbers grasshoppers can be serious pests. They are eaten in countries such as Mexico and Indonesia. They feature in literature. Grasshoppers have the insect plan of head, thorax and abdomen. The head is held vertically with the mouth at the bottom. The downward-directed mouthparts are modified for chewing and there are two sensory palps in front of the jaws.Grasshopper
171. Nothomyrmecia – Nothomyrmecia, also known as the dinosaur ant or dawn ant, is a rare genus of ants consisting of a single species, Nothomyrmecia macrops. It lives in South Australia, Eucalyptus woodland. Possible threats to its survival include climate change. It also increases hunting success. Thus, very few areas would be suitable for the ant to live in. As a result, the IUCN lists the ant as Critically Endangered. Nothomyrmecia measures 9.7 -- 11 mm. Workers are monomorphic, showing morphological differentiation among one another. Mature colonies are very small, with only 50 to 100 individuals in each nest. Workers are solitary foragers, collecting arthropod prey and sweet substances such as honeydew from scale insects and other Hemiptera. During colony foundation, she will hunt for food until the brood have fully developed. Queens are univoltine. Only one will remain once the first generation of workers has been reared. Nothomyrmecia was first described by Australian entomologist John S. Clark from two specimens of worker ants. These were reportedly collected in 1931 near the Russell Range, inland from Israelite Bay in Western Australia.Nothomyrmecia – Nothomyrmecia
172. Finn M. W. Caspersen – Finn Michael Westby Caspersen, Sr. was an American financier and philanthropist. He regarded it as "an investment in the future -- an investment in human capital." Endowed professorships have been named in his honor. Caspersen was an influential donor to Republican candidates at the state and national level. In the 1980s, he was a major supporter of former New Jersey governor Thomas Kean. Near the end of his life, Caspersen was subjected with a possible focus on alleged offshore accounts. An attorney for Caspersen's estate claimed that in 2013 the IRS effectively exonerated Caspersen anything else. Finn Michael Westby Caspersen was born in New York City. Siblings had emigrated to the United States earlier, leaving Olaus in Norway to complete his education. Olaus came at age 16 settling in Weehawken, New Jersey. His father thought that his sons needed a religious upbringing. Finn attended a congregational church in his youth. He later reflected that "being Protestant was important. There was a kind of anti-Catholicism in the family." The family moved in Andover, New Jersey, Venice, Florida.Finn M. W. Caspersen – Finn Caspersen, circa 2008
173. Adam Eckfeldt – John Adam Eckfeldt was a worker and official in the early days of the United States Mint. A lifelong Philadelphian, Eckfeldt served as the second chief coiner of the Mint, until 1839. Eckfeldt's father involved himself in early attempts at American coinage. Eckfeldt became chief coiner on his predecessor's death in 1814. He served a century as chief coiner, during which time the Philadelphia Mint moved to new premises. As he set aside unusual coins brought in as bullion, Eckfeldt started the Mint's cabinet, which evolved into the National Numismatic Collection. John Adam Eckfeldt implements. At the time, it be referred to by middle name. His wife Maria Magdalena had immigrated from Nuremberg, Bavaria, around 1764. John Jacob Eckfeldt, in his large smithy, made dies under the Articles of Confederation authorized by Philadelphia financier Robert Morris. Adam was skilled in iron work and machinery. After the United States Constitution was ratified, Congress and many government offices came to be housed in Philadelphia, including the newborn Mint of the United States. Eckfeldt also helped superintend the early coining. In 1792, the Mint acquired three balances from Eckfeldt, who also lent his lathe. Later accounts document Eckfeldt's role in this striking: an 1863 auction sold a half disme supposedly given by Eckfeldt to demonstrate his work.Adam Eckfeldt – Adam Eckfeldt
174. London Necropolis Company – The LNC intended to establish a single cemetery large enough to accommodate all of London's future burials in perpetuity. A dedicated railway line, the London Necropolis Railway, linked the new cemetery to the city. Financial mismanagement and internal disputes led to delays in the project. By the time Brookwood Cemetery opened in late 1854, a number of other cemeteries had opened nearer to London or were in the process of opening. While some parishes in London did arrange for the LNC to handle the burials of their dead, many preferred to use nearer cemeteries. From the 1880s the LNC began a more aggressive programme to maximise its income. The process for the sale of surplus land was improved, resulting in increased income. The LNC also provided the land for a number of significant military cemeteries and memorials at Brookwood after both of the World Wars. In 1941 London Necropolis railway station, the LNC's London railway terminus, was badly damaged by bombing, the London Necropolis Railway was abandoned. Rising property prices in Surrey in the 1950s also made it a target for property speculators. In 1959 a hostile takeover succeeded, LNC's independence came to an end. In 1985 what remained of the company came into the ownership of Ramadan Güney, who set about reviving what remained. Since the conversion of London to Christianity in the 7th century, the city's dead had been buried around the local churches. Exhumed bones were scattered where they had reburied in pits. By the 17th century the city was running seriously short of burial space.London Necropolis Company – The Westminster Bridge Road offices of the LNC and the first class entrance to the second London terminus, opened in 1902.
175. Alabama Centennial half dollar – The coin was created by Laura Gardin Fraser, who became the first designer of a coin. Alabama Congressman Lilius Bratton Rainey introduced legislation at the request of the state's centennial commission. The bill originally was amended to provide for halves instead. The bill became the Act of May 10, 1920 with the signature of President Woodrow Wilson. To boost a symbol, 2X2 was included in the design for a minority of the coins; these are generally more expensive today. Alabama celebrated its centennial in 1919. The proceeds were to be used for "historical and monumental" purposes. Commission members persuaded local congressman Lilius Bratton Rainey to push for passage of a bill authorizing a coin. Although not mentioned in the case of the Alabama Centennial half dollar, the centennial commission was the authorized group. Rainey introduced legislation for an Alabama Centennial half dollar in the House of Representatives with the bill designated as H.R. 12824. It was referred to the Committee on Coinage, Weights and Measures, of which Indiana Congressman Albert Vestal was the chairman. Rainey also accepted Ashbrook's discouragement when the Alabaman wanted to double the authorized number of coins. The committee then proceeded to consider the Pilgrim proposal. The three coinage bills -- Maine Centennial, Pilgrim Tercentenary -- were considered in that order by the House of Representatives on April 21, 1920. As the Maine piece was considered, Ohio's Warren Gard asked questions about the bill's provisions, though he did not object to its passage.Alabama Centennial half dollar – Alabama Centennial Half Dollar
176. American Arts Commemorative Series medallions – American Arts Commemorative Series medallions are a series of ten gold bullion medallions that were produced by the United States Mint from 1980 to 1984. They were sold to compete with the South African Krugerrand and other bullion coins. Iowa Representative Jim Leach suggested that the medallions depict notable American artists. President Jimmy Carter signed the bill containing the authorizing legislation into law on November 10, 1978, despite objections from Treasury officials. The medallions were initially sold through order; purchasers were required to obtain the day's price before ordering. Later, the Mint sold them through telemarketing. Mintage ceased after the ten different medallions approved by Congress were produced. All were struck at the West Point Bullion Depository. For reasons of bookkeeping, an entire bar was set as the minimum purchase, which placed the gold outside of the reach of most Americans. On the day of the Treasury announcement, Helms introduced the Gold Medallion Act of 1978. Million troy ounces of gold had been imported into the United States in the form of Krugerrands in 1977 alone. Under the stepped-up rate of gold sales, only two months worth of gold. The amount is about equal to last year's importation of foreign bullion coins, mostly Krugerrands from South Africa. "Human Rights," and "One-half ounce fine gold." The reverse would be similar to the back side of the "Freedom" medallion, with the Great Seal.American Arts Commemorative Series medallions – A 1980 Grant Wood one ounce gold medallion
177. California Diamond Jubilee half dollar – The California Diamond Jubilee half dollar was a United States commemorative fifty cent piece struck at the San Francisco Mint in 1925. It was issued to celebrate the 75th anniversary of California statehood. The San Francisco Citizens' Committee wished to issue a commemorative coin as a fundraiser for a celebration of the statehood jubilee. A California congressman attached authorization to another coinage bill, approved in early 1925. The coin has been widely praised since. The coins were sold the following month. The coin is catalogued at between $200 and $1,300, though exceptional specimens have sold for more. The land, now the state of California was first visited by Europeans when Spanish explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo visited there in 1542. According to numismatic author Arnie Slabaugh, "the coming of American settlers brought two changes to California that continue to this day: activity". In 1846, American settlers revolted against Mexican rule, founding the Bear Flag Republic; its flag featured a grizzly bear. The republic proved short-lived; California was occupied by U.S. forces. A week before the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed in January 1848, gold was discovered by James W. Marshall. The California Gold Rush followed, as did statehood in 1850. The bill passed the Senate after an amendment removed the gold dollar. He added because of this, Washington Representative Albert Johnson had agreed to withdraw his bill for a commemorative honoring Fort Vancouver, in Washington state.California Diamond Jubilee half dollar – California Diamond Jubilee half dollar
178. Cincinnati Musical Center half dollar – Congress approved legislation on March 31, 1936 authorizing 15,000 pieces to be struck at the three mints then in operation. The Commission of Fine Arts refused to recommend the designs. Members objected on the obverse finding no connection between Foster, who died in 1864, the supposed anniversary. The value dropped somewhat when the coins are valuable today. Melish has been assailed by numismatic writers for greed. Sparked by low-mintage issues which appreciated in value, the market for United States commemorative coins spiked in 1936. In early 1936, all earlier commemoratives sold at a premium to their issue prices. Among the pieces, which had recently been had appreciated in value was the 1935 Old Spanish Trail half dollar. Congress authorized an explosion of commemorative coins in 1936; no fewer than 15 were issued for the first time. A coin collector and entrepreneur from Cincinnati, came up with an idea for a commemorative coin that he would control and profit from. Melish was a prominent businessman, who had inherited the Bromwell Wire Company. He secured the introduction of House of Representatives Resolution 10264 on January 31, 1936. This bill would have provided for 10,000 coins from the Philadelphia Mint, 3,000 from the San Francisco Mint. Such a low mintage would have made increasing Melish's profit. Melish, through political influence, was able to retain the provision that they should be struck "at the mints", allowing coinage at all three mints.Cincinnati Musical Center half dollar – Cincinnati Musical Center half dollar
179. Cleveland Centennial half dollar – He was successful with the Cincinnati Musical Center half dollar, from which he profited greatly, with the Cleveland piece. Brenda Putnam designed the Cleveland coin, approved by the Commission of Fine Arts by sculptor Lee Lawrie. Melish distributed the Cleveland coins from his office in Cincinnati. The full authorized mintage of 50,000 was struck. The coins remain inexpensive by the standards of commemorative coins of the era. The remainder was sold in 1795. Moses Cleaveland was a surveyor, one of the company's directors. By the shores of Lake Erie, he set out a townsite that came to bear his name. In 1830, a newspaper was founded, to be called the Cleaveland Advertiser. The town of Cleveland became a city in 1836. Thomas G. Melish was a prominent Cincinnati businessman, who had inherited the Bromwell Wire Company. Melish was also a collector, who came up with an idea for a commemorative coin that he would control. The result was an issue controlled by Melish and issued to commemorate a fiftieth anniversary that did not exist. Melish sold only a few coins at the price, high, keeping back most for later sale once scarcity drove the price higher. By 1936, the market for U.S. commemorative coins had become, according to Q.Cleveland Centennial half dollar
180. Flying Eagle cent – The coin was designed by Mint Chief Engraver James B. Longacre, with the eagle in flight based on the work of Longacre's predecessor, Christian Gobrecht. By the early 1850s, the large cent being issued by the Mint was becoming both expensive to coin. After experimenting with various compositions, the Mint decided on an alloy of 88 % copper and 12 % nickel for a new, smaller cent. After the Mint gave them to legislators and officials, Congress formally authorized the new piece in February 1857. So many cents were issued that they choked commercial channels, especially as no one had to take them. The eagle design was replaced in 1859 by Longacre's Indian Head cent. The cent was the official United States coin to be struck at the Philadelphia Mint in 1793. These pieces, today known as large cents, were about the size of a half dollar. They were slow to become established in commerce. Worn colonial silver pieces were then commonly used as money throughout the United States. The Mint made little profit from those transactions. By the 1840s, seignorage, from monetizing copper into cents helped fund the Mint. In 1849, copper prices rose sharply, causing the Department of the Treasury to investigate possible alternatives to the one-cent pieces. The cent was unpopular in trade; banks and merchants often refused it.Flying Eagle cent
181. Hawaii Sesquicentennial half dollar – The coin depicts Captain Cook on the obverse and a Hawaiian chieftain on the reverse. Only 10,000 were struck for the public, making it valuable. Treasury Secretary Andrew Mellon thought the occasion important enough that, unusually for him, he did not oppose such an issue. Sculptor Chester Beach made the plaster models by Juliette May Fraser. The coin went into production. The resolution requested that Washington invite other nations. It also asked the federal government to issue a half postage stamps in honor of the anniversary. In the case of the Hawaii dollar, the Cook Sesquicentennial Commission of Hawaii was the designated group. Bruce Cartwright, Jr. was in charge of choosing a design for the Cook commission. A civic-minded person, arranged for him to meet Juliette May Fraser, a local artist. Within two days, Fraser had produced sketches. Sculptor Chester Beach was engaged instead. Legislation for such was introduced into the House of Representatives to Congress, Victor Stewart Kaleoaloha Houston, on December 5, 1927. Usually, when a commemorative coin was proposed, Mellon argued that a medal should be issued instead. Kvale stated he would vote for the bill.Hawaii Sesquicentennial half dollar
182. Huguenot-Walloon half dollar – The Huguenot-Walloon half dollar or Huguenot-Walloon Tercentenary half dollar is a commemorative coin issued by the United States Bureau of the Mint in 1924. It marks the 300th anniversary of the voyage of the Nieuw Nederland which landed in 1624. Sketches were converted to plaster models by the Mint's aging chief engraver, George T. Morgan. The models were initially rejected by the Commission of Fine Arts, which required revisions under the supervision of Buffalo designer James Earle Fraser. Of these, 55,000 were returned to the Mint and released into circulation. The coin excited some controversy because of its sponsorship by a religious group. The coins are currently valued depending on condition. The Huguenots were French Protestants, who were often with the Catholic majority. Among those who fell in the rioting that day was the Huguenot military and political leader, Admiral Gaspard de Coligny. Many Huguenots who fled France have become known as Walloons. Others came to live in the Netherlands. The Prince of Orange was one of the leaders of the Dutch War of Independence against Spain. He was assassinated by Balthasar Gérard, a pro-Spanish extremist. These were many of the early settlers of the area. Belgium's King Albert I accepted an honorary chairmanship.Huguenot-Walloon half dollar
183. Indian Head cent – It was designed by the Chief Engraver at the Philadelphia Mint. From 1793 to 1857, the cent was a coin about the size of a half dollar. The new pieces made of copper-nickel. The Mint soon looked to replace the coin. Cents were hoarded during the economic chaos of the American Civil War, when the nickel was in short supply. In the postwar period, the cent was struck in large numbers in most years. An exception was 1877, when a poor economy and little demand for cents created one of the rarest dates in the series. In 1909, the Indian Head cent was replaced by the Lincoln cent, designed by Victor D. Brenner. The large cent was struck from 1793 to 1857, authorized by the Mint Act of 1792 which defined the "cent" as 1/100 dollar. Nevertheless, because of the constitutional clause making silver legal tender, the government would not accept copper cents for taxes or other payments. The Flying Eagle cent was struck in limited numbers for circulation in 1857 and 1858. The Flying Eagle cent was issued for worn Spanish colonial silver coins, which until then had circulated widely in the United States. These "small cents" were also issued in exchange for the copper coins they had replaced. By 1858, Mint authorities found the unsatisfactory in production. Mint Engraver James B.Indian Head cent
184. Indian Head gold pieces – The eagle was struck to 1915 and from 1925 -- 1929. The eagle was struck to 1916, in 1929. The pieces remain the only US circulating coins with recessed designs. These coins were the last of their denominations to be struck for circulation, ending series which had begun in the 1790s. The Mint had fitting the required inscriptions on the gold coins. Such coins were designed at the request of William Sturgis Bigelow. The two pieces were struck until World War I caused gold to vanish from circulation, then again in the late 1920s. Neither coin circulated much; the quarter eagle saw popularity as a Christmas present. In 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt stopped the issuance of gold in coin form, recalled many pieces which were in private or bank hands. By the Mint Act of 1792, an "eagle" was made equivalent to ten dollars. Mint officials originally assumed that whatever design was selected for the double eagle would simply be scaled down for the three lower denominations. In May 1907, however, President Roosevelt decided that the double eagle would bear a departure from past practice. After considerable difficulties, the Mint issued the eagle and double eagle based on Saint-Gaudens' designs later that year. Due to the difficulties with the two larger coins, little attention was given to the half eagle and quarter eagle until late 1907. On December 2, Mint Director Frank Leach instructed the Philadelphia Mint to prepare coinage dies for the small pieces, using the double eagle design.Indian Head gold pieces
185. Lewis and Clark Exposition dollar – The first American overland exploring party to reach the Pacific Coast, was led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. The Portland fair commemorated the centennial of that trip. The coins were, for the most part, sold by numismatic promoter Farran Zerbe, who had also vended the Louisiana Purchase Exposition dollar. As he was unable to sell much of the issue, surplus coins were melted by the Mint. Today are worth between hundreds and thousands of dollars, depending on condition. Clark Exposition dollar is the only American coin to be "two-headed", with a portrait of one of the expedition leaders on each side. The Louisiana Purchase, by the United States from France in 1803, more than doubled the area of the American nation. William Clark had served together, chose about thirty men, dubbed the Corps of Discovery, to accompany them. Many of these were frontiersmen from others with necessary skills. The expedition set forth from the St. Louis area on May 1804. Journeying up the Missouri River, Lewis and Clark met Sacagawea, a woman of the Lemhi Shoshone tribe. Sacagawea had been sold as a slave to Toussaint Charbonneau, a French-Canadian trapper, who made her one of his wives. One reason for her success was that the Indian chief whose aid they sought proved to be Sacagawea's brother. The expedition spent the winter of 1804–1805 encamped near the site of Bismarck, North Dakota. They came within view of the Pacific Ocean, near Astoria, Oregon, on November 7.Lewis and Clark Exposition dollar – Lewis and Clark Exposition dollar
186. Lexington-Concord Sesquicentennial half dollar – It was designed by Chester Beach. Members of the Massachusetts congressional delegation introduced legislation in 1924 which would provide for a commemorative half dollar for the anniversary. The bill passed both houses of Congress and was signed by President Calvin Coolidge. The coins were vended in Concord; they were sold at banks across New England. Although just over half of the authorized mintage of 300,000 was struck, almost all of the coins that were minted were sold. Depending on condition, they are catalogued in the hundreds of dollars. The Battles of Lexington and Concord took place in those neighboring Massachusetts towns on April 19, 1775. Caches of munitions were stored including at Concord. Lord Dartmouth, instructed the British commander in General Thomas Gage, to stamp out this resistance. On April 1775, Gage secretly ordered Lieutenant Colonel Francis Smith to destroy the munitions there. It is uncertain how the Americans came to hear of the plan: Gage's Margaret may have been a spy. Both got to Lexington, where they met with Hancock and Samuel Adams. The supplies in Concord were moved. British troops began their march at 2 am on April 19, Smith sent troops ahead under Major John Pitcairn. When Pitcairn and his men found a company of armed colonials at Lexington, he ordered them to disperse.Lexington-Concord Sesquicentennial half dollar
187. Liberty Head double eagle – It was designed by Mint of the United States Chief Engraver James B. Longacre. The largest denomination of United States coin authorized by the Mint Act of 1792 was ten-dollar piece. Double eagle were the result. After considerable infighting at the Philadelphia Mint, Chief Engraver James B. Longacre designed the double eagle, it began to be issued for commerce in 1850. Only 1849 double eagle is known to survive; it rests in the National Numismatic Collection at the Smithsonian. The coin was immediately successful; banks used it in trade. Millions of double eagles were sent overseas throughout its run to be melted or placed in bank vaults. Many of the latter have now been repatriated to feed the demand from those who desire to hold gold. Under the Mint Act of 1792, the largest-denomination coin was ten-dollar piece. Also struck were a half eagle and eagle. Bullion flowed out of the United States for much of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. In 1838, coinage resumed after Congress revised the weight and fineness of American gold coins. The new eagle was struck by Christian Gobrecht, one of the Mint's engravers.Liberty Head double eagle
188. Louisiana Purchase Exposition dollar – The Louisiana Purchase Exposition dollar was a commemorative coin issue in gold dated 1903. Struck in two varieties, the coins were designed by United States Bureau of the Mint Chief Engraver Charles E. Barber. Although not the American commemorative coins, they were the first in gold. Promoters of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, originally scheduled to open in 1903, sought a commemorative coin for fundraising purposes. Exposition authorities, including numismatic promoter Farran Zerbe, sought to have the coin issued with two designs, to aid sales. The price for each variety was the same cost whether sold as a coin, or mounted in jewelry or on a spoon. Most were later melted. Zerbe, who had promised to support the price of the coins, did not do so as prices dropped once the fair closed. This drop, however, did not greatly affect Zerbe's career, as he went on to become president of the American Numismatic Association. The coins also recovered, regaining their price by 1915; they are now worth between a few hundred and several thousand dollars, depending on condition. Much of the area near the Mississippi River was explored by French explorers in the 18th centuries. In 1682, Sieur de La Salle, claimed the entire area drained by the river for France, naming it Louisiana for Louis XIV. Napoleon came in 1799. Newly inaugurated American President Thomas Jefferson learned of them in 1801. The United States took two months later.Louisiana Purchase Exposition dollar – Louisiana Purchase Exposition dollar
189. McKinley Birthplace Memorial dollar – The coin's obverse was designed by his assistant, George T. Morgan. The coins did not sell well. Despite an authorized mintage of 100,000, only about 20,000 were sold, many of these at a reduced price to Texas coin dealer B. Max Mehl. Another 10,000 pieces were returned for melting. William McKinley was born in 1843. He enlisted in the Union Army when the American Civil War broke out in 1861. He served throughout the war, ending it as a brevet major. Afterwards, he was admitted to the bar. He settled after practicing there, was elected to Congress in 1876. In 1890, he was elected governor the following year, serving two two-year terms. With the aid of his close adviser Mark Hanna, he secured the Republican nomination for president amid a deep economic depression. This contrasted to "free silver", pushed in his campaign. McKinley was president during the Spanish -- American War of 1898, in which the U.S. victory was decisive. As part of the settlement, Spain turned over to the United States its overseas colonies of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Philippines.McKinley Birthplace Memorial dollar – McKinley Birthplace Memorial dollar
190. Monroe Doctrine Centennial half dollar – The Monroe Doctrine Centennial half dollar was a fifty-cent piece struck by the United States Bureau of the Mint. Sculptor Chester Beach is credited with the design, although the reverse closely resembles an earlier work by Raphael Beck. In 1922, the motion industry was faced with a number of scandals, including manslaughter charges against star Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle. Although Arbuckle was eventually acquitted, picture executives sought ways of getting good publicity for Hollywood. One means was an exposition, to be held in Los Angeles in mid-1923. The exposition was a financial failure. The bulk of the mintage of over 270,000 was released into circulation. Many of the pieces, saved were spent during the Depression; most surviving coins show evidence of wear. In the early 1820s, the United States deemed two matters untoward interference in its zone of influence. The first was the Russian Ukase of 1821, asserting exclusive territorial and trading rights of what is today Canada's Pacific coast. The United States hoped to eventually gain control of it. The second was European threats against the Latin American nations, newly independent from Spain. United States officials feared that a Quadruple Alliance of Prussia, Austria, Russia, France would restore Spain to power in the Americas. Rush asked from President James Monroe. The President consulted with his predecessors, James Madison, who favored the joint statement, as an alliance with Britain would protect the United States.Monroe Doctrine Centennial half dollar – Monroe Doctrine Centennial half dollar
191. Standing Liberty quarter – The Standing Liberty quarter was a 25-cent coin struck by the United States Mint from 1916 to 1930. It succeeded the Barber quarter, minted since 1892. Featuring the goddess of Liberty on one side and an eagle in flight on the other, the coin was designed by sculptor Hermon Atkins MacNeil. MacNeil submitted a militaristic design that showed Liberty on guard against attacks. The Mint required modifications to the initial design, MacNeil's revised version included dolphins to represent the oceans. In late 1916, Mint officials made major changes to the design without consulting MacNeil. The sculptor complained about the changes after receiving the new issue in January 1917. The Mint obtained special legislation to allow MacNeil to redesign the coin as he desired. One change made by the sculptor was the addition of a vest that covered Liberty's formerly bare breast. In circulation, the coin's date wore away quickly, Mint engravers modified the design to address the issue in 1925. The Standing Liberty quarter was discontinued in 1931, a year in which no quarters were struck. By Congressional act the Washington quarter, featuring the first president's profile was introduced in 1932 to celebrate the bicentennial of his birth. The Barber coinage had been introduced in 1892; dimes, half dollars by Mint Chief Engraver Charles E. Barber. The Barber coinage, after its release, attracted considerable public dissatisfaction. Beginning in 1905, presidential administrations had attempted to bring beautiful designs to United States coins.Standing Liberty quarter – Standing Liberty quarter
192. Susan B. Anthony dollar – The Susan B. Finally, a round planchet with an eleven-sided inner border was chosen for the smaller dollar. Individuals in Congress called for the coin to depict a woman. Several proposals were submitted, social reformer Susan B. Anthony was selected as the design subject. The reverse design of the Eisenhower dollar was kept. Both sides of the coin were designed by Frank Gasparro, the Chief Engraver of the United States Mint. The Mint struck 500 million coins in anticipation of considerable public demand, but the Susan B. Anthony dollar was poorly received, in part because of confusion caused by its similarity in size and metallic composition to the quarter. Despite its poor reception, the coins began seeing use in vending machines and mass transit systems, gradually depleting the surplus. Production did not begin enough to meet demand. To fill the gap, a final run of Susan B. Anthony dollars was struck in 1999; the series was retired the following year. Special coins for sale to collectors were struck in proof finish through the run of the Susan B. Anthony dollar, some minting varieties are valuable to collectors.Susan B. Anthony dollar
193. Walking Liberty half dollar – Woolley had the Commission of Fine Arts conduct a competition, as a result of which Weinman was selected to design the dollar. Nevertheless, art historian Cornelius Vermeule considered the piece to be among the most beautiful US coins. The Barber coinage was introduced in 1892; dimes, half dollars by Mint Engraver Charles E. Barber. The new pieces attracted considerable public dissatisfaction. Beginning in 1905, presidential administrations had attempted to bring beautiful designs to United States coins. As early as 1914, Victor David Brenner, designer of the Lincoln cent, submitted unsolicited designs for the silver coins. He was told in response that Secretary of the Treasury William G. McAdoo was completely occupied with other matters. On January 2, 1915, an interview with Philadelphia Mint Superintendent Adam M. Joyce appeared in the Michigan Manufacturer and Financial Record: So far as I know... There is no thought of issuing new coins of the 50-cent, 25-cent, 10-cent values. The buffalo nickel and the Lincoln penny are also faulty from a practical standpoint. All resulted to the satisfaction of artists and not practical coiners. This can be done any time in the year." In reply, McAdoo wrote "let the mint submit designs before we try anyone else" on the memorandum. In April 1915, Robert W. Woolley took office as Mint Director. On April 14, he asked Joyce to request Engraver Barber, then in his 36th year in office, to prepare new designs.Walking Liberty half dollar – Roty 's "Sower" design for French coins may have inspired Weinman's obverse.
194. Baden-Powell House – The house, owned by The Scout Association, hosts a small exhibition relating by Don Potter. It was opened in 1961 by Queen Elizabeth II. The largest part of the £400,000 cost was provided by the Scout Movement itself. The building also hosts conference and space for hire. The committee's directive was to build a hostel to provide a place to stay at reasonable cost while visiting London. In 1956 the committee purchased a bombed-out property at the intersection of Cromwell Road and Queen's Gate at a cost of # 39,000. The Scout Movement raised the major part of the funding of # 400,000 for furnishing the building between 1957 and 1959. This raised the bulk of the money for the building. Scouts representing every county were present at the opening. A casket was buried under the stone which held 1959 Scout mementoes, stamps, coins, photographs, etc. and a programme of the ceremony. With live broadcast by the BBC, Baden-Powell House was opened on 12 July 1961 by Queen Elizabeth II. Afterwards, she toured the house with the Chief Scout and the president of The Scout Association, Duke of Gloucester. A black panel with gold lettering was put on the balcony in the hall to commemorate the event. The house was designed in 1956, whose works included the Dome of Discovery, the highlight of the 1951 Festival of Britain. While Tubbs created Baden-Powell House in the architectural style of Le Corbusier, he used more architectural restraint in his own design choices.Baden-Powell House – Baden-Powell House
195. Burke and Hare murders – The Burke and Hare murders were a series of 16 murders committed over a period of about ten months in 1828 in Edinburgh, Scotland. The killings were undertaken by William Burke and William Hare, who sold the corpses to Doctor Robert Knox for dissection at his anatomy lectures. Scottish law required that corpses used for medical research should only come from those who had died in prison, suicide victims, or from foundlings and orphans. The shortage of corpses led to an increase in grave robbing by what were known as resurrection men. Measures to ensure graves were left undisturbed exacerbated the shortage. When a lodger in Hare's house died, he turned to his friend Burke for advice and they decided to sell the body to Knox. They received what was, for them, the generous sum of £7 10s. The men continued their murder spree, probably with the knowledge of their wives. Burke and Hare's actions were uncovered after other lodgers discovered their last victim, Margaret Docherty, called the police. A forensic examination of Docherty's body indicated she had probably been suffocated, but it could not be proven. Although the police suspected the men of other murders, there was no evidence on which they could take action. An offer was put to Hare granting immunity from prosecution if he turned king's evidence. He provided the details of Docherty's murder and confessed to all 16 deaths; formal charges were made against Burke and his wife for three murders. At the subsequent trial Burke was found guilty of one murder and sentenced to death. The case against his wife was found not proven—a Scottish legal verdict to acquit an individual but not declare them innocent.Burke and Hare murders – Hare and Burke
196. William Henry Bury – William Henry Bury was suspected of being the notorious serial killer "Jack the Ripper". He was the last person executed in Dundee, Scotland. Bury was educated at a charitable school in the English Midlands. After a few years in regular employment as a clerk, he fell into financial difficulty, became a street peddler. In 1887, he moved to London, where he married probable prostitute Ellen Elliot. During their stormy marriage, which lasted just over a year, they faced increasing financial hardship. In January 1889, they moved to Dundee. A few days later, he was arrested for her murder. Convicted, he was sentenced to death by hanging. Shortly before his execution, he confessed to the crime. Bury killed his wife shortly after the height of the London Whitechapel murders, which were attributed to the unidentified serial killer "Jack the Ripper". The police discounted him as a suspect. The idea that Bury was the Ripper is not widely accepted. William Bury was born in Stourbridge, Worcestershire, his wife Mary Jane. He was orphaned in infancy.William Henry Bury – Sketch of Bury from The Dundee Courier, 12 February 1889. He had dark hair and a beard, was 5 foot 3½ inches (1.61 m) tall, and weighed less than 10 stone (64 kg).
197. Josephine Butler – Josephine Elizabeth Butler was an English feminist and social reformer in the Victorian era. She grew up in a politically connected progressive family which helped develop in her a strong social conscience and firmly held religious ideals. The couple had four children, the last of whom, Eva, died falling from a bannister. She focused her feelings on helping others, starting with the inhabitants of a local workhouse. Josephine began in British law. The campaign achieved its final success with the repeal of the Acts. She also formed a Europe-wide organisation to combat similar systems on the continent. Her final campaign was against the Contagious Diseases Acts which continued to be implemented in the British Raj. Durham University named one of their colleges after her. After her death in 1906 the feminist intellectual Millicent Fawcett hailed her as "the most distinguished Englishwoman of the nineteenth century". Josephine Grey was born on 13 April 1828 at Milfield, Northumberland. She was taught before completing her schooling at a boarding school in Newcastle upon Tyne which she attended for two years. John treated his children equally within the home. He exposed them to various politically important visitors. Following her crisis, she remained critical of the Anglican church.Josephine Butler – Josephine Butler
198. Monroe Edwards – Monroe Edwards was an American slave trader, forger and convicted criminal, the subject of a well-publicized trial and conviction in 1842. Originally from Kentucky, Edwards moved to New Orleans then settled in Texas. He used the proceeds to purchase land in Texas. In 1836 he was again this time into Texas. He then tried to money out of various abolitionists in the United States and the United Kingdom, partly with forged letters of introduction. His schemes were mainly unsuccessful and he returned to the United States in mid-1841. Edwards' largest swindle involved forged letters in New Orleans, which he used to secure bank drafts for large sums that he then cashed. He was arrested and tried for the forgeries in June 1842. He was mentioned in Herman Melville's 1853 short story "Bartleby, the Scrivener". Edwards was born in Danville, Kentucky. The name of his mother is unknown. His uncle was Haden Edwards who lived in Nacogdoches. Nothing is known with certainty of his childhood. As a grown man, he was considered very handsome, usually dressed fashionably. Some accounts give the title "Colonel".Monroe Edwards – A portrait engraving of Edwards from Life and Adventures of the Accomplished Forger and Swindler, Colonel Monroe Edwards, published a year after his death
199. Guy Fawkes Night – Guy Fawkes Night, also known as Guy Fawkes Day, Bonfire Night and Firework Night, is an annual commemoration observed on 5 November, primarily in Great Britain. Puritans delivered sermons regarding the perceived dangers of popery, while during increasingly raucous celebrations common folk burnt effigies of popular hate-figures, such as the pope. Towns such as Lewes and Guildford were in the 19th century scenes of increasingly violent class-based confrontations, fostering traditions those towns celebrate still, albeit peaceably. The present-day Guy Fawkes Night is usually celebrated at large organised events, centred on a bonfire and extravagant firework displays. Settlers exported Guy Fawkes Night to overseas colonies, including some in North America, where it was known as Pope Day. Those festivities died out with the onset of the American Revolution. This made 1605 the first year the plot's failure was celebrated. The following January, days before the surviving conspirators were executed, Parliament passed the Observance of 5th November Act, commonly known as the "Thanksgiving Act". A new form of service was also added to the Church of England's Book of Common Prayer, for use on that date. Little is known about the earliest celebrations. In settlements such as Carlisle, Norwich and Nottingham, corporations provided music and artillery salutes. According to historian and author Antonia Fraser, a study of the earliest sermons preached demonstrates an anti-Catholic concentration "mystical in its fervour". By the 1620s the Fifth was honoured in market towns and villages across the country, though it was some years before it was commemorated throughout England. Gunpowder Treason Day, as it was then known, became the predominant English state commemoration. Some parishes made the day a festive occasion, with public drinking and solemn processions.Guy Fawkes Night – Festivities in Windsor Castle by Paul Sandby, c. 1776
200. Hands Across Hawthorne – More than 4,000 people attended the rally, publicized on a single Facebook page 72 hours previously. Other community leaders spoke at the rally. The event received attention throughout the United States. On June 5, residents of Spokane, Washington, held a hand-holding rally called "Hands Across Monroe", crossing the Monroe Street Bridge in Riverfront Park. Portland Police Bureau statistics showed a decrease from 26 incidents in 2007 to 15 in 2009. In 2010, of just over 50 hate crime incidents reported in Portland, sexual orientation, far outnumbering racial hate crimes. In May 2010, a group of men in drag were assaulted by a group of five men. Details of the attack were released by Portland Police on May 24. Three of the five men attacked the couple from behind. Forkner was punched multiple times before breaking away to call 9-1-1. The attackers reportedly continued hitting Rosevear on the head, back and ribs until Forkner was able to call for police help. Forkner later recalled that he believed the attackers may have been yelling in a foreign language. Rosevear required stitches in his lip. The victims said that several witnesses did not offer help in any form. Police investigated the case as a "crime", noting the lack of provocation.Hands Across Hawthorne – Hands Across Hawthorne participants spanning the Hawthorne Bridge in Portland, Oregon, on May 29, 2011
201. Murder of Dwayne Jones – The incident brought increased scrutiny to the status of LGBT rights in Jamaica. Perceived as effeminate, Jones was bullied in school and, at the age of 14, was forced out by his father. He moved with transgender friends. On the evening of 21 July 2013, they attended a dance party. When some men at the party discovered that the cross-dressing Jones was not a woman, they attacked him. Jones was beaten, run over by a car; he died in the early hours of the morning. Police did not arrest or charge anyone for the crime, which remains unsolved. The event was reported on in the United Kingdom and the United States. When Jones was 14, his father encouraged neighbours to chase him out of the neighbourhood. Jones was known among friends as "Gully Queen", a reference to the storm drainage systems which many homeless LGBT Jamaicans live in. Friends noted that Jones desired to work in the tourist industry. He also had won a local dancing competition. Khloe described him as "a diva", "joking around". In 2006, Time magazine answered that it "may be the worst offender". The country's laws criminalising same-sex activity between males were introduced during the British colonial administration.Murder of Dwayne Jones – Murder of Dwayne Jones
202. Florence Nagle – Florence Nagle was a trainer and breeder of racehorses, a breeder of pedigree dogs, an active feminist. She went on to own or breed twenty-one United Kingdom Champions. Best in Show at Crufts in 1960 was awarded to Sulhamstead Merman, bred, exhibited by Nagle. Nagle also competed successfully in field trials from the 1920s until the mid-1960s resulting in eighteen Field Trial Champions. Described as "the Mrs Pankhurst of British racing", she trained her first racehorse in 1920, the Irish-bred colt Fernley. She worked peacefully to her sex. Dissatisfied with the lack of opportunities for jockeys, she sponsored the Florence Nagle Girl Apprentices' Handicap first run in 1986 at Kempton Park. She was educated before studying domestic economy at Evendine Court, from which she was expelled after visiting Worcester Cathedral without permission. Her education was completed at a finishing school after which she spent some time in Paris, where she became friends with Megan Lloyd George. Nagle's family home in Berkshire, was used as a hospital during the First World War. Against her parents' wishes the couple were married on 1 July 1916, resulting in them threatening to disinherit her. She always subsidised their income by making cream teas, cleaning windows and scrubbing toilets. The couple had two children, a son, a daughter, Patricia. Her husband ran off with one of the kennel maids. The divorce took place five years before her husband's death.Florence Nagle – Florence Nagle c. 1960
203. Pig-faced women – Legendary stories of pig-faced women originated roughly simultaneously in Holland, England and France in the late 1630s. The stories told of a wealthy woman whose body was of normal human appearance, but whose face was that of a pig. In the earliest forms of the story, the woman's pig-like appearance was the result of witchcraft. When her husband told her that the choice was hers, the enchantment was broken and her pig-like appearance vanished. These stories became particularly popular in England, later in Ireland. The magical elements gradually vanished from the story, the existence of pig-faced women began to be treated as fact. In late 1814 and early 1815, rumour swept London that a pig-faced woman was living in Marylebone. Her existence was widely reported as fact, numerous alleged portraits of her were published. With belief in pig-faced women commonplace, unscrupulous showmen exhibited living "pig-faced women" at fairs. These were not genuine women, but shaven bears dressed in women's clothing. Belief in pig-faced women declined, the last significant work to treat their existence as genuine was published in 1924. Today, the legend is almost forgotten. While stories of pig-faced women vary in detail, they have the same basic form. The child would grow up healthy, but with some of the behaviours of a pig. She would eat from a silver trough, speak only in grunts or with a grunting sound to her speech.Pig-faced women – An 1882 print of a pig-faced woman, from The Illustrated Police News
204. C. R. M. F. Cruttwell – Charles Robert Mowbray Fraser Cruttwell was a British historian and academic who served as dean and later principal of Hertford College, Oxford. His field of expertise was his most notable work being A History of the Great War, 1914 -- 18. The prolonged minor humiliation thus inflicted may have contributed to Cruttwell's mental breakdown. It was during his tenure as dean that the feud with Waugh developed while the latter was a history scholar in 1922 -- 24. This hostility was pursued until shortly before Cruttwell's death. Cruttwell's term as Hertford's principal saw the production of his most important scholarly works, including his history which earned him the degree of DLitt. Beyond his college and academic duties Cruttwell was a member of its Hebdomadal Council, or ruling body. Ill-health, aggravated by his war injuries, caused his retirement in 1939. A mental collapse led to an institution where he died two years later. Cruttwell was educated at Rugby School, where in 1906 he won a scholarship to Oxford, to read classics and history. At Queen's, Cruttwell enjoyed academic success, including a first class honours degree in modern history. A year later was appointed to a history lectureship at Hertford College. On the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914, Cruttwell was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant. He fought in France and Belgium, until a severe wound in 1916 ended his front line military service. In 1922, he published a short history of his regiment's wartime exploits.C. R. M. F. Cruttwell – Cruttwell as portrayed in Isis, March 1924 alongside a satirical article by Evelyn Waugh
205. History of Texas A&M University – Classes began on October 1876. In 1875, the Legislature separated the University of Texas, which still existed only on paper. The Agricultural and Mechanical College formally opened on Oct. 1876. During this time, a limited number of women were forbidden from gaining a degree. In the 1960s, the legislature renamed the school Texas A&M University, with the "A&M" becoming purely symbolic. Under the leadership of James Earl Rudder, the school became racially coeducational. Membership in the Corps of Cadets became voluntary. In the second half of the 20th century, the university was recognized with the designations sea-grant university and space-grant university. The school was further honored in 1997 on the western edge of the campus. The US Congress laid the groundwork with their proposal of the Morrill Act. States were granted public lands to be sold at auctions to establish a permanent fund to support the schools. Both the Republic of the Texas State Legislature also set aside public lands for a future college. A committee tasked with finding a home for the new college chose Brazos County, which agreed to donate 2,416 acres of land. Former President of the Confederate States of America, was offered the presidency of the college but turned it down. The college officially opened with six professors.History of Texas A&M University – Texas A&M University in 1902
206. Ashton-under-Lyne – Ashton-under-Lyne is a market town in Tameside, Greater Manchester, England. The population had increased to 45,198 at the 2011 census. Historically in Lancashire, it is on the north bank of the River Tame, in the foothills of the Pennines, 6.2 miles east of Manchester. Evidence of Stone Age, Bronze Age, Viking activity has been discovered in Ashton-under-Lyne. The "Ashton" part of the town's name probably dates from the Anglo-Saxon period, derives from Old English meaning "settlement by ash trees". The origin of the "under-Lyne" suffix is less clear; it possibly derives from the British lemo meaning elm or from Ashton's proximity to the Pennines. In the Middle Ages, Ashton-under-Lyne was a parish and township and Ashton Old Hall was held by the de Asshetons, lords of the manor. Granted a Royal Charter in 1414, the manor spanned a rural area consisting of marshland, moorland, a number of villages and hamlets. Until the introduction of the cotton trade in 1769, Ashton was considered "bare, wet, almost worthless". Ashton-under-Lyne's network allowed for mining, which led to the granting of municipal borough status in 1847. The two-floored Ashton Arcades centre opened in 2006. A single Mesolithic flint tool has been discovered in the bog, along with a collection of nine Neolithic flints. There was further activity in or around the bog in the Bronze Age. Legend claims it was built in a single night in 869 or 870 as a defence against Viking invaders. Further evidence of Dark Age activity in the area comes from the town's name.Ashton-under-Lyne – Ashton-under-Lyne town centre
207. Black Moshannon State Park – Black Moshannon State Park is a 3,481-acre Pennsylvania state park in Rush Township, Centre County, Pennsylvania, United States. It surrounds Black Moshannon Lake, formed by a dam on Black Moshannon Creek, which has given its name to the lake and park. The park is just west of the Allegheny Front, 9 miles east of Philipsburg on Pennsylvania Route 504, is largely surrounded by Moshannon State Forest. As home to the "argest reconstituted bog/wetland complex in Pennsylvania". Humans have long used the Black Moshannon area for subsistence purposes. The Seneca tribe used it as hunting and fishing grounds. Black Moshannon State Park rose from the ashes of a depleted forest, largely destroyed in the years following the era. The forests were rehabilitated by the Civilian Conservation Corps during the Great Depression of the 1930s. The park is in Pennsylvania Important Bird Area #33, where bird watchers have recorded 175 different species. Much of the park is open for the creek are open for fishing, boating, swimming. In winter it was home to a downhill skiing area from 1965 to 1982. Humans have lived in what is now Pennsylvania since at least 10,000 BC. The first settlers were Paleo-Indian nomadic hunters known from their stone tools. The hunter-gatherers of the Archaic period, which lasted locally from 7000 to 1000 BC, used a greater variety of more sophisticated stone artefacts. The Woodland period marked the gradual transition between 1500 AD.Black Moshannon State Park – View of bog and lake from the bog trail in the Black Moshannon Bog Natural Area at Black Moshannon State Park
208. Blyth, Northumberland – Blyth is a town and civil parish in southeast Northumberland, England. It is approximately 13 miles northeast of Newcastle upon Tyne. It has a population of about 37,339. The development of the modern town only began in the first quarter of the 18th century. The main industries which helped the town prosper were coal shipbuilding, with the salt trade, fishing and the railways also playing an important role. The port still thrives, shipping paper and pulp from Scandinavia for the newspaper industries of England and Scotland. It has undergone much regeneration since the early 1990s. The Keel Row Shopping Centre, opened in 1991, helped to revitalise the town centre. The place has recently been re-developed, with the aim of attracting further investment to the town. They were joined by Blyth Offshore Wind Farm, composed of two turbines situated 1 kilometre out to sea. Blyth is home to the non-League football club Blyth Spartans famed for their 1978 "giant-killing" feats in the FA Cup. The place-name ` Blyth' takes its name from the river Blyth. The river-name comes from the English adjective ` blithe' meaning ` gentle' or ` merry', still used today. Interestingly, the town of Blyth is referred to as ` Blithemuth' in 1250. Had this name persisted, the town would today be referred to on the analogy of Tynemouth to the south.Blyth, Northumberland – Blyth town centre
209. Boise National Forest – Boise National Forest is a federally protected area covering 2,203,703 acres of the U.S. state of Idaho as part of the national forest system. Common cover includes sagebrush steppe and spruce-fir forests; there are 9,600 miles of streams and rivers and 15,400 acres of lakes and reservoirs. Boise National Forest contains 75 percent of the known populations of a flowering plant endemic to Idaho. The Shoshone people occupied the forest before European settlers arrived in the early 1800s. Many of the early settlers were prospectors before gold was discovered in 1862. After the 1860s Boise Basin rush ended, mining of tungsten, silver, antimony, gold continued in the forest until the mid-twentieth century. The Forest Service has an objective to maintain sustained yield of its resources. Francois Payette trapped in the area of Boise National Forest in 1819. The westward migration on the Oregon Trail, which passed south of the forest, was beginning. Prospectors George Grimes and Moses Splawn were the first to discover gold on August 2, 1862. The population of the Boise Basin fell from 16,000 to 3,500. In 1898 the forest's first dredge was built in Placerville and followed by several others. By 1951 when the last dredges shut down, at least million ounces of gold had been produced from the Boise Basin area. A silver mine at Silver Mountain proved unsuccessful. The most important known placer deposit in the United States is located in Bear Valley.Boise National Forest – Trinity Mountains in Boise National Forest
210. Brownhills – Brownhills is a town in the West Midlands, England. It is part of Pelsall and Stonnall. Before boundary changes in 1974, it was in the county of Staffordshire. The local authority has instituted a programme which it is hoped will revive the town's fortunes, providing better transport and leisure facilities. The name Brownhills, however, is not recorded before the 17th century. The most popular suggestion for the origin of the name is that it refers to the early mining spoil heaps which dotted the area. Beyond Ogley Hay lay Catshill, another hamlet which pre-dated Brownhills and which lay within the parish of Shenstone. During the 17th century, in 1759 a turnpike was erected in the Catshill area. In 1799 Norton Pool, later to be renamed Chasewater, was created to serve as a reservoir for the canals. Early in the 19th century, a horse-drawn system connected the mines to the wharves on the canal. Eventually a new centre developed, complete with library and theatre. This led into one town. Mining was to remain the principal industry of Brownhills until the last pit closed in the 1950s. As in other mining areas, several men lost their lives in the Brownhills pits. The final farmland within the boundaries of Brownhills was sold for redevelopment in 1952.Brownhills – Brownhills Entrance Sculpture by John McKenna
211. Brownsea Island Scout camp – Boys from different social backgrounds participated from 1 to 8 August 1907 in activities around camping, observation, woodcraft, chivalry, lifesaving and patriotism. Recognised as the world's first camp, the event is regarded as the real origin of the worldwide Scout movement. Up to the early 1930s, camping by Boy Scouts continued on Brownsea Island. In 1963, a 50-acre Scout campsite was opened by Olave Baden-Powell, when the island became a nature conservation area owned by the National Trust. In 1973, a Scout Jamboree was held on the island with 600 Scouts. Activities by The Scout Association at the campsite included a Sunrise Ceremony. Baden-Powell had also published a number of popular books including Aids to Scouting for NCOs and Men, published in 1899. Though written for non-commissioned officers, it was used by teachers and youth organisations. He invited Major Kenneth McLaren, to attend the camp as an assistant. Baden-Powell had visited Brownsea Island as a boy with his brothers. It features two lakes. Baden-Powell invited boys to the camp, a revolutionary idea during the class-conscious Edwardian era. Eleven came from the private boarding schools of Eton and Harrow, mostly sons of Baden-Powell's friends. Three came from the Brigade at Poole & Hamworthy. Baden-Powell's nine-year-old nephew Donald Baden-Powell also attended.Brownsea Island Scout camp – Robert Baden-Powell at Brownsea Island, 1907
212. Cheadle Hulme – Cheadle Hulme /ˈtʃiːdəl ˈhjuːm/ is a suburb in the Metropolitan Borough of Stockport, Greater Manchester, England. Historically in Cheshire, it is 2.3 miles south-west of Stockport and 7.5 miles south-east of Manchester. The drift consists mostly of boulder clay, sands and gravels. In 2011, it had a population of 26,479. Evidence including coins, jewellery and axes, has been discovered locally. The area was first mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086 when it was a large estate which included neighbouring Cheadle. In the 14th century it was split into southern and northern parts at about the future locations of Cheadle Hulme and Cheadle, respectively. The area became known as Cheadle Moseley. In the 19th century Cheadle Hulme was united with Cheadle, Gatley and other neighbouring places to form the urban district of Cheadle and Gatley. Cheadle Hulme became a distinct place in its own right, as part of the Metropolitan Borough of Stockport. Cheadle Hulme is an affluent area with open parkland; it is close to both Manchester Airport and the A34. The Domesday Book provides the earliest mention of the area, where it is recorded as "Cedde", Celtic for "wood". Archaeological finds include Bronze Age axes discovered in Cheadle. Evidence of Roman occupation includes coins and jewellery, which were discovered in 1972. The modern-day Cheadle Road may be of Roman origin.Cheadle Hulme – Part of the seven arches railway viaduct on Ladybridge Road
213. Columbia River – The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. The river rises in the Rocky Mountains of Canada. Its largest tributary is the Snake River. Its drainage basin extends into seven US states and a Canadian province. By volume, the Columbia is the fourth-largest river in the United States; it has the greatest flow of any North American river draining into the Pacific. Relatively steep gradient gives it tremendous potential for the generation of electricity. Its tributaries have been central to the region's culture and economy for thousands of years. They have been used since ancient times linking the many cultural groups of the region. The system hosts many species of anadromous fish, which migrate between freshwater habitats and the saline waters of the Pacific Ocean. In the following decades, trading companies used the Columbia as a key transportation route. Steamships along the river linked facilitated trade; the arrival of railroads in the late 19th century, many running along the river, supplemented these links. Since the 19th century, public and private sectors have heavily developed the river. The development, commonly referred as taming or harnessing of the river, has been massive and multi-faceted. Dredging has opened, maintained, enlarged shipping channels. Since the 20th century, dams have been built across the river for the purposes of power generation, navigation, irrigation, flood control.Columbia River – Bonneville Dam, in the Columbia River Gorge
214. Greater Manchester – Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million. Greater Manchester was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972; and designated April 2011. Greater Manchester spans 493 square miles, which roughly covers the second most populous urban area in the UK. It borders Cheshire, Derbyshire, West Yorkshire, Lancashire and Merseyside. For the 12 years following 1974 the county had a two-tier system of local government; district councils shared power with the Greater Manchester County Council. The council was abolished in 1986, so its districts effectively became unitary authority areas. A further devolution of powers to Greater Manchester is set to take place upon the election of the inaugural Mayor of Greater Manchester scheduled for 2017. Before the creation of the metropolitan county, the SELNEC was used for the area, taken from the initials of "South East Lancashire North East Cheshire". Since deindustrialisation in the mid-20th century, Greater Manchester has emerged as association football. Although the modern county of Greater Manchester was not created until 1974, the history of its constituent settlements goes back centuries. Castleshaw Roman fort in Saddleworth, are evidence of Roman occupation. During the Middle Ages, much of what became Greater Manchester lay within the hundred of Salfordshire – an ancient division of the county of Lancashire. Salfordshire encompassed several townships, some of which, like Rochdale, were important market towns and centres of England's woollen trade. In the 1910s, local government reforms to administer this conurbation as a single entity were proposed. In the 18th century, German traders had coined the Manchesterthum to cover the region in and around Manchester.Greater Manchester – Former weavers' cottages in Wardle. The development of Greater Manchester is attributed to a shared tradition of domestic cloth production, and textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution.
215. Herne Bay, Kent – Herne Bay /hɜːrn/ is a seaside town in Kent, South East England, with a population of 38,563. On the south coast of the Thames Estuary it is 7 miles north of Canterbury and 5 miles east of Whitstable. It is part of the City of Canterbury local government district. The town began as a small community, receiving goods and passengers from London en route to Canterbury and Dover. The town of Herne Bay took its name from the bay. The herne, meaning a place on a corner of land, evolved from the Old English hyrne, meaning corner. The village was first recorded as Hyrnan. The corner may relate at Herne. During this time, boats carrying coal ran from Newcastle. The 1801 census recorded Herne Bay, including Herne, as having a population of 1,232. During the 19th century, a smugglers' gang operated from the town. The gang were regularly involved until finally being overpowered in the 1820s. The name was unpopular with residents and the "Herne Bay" remained. In 1833, an Act of Parliament established Herne Bay and Herne as separate towns. Local landowner Sir Henry Oxenden donated a piece of ground for the site of Christ Church, opened in 1834.Herne Bay, Kent – Herne Bay
216. Istanbul – Istanbul, historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosphorus strait between the Sea of the Black Sea. Its historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives on the Asian side. The city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, both hosting a population of around million residents. Istanbul is ranks as the world's 7th-largest city proper and the largest European city. Founded under the name of Byzantion around 660 BCE, the city developed to become one of the most significant in history. Overlooked during the interwar period, the city has since regained much of its prominence. Arts, music, cultural festivals were established at the end of the 20th century and continue to be hosted by the city today. Infrastructure improvements have produced a complex network. Considered a global city, Istanbul has one of the fastest-growing metropolitan economies in the world. It hosts media outlets and accounts for more than a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. Hoping to capitalize on its rapid expansion, Istanbul has bid for the Summer Olympics five times in twenty years. The known name of the city is Byzantium, the name given to it at its foundation by Megarean colonists around 660 BCE. The name is thought to be derived from Byzas. Greek tradition refers to a legendary king of that name as the leader of the Greek colonists.Istanbul – Clockwise from top: View of Golden Horn between Galata and Seraglio Point including the historic areas; Maiden's Tower; a nostalgic tram on İstiklal Avenue; Levent business district with Dolmabahçe Palace; Ortaköy Mosque in front of the Bosphorus Bridge; and Hagia Sophia.
217. Johnson Creek (Willamette River) – Johnson Creek is a 25-mile tributary of the Willamette River in the Portland metropolitan area of the U.S. state of Oregon. Though polluted, it is free-flowing along its main stem and provides habitat for salmon and other migrating fish. Prior to European settlement, the watershed was used for hunting. By the 20th century, a parallel to the stream encouraged further residential and commercial development. As urban density increased in the floodplain, seasonal floods grew more damaging. In the 1930s the Works Progress Administration of the federal government lined the lower 15 miles of Johnson Creek with rock to control the floods. Despite this, the creek flooded 37 times between 1941 and 2006. The Johnson Creek watershed includes the subwatersheds of Badger Creek, Sunshine Creek, Kelley Creek, smaller streams. The creek passes through the cities of Gresham, Portland, Milwaukie and crosses the border between Clackamas County and Multnomah County eight times. For much of its course, the creek flows at almost right angles to the numbered avenues of southeast Portland and its eastern suburbs. As the creek descends, so do the avenue numbers. Shortly thereafter, it receives Badger Creek and Sunshine Creek from the left and the North Fork of Johnson Creek from the right. Soon the creek enters Main City Park in Gresham, where it again turns sharply and flows slightly south of west. Here the slope flattens, the stream runs more slowly for the next third of its course. Slightly west of Main City Park, it passes the Gresham Pioneer Cemetery.Johnson Creek (Willamette River) – Johnson Creek near Regner Road in Gresham
218. Keswick, Cumbria – Keswick is an English market town and civil parish, historically in Cumberland, since 1974 in the Borough of Allerdale in Cumbria. Among the town's annual events is the Keswick Convention, an Evangelical gathering attracting visitors from many countries. Keswick became widely known for its association with the poets Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Robert Southey. The town is first recorded in Edward I's charter of the 13th century, as "Kesewik". Among the later scholars supporting the "farm" toponymy are A D Mills, Diana Whaley, for the English Place-Name Society. Neolithic-era stone tools were unearthed inside the circle and in the centre of Keswick during the 19th century. In Roman Britain Cumbria was the territory of the Carvetii. As the site of the western part of Hadrian's Wall, it was of strategic importance. Nearby settlements as can be traced from the era of the years after their departure seem to have been predominantly Celtic. Local place names including that of the River Derwent, are Celtic, some closely related to Welsh equivalents. The friend of St Cuthbert of Lindisfarne, lived as a hermit on an island in Derwentwater, now named after him. Keswick's recorded history starts in the Middle Ages. Northumbria was destroyed in the late ninth. In 1189, Richard I granted the rectory of Crosthwaite to the Cistercian order of Fountains Abbey. During the 13th century, agricultural land around the town was acquired by Fountains and Furness Abbeys.Keswick, Cumbria – Keswick
219. Lock Haven, Pennsylvania – The city of Lock Haven is the county seat of Clinton County, in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. At the 2010 census, Lock Haven's population was 9,772. Resource extraction and efficient transportation financed much of the city's growth through the end of the 19th century. In a paper mill, along with many smaller enterprises, drove the economy. Frequent floods, especially in 1972, damaged local industry and led to a high rate of unemployment in the 1980s. A levee, completed in 1995, protects the city from further flooding. While industry remains important to the city, about a third of Lock Haven's workforce is employed in education, health care, or social services. The earliest settlers in Pennsylvania arrived from Asia between 12000 BCE and 8000 BCE, when the glaciers of the Pleistocene Ice Age were receding. Fluted point spearheads from this era, known as the Paleo-Indian Period, have been found in most parts of the state. First contact with Europeans occurred in Pennsylvania between 1500 and 1600 CE. During the French and Indian War, colonial militiamen on the Kittanning Expedition destroyed Munsee property on the Great Island and along the West Branch. By 1763, the Munsee had abandoned their island villages and other villages in the area. With the signing of the first Treaty of Fort Stanwix in 1768, the British gained control from the Iroquois of lands south of the West Branch. However, white settlers continued to appropriate land, including tracts in and near the future site of Lock Haven, not covered by the treaty. It was the westernmost of 11 mostly primitive forts along the West Branch; Fort Augusta, at what is now Sunbury, was the easternmost and most defensible.Lock Haven, Pennsylvania – Clinton County Courthouse, Lock Haven (1869), Samuel Sloan and Addison Hutton, architects
220. Monte Ne – Until the mid-1930s the area was a health resort and ambitious planned community. It was owned and operated by William Hope Harvey, a financial theorist and one-time U.S. Presidential nominee. "Missouri Row" and "Oklahoma Row", were the largest log buildings in the world. Oklahoma Row's "section" is one of the earliest examples of a multi-story concrete structure. The tower is the only structure of Monte Ne still standing that can be seen at normal lake levels. Was also the site of the only presidential convention ever held in Arkansas. The Monte Ne resort was not a financial success, due to Harvey's management style. The remainder of the town was almost completely submerged after Beaver Lake was created in 1964. All that remains today are one severely vandalized structure. It is unknown when the distillery was built. It was owned by Abe McGarrah and his brother-in-law. They also operated a small store. Each day was given as thirty gallons by the Federal whiskey gauger who resided in the area. The mill was built in 1856, was owned by J.R. Pettigrew.Monte Ne – Monte Ne
221. Nico Ditch – Nico Ditch is a six mile long linear earthwork between Ashton-under-Lyne and Stretford in Greater Manchester, England. It was dug as a defensive fortification, or possibly a marker, between the 5th and 11th centuries. The ditch is still visible in short sections, such as a 330-yard stretch in Denton Golf Course. In the parts which survive, the ditch is 4 -- up to 5 feet deep. Part of the earthwork is protected as a Scheduled Ancient Monument. Nico Ditch stretches six miles to Hough Moss, just east of Stretford. The ditch coincides between Tameside and Manchester as far as Denton golf course. A section is now beneath the Audenshaw Reservoirs, which were built towards the end of the 19th century. The ditch may have extended west to Urmston. Nico Ditch was constructed some time between the end of Roman rule in Britain in 1066. It may have been used as a defensive fortification or as an administrative boundary. Whatever its earlier use, the ditch has been used since at least the Middle Ages. The names derive from "reedy ditch" respectively. Much of its course has been built over. Although no date was established for the ditch's construction, the investigations revealed that the bank to the north of the ditch is of 20th origin.Nico Ditch – Looking west along Nico Ditch, near Levenshulme
222. Noel Park – Noel Park in north London is a late-19th early 20th-century planned community consisting of 2,200 model dwellings, designed by Rowland Plumbe. It is one of four developments on the outskirts of London built by the Artizans, Labourers & General Dwellings Company. It was planned as a self-contained community close enough to the rail network to allow its residents to commute to work. In line with the principles of the Artizans Company's founder, William Austin, there are still none today. Noel Park is 6.4 miles north of Charing Cross, near the centre of the modern London Borough of Haringey, of which it is a ward. The area forms a rough triangle, bordered by the A109 road to the north, A105 road to the west. When construction began, the River Moselle, running parallel to Lordship Lane a short south of it, formed the de facto northern boundary of the area. The land between the river and Lordship Lane built on. The western boundary was the now-defunct Palace Gates Line of the Great Eastern Railway, a short distance to the east of Wood Green High Road. Historically, the site of Noel Park was virtually uninhabited. Itself is shown a short distance to the north-east. The manor itself was situated on the arterial road of Green Lanes. The recorded occupancy of the manor was in 1881, shortly before the site was cleared for the construction of Noel Park. By 1880 the estate had been broken up into fifteen smaller farms. The northern meadows adjacent to the Moselle were used for beef farming, whilst the southern fields, known as Grainger's Farm, were used as grazing land.Noel Park – Fourth-class houses in Darwin Road, built during the initial development of Noel Park in the 1880s
223. Plunketts Creek (Loyalsock Creek) – Plunketts Creek is an approximately 6.2-mile-long tributary of Loyalsock Creek in Lycoming and Sullivan counties in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. Its watershed drains 23.6 square miles in parts of five townships. The creek is a part of the Chesapeake Bay basin via Loyalsock Creek and the West Branch Susquehanna and Susquehanna Rivers. The creek has given its name to two townships. The creek flows southwest and south through the dissected Allegheny Plateau, through rock from the Mississippian sub-period and Devonian period. Much of the Plunketts Creek valley is composed of glacial deposits, chiefly alluvium. The watershed now includes parts of the Loyalsock State Forest, a State Game Farm for raising pheasant. Plunketts Creek is named for a physician, the first president judge of Northumberland County after it was formed in 1772. During conflicts with Native Americans, he fought the natives. Plunkett led a Pennsylvania expedition in the Pennamite-Yankee War to forcibly remove settlers from Connecticut, who had settled on lands also claimed by Pennsylvania. Plunkett's land included the creek's mouth, so Plunketts Creek was given his name. During the American Revolution, Plunkett thus was suspected of being sympathetic to the British Empire. He was buried in Northumberland, without a grave marker or monument. Lycoming County was formed from Northumberland County in 1795. Naming the township for the creek was an acceptable compromise.Plunketts Creek (Loyalsock Creek) – Plunketts Creek looking upstream, just north of the mouth in Plunketts Creek Township
224. Presque Isle State Park – The peninsula sweeps northeastward, surrounding Presque Isle Bay along the park's southern coast. It has 13 miles of roads, 21 miles of recreational trails, a marina. Popular activities at the park include boating, hiking, biking, birdwatching. As of 2007 it hosts over 4 million visitors per year, the most of any Pennsylvania state park. The Presque Isle peninsula is constantly being reshaped by waves and wind. This leads to seven ecological zones within the park, which provide a classic example of ecological succession. The Tom Ridge Environmental Center at the entrance to the park allows visitors to learn more about its ecology. Presque Isle State Park has been chosen for its list of "25 Must-See Pennsylvania State Parks". Presque Isle was formed at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation about 11,000 years ago. The earliest known inhabitants of the southern Lake Erie coast were the Erielhonan, also known as an Iroquoian speaking tribe of Native Americans. To protect the Erielhonan from the storm, their god laid his outstretched arm into the lake, giving safety during the storm. The god's arm remained in the lake, protecting the tribe's future generations. The Erielhonan are believed to have farmed on the peninsula. They fought the last starting in 1653 with the Five Nations of the Iroquois. Despite initial victories in 1654 the Erielhonan their largest village, Rique, was destroyed by 1,800 Iroquois warriors.Presque Isle State Park – Aerial view of Presque Isle toward the east-northeast
225. Quehanna Wild Area – The wild area is home with mixed hardwoods and evergreens. Quehanna has natural areas: the 917-acre Marion Brooks Natural Area. The latter has the largest stand of white birch in Pennsylvania and the eastern United States. Pennsylvania bought this land for its state forests and in the 1930s the Civilian Conservation Corps worked to improve them. In 1955 the Curtiss-Wright Corporation bought 80 square miles of forest for a research and facility to focus on developing nuclear-powered jet engines. They named their facility Quehanna for the nearby West Branch Susquehanna River, itself named for the Susquehannocks. The manufacture of radiation-treated hardwood flooring continued until 2002. Pennsylvania reacquired the land in 1965 established Quehanna as a wild area, albeit one with industrial complex. Since 1992 the industrial complex has been home to Quehanna Motivational Boot Camp, a minimum-security prison. Primitive camping by hikers is allowed, but the area has no permanent residents. The trails are open to cross-country skiing in the winter, but closed to vehicles. Quehanna is on the Allegheny Plateau and was struck by a tornado in 1985. Defoliating insects have further damaged the forests. Quehanna Wild Area is home to many species of animals. Hunters come for the elk, other game.Quehanna Wild Area – White birches in Marion Brooks Natural Area within Quehanna
226. Radcliffe, Greater Manchester – Radcliffe is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Bury, Greater Manchester, England. It is contiguous with Whitefield to the south. Manchester, Bolton & Bury Canal bisects the town. Historically a part of Lancashire, activity has been found in Radcliffe and its surroundings. A Roman road passes along the border between Radcliffe and Bury. Coal lies under the area of mines opened in the Industrial Revolution, providing fuel for the cotton papermaking industries. By the mid-19th century, Radcliffe was an important town with cotton mills, bleachworks and a road, canal and railway network. With a population of 34,239, falling to 29,950 in 2011. Radcliffe is predominantly a residential area whose few remaining cotton mills are now occupied by small businesses. The Domesday Book records the name as "Radeclive". Archaic spellings include "Radclive", "Radeclif". The Radcliffe family took its name from the town. The human settlements in the area, albeit seasonal, are thought to have been as far back as 6,000 BC during the Mesolithic period. Dating techniques of the time were unreliable. No further dating evidence was collected.Radcliffe, Greater Manchester – A prominent landmark, St Thomas and St John with St Philip Church
227. Shaw and Crompton – Shaw and Crompton is a town and civil parish within the Metropolitan Borough of Oldham, in Greater Manchester, England. Shaw is regularly referred to as Shaw. Historically in Lancashire, its surroundings have provided evidence of ancient British and Anglian activity in the area. During the Middle Ages, Crompton formed a small township of farmsteads, moorland, swamp with a small and close community of families. The local lordship was absent, so Crompton failed to emerge as a manor with its own lord and court. Farming was the main industry of this broadly self-supporting rural area, with locals supplementing their incomes by hand-loom woollen weaving in the domestic system. The introduction of textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution initiated a process of unplanned urbanisation. A boom began in Crompton during the mid-19th century, when suitable land for factories in Oldham was becoming scarce. By the 19th century Crompton had emerged as a densely populated mill town. Forty-eight cotton mills—some of the largest in the United Kingdom—have been recorded as existing in the area. Imports of foreign cotton goods began the decline during the mid-20th century; Shaw and Crompton's last mill closed in 1989. Shaw and Crompton, which covers 4.5 square miles, is a suburban area of mixed affluence with a population of 21,065 as of 2011. Its double name has been said to make it "distinctive, if not unique". The name Shaw is derived from the Old English word sceaga, "wood". The Crompton is also of Old English derivation, from the words crom or crumb, meaning "bent" or "crooked", ton, for "hamlet or village".Shaw and Crompton – A view of Shaw and Crompton from Crompton Moor
228. Somerset Levels – The Somerset Levels are a coastal plain and wetland area of Somerset, South West England, running south from the Mendips to the Blackdown Hills. The Mendip Hills separate the Somerset Levels from the North Somerset Levels. Peat is extracted. A Palaeolithic tool found in West Sedgemoor is the earliest indication of human presence in the area. The Levels were the location of the Glastonbury Lake Village well as two Lake villages at Meare Lake. Several settlements and hill forts were built including Brent Knoll and Glastonbury. A string of settlements were set up along the Polden Hills. A number of Saxon charters document the incorporation of areas of moor in estates. In 1685, the Battle of Sedgemoor was fought at the conclusion of the Monmouth Rebellion. As a result of the wetland nature of the Levels, the area contains a rich biodiversity of international importance. The area has a growing tourism industry. People have been draining the area since before the Domesday Book. In the Middle Ages, the monasteries of Glastonbury, Athelney and Muchelney were responsible for much of the drainage. The artificial Huntspill River was constructed as a reservoir although it also serves as a drainage channel. The Sowy River between the River Parrett and King's Sedgemoor Drain was completed in 1972; water levels are managed by the internal drainage boards.Somerset Levels – The Somerset Levels, seen from Glastonbury Tor
229. Stretford – Stretford is a town in Trafford, Greater Manchester, England. The Bridgewater Canal bisects the town. It was also an extensive market area, producing more than 500 long tons of vegetables each week for sale in Manchester by 1845. By 2001 less than one per cent of Stretford's population was employed in agriculture. Stretford has been the home of Manchester United Football Club since 1910, of Lancashire County Cricket Club since 1864. The origin of the Stretford is "street" on a ford across the River Mersey. The earliest evidence of human occupation around Stretford comes from Neolithic stone axes found in the area, dating from about 2000 BC. By 1212, there were two manors in the area now called Stretford. In about 1250, a later Hamon de Mascy gave the Stretford manor to his daughter, Margery. She in about 1260, granted Stretford to Richard de Trafford at a rent of one penny. The de Trafford family leased out large parts of much of it to tenants who farmed at subsistence levels. Until the 1820s one of Stretford's main cottage industries was the hand-weaving of cotton. As Manchester continued to grow, it offered a easily accessible market for Stretford's agricultural products, in particular rhubarb, once known locally as Stretford beef. Stretford also became the production of black puddings, leading to the village being given the nickname of Porkhampton. A local dish, known as Stretford goose, was made with sage and onions.Stretford – Trafford Town Hall in Stretford
230. Titchwell Marsh – Titchwell Marsh is an English nature reserve owned and managed by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. The lagoon has been stocked with the common rudd. Little egrets are common. The reserve has regularly attracted rarities, as its location is important for migrating birds. Ducks and geese winter at Titchwell in considerable numbers, the reserve shelters the endangered European water vole. Facilities include three bird hides, a seawatching platform, a visitor centre. Titchwell Marsh has remains of military constructions from both world wars. These warplanes. Titchwell has a long history of human occupation. Other flint tools have been found dating to the Neolithic. By 11,000 BC, peat marshes had formed behind an offshore barrier islandor spit. Two possible timber platforms may be prehistoric. They may be significant in providing information about early timber construction methods. For the next 170 years or so, the reclaimed marsh was producing crops and beef cattle. A huge influx of Pallas's sandgrouse into Britain in 1853 led to several arrivals including mated pairs.Titchwell Marsh – Freshwater lagoon seen from west bank, with Island Hide in the foreground, and the Parrinder wall and hides further back.
231. Trafford Park – Until the 19th century, it was the ancestral home of the Trafford family, who sold it to financier Ernest Terah Hooley in 1896. Occupying an area of 4.7 square miles, it remains the largest in Europe. At its peak in 1945, an estimated 75,000 workers were employed in the park. That number began to decline in the 1960s as companies closed in favour of more efficient plants elsewhere. The decline continued throughout the 1970s. The new generation of container ships was too large for the Manchester Ship Canal, which led to a further decline in Trafford Park's fortunes. The workforce by the 1980s industry had virtually disappeared from the park. The Trafford Park Urban Development Corporation, formed in 1987, reversed the estate's decline. In the 11 years of its existence, the park attracted 1,000 companies, generating # 1.759 billion of private-sector investment. As of 2008, there were 1,400 companies within Trafford Park, employing an estimated 35,000 people. An inner park containing a tree-lined avenue leading from an entrance lodge at Barton-upon-Irwell. It was the ancestral estate of the de Trafford family, then one of the largest landowners in Stretford. Their new home was a little at the northwestern end of Trafford Park Road. Trafford Park contained the hall, its grounds, three farms: Park Farm, Waters Meeting Farm. In 1761, a section of the Bridgewater Canal was built along southwest sides of Trafford Park.Trafford Park – An aerial view over Manchester city centre (top) and Trafford Park (bottom) south of the Manchester Ship Canal.
232. Upper Pine Bottom State Park – Upper Pine Bottom State Park is a 5-acre Pennsylvania state park in Lycoming County, Pennsylvania in the United States. The park is surrounded by the Tiadaghton State Forest. It is on Upper Pine Bottom Run, a tributary of Pine Creek. The earliest recorded inhabitants of the area were the Susquehannocks, followed by the Iroquois, Shawnee. The industry led to the clearcutting of the area in the 19th century. The park was formed from it in the early 1920s as a Class B public camp. Upper Pine Bottom State Park is maintained by staff from nearby Little Pine State Park. In addition to picnics, its chief use is as a area for local hunters, anglers, hikers, cross-country skiers, snowmobilers, all-terrain vehicle riders. Upper Pine Bottom Run is stocked for trout fishing in season. The first settlers were nomadic hunters known from their stone tools. The hunter-gatherers of the Archaic period, which lasted locally to 1000 BC, used a greater variety of more sophisticated stone artifacts. The Woodland period marked the gradual transition between 1000 BC and 1500 AD. Archeological evidence found in the state from this time includes a range of pottery types and styles, ornaments. Upper Pine Bottom State Park is in the earliest recorded inhabitants of which were the Iroquoian-speaking Susquehannocks. They were a matriarchal society that lived in stockaded villages of long houses.Upper Pine Bottom State Park – Upper Pine Bottom State Park was a Bureau of Forests picnic area until its 1962 transfer to the Bureau of State Parks
233. Westgate-on-Sea – Westgate-on-Sea is a seaside town in north east Kent, England, with a population of 6,996 at the 2011 Census. It is within borders the larger seaside resort of Margate. Its two sandy beaches have remained a popular tourist attraction since the town's development from a small farming community. The town is the subject of Westgate-on-Sea. Residents have included former Archbishop of Canterbury William Temple. The artist Sir William Quiller Orchardson painted several of his most well known pictures while living in Westgate-on-Sea. Before the 1860s, Westgate consisted for the crew that surrounded it. These were named after Mildrith, Thanet's patron saint and a one-time Abbess of Minster. The town inherited its name from the Westgate Manor, located in the area in medieval times. In the 20th century, the remains of a Roman villa were discovered in what is now Beach Road, where a stream once used to flow. Fresh water can still be seen rising from the sand at low tide. During the late 1860s, businessmen developed the area to middle-classes. The opening in 1871, led to the rapid expansion of the population, which reached 2,738 by 1901. The demands of the increasing population led to the building of the parish churches of St. Saviour in 1884. St. Saviour's was designed by the architect C.N.Westgate-on-Sea – West Bay
234. Benedict Arnold's expedition to Quebec – Part of a two-pronged invasion of the British Province of his expedition passed through the wilderness of what is now Maine. The other expedition, led by Richard Montgomery, invaded Quebec from Lake Champlain. Unanticipated problems beset the expedition as soon as it left the significant colonial outposts in Maine. The boats frequently leaked, ruining gunpowder and spoiling food supplies. More than a third of the men turned back before reaching the height of land between the Kennebec and Chaudière rivers. By the time Arnold reached the French settlements in November, his force was reduced to 600 starving men. They had traveled about 350 miles through poorly charted wilderness, twice the distance they had expected to cover. Assisted by the French-speaking Canadiens, Arnold's troops crossed the Saint Lawrence on November 13 and 14 and attempted to put Quebec City under siege. Failing in this, they withdrew to Point-aux-Trembles until Montgomery arrived to lead an unsuccessful attack on the city. Arnold was rewarded in leading the expedition with a promotion to brigadier general. Allen and Arnold were aware that Quebec was lightly defended; there were about 600 regular troops in the entire province. Arnold, who had done business in the province before the war, also had intelligence that the French-speaking Canadiens would be favorably disposed toward a colonial force. Congress rejected these arguments. Arnold, who had hoped to lead the invasion, decided to pursue a different approach to Quebec. He approached George Washington with the idea of a second eastern invasion force aimed at Quebec City.Benedict Arnold's expedition to Quebec – Detail of a 1795 map, overlaid with Arnold's expedition route: *A: Cambridge *B: Newburyport *C: Fort Western *D: Fort Halifax *E: Great Carrying Place *F: Height of land *G: Lake Mégantic This map does not accurately represent the area around the height of land and Lake Mégantic.
235. Chicago Pile-1 – Chicago Pile-1, when it achieved criticality, became the world's first artificial nuclear reactor. Its construction was part of the Manhattan Project, the Allied effort to create atomic bombs during World War II. It was built under the west viewing stands of the original Stagg Field. Unlike most nuclear reactors, it had no radiation cooling system as it only operated at very low power. In 1943, CP-1 was moved to Red Gate Woods, reconfigured to become Chicago Pile-2. There, it was operated until 1954, when it was dismantled and buried. The site is now a Chicago Landmark. The concept of a nuclear reaction was first hypothesized on 12 September 1933. Szilard realized that if a nuclear reaction produced dineutrons, which then caused nuclear reactions, the process might be self-perpetuating. Szilard proposed using mixtures of lighter known isotopes which produced neutrons in copious amounts, although he did entertain the possibility of using uranium as a fuel. He filed a patent for his idea of a simple nuclear reactor the following year. In order for a reaction to occur, fissioning uranium atoms had to keep the reaction going. Subsequent work confirmed that fast neutrons were indeed produced by fission. Szilard obtained permission from the head of the Physics Department at Columbia, George B. Pegram, to use a laboratory for three months, persuaded Walter Zinn to become his collaborator.Chicago Pile-1 – Site of the First Self Sustaining Nuclear Reaction
236. Convention of 1833 – The volatile William H. Wharton presided over the meeting. Under the guidance of former governor of the US state of Tennessee, a committee drafted a state constitution to submit to the Mexican Congress. The proposed constitution retained several Spanish customs. Delegates also asked that a ban on immigration into Texas be lifted. Some residents complained that this convention, like its predecessor, was illegal. Nevertheless, Stephen F. Austin journeyed to Mexico City to present the petitions to the government. Frustrated in October Austin wrote a letter encouraging Texans to form their own state government. Austin was imprisoned in early 1834. During his imprisonment, the federal and state legislatures later passed a series of measures to placate the colonists, including the introduction of trial by jury. Austin acknowledged that "very evil complained of has been remedied." Mexico won its independence in 1821. After the new country's monarchy was overthrown, the Constitution of 1824 established a federalist republic composed of multiple states. Sparsely populated provinces were instead merged with neighboring areas. Mexican Texas, which marked the country's eastern border with the United States, was combined with Coahuila to form the new state Coahuila y Tejas. To facilitate government of the large area, the state was subdivided into several departments; all of Texas was included in the Department of Béxar.Convention of 1833 – General Antonio López de Santa Anna 's revolt against the Mexican government gave the Texians an excuse for their own rebellion
237. Donner Party – They spent the winter of 1846 -- 47 snowbound in the Sierra Nevada. Some of the pioneers resorted to cannibalism to survive. In mid-December, some of the group set out on foot to obtain help. Of the 87 members of the party, 48 survived to reach many of them having eaten the dead for survival. Historians have described the episode as one of the most spectacular tragedies in Californian history and western-US migration. During the 1840s, the United States saw a dramatic increase in people who left their homes in the east to settle in Oregon and California. The trail generally followed rivers to South Pass, a mountain pass in Wyoming, relatively easy for wagons to negotiate. From there, wagon trains had a choice of routes to their destination. An early immigrant, went to California in 1842 and saw the promise of the undeveloped country. To encourage settlers, he published The Emigrants' Guide to Oregon and California. He described a direct route across the Great Basin which would bring emigrants across the Great Salt Lake Desert. Hastings had not traveled any part of his proposed shortcut to Fort Bridger. The fort was a scant station run by Jim Bridger and his partner Pierre Louis Vasquez in Blacks Fork, Wyoming. Hastings stayed at the fort to persuade travelers to turn south on his route. The most difficult part of the journey to California was the last 100 miles across the Sierra Nevada.Donner Party – Page 28 of Patrick Breen's diary, recording his observations in late February 1847, including "Mrs. Murphy said here yesterday that she thought she would commence on Milton and eat him. I do not think she has done so yet; it is distressing."
238. Fredonian Rebellion – The Fredonian Rebellion was the first attempt by Anglo settlers in Texas to secede from Mexico. The settlers, led by Empresario Haden Edwards, created the Republic of Fredonia near Nacogdoches. The short-lived republic included areas, previously settled. Supporters declared their independence from Mexico. On January 1827, a force of over 100 Mexican soldiers and 250 militiamen from Austin's colony marched into Nacogdoches to restore order. His brother Benjamin fled to the United States. Chief Richard Fields was killed by his own tribe. A local merchant was sentenced to death, but later paroled. The rebellion led Mexican President Guadalupe Victoria to increase the military presence in the area. As a result, hostile tribes in the area halted their raids on settlements and agreed to a peace treaty. The Comanche abided by this treaty for many years. Fearing that through the rebellion the United States hoped to gain control of Texas, the Mexican government severely curtailed immigration from the US. This new law was bitterly opposed by colonists and caused increasing dissatisfaction with Mexican rule. Some historians consider the Fredonian Rebellion to be the beginning of the Texas Revolution. It sparked the powder for later success.Fredonian Rebellion – The Old Stone Fort was seized during the Fredonian Rebellion.
239. Halifax Explosion – The Halifax Explosion was a maritime disaster in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, on the morning of 6 December 1917. A fire on board the French ship ignited her cargo, causing a large explosion that devastated the Richmond district of Halifax. An estimated 9,000 others were injured. Mont-Blanc was under orders from the French government to carry her cargo of high explosives to Bordeaux, France. The resulting fire aboard the French ship quickly grew out of control. Approximately 20 minutes later at 9:04:35 am, Mont-Blanc exploded. The blast was the largest man-made explosion prior to the development of nuclear weapons, releasing the energy of roughly 2.9 kilotons of TNT. Nearly all structures including the entire community of Richmond, were obliterated. A wave snapped trees, bent iron rails, demolished buildings, grounded vessels, scattered fragments of Mont-Blanc for kilometres. Hardly a window in the city proper survived the blast. In Dartmouth, there was also widespread damage. A tsunami created by the blast wiped out the community of Mi ` kmaq First Nations people who had lived for generations. Hospitals quickly became full. Rescue trains were impeded by a blizzard. Construction of temporary shelters to house the many people left homeless began soon after the disaster.Halifax Explosion – A view of the pyrocumulus cloud
240. History of Burnside – The history of Burnside, a local government area in the metropolitan area of Adelaide, South Australia, spans three centuries. The area was first settled by Peter Anderson, a Scots migrant, who named it Burnside after his property's location adjacent to Second Creek. The District Council of Burnside was gazetted in 1856, separating itself from the larger East Torrens Council. The mainstays of the early Burnside economy were viticulture, olive groves; Glen Osmond boasted substantial mineral deposits, vineyards were established at Magill. The present council chambers were built in Tusmore; the council became a municipality in 1935. With strong development throughout the region, Burnside was then proclaimed a city in 1943. The 1960s brought to Burnside a swimming centre; both were further expanded and upgraded between 1997 and 2001. Burnside is one of Adelaide's most upper-class and sought-after regions in which to live. The village of Kensington was established in May 1839, only 29 months after the foundation of the colony. The village had a close relationship with the nearby village of Norwood. Parts of Kensington that are now included in Burnside are the suburbs of Kensington Park. It was named after David M Makgill. Ferguson, charged with farming the estate, built the estate's homestead in 1838. Soon after farming started, thus Magill became the first foothills village to be subdivided. The village of Glen Osmond was closely associated with the discovery of silver and lead by two Cornish immigrants.History of Burnside – The Burnside District Council's old Chambers in 1928 (built 1869)
241. June 1941 uprising in eastern Herzegovina – As the NDH imposed its authority, members of the fascist Ustaše party began a campaign of persecution against Serbs throughout the country. In eastern Herzegovina, the Ustaše perpetrated a series of attacks against the majority Serb population commencing in the first week of June. Between 3 and 22 spontaneous clashes occurred between NDH authorities and groups of Serbs in the region. The German invasion of the Soviet Union began on 22 June. Serb rebels, under the leadership of both local Montenegrins, attacked police, gendarmerie, Ustaše and Croatian Home Guard forces in the region. In the few days, the rebels captured gendarmerie posts in several villages, set up roadblocks on the major roads and ambushed several military vehicles. An Italian column cleared the rebels from Avtovac and relieved the hard-pressed NDH garrison in the town of Gacko. From 3 an NDH force of over 2,000 fanned out from Nevesinje, clearing towns, villages and routes of rebels. By 7 NDH forces had regained full control of all towns and major transport routes in eastern Herzegovina. The Independent State of Croatia was founded on 10 April 1941, during the invasion of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers. The NDH consisted of most of Bosnia and Herzegovina, together with some parts of modern-day Serbia. It was essentially an Italo -- German quasi-protectorate, as it owed its existence to the Axis powers, who maintained occupation forces throughout its existence. In the immediate aftermath of the Yugoslav surrender on 17 former Royal Yugoslav Army troops returned to their homes in eastern Herzegovina with their weapons. On 24 the NDH created five military command areas, including Bosnia Command and Adriatic Command, both of which were initially headquartered in Sarajevo. Each of the five military commands included several district commands.June 1941 uprising in eastern Herzegovina – The capture of the gendarmerie post in Gornji Lukavac was one of the first actions of the uprising
242. Muhammad al-Durrah incident – After an emotional public funeral, Muhammad was hailed throughout the Muslim world as a martyr. Over the months and years that followed, commentators questioned the accuracy of France 2's report. The Israel Defense Forces accepted responsibility for the shooting at first but later retracted. France 2's news editor said in 2005 that no one could be sure who fired the shots. In May that year an Israeli government report supported Karsenty's view. Jamal al-Durrah and Charles Enderlin rejected its conclusion and called for an independent international investigation. The footage of the father and son acquired what one writer called the power of a battle flag. James Fallows wrote of the controversy that "no version of truth, considered believable by all sides will ever emerge." The uprising became known as the Second Intifada; it lasted over four years and cost around 4,000 lives, over 3,000 of them Palestinian. The Netzarim junction, where the shooting took place, is known locally as the al-Shohada junction. It lies on Saladin Road, a few kilometres south of Gaza City. The source of conflict at the junction was the nearby Netzarim settlement, where 60 Israeli families lived until Israel's withdrawal from Gaza in 2005. A military escort accompanied the settlers whenever they left or arrived at the settlement, an Israeli military outpost, Magen-3, guarded the approach. The area had been the scene of violent incidents in the days before the shooting. Jamal al-Durrah was a carpenter and house painter before the shooting.Muhammad al-Durrah incident – Muhammad and Jamal al-Durrah filmed by Talal Abu Rahma for France 2
243. Political history of medieval Karnataka – Before this, the nucleus of power was outside modern Karnataka. This is the starting point in studying the development of the region as an enduring geopolitical entity and of Kannada as an important regional language. In the southern regions of Karnataka, the Western Gangas of Talakad were contemporaries of the Kadambas. The Muslim invasion of the Deccan resulted in the 14th century. The hereditary ruling clans ably served the large empires and upheld the local culture and traditions. With the weakening of the Satavahanas, the Pallavas of Kanchi took control for a brief duration. The Kadambas were natives of the Talagunda region as proven by inscriptions. After many wars, the Pallava king had to accept the sovereignty of the founding king, crowned himself at Banavasi. The fact that the Kadambas cultivated marital ties with the imperial Vakatakas and Gupta dynasties attests to their power. Historians view this act of assertion by the Kadambas who considered themselves equal to the imperial Gupta dynasty. The Kadambas would continue to rule parts of Karnataka and Goa to come but never again as an independent kingdom. The oldest surviving Kadamba structure is one dating in modern Belgaum district. They ruled the region historically known as Gangavadi comprising most of the southern districts of Karnataka. Acting as a state between the Kannada kingdoms of Karnataka region and the Tamil kingdoms of Tamilakam, the Western Ganga architectural innovations show mixed influences. Their sovereign rule ended around the same time as the Kadambas when they came under the Badami Chalukya control.Political history of medieval Karnataka – Kadamba tower at Doddagaddavalli
244. Senghenydd colliery disaster – The Senghenydd colliery disaster, also known as the Senghenydd explosion, occurred at the Universal Colliery in Senghenydd, near Caerphilly, Glamorgan, Wales, on 14 October 1913. The explosion, which killed a rescuer, is still the worst mining accident in the United Kingdom. Universal Colliery, located on the South Wales Coalfield, produced coal, much in demand. Some of the region's coal seams were prone to explosions. In an earlier disaster in May 1901, three underground explosions at the colliery killed 81 miners. It took several days before they were under control. It took six weeks for most of the fire to be extinguished. Shaw was fined # 24 while the company was fined # 10; newspapers calculated the cost of each miner lost was just 1⁄2 pence. The Welsh industry employed 1,500 workers in 1800; and as the industry expanded, the workforce rose to 30,000 by 1864, to 250,000 by 1913. As employment became available, many people moved to the area of the South Wales Coalfield; between 1911 the population increased by 320,000. In 1913 Britain was responsible for 25 per 55 percent of all world coal exports. The South Wales Coalfield produced the sought-after anthracite, steam coals -- the latter a grade between the two comprising a hard coal without the coking elements. An additional danger of firedamp is afterdamp, a poisonous mixture of gases left after an explosion, primarily constituted of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen. They combine with haemoglobin in the bloodstream to stop cells carrying oxygen, which can result by lack of oxygen or anoxia. If survivors from an explosion are not rescued quickly, they face the possibility of being killed by the gas.Senghenydd colliery disaster – Crowd gathering at the pit head of the Universal Colliery, after the explosion at Senghenydd
245. SY Aurora's drift – It began when the ship broke loose from its anchorage in McMurdo Sound in May 1915, during a gale. When Aurora's captain Aeneas Mackintosh took charge of activities ashore, first officer Joseph Stenhouse assumed command of the ship. Stenhouse's inexperience may have contributed to the choice of an inappropriate winter's berth, although his options were restricted by the instructions of his superiors. The ship was free. It was subsequently able to reach New Zealand for repairs and resupply, before returning to Antarctica to rescue the surviving members of the shore party. Stenhouse was later appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire for his service aboard Aurora. The Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition comprised two parties. Aurora, though strongly built, had recently returned in need of an extensive refit. Aurora's chief officer was Joseph Stenhouse, from the British India Steam Navigation Company. Aurora arrived in McMurdo Sound in January 1915, late in the season due to her delayed departure from Australia. Because the party was three weeks behind schedule Mackintosh took himself. By January he was leading one of the sledging parties, leaving Stenhouse in command of the ship. However, Scott's ship had needed several explosive charges to release her. Shackleton relayed to Stenhouse, to winter Aurora north of the Tongue. Stenhouse first attempted to anchor the ship on the north side of Glacier Tongue itself.SY Aurora's drift – SY Aurora, anchored to the Antarctic ice
246. Western Chalukya Empire – The Western Chalukya Empire ruled most of the western Deccan, South India, between the 10th and 12th centuries. The dynasty is called Western Chalukyas to differentiate from the contemporaneous Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, a separate dynasty. Prior to the rise of these Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta empire of Manyakheta controlled most of Deccan and Central India for over two centuries. The dynasty quickly rose to power and grew into an empire under Someshvara I who moved the capital to Kalyani. Most of its monuments are in the districts bordering the Tungabhadra River in central Karnataka. Well known examples are the Mahadeva Temple at Itagi. The genealogy of the kings of this empire is still debated. The records suggests a possible rebellion by a local Chalukya King, Chattigadeva of Banavasi-12000 province, in alliance with local Kadamba chieftains. This rebellion however was unfruitful but paved the way for his successor Tailapa II. However, some inscriptions indicate that Balagamve in Mysore territory may have been a power centre up to the rule of Someshvara I in 1042. The Western Chalukyas and the Chola Dynasty fought many bitter wars over control of this strategic resource. The imperial Cholas gained power during the time of the famous king Rajaraja Chola I and the crown prince Rajendra Chola I. The Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi became increasingly influenced with the Tamil kingdom. As this was against the interests of the Western Chalukyas, they wasted no time in involving themselves politically and militarily in Vengi. His successor, Jayasimha II, fought many battles with the Cholas in the south around c.Western Chalukya Empire – Old Kannada inscription dated 1028 AD from the rule of King Jayasimha II at the Praneshvara temple in Talagunda, Shivamogga district
247. Abu Nidal – At the height of its power in the 1980s, the ANO was widely regarded as the most ruthless of the Palestinian groups. Abu Nidal formed the ANO in October 1974 within the Palestine Liberation Organization. Acting as a freelance contractor, Abu Nidal is believed to have ordered attacks in 20 countries, injuring over 650. Abu Nidal's biographer, wrote of the shootings that their "random cruelty marked them as typical Abu Nidal operations." Abu Nidal died in August 2002. Palestinian sources believed he was killed on the orders of Saddam Hussein, while Iraqi officials insisted he had committed suicide during an interrogation. "He was the patriot turned psychopath," David Hirst wrote on the news of his death. "He served only only the warped personal drives that pushed him into hideous crime. He was the ultimate mercenary." Abu Nidal was born in May 1937 on the Mediterranean coast of what was then the British Mandate of Palestine. Hajj Khalil al-Banna, owned 6,000 acres of orange groves situated between Jaffa and Majdal, today Ashkelon in Israel. The family lived in a three-storey stone house near the beach, later used as an Israeli military court. Abu Nidal's brother, told Yossi Melman: My father... was the richest man in Palestine. He marketed about ten percent of all the citrus crops sent from Palestine to Europe—especially to England and Germany. Most of the time we lived in Jaffa.Abu Nidal – Abu Nidal was born in Jaffa, where he was raised in a large stone house near the beach.
248. Alexander of Greece – Alexander was King of Greece from 11 June 1917 until his death from the effects of a monkey bite at the age of 27. The second son of King Constantine I, Alexander was born in the summer palace of Tatoi, on the outskirts of Athens. Having no political experience, the new king was stripped of his powers by the Venizelists and effectively imprisoned in his own palace. Venizelos, as prime minister, was the effective ruler with the support of the Entente. Though reduced to the status of a king, Alexander supported Greek troops during their war against the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria. Alexander controversially married the commoner Aspasia Manos in 1919, provoking a major scandal that forced the couple to leave Greece for several months. Soon after returning with his wife, Alexander was bitten by a domestic Barbary macaque and died of septicemia. The sudden death of the sovereign contributed to the fall of the Venizelist regime. After a referendum, Constantine I was restored. Alexander was born at Tatoi Palace on 1 August 1893, his wife Princess Sophia of Prussia. He was related throughout Europe. Sophia was also a cousin of King George V through her grandmother, Queen Victoria. Alexander's early life alternated in Athens, Tatoi Palace in the city's suburbs. As his father's second son, Alexander was third in line after his father and elder brother, George. While George spent part of his military training in Germany, Alexander was educated in Greece.Alexander of Greece – A photograph of the King c. 1920
249. William T. Anderson – William T. Anderson, better known as "Bloody Bill" Anderson, was one of the deadliest and most brutal pro-Confederate guerrilla leaders in the American Civil War. Anderson led a band that targeted Union loyalists and Federal soldiers in Missouri and Kansas. Raised in Kansas, Anderson began supporting himself by stealing and selling horses in 1862. After his father was killed by a Union-loyalist judge, Anderson fled Kansas for Missouri. There, he killed several Union soldiers. In early 1863, Anderson joined a pro-Confederate group of guerrillas that operated in Missouri. He became a skilled bushwhacker, earning the trust of the group's leaders, George M. Todd. Anderson's acts as a guerrilla led the Union to imprison his sisters; after one of them died in custody, Anderson devoted himself to revenge. He later participated in the Battle of Baxter Springs. In late 1863, while Quantrill's Raiders spent the winter in Texas, animosity developed between Anderson and Quantrill. Anderson, falsely implicated Quantrill in a murder, leading to the latter's arrest by Confederate authorities. Although Union supporters viewed him incorrigibly evil, Confederate sympathizers in Missouri saw his actions as justified, possibly owing to their mistreatment by Union forces. In September 1864, he led a raid on Centralia, Missouri. Unexpectedly, they were able to capture a train, the first time Confederate guerrillas had done so. Anderson was killed in battle.William T. Anderson – William T. Anderson
250. William Cragh – Captured by the son of William de Briouze, the Cambro-Norman Lord of Gower, he was tried and found guilty of having killed thirteen men. Cragh was executed just within sight of de Briouze's Swansea Castle twice, as the gallows collapsed during his first hanging. Cragh's resurrection was one of thirty-eight miracles presented to the papal commissioners who in 1307 were charged with examining the evidence for Cantilupe's saintliness. Himself gave evidence to the commission, after which nothing more is known of him. Cantilupe was formally canonised by Pope John XXII on 17 April 1320. William Cragh was born in about 1262 to Rhys ap Gwilym and his wife Swanith. Between 1283 King Edward I of England waged a military campaign in Wales that concluded with his annexation of that country. Rhys ap Maredudd, found the post-war settlement unsatisfactory and launched a rebellion against the king in 1287. Rhys ap Maredudd remained at liberty until his capture and execution in 1292. Cragh probably took part on the Welsh side. Cragh was one of 14 prisoners captured by de Briouze, 12 of whom were subsequently released. He was taken to Swansea Castle, where he was held in the dungeons awaiting trial, accused of killing 13 men. The law in Wales at that time permitted condemned men to atone by making a payment to their victims. The offer was refused. The substantial scale of the proposed compensation indicates that Cragh was an important man, although some witnesses described him as a thief rather than a rebel.William Cragh – Swansea Castle, the home of the de Briouze family, where Cragh was held before his execution
251. Guy Fawkes – Fawkes was born and educated in York. His father died when Fawkes was eight years old, after which his mother married a recusant Catholic. He travelled to Spain to seek support for a Catholic rebellion in England without success. He later met Thomas Wintour, with whom he returned to England. Wintour introduced Fawkes to Robert Catesby, who planned to assassinate King James I and restore a Catholic monarch to the throne. The plotters leased an undercroft beneath the House of Lords, Fawkes was placed in charge of the gunpowder they stockpiled there. Prompted by the receipt of an anonymous letter, the authorities searched Westminster Palace during the early hours of 5 November, found Fawkes guarding the explosives. Over the next few days, he was questioned and tortured, eventually he confessed. Fawkes became synonymous with the Gunpowder Plot, the failure of, commemorated in Britain since 5 November 1605. His effigy is traditionally burned on a bonfire, commonly accompanied by a fireworks display. Guy Fawkes was born in 1570 in Stonegate, York. He was the second of four children born to Edward Fawkes, a proctor and an advocate of the consistory court at York, his wife, Edith. Guy's mother's family were recusant Catholics, his cousin, Richard Cowling, became a Jesuit priest. Guy was an uncommon name in England, but may have been popular in York on account of a local notable, Sir Guy Fairfax of Steeton. The date of Fawkes's birth is unknown, but he was baptised in the church of St. Michael le Belfrey on 16 April.Guy Fawkes – George Cruikshank 's illustration of Guy Fawkes, published in William Harrison Ainsworth 's 1840 novel
252. Thomas C. Hindman – Shortly after he was born in Knoxville, Tennessee, he moved to Jacksonville, Alabama and later Ripley, Mississippi. After receiving his primary education in Ripley, Hindman graduated with honors on September 25, 1843. Afterwards, Hindman raised a company in the Mexican-American War. He served as a captain of his company. After the war, Hindman returned to Ripley. Hindman was admitted to the state bar in 1851. Hindman then started a law practice before moving it to Helena two years later. He then served from 1854 to 1856. Hindman was elected as the Democratic representative from March 4, 1859, to March 4, 1861. Hindman declined to serve after the onset of the Civil War and Arkansas's secession from the Union. Instead, he joined the armed forces of the Confederacy. He later raised and commanded "Hindman's legion" for the Confederate States Army. Hindman was promoted to general on September 28, 1861 and later to Major General on April 18, 1862. After the war, he avoided surrender by fleeing to Mexico City. Hindman attempted to practice law.Thomas C. Hindman – General Hindman during The Civil War
253. Frank Jenner – Frank Arthur "Bones" Jenner was an Australian evangelist. His approach to evangelism was to ask people on George Street, Sydney, "If you died within 24 hours, where would you be in eternity? Heaven or hell?" Raised in England, he contracted African trypanosomiasis at the age of twelve and suffered from narcolepsy for the rest of his life. After some time, he deserted in New York and joined the United States Navy. When he was 24, he deserted again while in Australia. He subsequently worked for the Royal Australian Navy until he bought his way out in 1937. He converted to Christianity. One person who became a Christian after encountering Jenner's question was Noel Stanton, who went on to found the Jesus Army in 1969. Jenner died in 1977. In 2000, Raymond Wilson published Jenner of George Street: Sydney's Soul-Winning Sailor in an attempt to tell the story of Jenner's life accurately. Frank Arthur Jenner was born on 2 November 1903 in Hampshire, England. His father was former sea captain. Jenner had four brothers. When he was fourteen, the ship sailed to Cape Town, South Africa.Frank Jenner – Frank Jenner while he was a sailor on HMAS Canberra
254. Ernest Joyce – Joyce served under both Robert Falcon Scott and Ernest Shackleton. Joyce was awarded the Polar Medal with one of only two men to be so honoured, the other being his contemporary, Frank Wild. He began his naval career as a boy seaman in 1891. His Antarctic experiences began 10 years later, when he joined Scott's Discovery Expedition as an Able Seaman. In 1907 Shackleton recruited Joyce to take charge of sledges on the Nimrod Expedition. Subsequently he left the expedition before it departed for the Antarctic. Throughout his career he was known as an abrasive personality who attracted adverse well as positive comments. The book he wrote based on them, have been condemned as self-serving and the work of a fabulist. Joyce made no significant material gains from his expeditions, living out his post-Antarctic life in humble circumstances before dying suddenly in 1940. Details of Joyce's early life are sketchy. The exact date has not been verified. Here, in austere surroundings, Joyce received a vocational education that would prepare him for a lower-deck career in the Royal Navy. No detailed records of his naval service between 1901 appear to have survived. The last-named year saw him serving on HMS Gibraltar in Cape Town where, in September, Scott's expedition ship Discovery stopped to the Antarctic. Scott requested volunteers; from a response of several hundreds, Joyce was one of four seamen chosen to join Discovery.Ernest Joyce – Ernest Joyce (right) with Frank Wild (left) and another Ross Sea party comrade
255. Khalid al-Mihdhar – Mihdhar was fought during the 1990s. In early 1999, he traveled to Afghanistan where, as an experienced and respected jihadist, he was selected by Osama bin Laden to participate in the attacks. Mihdhar arrived after traveling to Malaysia for the Kuala Lumpur al-Qaeda Summit. Upon arriving in San Diego, California, Mihdhar and Hazmi were to did not do well with flight lessons. In June 2000, Mihdhar left the United States for Yemen, leaving Hazmi behind in San Diego. Mihdhar returned in early July 2001. He stayed before arriving in the Washington, D.C. area at the beginning of September. On the morning of September 11, 2001, Mihdhar boarded American Airlines Flight 77, hijacked approximately 30 minutes after take off. The plane was deliberately crashed into the Pentagon, killing all 64 people aboard the flight, along with 125 on the ground. Khalid al-Mihdhar was born in Saudi Arabia to a prominent family, related to the Quraysh tribe of Mecca. In 1997, Mihdhar told his family that he was leaving to fight in Chechnya, though it is not certain that he actually went to Chechnya. In the late 1990s, Mihdhar married Hoda al-Hada, the sister of a comrade from Yemen, they had two daughters. Through marriage, Mihdhar was related to a number of individuals involved with al-Qaeda in some way. In Spring 1999, al-Qaeda founder Osama bin Laden committed to support the 9/11 attacks plot, largely organized by prominent al-Qaeda member Khalid Sheikh Mohammed. Mihdhar, who had spent time in al-Qaeda camps in the 1990s, was known and highly regarded by Bin Laden.Khalid al-Mihdhar – Khalid al-Mihdhar
256. Francis Nash – Francis Nash was a brigadier general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. Nash was also involved in North Carolina politics, representing Hillsborough on several occasions in the colonial North Carolina General Assembly. Nash quickly served as a delegate to the first three Patriot provincial congresses. He led North Carolina's soldiers in the Philadelphia campaign, but died several days later. Nash was one of only ten Patriot generals to die from wounds received in combat between 1781. He is honored by several county names, including those of Nashville, Tennessee, Nashville, North Carolina, Nash County, North Carolina. Nash was born in Amelia County, Virginia to John and Ann Owen Nash. Several of his seven siblings, including at least one brother, were born there. One of Nash's brothers was Abner Nash, who later became a statesman in North Carolina. By 1763, Francis Nash had moved along to Childsburgh, which later became Hillsborough. There Francis became a clerk of court in 1763, a position which paid an annual stipend of # 100 sterling. The Nash brothers also established a mill on the Eno River, while Francis invested in a local store. From 1764 to 1765, he served his first term in the North Carolina Assembly representing Orange County. Nash had two children out of wedlock, one of whom some scholars identify as a son also named Francis Nash, possibly born in 1771. The mother of one of the children was reported as Hillsborough barmaid Ruth Jackson.Francis Nash – Francis Nash's home in Hillsborough, now known as the Nash-Hooper House
257. Hugh de Neville – Hugh de Neville was the Chief Forester under the kings Richard I, John, Henry III of England. Neville was also the sheriff for a number of counties over his lifetime. Related to a number of other royal officials well as a bishop, he was a member of Prince Richard's household. He accompanied him on the Third Crusade. Neville was named as one of John's principal advisors, considered by a medieval chronicler to be one of King John's "evil councillors". He was the son of a son of Alan de Neville, also Chief Forester. Another brother was William, given some of Hugh's lands in 1217. Neville's account of events was a source for the chronicler Ralph of Coggeshall's entries on Richard's activities in the Third Crusade. In 1194 he married her four years later. In 1196 was appointed as Sheriff of Oxfordshire. Neville was also named as Sheriff of Essex and Sheriff of Hertfordshire, offices he held until some time in 1200. He was appointed under King Richard I in 1198. There was also forest treasury. In 1198 he presided over an Assize of the Forest, described as greatly oppressive. The revenues could be considerable; in 1198 the eyre brought in # 1,980.Hugh de Neville – The church at Waltham Abbey, where Hugh de Neville was buried
258. William F. Raynolds – William Franklin Raynolds was an explorer, engineer and U.S. army officer who served in the Mexican-American War and American Civil War. He is best known for leading the 1859–60 Raynolds Expedition while serving as a member of the U.S. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers. During the 1850s and again after his participation in the American Civil War, Raynolds was the engineer on numerous lighthouse construction projects. He oversaw riverway and dredging projects intended to improve accessibility and navigation for shipping. As a cartographer, Raynolds mapped the islands and shorelines on the Great Lakes and other regions. At least six lighthouses whose construction he oversaw are still standing. Of these, several are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. After negotiating the pass the expedition surveyed the Teton Range, now within Grand Teton National Park. On March 13, 1865 Raynolds was brevetted general for meritorious service during the Civil War. Raynolds retired after a 40-year military career. William Franklin Raynolds was born to William Raynolds and Elizabeth Seabury. During the War of 1812, the grandfather Raynolds rose to the rank of major while serving under Lewis Cass. William F. Raynolds entered the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, after being appointed from Ohio. He graduated fifth out of 39 classmates in his class of 1843, which included William B. Franklin, Raynolds's friend Joseph J. Reynolds and future president Ulysses S. Grant.William F. Raynolds – William F. Raynolds in brevet brigadier general uniform
259. Ambrose Rookwood – Ambrose Rookwood was a member of the failed 1605 Gunpowder Plot, a conspiracy to replace the Protestant King James I with a Catholic monarch. Rookwood was born into a wealthy family of Catholic recusants, educated by Jesuits at Flanders. His older brother became a Franciscan, his two younger brothers were ordained as Catholic priests. Rookwood, however, became a horse-breeder. He married the Catholic Elizabeth Tyrwhitt, had at least two sons. Rookwood's stable of fine horses was essential for the uprising to succeed. Rookwood fled the city, informed Catesby and the others of the plan's failure. Together the remaining conspirators rode in Staffordshire where on 8 they were attacked by the Sheriff of Worcester and his men. Catesby was killed, but Rookwood survived, was imprisoned in the Tower of London. Rookwood and the survivors were arraigned on 27 January 1606 in Westminster Hall. Pleading not guilty, he claimed to have loved Catesby "above any worldly man". He was quartered on 31 January, in the Old Palace Yard at Westminster. During his first marriage to Bridget Kemp, Robert had sired four sons, but all predeceased their father. The Rookwood family had lived at Stanningfield in Suffolk for 300 years. Wealthy, staunch Catholics, the authorities viewed them as trouble-makers.Ambrose Rookwood – Early 19th-century portrait of Rookwood
260. Wail al-Shehri – Shehri was an elementary teacher from Khamis Mushait in the Asir region of Saudi Arabia. In early 2000 he traveled to Medina to seek treatment for mental problems. His younger brother Waleed traveled to Afghanistan in March 2000 and joined an Al-Qaeda training camp. The brothers were chosen, along with others from the same region of Saudi Arabia, to participate in the September 11 attacks. Once selected, Shehri returned to Saudi Arabia in October 2000 to obtain a clean passport, then returned to Afghanistan. In March 2001, he recorded his last testament on video. Shehri arrived in early June 2001, staying in budget motels in the Boynton Beach area of south Florida. On September 2001, Shehri traveled to Boston and checked into a motel with his brother. Shehri arrived early in the morning at Boston's Logan International Airport and boarded American Airlines Flight 11. Fifteen minutes after take off, the flight was hijacked and deliberately crashed into the North Tower of the World Trade Center at 8:46 a.m. Shehri was born in Annams, grew up in the Um Saraar neighborhood in Khamis Mushait. He had one sister. Several of Shehri's brothers joined the Saudi military, while his uncle may have been a major in the director of logistics. Mohammed Ali Asgley Al Shehri, worked as a car dealer. On weekends, the family often spent time together at the Red Sea.Wail al-Shehri – Wail al-Shehri
261. John Sherman – John Sherman was an American Republican representative and senator from Ohio during the Civil War and into the late nineteenth century. He also served as both Secretary of State. Sherman ran for the presidential nomination three times, coming closest in 1888, but never won. His brothers included General William Tecumseh Sherman, Charles Taylor Sherman, Hoyt Sherman, an Iowa banker. Born in Lancaster, Ohio, Sherman later moved to Mansfield, Ohio, where he began a career before entering politics. Initially a Whig, Sherman was among those anti-slavery activists who formed what became the Republican Party. He served three terms in the House of Representatives. As a member of the House, Sherman traveled to Kansas to investigate the unrest between anti-slavery partisans there. He was nearly elected Speaker in 1859. Sherman was elevated in 1861. After the war, he worked to produce legislation that would produce a stable, gold-backed currency at home. Serving as Secretary of the Treasury in the administration of Rutherford B. Hayes, Sherman continued his efforts for financial stability and solvency, overseeing an end to wartime inflationary measures and a return to gold-backed money. He returned to the Senate after his term expired, serving there for a further sixteen years. Sherman was the principal author of the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, signed by President Benjamin Harrison.John Sherman – John Sherman
262. Tarrare – Tarrare, sometimes spelled Tarare, was a French showman and soldier, noted for his unusual eating habits. He then took this act to Paris where he worked as a performer. At the start of the War of the First Coalition Tarrare joined the French Revolutionary Army. After being suspected of eating a toddler he was ejected from the hospital. He died shortly afterwards, following a lengthy bout of exudative diarrhoea. Tarrare was born in rural France, around 1772. It is not even known if Tarrare was his real name or a nickname. By this time, his parents had forced him to leave home. Tarrare would draw a crowd by swallowing an entire basketful of apples one after the other. He was particularly fond of snake meat. In 1788, Tarrare moved to Paris to work as a performer. On one occasion the act went wrong and he suffered severe intestinal obstruction. Members of the crowd carried him to the Hôtel-Dieu hospital, where he was treated with powerful laxatives. Despite his unusual diet, Tarrare was slim and of average height. At the age of 17, he weighed only 100 pounds.Tarrare – Baron Percy's original paper on Tarrare's medical history, Mémoire sur la polyphagie (1805)
263. Urse d'Abetot – Urse d'Abetot was a Norman as well as a medieval Sheriff of Worcestershire and royal official under Kings William I, William II and Henry I. He was a native of Normandy and was appointed sheriff in about 1069. Little is known in Normandy, who were not prominent. Urse built a castle in the town of Worcester, which encroached on the cemetery there, earning him a curse from the Archbishop of York. He continued in the service of William's sons after the king's death, was appointed constable under William II and marshal under Henry I. Urse was known for his acquisitiveness, during William II's reign was considered second only to Ranulf Flambard, another royal official, in his rapacity. Urse's son was subsequently exiled, thus forfeiting the office. Through his daughter, Urse is an ancestor of the Beauchamp family, who eventually became Earls of Warwick. On 5 January 1066 Edward King of England, died. Edward's lack of children meant there was no legitimate successor, leading eventually to a succession dispute. Some medieval writers state that shortly before Edward's death he named his brother-in-law, Earl of Wessex, as his heir. Others claim that Edward had promised a powerful autonomous ruler in northern France. The most powerful English noble, took the initiative and was crowned king on 6 January. William, lacking Harold's proximity to the centres of royal government, gathered troops and prepared an invasion fleet. He subsequently defeated and killed Harold at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066.Urse d'Abetot – The Château de Tancarville in Normandy. Urse was a tenant of the lords of Tancarville.
264. Dietrich v The Queen – It concerned the nature of the right to a fair trial, under what circumstances indigent defendants should be provided with legal aid by the state. On 17 a criminal named Olaf Dietrich, flew from Bangkok, Thailand, to Melbourne Airport. He had imported at least seventy grams of heroin, which he concealed within condoms that he had swallowed. He was taken into custody, passed the remainder of the condoms during the night at the hospital in Pentridge Prison. Dietrich alleged that the drugs had been planted by the police. He was tried for certain less serious charges. During the lengthy trial the accused had no legal representation. He applied to the Supreme Court of Victoria for legal assistance, but was again turned down. Dietrich brought an appeal in the Supreme Court, but that court refused to hear his appeal. He then sought leave to appeal to the High Court of Australia. In his High Court appeal Dietrich was represented by David Grace, QC. The main argument advanced on Dietrich's behalf was that his trial was a miscarriage of justice, since he did not have legal representation. He argued that he should have been provided with counsel at public expense, given the seriousness of the crime with which he was charged. Alternatively, he argued that the judge should have stayed or adjourned the trial until he was able to obtain counsel himself. His argument was based on the common law tradition that an accused is entitled to a fair trial.Dietrich v The Queen – Mugshot of Hugo Rich, formerly known as Olaf Dietrich, on his arrest on 12 May 2005
265. Washington v. Texas – The attorney's actions resulted in a lengthy delay in the proceedings which the trial judge felt was unjustified. The Compulsory Process Clause was ratified as part of the Sixth Amendment in 1791. It accords a criminal defendant "the right... to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor." The Clause was included as a foundation for how federal criminal justice would operate. Originally, the Sixth Amendment was only applicable to the federal government. Despite ratification of the Clause, compulsory process was not originally interpreted to permit co-defendants to testify for each other. States relied on a fear that two defendants would both "swear the other " of the charge to prevent either defendant from being convicted. Federal courts expressly applied them in United States v. Reid. While Reid was overruled on different grounds in 1918, it stated the general practice as witnesses that existed before the Fourteenth Amendment. This Clause says that "Nor shall any State deprive any person of life, property without due process of law". Hurtado left open the question of what "fundamental principles of justice" would be protected. In the same year as the railroad takings case, the Court evaluated what procedural trial rights implicated the "fundamental principles of liberty" expressed in Hurtado. A decade after Hovey, the Supreme Court announced its first rule for how the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment would be applied. This understanding of the meaning of "due process" opened up the possibility that the Bill of Rights could be applied to the states. Specifically, the Court said in Twining that the test was whether the right was embedded in "the very idea of free government".Washington v. Texas – Chief Justice Earl Warren wrote the majority opinion in Washington.
266. Allah jang Palsoe – Allah jang Palsoe is a 1919 stage drama in six acts written by the ethnic-Chinese author Kwee Tek Hoay. Over more than a decade, the two learn that money is not the path to happiness. Kwee Tek Hoay's first stage play, Allah jang Palsoe was written to whimsical contemporary theatres. Though the play was deemed difficult to perform, Allah jang Palsoe found success on the stage. In 2006 the script for the play, which continues to be performed, was republished with updated spelling by the Lontar Foundation. As they are packing, Kioe Lie's fiancée Gouw Hap Nio visits. The brothers finish packing, head for the train station. Three years later, Kioe Lie visits his brother in the latter's Batavia home. Kioe Gie is known as a generous philanthropist. Kioe Lie is set on his goals. Before Kioe Lie leaves, the brothers discuss marriage: since Lie has no intent to marry Hap Nio soon, Kioe Gie asks permission to marry first. Though Kioe Lie disapproves of a poor orphan girl named Oeij Ijan Nio, he agrees. Kioe Gie has become editor-in-chief of Kemadjoean and married Ijan Nio. During the following Kioe Gie and his wife sell their belongings and prepare to move back to Cicuruk. After an extensive argument, Kioe Lie leaves.Allah jang Palsoe – The style of Allah jang Palsoe was inspired by the realism of Henrik Ibsen.
267. Amazing Stories – Amazing Stories is an American science fiction magazine launched in April 1926 by Hugo Gernsback's Experimenter Publishing. It was the first magazine devoted solely to fiction. Amazing was published, for almost eighty years, going through a half-dozen owners and many editors as it struggled to be profitable. Palmer made the magazine successful though it was not regarded within the science fiction community. Amazing switched to a digest format in 1953, shortly before the end of the pulp-magazine era. Publication was suspended after the March 2005 issue. A new incarnation appeared as an online magazine. Gernsback's initial approach was to blend instruction with entertainment; he believed science fiction could educate readers. The movement away from Gernsback's idealism accelerated when the magazine changed hands in 1929. Despite this, Gernsback had an enormous impact on the field: the creation of a magazine for science fiction spawned an entire genre publishing industry. Writers whose first story was published in the magazine include Isaac Asimov, Howard Fast, Ursula K. Le Guin, Roger Zelazny, Thomas M. Disch. Though, Amazing itself was rarely an influential magazine within the genre. By the end of the 19th century, stories set in the future, were appearing regularly in popular fiction magazines. The market for short stories lent itself in the tradition of Jules Verne.Amazing Stories – First issue of Amazing Stories, art by Frank R. Paul. This copy was autographed by Hugo Gernsback in 1965
268. Analog Science Fiction and Fact – Analog Science Fiction and Fact is an American science-fiction magazine published under various titles since 1930. The first issue, titled Astounding Stories of Super-Science, was dated January 1930, published by William Clayton, edited by Harry Bates. Clayton went bankrupt in 1933 and the title was sold to Street & Smith. At the end of 1937, Campbell took over editorial duties under Tremaine's supervision, the following year Tremaine was let go, giving Campbell more independence. The period beginning with Campbell's editorship is often referred to as the Golden Age of Science Fiction. By 1950, new competition had appeared from Galaxy Science Fiction and The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction. At about the same time Street & Smith sold the title to Condé Nast. Campbell remained as editor until his death in 1971; Ben Bova took over from 1972 to 1978, the character of the magazine changed noticeably. Bova won five consecutive Hugo Awards for his editing of Analog. The title was sold to Davis Publications in 1980, then to Dell Magazines in 1992. Crosstown Publications acquired Dell in 1996 and remains the publisher. Schmidt continued to edit the magazine until 2012, when he was replaced by Trevor Quachri. In 1926, Hugo Gernsback launched Amazing Stories, the first science-fiction magazine. Amazing was very successful, quickly reaching a circulation over 100,000. He suggested to Harry Bates, a newly hired editor, that they start a magazine of historical adventure stories.Analog Science Fiction and Fact – The first issue of Astounding Stories, January 1930, cover by Wesso
269. Bone Sharps, Cowboys, and Thunder Lizards – Bone Sharps follows Edward Drinker Cope and Othniel Marsh as they engage in an intense rivalry for prestige. Unlike in his previous books, "the scientists are this time". Upon release, the novel received praise from critics for its historical content, although some reviewers wished more fiction had been woven into the story. Ottaviani had never written a work of historical fiction. While Ottaviani was putting his ideas together, he met Zander Cannon at the 2004 San Diego Comic Convention. Associates were forming a new production studio, "Big Time Attic"; Ottaviani mentioned he had a proposal he wanted to show them. The novel is broken with each titled after a portion of the novel's title: "Bone Sharps", "Cowboys", "Thunder Lizards." The narrative is not continuous; there are significant gaps of time between each section, roughly spanning the 1869 to. In Philadelphia, Henry Fairfield Osborn is introducing artist Charles R. Knight to a paleontologist whose entire house is filled with bones and specimens. Cope is commissioning something to "catch the spirit" of the sea creature Elasmosaurus. Cope then leaves as the official scientist for the U.S. Geological Survey. At Fort Bridger, Wyoming, Cope meets a helper to the USGS. During excavations, Cope finds some of the richest bone veins ever. Sending back carloads of dinosaur bones east by train, Cope encounters Marsh, heading out west well. At Fort McPherson, Nebraska, Marsh meets "Buffalo" Bill Cody, who serves as their guide, along with the Native Indian tribe.Bone Sharps, Cowboys, and Thunder Lizards – Cover of Bone Sharps, Cowboys, and Thunder Lizards
270. Carousel (musical) – Carousel is the second musical by the team of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II. The 1945 work was adapted from Ferenc Molnár's 1909 Liliom, transplanting its Budapest setting to the Maine coastline. The story revolves around carousel barker Billy Bigelow, whose romance with millworker Julie Jordan comes at the price of both their jobs. He attempts a robbery to provide for their unborn child; after it goes wrong, he is given a chance to make things right. A secondary line deals with millworker Carrie Pipperidge and her romance with ambitious fisherman Enoch Snow. The show includes the well-known songs ""You'll Never Walk Alone". Richard Rodgers later wrote that Carousel was his favorite of all his musicals. After acquiring the rights, the team made the ending more hopeful. Carousel initially duplicated its success in the West End in 1950. Though it has never achieved as much commercial success as Oklahoma!, the piece has been repeatedly revived, has been recorded several times. A production by Nicholas Hytner enjoyed success in 1992 in 1994 in New York and on tour. In 1999, Time magazine named the best musical of the 20th century. Liliom, premiered in Budapest in 1909. It lasted only thirty-odd performances before being withdrawn, the first shadow on Molnár's successful career as a playwright. Liliom was not presented again until after World War I.Carousel (musical) – Original Broadway poster (1945)
271. Diamonds Are Forever (novel) – Diamonds Are Forever is the fourth novel by the English author Ian Fleming to feature his fictional British Secret Service agent James Bond. Fleming wrote the story in Jamaica, inspired by a Sunday Times article on diamond smuggling. The book was first published on 26 March 1956. The story ends in Las Vegas. Along the way Bond falls in love with one of the members of the smuggling gang, Tiffany Case. Much of Fleming's research formed the basis for his non-fiction 1957 book The Diamond Smugglers. Diamonds Are Forever deals of life. As with Fleming's previous novels, Diamonds Are Forever received broadly positive reviews at the time of publication. The story was serialised in the Daily Express newspaper, first in an multi-part form and then as a comic strip. In 1971 it was the last Eon Productions film to star Sean Connery as Bond. The British Secret Service agent James Bond is sent on an assignment by his superior, M. Bond must infiltrate the smugglers' pipeline to uncover those responsible. Bond discovers that the ring is operated by a ruthless American gang run by the brothers Jack and Seraffimo Spang. He follows the trail from London to New York. There Bond meets a former CIA agent working at Pinkertons as a private detective investigating crooked horse racing.Diamonds Are Forever (novel) – First edition cover
272. Dr. No (novel) – Dr. No is the sixth novel by the English author Ian Fleming to feature his British Secret Service agent James Bond. Fleming wrote the novel at his Goldeneye estate in Jamaica. It was first published by Jonathan Cape on 31 March 1958. The novel centres into the disappearance in Jamaica of two fellow MI6 operatives. He establishes that they had been investigating a Chinese operator of a guano mine on the fictional Caribbean island of Crab Key. Bond meets Honeychile Rider and later Doctor No. The novel began as a 1956 screenplay for the producer Henry Morgenthau III for a proposed show entitled Commander Jamaica. When those plans foundered, Fleming adapted the ideas for a novel, provisionally titled The Wound Man. The book's eponymous villain was influenced by Sax Rohmer's Fu Manchu stories. Dr. When released on the American market it was received more favourably. Dr. No was serialised in The Daily Express, first in an abridged story form and later as a comic strip. While there he is instructed to investigate the disappearance of Commander John Strangways, the head of MI6's his secretary.Dr. No (novel) – First edition cover, published by Jonathan Cape
273. Drama dari Krakatau – Drama dari Krakatau is a 1929 vernacular Malay novel written by Kwee Tek Hoay. The brother becomes a political figure, while the sister marries a Baduy priest-king. Ultimately these families are reunited by the wedding of their children, after which the priest sacrifices himself to calm a stirring Krakatoa. Before the final instalment had been published, the novel had already been adapted for the stage. Although Kwee was researched the volcano before writing, Drama dari Krakatau is replete with mysticism. Thematic analyses have focused by Kwee, as well as geography and nationalism. As with other works of Chinese Malay literature, the book is not considered part of the Indonesian literary canon. In 1883, Krakatoa begins stirring for the first time in 200 years. Tjakra Amidjaja tells her that they will leave the village in two days. In the meantime, Tjakra Amidjaja and Sadidjah stay behind to manage the evacuation. They send Hasan and Soerijati, to stay with family in Rangkas Gombong. Krakatoa erupts several hours later. Forty-four years pass. Moelia finds Noesa Brama an intelligent and well-spoken man. Over lunch Moelia falls with the priest's daughter, Retna Sari.Drama dari Krakatau – Cover, first printing (1929)
274. Famous Fantastic Mysteries – Famous Fantastic Mysteries was an American science fiction and fantasy pulp magazine published from 1939 to 1953. The editor was Mary Gnaedinger. The first issue was dated September/October 1939; less than a year later a companion magazine, Fantastic Novels, was launched. Famous Fantastic Mysteries stopped reprinting short stories from the earlier magazines. It continued to reprint longer works, including titles by G. K. Chesterton, H. Rider Haggard. Short fiction also began to appear, including Arthur C. Clarke's "Guardian Angel", which would later form the first section of his novel Childhood's End. In 1951 the publishers returned quickly to the original pulp layout. The magazine ceased publication in 1953, almost at the end of the era. By the early decades of the 20th century, fiction stories were frequently seen in popular magazines. By the end of the 1930s fiction was a growing market, with several new sf magazines launched in 1939. The first issue was edited by Mary Gnaedinger. The magazine went to a monthly schedule starting in November 1939. Demand for reprints of old favorites was so strong that Munsey decided to launch Fantastic Novels, in July 1940. When Fantastic Novels ceased publication in early 1941 Famous Fantastic Mysteries remained bimonthly until June 1942. It returned to a bimonthly schedule in 1946 which it maintained until the end of its run.Famous Fantastic Mysteries – The cover of the first issue, dated September/October 1939
275. Fantastic (magazine) – Fantastic was an American digest size fantasy and science fiction magazine, published from 1952 to 1980. It was founded to Amazing Stories. Howard Browne, the editor, was forced to switch the focus to science fiction rather than fantasy. She helped to nurture the early careers of writers such as Ursula K. This brought Cohen into conflict with the newly formed Science Fiction Writers of America. After a turbulent period at the end of the 1960s, Ted White became the reprints were phased out. He was occasionally able to find good stories from well-known writers, rejected by the other markets. In 1978 Cohen sold out his half of the business to his partner, Arthur Bernhard. In 1938, a Chicago-based publisher looking to expand into the pulp magazine market, acquired Amazing Stories. The first issue of Fantastic, dated Summer 1952, appeared on March 21 of that year. The experiment with fiction did not last; circulation dropped, which led to budget cuts, in turn the quality of the fiction fell. In May 1956 Browne left Ziff-Davis to become a screenwriter. Paul W. Fairman took over as editor of both Fantastic and Amazing. With his departure Amazing and Fantastic stagnated; they drew no attention from Ziff-Davis's management. In November 1955, Ziff-Davis hired Cele Goldsmith, who began by helping with two new magazines under development, Dream World and Pen Pals.Fantastic (magazine) – Cover of the October 1961 issue, by Alex Schomburg
276. From Russia, with Love (novel) – From Russia, with Love is the fifth novel by the English author Ian Fleming to feature his fictional British Secret Service agent James Bond. Fleming wrote the story at his Goldeneye estate in Jamaica; at the time he thought it might be his final Bond book. The novel was first published by Jonathan Cape on 8 April 1957. As bait, the Russians use the Spektor, a Soviet decoding machine. Much of the action takes place on the Orient Express. With Love received broadly positive reviews at the time of publication. The story was serialised in the Daily Express newspaper, first in an multi-part form and then as a comic strip. In 1963 it was adapted into the second film in the Bond series, starring Sean Connery. The Soviet counterintelligence agency, plans to commit a grand act of terrorism in the intelligence field. For this, it targets James Bond. Bond's killer is to be a psychopath whose homicidal urges coincide with the full moon. SMERSH's chess-playing master planner, Colonel Rosa Klebb, the head of Operations and Executions, devise the operation. As an added lure for Bond, Romanova will provide the British with a Russian decoding device much coveted by MI6. She is not told the details of the plan. The offer of defection is conditional that Bond collects her and the Spektor from Istanbul.From Russia, with Love (novel) – First edition cover, published by Jonathan Cape
277. Future Science Fiction and Science Fiction Stories – Both publications were edited by Charles Hornig for the few issues; Robert W. Lowndes remained editor until the end. The initial launch of the magazines came in science fiction pulp publishing at the end of the 1930s. With the market improving again, Silberkleit relaunched Future Fiction, still in the format. In the mid-1950s he also relaunched Science Fiction, this time under the title Science Fiction Stories. Silberkleit kept both magazines on very slim budgets throughout the 1950s. In 1960 both titles ceased publication when their distributor suddenly dropped all of Silberkleit's titles. The fiction was generally unremarkable, with few memorable stories being published, particularly in the earlier versions of the magazines. Lowndes spent much effort to set a friendly and engaging tone in both magazines, with letter columns and reader departments that interested fans. He was more successful in obtaining good stories partly because he had good relationships with several emerging writers. Among the better-known stories he published were "The Liberation of Earth" by William Tenn, "If I Forget Thee, Oh Earth" by Arthur C. Clarke. By the end of the 1930s the field was booming. One of Gernsback's employees, Louis Silberkleit, became a publisher in his own right in 1934 when he founded the Winford Publishing Company. Gernsback recommended Charles Hornig for the post of editor; Hornig had previously edited Wonder Stories for Gernsback to 1936. Silberkleit took the recommendation and Hornig was hired in October 1938.Future Science Fiction and Science Fiction Stories – Cover of the first issue of Science Fiction, dated March 1939. The artwork is by Frank R. Paul
278. Galaxy Science Fiction – Galaxy Science Fiction was an American digest-size science fiction magazine, published from 1950 to 1980. It was founded by World Editions, looking to break into the American market. In 1952, the magazine was acquired by its printer. By the late 1950s, Frederik Pohl was helping Gold with most aspects of the magazine's production. Under Pohl Galaxy had continued success, regularly publishing fiction by writers such as Cordwainer Smith, Jack Vance, Robert Silverberg. However, Pohl never won the annual Hugo Award for his stewardship of Galaxy, winning three Hugos instead for its magazine, If. Distribution Corporation and Pohl resigned, to be replaced by Ejler Jakobsson. Under Jakobsson the magazine declined in quality. A brief revival as a semi-professional magazine followed in 1994, edited by H. L. Gold's son, E. J. Gold; this lasted for eight bimonthly issues. At its peak, Galaxy greatly influenced the science field. Its influence did not wane until Pohl's departure in 1969. Gold brought a "sophisticated intellectual subtlety" according to Pohl, who added that "after Galaxy it was impossible to go on being naive." Gold".Galaxy Science Fiction – David Stone's cover for the first issue of Galaxy. Founding editor H. L. Gold disliked other magazines' covers depicting muscular men and half-dressed women fighting monsters.
279. Ghost Stories (magazine) – Ghost Stories was a U.S. pulp magazine that published 64 issues between 1926 and 1932. It was one of the earliest competitors to Weird Tales, the first magazine to specialize in the fantasy and occult genre. These were often accompanied by faked photographs to make the stories appear more believable. Ghost Stories also ran reprinted contributions, including works by Robert E. Howard, Carl Jacobi, Frank Belknap Long. Among the reprints were Agatha Christie's "The Last Seance", Charles Dickens' "The Signal-Man". In 1930 was sold to Harold Hersey. Ghost Stories ceased publication at the start of 1932. Ghost Stories, launched by Bernarr Macfadden in July 1926, was one of Weird Tales' earliest competitors. These were replaced by line drawings when the magazine switched in July 1928. Ghost Stories occasionally printed contributions including "The Apparition in the Prize Ring", by Robert E. Howard, under the pseudonym "John Taverel". Popular writers such as Frank Belknap Long, Hugh B. Carl Jacobi's first published story, "The Haunted Ring", appeared in the final issue. Sales soon began to fall. He was unable to revive the magazine's fortunes. The final issue was dated December 1931/January 1932.Ghost Stories (magazine) – Cover of the August 1928 issue
280. Gods' Man – Gods' Man is a wordless novel by American artist Lynd Ward published in 1929. In 139 captionless woodblock prints it tells the Faustian story of an artist who signs away his soul for a magic paintbrush. Gods' Man is seen as a precursor of, influence on, the development of the graphic novel. Ward first encountered the wordless novel while studying art in Germany in 1926. He established a career for himself as an illustrator. It inspired him to create such a work of his own. Gods' Man appeared a week before the Wall Street Crash of 1929; it remains the best-selling American wordless novel. Its success inspired other Americans to experiment including cartoonist Milt Gross, who parodied Gods' Man in He Done Her Wrong. In the 1970s Ward's example inspired cartoonists Art Spiegelman and Will Eisner to create their first graphic novels. The novel Gods' Man is a silent narrative made up of prints of 139 engraved woodblocks. Each image moves the story forward by an interval Ward chooses to maintain flow. Wordless historian David A. Beronä likens these concerns with the storytelling methods of comics. Ward exaggerates facial expression to convey emotion without resorting to words. The artwork and execution show the influence of film, in particular those of German studio Ufa. The placement of the apostrophe in the title Gods' Man implies a plurality of gods, rather than Christianity's monotheistic God.Gods' Man – Cover to the first edition of Gods' Man (1929) by American artist Lynd Ward (1905–1985)
281. The Good Terrorist – The Good Terrorist is a 1985 political novel by Doris Lessing. It was first published in September 1985 by Alfred A. Knopf. Lessing was inspired to write The Good Terrorist in 1983. She later grew disillusioned with communism. Three reviewers labelled The Good Terrorist as a satire, while Lessing called it humorous. The Good Terrorist won the Mondello Prize and the WH Smith Literary Award. She is still dependent on her parents, whom she treats with contempt. In the early-1980s, Alice joins a squat of like-minded "comrades" in a derelict house in London. Accompanying her is Jasper, a graduate she took in at a student commune she lived in fifteen years previously. Jasper followed her from squat to squat. Alice fell with him only to become frustrated later by his aloofness and bourgeoning homosexuality. Other members of the squat include Bert, their ineffective leader, a lesbian couple, Faye, her unstable and fragile partner. The abandoned house is earmarked by the City Council for demolition. She also persuades the authorities to restore the water supplies. Alice becomes the house's "mother", dealing with the local police, who are trying to evict them.The Good Terrorist – Cover of first UK edition
282. Halo: Contact Harvest – Halo: Contact Harvest is a military science fiction novel by Joseph Staten, based on the Halo series of video games. The book was released in October 2007 and, following 2006's Halo: Ghosts of Onyx, written by Eric Nylund. He set out to write a novel that appealed to gamers, well as those who had never read a Halo novel. The novel is an piece, with the action being narrated from both human and Covenant viewpoints. The protagonist is Staff Sergeant Avery Johnson, who also appears in the Halo video games. Upon release, the book became The New York Times bestseller in its first week. Critics pointed as a sign of the increasing importance of story in video games. We don't have a lot of time to tell story while the bullets are flying." Replying about writing action, Staten replied that he felt that writing "involves slowing things down", in comparison to a game of Halo. The author also said that the work of his science-fiction authors helped teach him the importance of honing a "strong, consistent voice". One example of fans taking Staten to task over the novel occurred soon after the novel's cover was revealed in July 2007. The cover depicts Sergeant Avery Johnson holding a weapon known as the Battle Rifle. The wealthier "Inner" colonies are politically dominant over the more recently established outer colonies, although the older planets rely on the new worlds for raw materials. Contact Harvest features several characters seen previously in the video games well as new characters. The outer colony "Harvest" is one of the most remote.Halo: Contact Harvest – Staten and fellow Halo author Eric Nylund promoted Contact Harvest at Comic-Con International 2007, giving away posters of the book's cover.
283. The Halo Graphic Novel – The Halo Graphic Novel is the first graphic novel adaptation of the military science fiction video game Halo, published by Marvel Comics in partnership with Bungie. The majority of the book is divided into four short stories from the computer game and comic industries. Each story focuses on different aspects of revealing stories that are tangential to the main plot of the game. Apart from the stories, the book also contains an extensive gallery compiled of contributions from Bungie, Marvel and independent sources. The success of the novel led to Marvel announcing a new comic series, which became known as Halo: Uprising. However, the art director of Bungie, disliked the comic, calling it "a lump of coal". Bungie also requested to be able to choose their own artists and writers instead. Bungie sought out a publisher, eventually approaching Marvel Comics. Bungie cited Marvel's "passion for Halo" and "reach in the comic and industry" as the main draws to the company. The studio worked alongside Marvel director of an early champion of the project, to assist in the distribution and publication of the novel. The writers of". Artist Simon Bisley said that "the stress was to make the characters look much as they do in the game. Beyond that point I was given free rein to interpret the action" based on what was given to the artists and writers. These contributors include Doug Alexander, Rick Berry, more than twenty-five others, both freelance and from Bungie Studios -- including lead composer Martin O'Donnell. A full-color poster of the book's cover was released on June 2006.The Halo Graphic Novel – The front cover of The Halo Graphic Novel
284. Harvey Kurtzman's Jungle Book – Harvey Kurtzman's Jungle Book is a 1959 graphic novel by American cartoonist Harvey Kurtzman. The satirical stories are aimed to Kurtzman's earlier work for adolescents in periodicals such as Mad. Kurtzman's character Goodman Beaver makes his first appearance in one of the stories. Kurtzman left its publisher EC Comics in 1956 after a dispute over financial control. Ballantine accepted Kurtzman's proposal, albeit with reservations about its commercial viability. It was the mass-market paperback of original comics published in the United States. The full title of the book is Harvey Kurtzman's Book: Or, Up from the Apes! At 140 pages, Jungle Book remains Kurtzman's longest work. Freed from the length constraints of magazine pieces, Kurtzman was able to make inventive use of panel rhythms. According to publisher Kim Thompson, his satire never had "more pitiless a bite" at any other time in his career. Kurtzman had aimed his Mad stories at an adolescent audience; his targeting Book at an adult audience was uncommon in American comics. Violence's job is to protect a vapid woman named Lolita Nabokov, being blackmailed over her infidelity. In his parody, Kurtzman retained little aside from the main character. Kurtzman stated he "was trying to get... that Henry Mancini feel to the story". "Thelonius Violence" was one of the last stories to be completed.Harvey Kurtzman's Jungle Book – Cover to original Ballantine Books edition (1959)
285. The Heart of a Woman – The Heart of a Woman is an autobiography by American writer Maya Angelou. The book is the fourth installment in Angelou's series of seven autobiographies. One of the most important themes of The Heart of a Woman is motherhood, as Angelou continues to raise her teenage son. The book ends with Angelou's son leaving for Angelou looking forward to newfound independence and freedom. Like Angelou's previous volumes, the book has been described as autobiographical fiction, though most critics, well as Angelou, have characterized it as autobiography. Although most critics consider Angelou's first autobiography I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings more favorably, The Heart of a Woman has received positive reviews. It was chosen in 1997. Critic Mary Jane Lupton says that it is Angelou's "most introspective" autobiography. The title is taken by Harlem Renaissance poet Georgia Douglas Johnson, which connects Angelou with other female African-American writers. The most important journey she describes is "a voyage into the self". The Heart of a Woman, published in 1981, is the fourth installment of Maya Angelou's series of seven autobiographies. The publication of three volumes of poetry had brought Angelou a considerable amount of fame by 1981. And Still her third volume of poetry, was published in 1978 and reinforced Angelou's success as a writer. Her first volume of poetry, Just Give a Cool Drink of Water ` fore I Diiie, was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize. Writer Julian Mayfield states that Angelou's work set a precedent as a whole.The Heart of a Woman – 2009 trade paperback edition
286. In Our Time (short story collection) – In Our Time is Ernest Hemingway's first collection of short stories, published in 1925 by Boni & Liveright, New York. Its title is derived from the English Book of Common Prayer, "Give O Lord". The collection's history was complex. It began with six prose vignettes commissioned by Ezra Pound for a 1923 edition of The Little Review. Hemingway added twelve more and in 1924 compiled the in our edition, printed in Paris. To these were added fourteen short stories for the 1925 edition, including "Indian Camp" and "Big Two-Hearted River", two of his best-known Nick Adams stories. He composed "On the Quai at Smyrna" for the 1930 edition. The collection is known through a style known as Hemingway's "theory of omission". For the next six months he recuperated in a Milan hospital, where he fell with nurse Agnes von Kurowsky. Shortly after his return to the US, she informed him that she was engaged to an Italian officer. Soon after he turned to journalism. Pound's influence extended to promoting the young author, placing six of Hemingway's poems in Poetry Magazine. Pound's commission had profound consequences on his development as a writer. On December 1922, nearly all of Hemingway's early writing -- his juvenilia and apprentice fiction, including the duplicates -- was lost. He had been sent on assignment to cover the Conference of Lausanne, leaving Hadley, sick with a cold, behind in Paris.In Our Time (short story collection) – 1924 Three Mountains Press Paris edition of in our time
287. Live and Let Die (novel) – Live and Let Die is the second novel in Ian Fleming's James Bond series of stories, is set in London, the US and Jamaica. It was first published in the UK by Jonathan Cape on 5 April 1954. Bond becomes involved from British territories in the Caribbean. As with Casino Royale, Live and Let Die was broadly well received by the critics. A second run was ordered within the year. US sales, when the novel was released there a year later, were much slower. Major plot elements from the novel were also incorporated into the Bond films Only in Licence to Kill in 1989. The British Secret Service agent James Bond is sent to New York City to investigate real name Buonaparte Ignace Gallia. In New York Bond meets up with his counterpart in the CIA, Felix Leiter. The two visit some of Mr Big's nightclubs in Harlem, but are captured. Bond is interrogated by Mr Big, who uses his fortune-telling employee, Solitaire, to determine if Bond is telling the truth. Solitaire lies to Mr Big, supporting Bond's cover story. Mr Big has his Tee-Hee break one of Bond's fingers. Solitaire later leaves contacts Bond; the couple travel to St. Petersburg, Florida, where they meet Leiter. While Bond and Leiter are scouting one of Mr Big's warehouses used for storing exotic fish, Solitaire is kidnapped by Mr Big's minions.Live and Let Die (novel) – First edition cover, published by Jonathan Cape
288. Marvel Science Stories – Marvel Science Stories was a U.S. pulp magazine which published a total of fifteen issues in two separate runs, both edited by Robert O. Erisman. Reader reaction was generally negative, with one reader referring to Kuttner's story "The Time Trap" as "trash". When a boom in science fiction magazines began in 1950, the publishers revived it. The first issue of the new series was dated November 1950; a further six issues appeared, with the last issue dated May 1952. In addition to Kuttner, contributors to the first run included Arthur J. Burks and Jack Williamson; the second run published stories by Arthur C. Clarke, Isaac Asimov, Jack Vance and L. Sprague de Camp, among others. After 1931, when Miracle Science and Fantasy Stories was launched, no new fiction magazines appeared for several years. It lasted with the last issue dated January 1937. In 1937 the Goodmans began publishing several "weird-menace" pulps. The Goodmans' titles were Detective Short Stories, launched in August 1937, Mystery Tales, which published its first issue in March 1938. These were followed up by Marvel Science Stories, edited by Robert O. Erisman, not intended to be an sf magazine. The Goodmans had asked Kuttner to spice up his submissions to Marvel Science Stories. All I can say is: PLEASE, in the future, such trash from your magazine". The first issue of the new incarnation of Marvel Science Stories was dated November 1950. The final issue, dated May 1952, was once again a pulp.Marvel Science Stories – Cover of the April–May 1939 issue; artwork is by Norman Saunders
289. New Worlds (magazine) – New Worlds was a British science fiction magazine that began in 1936 as a fanzine called Novae Terrae. It adopted its current title in 1939, after John Carnell became editor. Carnell did not return to civilian life until 1946. A group of fiction fans formed a company called Nova Publications to revive the magazine; the first issue under their management appeared in mid-1949. It was not until early 1954, when Maclaren & Sons acquired control of Nova Publications, that the magazine returned to a monthly schedule. New Worlds was acquired by Roberts & Vinter in 1964, when Michael Moorcock became editor. New Worlds became the focus of the "New Wave" of science fiction. Several including Brian Aldiss, J. G. Ballard and Thomas M. Disch, became major names in the field. It ceased publication with issue 200. In 1926, Hugo Gernsback launched the first science fiction magazine. It was soon followed by other US titles also specializing in sf, such as Wonder Stories. British fan organizations began to appear. His fanzine became the official publication of the Science Fiction Association, founded in 1937. Arthur C. Clarke, John Carnell and William F.New Worlds (magazine) – First issue cover
290. Planet Stories – Planet Stories was an American pulp science fiction magazine, published by Fiction House between 1939 and 1955. It was initially focused on a young readership. Malcolm Reiss was editor-in-chief for all of its 71 issues. Planet Stories was launched as Planet Comics, the success of which probably helped to fund the early issues of Planet Stories. In 1952 Planet went on to print four more of his stories over the next three years. Bradbury's work for Planet included an early story in his Martian Chronicles sequence. Brackett's best-known work for the magazine was a series of adventures featuring Eric John Stark, which began in the summer of 1949. The artwork also emphasized attractive women, on almost every cover. By the end of the 1930s the field was undergoing its first boom. The first issue was dated Winter 1939. With the Summer 1950 issue the editorship passed to Jerome Bixby, already Jungle Stories. Thereafter Planet Stories switched from a quarterly to bimonthly schedule. Bixby lasted a little over a year; three issues later, in March 1952, Jack O'Sullivan became editor. The column in Planet was titled "The Vizigraph"; it was very active, with long letters from an engaged readership. Both writers set many of their stories on a romanticized version of Mars that owed much to the Barsoom of Edgar Rice Burroughs.Planet Stories – The March 1951 issue of Planet Stories; art by Allen Anderson
291. The Playboy – It deals to Playboy Playmate models. The story begins as a teenager. His conflicting emotions follow him into adulthood until he purges them by revealing himself through his comics. The Playboy was the first book-length work he planned as a complete story. The story has attracted praise for its revealing criticism from those who saw it as glorifying pornography. Playboy publisher Hugh Hefner wrote Brown to express concern over Brown's sexual anxieties in a post-sexual world. Chester Brown grew up with a large English-speaking minority; he does not speak French. Brown described himself as a "nerdy teenager" attracted from a young age. Brown was unsuccessful in finding work with Marvel or DC after graduating from high school. Brown discovered underground comix and the small-press community. Brown began to self-publish a minicomic in 1983 titled Yummy Fur. From 1986 Toronto-based Vortex Comics began publishing Yummy Fur. The work of fellow Toronto cartoonist Seth inspired Brown to pare down his drawing style during the early 1990s. Brown tentatively gradually became freer with his panel layouts and simpler in his artwork. The autobiographical story takes place in Chester "Chet" Brown's hometown of Châteauguay in 1975, when Brown was 15.The Playboy – Cover of the first edition of The Playboy from Drawn and Quarterly
292. Science Fantasy (magazine) – Walter Gillings was then replaced by John Carnell, the editor of New Worlds, as a cost-saving measure. Carnell edited both magazines until Nova went out in early 1964. The title was changed again to SF Impulse for the few issues. Science Fantasy ceased the following year when Roberts & Vinter came under financial pressure after their printer went bankrupt. Under Bonfiglioli more new writers appeared, including Keith Roberts, Josephine Saxton. In early 1946, British fan John Carnell launched a new science magazine titled New Worlds, published by Pendulum Publications. The first issue failed to sell well. A group including Carnell and Frank Cooper, decided to restart the magazine under their own control, formed Nova Publications Ltd.. The fourth issue appeared in April 1949. Gillings had accumulated a substantial inventory of stories -- enough to fill nine issues. Gillings followed the demise of Fantasy by publishing a fanzine, beginning in March 1947. With New Worlds on a stable quarterly schedule, Nova Publications decided to launch a companion, Science Fantasy. Printing disputes meant that the second issue was delayed until winter. According to Carnell, there were also "fundamental differences of opinion" that led to the decision to replace him. After the Spring 1953 issue Nova Publications decided to switch printers, in order to bring the cover price down from 2 / - to 1/6.Science Fantasy (magazine) – R.M. Bull's cover for the third issue is "strikingly reminiscent of the work of Margaret Brundage for Weird Tales in the thirties", according to sf historian David Kyle.
293. Science-Fiction Plus – Science-Fiction Plus was a U.S. science fiction magazine published by Hugo Gernsback for seven issues in 1953. Science-Fiction Plus was initially in slick format, meaning that it was printed on glossy paper. He continued to advocate his views in the new magazine's editorials. Combined with Gernsback's earnest editorials, the use of these early writers gave an anachronistic feel. Sales were initially good, but soon fell. The magazine remained unprofitable. The final issue was dated December 1953. Only one, Anne McCaffrey, went on to a successful career in the field. Science fiction historians consider a failed attempt to reproduce the early days of the science fiction pulps. Amazing Stories, was launched in 1926 by Hugo Gernsback at the height of the pulp magazine era. The two magazines were soon combined as Wonder Stories, which lasted until 1936, when Gernsback sold it to Ned Pines of Beacon Magazines. The first issue produced for sale was dated March 1953. 35 cents, was also competitive. Only one further issue, dated December 1953, appeared. From 1936 to 1953, the field evolved away from his focus on facts and education.Science-Fiction Plus – Frank R. Paul did the cover for the last issue (December 1953) of Science-Fiction Plus. It illustrates the short story "Misfit" by Michael Fischer.
294. Science Fiction Quarterly – Science Fiction Quarterly was an American pulp science fiction magazine, published from 1940 to 1943 and again from 1951 to 1958. Charles Hornig served for the first two issues; Robert W. Lowndes edited the remainder. Science Fiction Quarterly was launched by publisher Louis Silberkleit at the end of the 1930s. In 1951, as the market improved, Silberkleit relaunched Future Fiction and Science Fiction Quarterly. By the time Science Fiction Quarterly ceased publication in 1958, it was the last surviving science pulp. Hornig in particular had trouble finding good material to print. By the end of the 1930s, the field was booming. A publisher who had once worked for Gernsback, launched a pulp magazine in March 1939 titled Science Fiction, under his Blue Ribbon Magazines imprint. For an editor, Gernsback recommended Charles Hornig, who had edited Wonder Stories for Gernsback to 1936. Silberkleit took Hornig was hired in October 1938. To spread his costs over more magazines, Silberkleit soon decided to launch two additional titles. In November 1939 the first issue of Future Fiction appeared; it was followed by Science Fiction Quarterly. Hornig was editor for all three of the magazines. In October 1940, Hornig, a pacifist, received his military call-up. Silberkleit offered the editorship of the other two titles to Sam Moskowitz.Science Fiction Quarterly – The August 1956 issue of Science Fiction Quarterly; cover art by Ed Emshwiller
295. Scientific Detective Monthly – Scientific Detective Monthly was a pulp magazine which published fifteen issues beginning in January 1930. At the same time, the editor -- Hector Grey -- was replaced by David Lasser, already editing Gernsback's other fiction magazines. Gernsback closed it down with the October issue. He sold the title to publisher Wallace Bamber, who produced at least five more issues under the title Amazing Detective Stories. Amazing Stories, was launched in 1926 by Hugo Gernsback at the height of the pulp magazine era. By April he had created two subsidiaries: Techni-Craft Publishing Corporation and Stellar Publishing Corporation. He named Arthur B. Reeve's "Craig Kennedy" stories as an example, also mentioned S.S. Van Dine's "Philo Vance" stories, which were very popular at the time. In the January 1930 issue of both the sf magazines, it advertised the new magazine that he hoped to populate with these stories: Scientific Detective Monthly. He intended Scientific Detective Monthly to be a magazine in which the stories had a scientific background; it would entertain, but also instruct. The first issue was dated January 1930. The editorial work was done by his deputy, Hector Grey. In February 1930, an article by Gernsback appeared in Writers' Digest titled "How to Write'Science' Stories". With the June issue, the title was changed to Amazing Detective Tales. Gernsback is likely that the same reasoning motivated Scientific Detective Monthly's new title.Scientific Detective Monthly – Cover of the second issue; artwork is by Jno Ruger
296. Shojo Beat – Shojo Beat is a shōjo manga magazine formerly published in North America by Viz Media. Viz launched related "Shojo Beat" imprints in its manga, anime divisions to coordinate with the magazine's contents. Targeted at women ages 16–18, the first issue of Shojo Beat launched with a circulation of 20,000. By 2007, the average circulation was approximately 38,000 copies, with half coming from subscriptions rather than store sales. In May 2009, Viz announced that it was discontinuing the magazine; the July 2009 issue was the last released. Fans were disappointed at the sudden news. In February 2005, Viz Media announced the creation of Shojo Beat. Of the six titles, each came from Japanese publishers Shueisha, Shogakukan, Hakusensha. The first issue, released in June 2005, featured Nana Komatsu of Nana on its July cover. Yumi Hoashi was the publication's original editor-in-chief. In November 2006, Marc Weidenbaum replaced him as the magazine's editor-in-chief. Starting with the June 2009 issue, publisher Hyoe Narita was listed as the editor-in-chief. Moko, was first introduced in the October 2005 issue, though he remained nameless until the July 2006 issue. He later was given his own MySpace run by Viz. With the July 2007 issue, Beat Girl, was introduced.Shojo Beat – Shojo Beat Volume 1, Issue 1, cover dated July 2005
297. Sinestro Corps War – "Sinestro Corps War" is an American comic book crossover event published by DC Comics in its Green Lantern and Green Lantern Corps titles. In addition to the main storyline, four supplemental "Tales of a Blue Beetle tie-in issue were concurrently released. A 1986 Alan Moore "Tales of the Green Lantern Corps" story was the thematic basis of the storyline. Many characters were changed, re-introduced as a result of the event. Critical and reception to "Sinestro Corps War" was highly positive. Several issues underwent multiple printings. "Sinestro Corps War" is the second part of a trilogy in the Green Lantern storyline, preceded by the 2005 miniseries Green Lantern: Rebirth. The conclusion of "Sinestro Corps War" sets up the final part of the trilogy, Blackest Night, published in 2009. There he amasses the Sinestro Corps, that he selects based upon their ability to "instill great fear". Each member is armed with a yellow power ring, mirroring the green ones of the Green Lantern Corps. Amongst Sinestro's allies are the resurrected Anti-Monitor. The universe itself. During the assault on Oa, the Sinestro Corps manages to inflict the Cyborg Superman from their imprisonment. Kyle Rayner is transported to Qward, where Sinestro manages to separate Rayner from the symbiote Ion allowing Parallax to possess him. A failed bid to rescue Jordan depicted in Green Lantern # 22 sees surviving members of the Green Lantern Corps split into two groups.Sinestro Corps War – Cover of Green Lantern: The Sinestro Corps War vol. 1 (2008), hardcover collected edition.Art by Ethan Van Sciver.
298. A Song Flung Up to Heaven – A Song Flung Up to Heaven is the sixth book in author Maya Angelou's series of autobiographies. As she continued throughout her series, Angelou upheld the long tradition of African-American autobiography. At the same time she made a deliberate attempt to challenge the usual structure of the autobiography by critiquing, expanding the genre. Most reviewers agreed that the book was made up of a series of vignettes. By the Song was written in 2002, sixteen years after her previous autobiography, Angelou had experienced great fame and recognition as an author and poet. She had become recognized and highly respected as a spokesperson for women. Angelou was, as scholar Joanne Braxton has stated, "without a doubt... America's most visible black woman autobiographer". She had also become, as reviewer Richard Long stated, "a autobiographical voice of the time". The title of Song was based by African-American poet Paul Lawrence Dunbar, the basis of her first autobiography. Like Angelou's other autobiographies, the book was greeted with both disappointment, although reviews were generally positive. Reviewers praised Angelou for "the culmination of a autobiographical achievement", while others criticized her for coming across as "smug". The 2002 spoken-word album by the same name, based on the book, received a Grammy Award in 2003. She also continued her poetry including a collection of her poems, The Complete Collected Poems of Maya Angelou. Her recitation broadened her appeal "across racial, economic, educational boundaries".A Song Flung Up to Heaven – The paperback version
299. Southern Cross (wordless novel) – Southern Cross is the sole wordless novel by Canadian artist Laurence Hyde. Published in 1951, its 118 wood-engraved images narrate the impact of atomic testing on Polynesian islanders. Hyde made the book to express his anger at the US military's nuclear tests in the Bikini Atoll. The wordless genre had flourished primarily by the 1940s even the most prolific practitioners had abandoned it. Hyde was familiar with some such works by the form's pioneer Frans Masereel. The high-contrast artwork of Southern Cross features dynamic curving lines uncommon in wood engraving and combines abstract imagery with realistic detail. It has gained appreciation in comics circles as a precursor to the Canadian graphic novel, though it had no direct influence. The story tells of the American military evacuating villagers from a Polynesian island before testing nuclear weapons. A drunken soldier attempts to rape a fisherman's wife during the evacuation, the fisherman kills him. To avoid capture, the couple run to the forests with their child and hide. The child witnesses the death of its parents and destruction of its environment resulting from the ensuing atomic tests. Born in England in 1914, Laurence Hyde moved with his family to Canada in 1926. They settled in Toronto in 1928, where Hyde studied art at Central Technical School. His strongest artistic influences included the printmakers Eric Gill, Lynd Ward; he corresponded with Kent and Ward. From the 1930s Hyde made wood engravings and linocuts for books.Southern Cross (wordless novel) – A nuclear test obliterates a Polynesian island.
300. South Pacific (musical) – South Pacific is a musical composed by Richard Rodgers, with lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II and book by Hammerstein and Joshua Logan. The work was an immediate hit, running for 1,925 performances. A secondary romance, between a young Tonkinese woman, explores his fears of the social consequences should he marry his Asian sweetheart. The issue of racial prejudice is candidly explored throughout the musical, most controversially in the lieutenant's song, "You've Got to Be Carefully Taught". Supporting characters, including the Tonkinese girl's mother, help to tie the stories together. The original Broadway production enjoyed immense critical and box-office success, has remained popular ever since. The piece won the Pulitzer Prize in 1950. Especially in the Southern U.S. its racial theme provoked controversy, for which its authors were unapologetic. Other recordings of the show have also been popular. The show has enjoyed successful revivals and tours, spawning a 1958 film and television adaptations. A critical success, ran for 996 performances and won seven Tonys, including Best Musical Revival. He began listening to the stories told by soldiers. One journey took him to the Treasury Islands, where he discovered an unpleasant village, called Bali-ha ` i, populated by "only one pig". Struck by the name, Michener wrote it soon began to record, on a battered typewriter, his version of the tales. She told him also of her plans to oppose colonialism in French Indochina.South Pacific (musical) – Original Broadway poster (1949)
301. The Story of Miss Moppet – The Story of Miss Moppet is a tale about teasing, featuring a kitten and a mouse, written and illustrated by Beatrix Potter. It was published by Frederick Warne & Co for the 1906 Christmas season. Potter between 1902 and 1905 published a series of small format children's books with Warne. In 1906, she experimented for Miss Moppet, which booksellers disliked; the story was reprinted in 1916 in small book format. The story's eponymous main character, is a kitten teased by a mouse. While pursuing him she bumps her head on a cupboard. She sits before the fire "looking very ill". She tosses him about. However, the mouse makes his escape, once out of reach dances a jig atop the cupboard. The character of Miss Moppet was released as a plush toy in 1973. The book has been published in a Braille version, was released in an electronic format in 2005. First editions in the original format are available through antiquarian booksellers. Helen Beatrix Potter was born on July 28 1866 to barrister Rupert William Potter and his wife Helen Potter in London. Potter's adolescence was as quiet as her childhood. She matured into a young woman whose parents groomed her to be a permanent resident and housekeeper in their home.The Story of Miss Moppet – First edition cover
302. Super Science Stories – Super Science Stories was an American pulp science fiction magazine published by Popular Publications from 1940 and 1943, again from 1949 to 1951. Popular launched it under their "Fictioneers" imprint, which they used for magazines paying writers less than one cent per word. Frederik Pohl was hired at 19 years old, to edit the magazine; he also edited a companion science fiction publication. Pohl left in mid-1941, Super Science Stories was given to Alden H. Norton to edit; a few months later Norton rehired Pohl as an assistant. Popular gave Pohl a very low budget, so most manuscripts submitted to Super Science Stories had already been rejected by the higher-paying magazines. Within a year Popular increased Pohl's budget slightly, allowing him to pay a rate on occasion. Pohl wrote himself to augment his salary. He managed to obtain stories by writers who subsequently became well known, such as Robert Heinlein. After Pohl entered the army in early 1943, wartime paper shortages led Popular to cease publication of Super Science Stories. The final issue of the first run was dated May of that year. There were also Canadian and British reprint editions of the second incarnation of the magazine. The magazine has received qualified praise from fiction critics and historians. Science historian Raymond Thompson describes it despite the variable quality of the stories. New sf magazines were launched in 1939. Pohl was given two magazines to edit: Super Science Stories and Astonishing Stories.Super Science Stories – First issue cover; artist unknown
303. Tales of Wonder (magazine) – Tales of Wonder was a British science fiction magazine, launched in 1937 with Walter Gillings as editor. Arthur C. Clarke made his first professional sale with two science articles. Gillings also published William F. Temple's first story, some early material by John Wyndham, "The Prr-r-eet" by Eric Frank Russell. However, no British magazine appeared until 1934, when Pearson's launched Scoops, a weekly in tabloid format aimed at the juvenile market. The failure of Scoops gave the impression that Britain could not support a science fiction publication. He was asked to prepare a single issue of 80,000 words to test the market. Gillings was given a budget per thousand words: the low rate discouraged those writers who could sell to the better-paying American magazines. Newer writers were glad of the chance to develop a British market for their work, though most American writers were unimpressed. The first issue of Tales of Wonder appeared in June 1937. From Spring 1938 the magazine appeared on a quarterly schedule, with occasional omissions. None of the other titles in the Master Thriller series ever turned into a separate magazine, so it was evidently selling well. The second issue included Wyndham's novel Sleepers of Mars, William F. Temple's "Lunar Lilliput", Temple's first science fiction sale. S.P. Meek's "The Mentality Machine".Tales of Wonder (magazine) – The first issue of Tales of Wonder
304. The Thrill Book – The Thrill Book was a U.S. pulp magazine published by Street & Smith in 1919. The first eight issues, edited by Harold Hersey, were a mixture of adventure and weird stories. Contributors included Greye La Spina, Charles Fulton Oursler, Seabury Quinn. Hersey was replaced by Ronald Oliphant with the July 1 issue, probably because Street & Smith were unhappy with his performance. Oliphant printed more science fantasy than Hersey had done, though this included two stories by Murray Leinster which Hersey had purchased before being replaced. This is now regarded as having been the start of the pulp magazine era. Murray asserts that Ralston was certainly involved in the creation of The Thrill Book. His editorial experience was limited to no more than a year's work on several little magazines. He was immediately hired on the basis of the interview. Bringing Hersey on as editor was unfortunate; historians of the field describe Hersey as lacking talent both as an editor. The first issue of The Thrill Book was published in a format similar to that of a dime novel. The plan to publish twice a month indicated that Street & Smith were confident that the new magazine would be successful. With the ninth issue, dated July 1919, Hersey was replaced by Ronald Oliphant. The reason he was replaced is not clear, though several explanations have been suggested. Hersey himself quit: "I wasn't fired, but I should have been...The Thrill Book – Cover of the August 15, 1919 issue; artwork by Sidney H. Riesenberg
305. Unknown (magazine) – Unknown was an American pulp fantasy fiction magazine, published from 1939 to 1943 by Street & Smith, edited by John W. Campbell. The leading magazine in the 1930s was Weird Tales, which focused on shock and horror. Unknown's first issue appeared in March 1939; in addition to Sinister Barrier, it included H. L. Gold's "Trouble With Water", a humorous fantasy about a New Yorker who meets a water gnome. Gold's story was the first of many in Unknown to combine commonplace reality with the fantastic. In May 1923, the first issue of Weird Tales appeared, in Chicago. Weird Tales was a magazine that specialized in fantasy stories and material that no other magazine would accept. By the 1930s had established itself and was regularly publishing science fiction as well as fantasy. It remained the pre-eminent magazine in this field for over a decade. At the end of 1937 John W. Campbell took over as editor. Campbell began acquiring stories suitable for the new magazine, without a definite date in mind. When Eric Frank Russell sent the manuscript of his novel Sinister Barrier, Campbell decided it was time to put his plans into action. The first issue of Unknown appeared in March 1939. Poor sales forced a switch to a bimonthly schedule beginning in February 1941. The last issue was dated October 1943.Unknown (magazine) – The first issue of Unknown; cover art by H. W. Scott
306. Venture Science Fiction – Venture Science Fiction was an American digest-size science fiction magazine, first published from 1957 to 1958, revived for a brief run in 1969 and 1970. Ten issues were published with another six in the second run. There was also an Australian edition, identical to the British version but dated two months later. The original version was only moderately successful, although it is remembered for the first publication of Sturgeon's Law. It succumbed within less than two years. By the end of 1970, Venture had ceased publication permanently. In late 1949, publisher Lawrence E. Spivak launched The Magazine of one of many new titles in a crowded field of genre magazines. The managing editor was Robert P. Mills. In 1954, a partner of Spivak's, bought the magazine from him. Ferman subsequently gave it to Mills to edit. The first issue was dated January 1957. Mills was managing editor of F&SF throughout Venture's first run; he became editor of F&SF shortly after Venture ceased publishing in July 1958. The editorial philosophy was laid out by Ferman in the inaugural issue: "strong stories of action and adventure... Some well-known writers appeared during this incarnation of Venture, including Isaac Asimov, Clifford Simak, Marion Zimmer Bradley, Robert Silverberg, Damon Knight. Not all the fiction was adventure oriented.Venture Science Fiction – July 1958 issue of Venture, the last issue of the magazine's first version. The cover is by Ed Emshwiller, illustrating Lester del Rey 's "Lady of Space".
307. Vision in White – Vision In White is the first book of the Bride Quartet series of romance novels, written by Nora Roberts. A casual-play computer game based on the book was introduced by I-Play in 2010. In her thirty-year career, Roberts had published almost 200 novels. Vision in White was one of ten Roberts novels published in 2009, including five reprints. The novel marked Roberts' return to contemporary romance. The new series revolved around a wedding enterprise run by four childhood friends. This first story featured the developing relationship between English professor Carter Maguire. Like other Roberts novels, Vision In White explored how a protagonist balanced a successful career with a dysfunctional family environment. Nora Roberts is a prolific author of romance and futuristic suspense novels. From 1979 through 2008, almost 200 of her novels were published. On average, she completed every 45 days. She does not create character biographies, preferring to develop the plot as she goes. According to Publishers Weekly, three of the top-ten bestselling mass market paperbacks of 2008 were Roberts novels. Her new releases focused primarily on paranormal and romance. In 2009, Roberts returned in White.Vision in White – Vision In White
308. Weird Tales – Weird Tales is an American fantasy and horror fiction pulp magazine founded by J. C. Henneberger and J. M. Lansinger in March 1923. Henneberger sold his interest in the publisher, Rural Publishing Corporation, with Farnsworth Wright as the new editor. The first issue under Wright's control was dated November 1924. Despite occasional financial setbacks it prospered over the next fifteen years. Under Wright's control the magazine published a wide range of unusual fiction. Lovecraft's Cthulhu stories first appeared in Weird Tales, starting with "The Call of Cthulhu" in 1928. A group of writers associated with Lovecraft wrote other stories set in the same milieu. Other well-liked authors included Nictzin Dyalhis, E. Hoffman Price, Robert Bloch, H. Warner Munn. Since then numerous attempts have been made to relaunch the magazine, starting in 1973. The longest-lasting version ran with an occasional hiatus for over 20 years under an assortment of publishers. In the mid-1990s the title was changed with the original title returning in 1998. As of 2016, the most recent published issue was dated Spring 2014. This is now regarded as having been the start of the pulp magazine era.Weird Tales – The cover of Weird Tales issue May 1934 featuring Queen of the Black Coast, one of Robert E. Howard 's original stories about Conan the Barbarian.
309. Western Chalukya literature in Kannada – A large body of Western Chalukya literature in Kannada language was produced during the reign of the Western Chalukya Empire in what is now southern India. Around 1183, Someshvara IV, overthrew the Kalachuris to regain control of the royal city. Kannada literature from this period is usually categorised into the linguistic phase called Old-Kannada. It pertained mostly to writings relating to the socio-religious development of the Jain faith. The earliest well-known writers belonging to the Shaiva faith are also from this period. The beginnings of the Vachana poetic tradition in the Kannada-speaking region trace back to the 11th century. Kannada literature composed of prose and verse, was popularised by the Chalukyan court poets. However, with the advent of the Veerashaiva religious movement in the mid-12th century, poets favoured the native tripadi, free verse metres for their poems. In addition to hundreds over thirty female poets have been recorded, some of whom wrote along with their husbands. Towards the end of the 10th century, a new Karnataka dynasty, called the Western Chalukyas, had come by overthrowing the Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta. A century before the age of great Sanskrit and Prakrit epics and classics had come to an end. This productive period had made available a vast corpus of literature that could be expressed in the local language of Kannada. Kannada, which had flourished in the Rashtrakuta court, found enthusiastic support from the Chalukya kings. The influential Jains, who according to historian A.S. According to Professor S.N.Western Chalukya literature in Kannada – Inscribed handwriting of poet Ranna (c. 982) reads Kavi Ratna (gem among poets) in Shravanabelagola
310. Wonder Stories – Wonder Stories was an early American science fiction magazine, published under several titles from 1929 to 1955. Within a few months of the bankruptcy, Gernsback launched three new magazines: Air Wonder Stories, Science Wonder Quarterly. The quarterly was renamed Wonder Stories Quarterly. The title was then merged with Startling Stories, another of Pines' science fiction magazines. Startling itself lasted only before finally succumbing to the decline of the pulp magazine industry. The editors under Gernsback's ownership were David Lasser, who worked hard to improve the quality of the fiction, and, from mid-1933, Charles Hornig. Under its new title, Thrilling Wonder Stories was initially unable to improve its quality. Magazines such as The Argosy, launched in 1889 and 1896 respectively, carried a few science fiction stories each year. Amazing Stories, was launched in 1926 by Hugo Gernsback at the height of the pulp magazine era. Wonder Stories was lasted through the Golden Age and well into the 1950s. Gernsback lost control of the publisher when it went bankrupt in February 1929. By April he had created two subsidiaries: Techni-Craft Publishing Corporation and Stellar Publishing Corporation. Gernsback sent out letters advertising his plans for new magazines; the mailing lists he used certainly were compiled from the subscription lists of Amazing Stories. This would have been illegal, as the lists were owned by the receiver of the bankruptcy. Historians have generally agreed that he must have done so.Wonder Stories – The first issue of Air Wonder Stories, July 1929. The cover is by Frank R. Paul.
311. R. V. C. Bodley – Ronald Victor Courtenay Bodley, MC was a British Army officer, author and journalist. Born to English parents in Paris, Bodley lived in France until he was nine, before attending Eton College and then the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. Bodley was served with them during the First World War. After the war Bodley then travelled through Asia. He wrote several books about his travels. He moved in 1935 where he worked as a screenwriter. Bodley was sent to Paris to work for the Ministry of Information. Bodley was born in Paris on 3 March 1892 to civil servant and writer John Edward Courtenay Bodley and Evelyn Frances Bodley. He was the oldest of three children; his brother Josselin and Ava were born in 1893 and 1896 respectively. Bodley lived in France with his parents until he was nine. His grandfather owned a Turkish palace in Algiers, which Bodley often visited as a child. He was educated at a Lycée in Paris before he was sent to Eton College and then to the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. He showed interest during this time writing poetry at Eton and for a cadet magazine at Sandhurst. From Sandhurst Bodley was commissioned as a second lieutenant in September 1911. Bodley spent three years serving in a regiment in India where he began to stage plays.R. V. C. Bodley – R. V. C. Bodley, c. 1914
312. Joehana – Akhmad Bassah, best known by the pen name Joehana, was an author of the Dutch East Indies who wrote in Sundanese. He operated a company which offered writing services. Sources disagree when Joehana died; some offer 1930, while others give 1942–45. During the seven years in which he was active, Joehana wrote a number of articles, as well as several novels. The years of publication are generally unclear, as reprints included neither the printing number. However, influences from theatrical forms such as wayang and literature such as pantun are evident. Joehana's works promote modernization. Though Joehana's works were published independently, they were popular in the Bandung area where they were sold. Joehana's works were adapted to the stage and film. However, critical consensus since then has been negative. Stage productions of his novel Rasiah nu Goreng Patut continued into the 1980s. Although he left the company, Bassah remained active in social movements. He helped that group in its mission of social service. Bassah signed taken from the name of his adoptive daughter; he is best remembered by that pen name. Although he was married to a schoolteacher named Atikah, they had no biological children.Joehana – Sketch of Joehana, undated
313. Little Tich – Harry Relph, professionally known as Little Tich, was a 4-foot-6-inch tall English music hall comedian and dancer during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Aside from his hall appearances, he was also a popular performer in Christmas pantomimes and appeared in them annually at theatres throughout the English provinces. Born in Cudham, Kent, Little Tich began performing aged ten when he developed a dance and tin-whistle act which he showcased in Sevenoaks. In the early 1880s he gained popularity with performances at the nearby Rosherville Pleasure Gardens and Barnard's Music Hall in Chatham. He appeared at the Forester's Music Hall in 1884. The terms "titchy" or "titch" are used to describe things that are small. In 1891, he was recruited by the impresario Augustus Harris to appear in that years spectacular Drury Lane Christmas pantomime Humpty Dumpty. He starred at the theatre including Little Bo Peep and Robinson Crusoe. For his hall acts, he created characters based on everyday observations. He was fathered two children. He never died the following year at his house in Hendon, aged 60. Little Tich was born Harry Relph in Cudham, Kent. He was the last of eight children born to Richard Relph, his wife Mary, née Moorefield. The Relph family were lived in relative affluence. Richard Relph was known in the village for his sharp business acumen.Little Tich – Little Tich in 1893
314. James Russell Lowell – James Russell Lowell was an American Romantic poet, critic, editor, diplomat. These poets usually used conventional meters in their poetry, making them suitable for families entertaining at their fireside. He went on to earn a law degree from Harvard Law School. Lowell married Maria White in 1844. His wife had several children, though only one survived past childhood. After moving back to Cambridge, he was one of the founders of a journal called The Pioneer, which lasted only three issues. Lowell gained notoriety in 1848 for Critics, a book-length poem satirizing contemporary critics and poets. He published The Biglow Papers, which increased his fame. Lowell went on to publish several essay collections throughout his literary career. Lowell accepted a professorship of languages at Harvard in 1854; he continued to teach there for twenty years. Lowell traveled before officially assuming his role in 1856. Lowell married Frances Dunlap, shortly thereafter in 1857. That year Lowell also became editor of The Atlantic Monthly. It was not until 20 years later that Lowell received the ambassadorship to the Kingdom of Spain. Lowell was later appointed ambassador to the Court of St. James's.James Russell Lowell – James Russell Lowell circa 1855
315. Olivia Manning – Olivia Mary Manning CBE was a British novelist, poet, writer and reviewer. Her non-fiction, frequently detailing journeys and personal odysseys, were principally set in England, Ireland, Europe and the Middle East. Manning often wrote from her personal experience, though her books also demonstrate strengths in imaginative writing. Her books are widely admired for vivid descriptions of place. Manning's youth was divided between Portsmouth and Ireland, giving her what she described as "the Anglo-Irish sense of belonging nowhere". Manning moved to London, where her first serious novel, The Wind Changes, was published in 1937. They never contemplated divorce. Her relationships with writers such as Iris Murdoch were difficult, as an insecure Manning was jealous of their greater success. As she had feared, real fame only came in 1980 when an adaptation of Fortunes of War was televised in 1987. Manning's books have received limited critical attention; as during her life, opinions are divided, particularly about her portrayal of other cultures. Her works are not easily classified as feminist literature. Nevertheless, recent scholarship has highlighted Manning's importance of the British Empire in decline. Her works examine themes of displacement and physical and emotional alienation. Olivia Manning was born in Portsmouth on 2 March 1908. Oliver Manning, was a naval officer who rose from naval trainee to lieutenant-commander despite a lack of formal schooling.Olivia Manning – Olivia Manning
316. Laurence Olivier – He also worked in films throughout his career, playing more than fifty cinema roles. Late in his career, he had considerable success in television roles. A clergyman, decided that his son should become an actor. After attending a school in London, he learned his craft during the late 1920s. In 1930 he had his first important West End success in Noël Coward's Private Lives, he appeared in his first film. In the 1940s, together with Richardson and John Burrell, Olivier was the co-director of the Old Vic, building it into a highly respected company. There his most celebrated roles included Shakespeare's Richard III and Sophocles's Oedipus. From 1963 to 1973 he was the founding director of Britain's National Theatre, running a resident company that fostered many future stars. His own parts there included the role in The Merchant of Venice. Among Olivier's films are Wuthering Heights, Rebecca, a trilogy of Shakespeare films as actor-director: Henry V, Hamlet, Richard III. His later films included The Boys from Brazil. Olivier's honours included the Order of Merit. For his on-screen work Olivier received four Academy Awards, three Golden Globe Awards. He was born in his wife Agnes Louise, née Crookenden. Their elder children were Sybille and Gerard Dacres "Dickie".Laurence Olivier – Olivier in 1973
317. Ezra Pound – Ezra Weston Loomis Pound was an expatriate American poet and critic, a major figure in the early modernist movement. His contribution to poetry began with his development of Imagism, a movement derived from Japanese poetry, stressing clarity, precision and economy of language. His best-known works include Ripostes, the unfinished 120-section epic, The Cantos. This included arranging for the publication in the serialization from 1918 of Joyce's Ulysses. Angered by the carnage of World War I, Pound blamed the war on usury and international capitalism. Deemed unfit to stand trial, he was incarcerated in Washington, D.C. for over 12 years. While in custody in Italy, Pound had begun work on sections of The Cantos. These were published as The Pisan Cantos, for which he was awarded the Bollingen Prize in 1949 by the Library of Congress, triggering enormous controversy. Largely due to a campaign by his fellow writers, he was returned to live in Italy until his death. Hemingway wrote: "The best of Pound's writing -- and it is in the Cantos -- will last long as there is any literature." Pound was born in a two-story house in Hailey, Idaho Territory, the only child of Homer Loomis Pound and Isabel Weston. His father had worked in Hailey as registrar of the General Land Office. Both parents' ancestors had emigrated in the 17th century. On his mother's side, Pound was descended from a Puritan who emigrated to Boston on the Lion in 1632. The Wadsworths married into the Westons of New York.Ezra Pound – Ezra Pound photographed in 1913 by Alvin Langdon Coburn
318. George Bernard Shaw – Shaw wrote more than sixty plays, including major works such as Superman, Pygmalion, Saint Joan. By the mid-1880s Shaw had become a respected theatre and critic. Following a political awakening, Shaw became its most prominent pamphleteer. He had been writing plays for years in 1894. Shaw's expressed views were often contentious; he promoted eugenics and alphabet reform, organised religion. In 1938 Shaw provided the screenplay for a filmed version of Pygmalion, for which he received an Academy Award. The word "Shavian" has entered the language as encapsulating his means of expressing them. He was born in Portobello, a lower-middle-class part of Dublin. He was the youngest child and only son of Lucinda Elizabeth Shaw; his elder siblings were Lucinda Frances and Elinor Agnes. In 1852 he married Bessie Gurly; in the view of Shaw's biographer Michael Holroyd she married to escape a tyrannical great-aunt. If, as others surmise, George's motives were mercenary, then Shaw was disappointed, as Bessie brought him little of her family's money. She came to despise her ineffectual and often husband, with whom she shared what their son later described as a life of "shabby-genteel poverty". By the time of Shaw's birth his mother had become close to a flamboyant figure well known in Dublin's musical circles. Shaw retained a lifelong obsession that Lee might have been his biological father; there is no consensus among Shavian scholars on the likelihood of this. He later recalled that her indifference and lack of affection hurt him deeply.George Bernard Shaw – Shaw in 1936
319. William Beach Thomas – Beach Thomas was the son of a rural clergyman. He attended the University of Oxford before embarking on a short-lived career as a schoolmaster. Finding that work unpleasant, he began to write books. As a result, he was briefly imprisoned before being granted official accreditation as a correspondent. His reportage for the remainder of the war received national recognition, despite being parodied by soldiers. His book With the British on the Somme portrayed the English soldier in a very favourable light. Beach Thomas regretted some of his wartime output. Beach Thomas's primary interest as an adult was in rural matters. He feared that the post -- Second World War socialist governments regarded the countryside only from an economic perspective. He mourned the decline of traditional village society. He wrote particularly for The Observer newspaper and The Spectator, a conservative magazine. The English Landscape includes selections from his contributions to Country Life magazine. William Beach Thomas was born on 22 May 1868 in Godmanchester, in the county of Huntingdonshire, England. He was Rosa Beart. The location of his father's parish inspired an affection in Beach Thomas, which greatly influenced his later observational writings about natural history and rural subjects.William Beach Thomas – William Beach Thomas in 1917, photographed by George Charles Beresford
320. Kurt Vonnegut – Kurt Vonnegut Jr. was an American writer. In a career spanning over 50 years, Vonnegut published 14 novels, three short story collections, five plays, five works of non-fiction. He is most famous for his darkly satirical, best-selling novel Slaughterhouse-Five. Born and raised in Indianapolis, Indiana, Vonnegut attended Cornell University, but dropped out in January 1943 and enlisted in the United States Army. He was deployed to Europe to fight in World War II, was captured by the Germans during the Battle of the Bulge. After the war, Vonnegut married Jane Marie Cox, with whom he had three children. He later adopted his sister's three sons, after she died of cancer and her husband died in a train accident. Vonnegut published his first novel, Player Piano, in 1952. The novel was reviewed positively, but was not commercially successful. In the nearly 20 years that followed, Vonnegut published several novels that were only marginally successful, such as Cat's Cradle and God Bless You, Mr. Rosewater. Vonnegut's magnum opus, however, was his immediately successful sixth novel, Slaughterhouse-Five. The book's antiwar sentiment resonated with its readers amidst the ongoing Vietnam War, its reviews were generally positive. After its release, Slaughterhouse-Five went to the top of The New York Times Best Seller list, thrusting Vonnegut into fame. He was invited to give speeches, lectures, commencement addresses around the country and received many awards and honors. Later in his career, Vonnegut published several autobiographical essays and short-story collections, including Fates Worse Than Death, A Man Without a Country.Kurt Vonnegut – Vonnegut in 1972
321. P. G. Wodehouse – Sir Pelham Grenville Wodehouse, KBE was an English author and one of the most widely read humorists of the 20th century. After leaving school Wodehouse was disliked the work and turned to writing in his spare time. Wodehouse began the 1930s writing in Hollywood. In a 1931 interview, his naïve revelations of extravagance at Hollywood studios caused a furore. In the same decade, his literary career reached a new peak. After his release Wodehouse made six broadcasts to the US, which had not yet entered the war. His broadcasting over enemy radio prompted anger and strident controversy in Britain, a threat of prosecution. He never returned to England. Until his death Wodehouse lived in the US, taking dual British-American citizenship in 1955. Wodehouse was a prolific writer throughout his life, publishing more than ninety books, forty plays, other writings between 1902 and 1974. Wodehouse died in 1975, in Southampton, New York. He worked extensively on his books, sometimes having two or more in preparation simultaneously. Wodehouse would take up to two years to write a scenario of about thirty thousand words. After the scenario was complete Wodehouse would write the story. He slowed in old age to around six months.P. G. Wodehouse – Wodehouse in 1930 (aged 48)
322. Air Mata Iboe – Air Mata Iboe is a 1941 film from the Dutch East Indies directed and written by Njoo Cheong Seng. An eponymous title song written by Njoo. This film, now possibly lost, received positive reviews. A remake was produced under the same title in 1957; Young retook her role. Soegiati is the mother of four children: a daughter named Soepinah. Soemadi receives the most of her attention because he receives little from his father, the merchant Soebagio. Eventually only Soemadi is left. Although he begins a relationship with a young woman named Noormala, he does not marry her as his income is not enough to support them. On the night of Eid al-Fitr, the family gathers for the holiday. That evening the police come to arrest him. He is exiled. Feeling guilty for his sins, Soebagio dies soon afterwards. Because of their debts, their home and belongings are repossessed, leaving Soegiati to fend for herself. Though wealthy, Achmad and Idris refuse to take Soegiati in, fearing their respective wives Moedjenah and Mariam. They live in poverty.Air Mata Iboe – Newspaper advertisement, Surabaya
323. All Hell Breaks Loose (Supernatural) – "All Hell Breaks Loose" is the joint title for the two-part second season finale of The CW television series Supernatural. It consists of the twenty-first and twenty-second episodes of the second season. "Part One" was first broadcast on May 10, 2007, the second part aired the following week on May 17, 2007. Azazel intends to find a leader for his army by having psychic children like him fight to the death. Sam is eventually killed, but is resurrected after Dean sells his soul. The sole survivor, Jake, is sent by Azazel to a cemetery protected against demons, where he opens a gateway to Hell. The production process was plagued with problems, changes had to be made throughout filming. "Part One"'s setting was altered after production learned of a pre-existing set, used for the western television series Bordertown. The choice of location in turn influenced the type of supernatural monster, featured. The scenes featuring the return of John Winchester had to be filmed weeks in advance using blue screen due to the actor's limited availability. Despite receiving season-low ratings, the episodes garnered positive reviews from critics, who praised both the writing and the decision to end the main storylines. The performances of Fredric Lehne and Ona Grauer were also applauded, with Jessica Harmon gaining a Leo Award nomination for her role. Sam Winchester is abducted by the yellow-eyed demon Azazel and taken to the abandoned town of Cold Oak, supposedly the most haunted place in America. Ava had been abducted months earlier, but claims to have no knowledge of her whereabouts during the time gap. Azazel fed his blood, with Mary Winchester recognizing the demon.All Hell Breaks Loose (Supernatural) – The demon Azazel is shot dead by Dean Winchester at the finale's end, bringing to a close a storyline running throughout the first two seasons.
324. All things – "all things" is the 17th episode of the seventh season of the American science fiction television series The X-Files. Directed by lead actress Gillian Anderson, it first aired on April 9, 2000, on the Fox network. The episode is unconnected to the wider mythology of The functions as a "Monster-of-the-Week" story. Watched by million people, the initial broadcast had a Nielsen household rating of 7.1. The episode received mixed reviews from critics; many called the dialogue criticized the characterization of Scully. However, response was generally positive. The series centers on Federal Bureau of Investigation special agents Fox Mulder and Dana Scully who work on cases linked to the paranormal, called "X-Files". Mulder is a believer in the paranormal. The two have developed a deep friendship. After Waterston slips into a coma, Scully seeks out alternative medicine to save Waterston. The only episode of the series written by Anderson, was originally fifteen pages too long with no fourth act. It was only after Anderson worked with series Chris Carter and executive producer Frank Spotnitz that the script was finished. The crew helped Anderson adjust to her directorial debut -- the first time a woman directed an episode of The X-Files. The episode makes heavy use of "The Sky Is Broken", as well as a gong. The episode has been analyzed for its themes of pragmatism and philosophy.All things – "all things" marked the first and only time Gillian Anderson directed and wrote an episode of The X-Files.
325. Allen Walker – Allen Walker is a fictional character who appears as the protagonist of the manga D.Gray-man by Katsura Hoshino. In the series, set on 19th-century Earth, Allen Walker is a teenager who joins a group of soldiers known as Exorcists. As an Exorcist, Allen is able to use a mysterious object known as Innocence to fight demons known as Akuma. Allen's Innocence takes the form of a giant left arm initially, but gives him new abilities. During his adventures, Allen learns he might turn into one of them. Hoshino based Allen's design on Robin, the shorter-haired female protagonist of her one-shot comic titled Zone. She gave him a ribbon tie and other accessories to make him look gentlemanly. In related franchise, Allen was voiced by Sanae Kobayashi. In 2016, Ayumu Murase replaced Kobayashi. In the English adaptation of the anime series, Allen has been voiced by Todd Haberkorn. Allen has been very popular with D.Gray-man readers, usually ranking in the series' popularity polls. Reactions to him have also been generally positive in other media. His design has been highly praised, critics noting characteristics atypical of a shōnen protagonist, such as his calm demeanor and mysterious origin. Some reviewers also enjoyed the work of Allen's multiple voice actors. Several pieces of merchandise have been released with Allen's likeness, including plush figurines, as well as clothing and cosplay pieces.Allen Walker – Allen Walker by Katsura Hoshino
326. The American Bible Challenge – The American Bible Challenge is a Biblical-themed American television game show created by Game Show Network. The series is hosted with Kirk Franklin joining Foxworthy as co-host and announcer in the second season. The series debuted on August 2012. Each season of the series is played as a tournament with an opening round game, a final. Each individual game involves three teams consisting of each answering questions to display their knowledge of the Bible. At the end of the main game, the teams utilize only their strongest contestants to answer questions without any assistance from their teammates. Once the main game is completed, the two highest-scoring teams compete in a final round with the scores being reset to zero. The highest-scoring team from this round wins a $20,000 prize. Thus, the team that wins the season-long tournament earns a grand total of $140,000 for their charity. The show became GSN's highest rated original program in the history of the network. Contestants must wait after the host reads the entire question to buzz in. Each team then participates in a physical stunt that involves teams using common household items to answer questions about biblical characters. The next round, entitled "Kirk's Righteous Remix," features the choir singing songs relating to various books of the Bible. Each team is then given question based on an announced subject worth 300 points; no penalty is assessed for an incorrect answer. The teams then set their strongest respective contestants aside for the final round of main gameplay, entitled "The Chosen Three."The American Bible Challenge – The American Bible Challenge
327. Animaniacs – Steven Spielberg Presents Animaniacs is an American animated comedy television series created by Tom Ruegger. It is the animated series produced by Amblin Television in association with Warner Bros.. Animation during the renaissance of the late 1980s and early 1990s. The series had a total of one film, titled Wakko's Wish. Animaniacs is a show, with short skits featuring a large cast of characters. Hallmarks of the series included its music, humor directed at an adult audience. The other characters lived in Burbank, California. However, characters from the series had episodes in various periods of time. The Animaniacs characters interacted from modern television. Each Animaniacs episode usually consisted of three cartoon shorts. Animaniacs had a large cast of characters, separated into individual segments, with each set of characters acting in its own plot. The Brain are two genetically altered laboratory mice who continuously plot and attempt to take over the world. Slappy Squirrel is an octogenarian star who can easily outwit antagonists and uses her wiles to educate her nephew, Skippy Squirrel, about cartoon techniques. The Animaniacs cast of characters had a variety of inspiration, to other writers. Executive producer Steven Spielberg said that the irreverence in Looney Tunes cartoons inspired the Animaniacs cast.Animaniacs – Animaniacs had a wide cast of characters. Shown here are the majority of the characters from the series.
328. Bernard Quatermass – Professor Bernard Quatermass is a fictional scientist, originally created by the writer Nigel Kneale for BBC Television. An highly moral British scientist, Quatermass is a pioneer of the British space programme, heading the British Experimental Rocket Group. He continually finds himself confronting alien forces that threaten to destroy humanity. A remake of the first serial appeared in 2005. The character also appeared on the radio and in print over a fifty-year period. Kneale picked the character's unusual surname from a London directory, while the first name was in honour of the astronomer Bernard Lovell. In 2005, an article in The Daily Telegraph suggested, "You can see a line running through many other British heroes. He shares elements with Sherlock Holmes." Little is revealed during the course of the films and television series in which he appears. In The Quatermass Experiment, he at one point despairs that he should have stuck as a surveyor. According during World War II Quatermass conducted top secret work for the British war effort, which he subsequently refused ever to discuss. Although Quatermass succeeds in launching a three-man crew, the rocket vastly overshoots returns to Earth much later than planned, crash-landing in London. He has recently become the guardian of his teenaged Hettie after her parents were killed in a road accident in Germany. After Hettie runs away from home, he finds a dystopian world there. They are killed in the blast as the planet is saved.Bernard Quatermass – Reginald Tate, the first actor to portray Professor Bernard Quatermass.
329. The Body (Buffy the Vampire Slayer) – "The Body" is the sixteenth episode of the fifth season of the supernatural drama television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer. It was originally aired on February 2001. She is supported in her struggles by a close circle of friends and family, nicknamed the Scooby Gang. In "The Body", Buffy is powerless as she comes upon her lifeless mother, who has died of a brain aneurysm. They struggle to comprehend what the loss means to each of them and to the group. Buffy must begin to face her duties without parental comfort. They are mentored by Rupert Giles, Buffy's "Watcher", joined by Xander's girlfriend Anya Jenkins, a vengeance demon until her powers were taken away. Anya is often at a loss to know how to communicate with humans, her speech is frequently abrupt. In the fourth season, Willow became romantically involved with Tara Maclay, also a witch. Each season of Buffy the Vampire Slayer presents an overall theme episodes tie into. Roz Kaveney identifies family and belonging as the overall theme of the fifth season. Buffy's mother Joyce begins experiencing headaches at the beginning of the season, once collapsing and requiring hospitalization. She subsequently has a brain tumor removed. She has been recovering well. In the previous episode, she receives flowers from a male suitor, which Buffy finds at the end of that episode.The Body (Buffy the Vampire Slayer) – Buffy frantically tries to awaken her mother as she finds her lifeless on the couch. This begins a 3-minute length scene with no cuts, and no score, which is a distinct style of this episode.
330. But I'm a Cheerleader – But I'm a Cheerleader is a 1999 satirical romantic comedy film directed by Jamie Babbit and written by Brian Wayne Peterson. Natasha Lyonne stars as a high school cheerleader whose parents send her to a residential inpatient conversion therapy camp to cure her lesbianism. There Megan soon falls in love. The supporting cast includes Melanie Lynskey, Dante Basco, Eddie Cibrian, Clea DuVall, Cathy Moriarty, RuPaul, Richard Moll, Mink Stole, Kip Pardue, Bud Cort. But I'm a Cheerleader was Babbit's first film. It was inspired by her childhood familiarity with rehabilitation programs. She used the story of a young woman finding her sexual identity to explore the social construction of heteronormativity. The costume and design of the film highlighted these themes using artificial textures in intense blues and pinks. When it was initially rated by the MPAA, Babbit made cuts to allow it to be re-rated as R. When interviewed in the documentary film This Film Is Not Yet Rated Babbit criticized the MPAA for discriminating against films with gay content. Many critics did not like the film, criticizing the colorful production design. Although the lead actors were praised for their performances, some of the characters were described as stereotypical. Seventeen-year-old Megan is a high school senior who loves cheerleading and is dating football player Jared. She prefers looking at her fellow cheerleaders. Combined with Megan's interest in Melissa Etheridge, her family and friends suspect that Megan is in fact a lesbian.But I'm a Cheerleader – Original film poster
331. Cape Feare – "Cape Feare" is the second episode in the fifth season of the American animated television series The Simpsons. It originally has since been featured on DVD and VHS releases. "Cape Feare" is alludes to other horror films such as Psycho. The episode was pitched by Wallace Wolodarsky, who wanted to parody Cape Fear. The crew found it difficult to stretch "Cape Feare" to the standard duration of half an hour, consequently padded several scenes. The score received an Emmy Award nomination. After receiving numerous death threats in the mail, Bart becomes paranoid. It is revealed that the writer is Sideshow Bob, incarcerated in Springfield State Prison. Sideshow Bob's parole hearing is held; the parole board is easily convinced that Sideshow Bob is no longer a threat. When the Simpson family goes to the cinema, Sideshow Bob acts obnoxious. Marge angrily tells him to stay away from Bart. The Simpsons relocate to Terror Lake, changing their surname to "Thompson" and settling in a houseboat. However, unknown to the family as they drive cross-country to their new home, Sideshow Bob has strapped himself to the underside of the car. During the night, Sideshow Bob cuts it loose from the dock. Bob then ties up Maggie, to ensure they will not interfere with his plan.Cape Feare – Kelsey Grammer voiced Sideshow Bob in the episode.
332. The Cat and the Canary (1927 film) – The Cat and the Canary is a 1927 American silent horror film adaptation of John Willard's 1922 black comedy play of the same name. The plot revolves around the death of Cyrus West, the reading of his will 20 years later. When she and her family spend the night in his haunted mansion they are stalked by a mysterious figure. Meanwhile, a lunatic known as "the Cat" escapes in the mansion. The film is part of a genre of horror films inspired by 1920s Broadway stage plays. Paul Leni's adaptation of Willard's play blended expressionism with humor, critics recognized as unique. Leni's style of directing made the Canary influential in the "old dark house" genre of films popular from the 1930s through the 1950s. The film is considered "the cornerstone of Universal's school of horror." The play has been filmed five other times, with the most notable in 1939 starring Paulette Goddard. In a decaying mansion overlooking the Hudson River, millionaire Cyrus West approaches death. His greedy family descends like "cats around a canary" causing him to become insane. West orders that his last testament remain locked in a safe and go unread until the 20th anniversary of his death. As the appointed time arrives, Roger Crosby, discovers that a second will mysteriously appeared in the safe. The second will may only be opened if the terms of the first will are not fulfilled. Cyrus West's fortune is bequeathed to the most distant relative bearing the West: Annabelle.The Cat and the Canary (1927 film) – original 1927 window card
333. Chandralekha (1948 film) – Chandralekha is a 1948 Indian Tamil-language, historical, adventure film directed and produced by S. S. Vasan. The development of Chandralekha began in the early 1940s when, after two successive box office hits, Vasan announced that his next film would be titled Chandralekha. Originally made in Tamil and later in Hindi, Chandralekha was in production for five years from 1943 to 1948. It went through a number of changes to the script, cast, production, ultimately became the most expensive film made in India at the time. Vasan mortgaged all of his property and even sold his jewellery to complete the film. Cinematography was by Kamal Ghosh and K. Ramnoth. Chandralekha was released on 8 April 1948 and received generally positive reviews, but was unable to recover its production costs. South Indian cinema gained prominence throughout the country with the film's release. The film inspired South Indian film producers to market their Hindi films in North India. It was dubbed in English, Japanese, Danish and other foreign languages and was screened at Indian and international film festivals. Veerasimhan and Sasankan are the sons of a king. While passing through a village on his horse, Veerasimhan meets a village dancer named Chandralekha and they fall in love. At the palace, the king decides to abdicate in favour of Veerasimhan. This enrages the younger brother Sasankan; he forms a gang of thieves who embark on a crime spree. Chandralekha's father is injured in the ensuing chaos and dies soon after.Chandralekha (1948 film) – International poster
334. The City of New York vs. Homer Simpson – "The City of New York vs. Homer Simpson" is the first episode of The Simpsons' ninth season. It was originally broadcast on September 1997. Writer Ian Maxtone-Graham was interested in making an episode where the Simpson family travels to New York to retrieve their lost car. Great lengths were taken to make a detailed replica of the borough of Manhattan. The episode received generally positive reviews, has since been on accolade lists of The Simpsons episodes. The "I'm Checkin' In" musical sequence won two awards. At Moe's Tavern, Moe informs Homer and his friends that one of them must be a designated driver, Barney loses the choosing draw. In his distressed state, Barney disappears with the car. Two months later, Barney returns to Moe's Tavern, unable to recall where he left the car. Homer reveals to the family that he had once been to New York before when he was 17 years old and had a horrible experience. Marge and the children persuade Homer to go retrieve the car and he reluctantly agrees. When the family arrives in Manhattan, they decide to split up. Upon arrival at his car, Homer discovers it has been issued many parking tickets and has been wheel clamped. While he is doing that, the officer arrives at the car and finding no one present, issues another ticket and leaves; Homer's subsequent "D'oh!" Echoes across the city.The City of New York vs. Homer Simpson – David Silverman was sent to Manhattan to take photographs of the area in city in order to make the episode more accurate.
335. A Cure for Pokeritis – A Cure for Pokeritis is a 1912 short silent film starring John Bunny and Flora Finch. After Bunny's death, a re-release was announced with the alternative title A Sure Cure for Pokeritis. This domestic comedy depicts a woman who stops her husband's gambling habit by having her cousin stage a fake raid on the weekly poker game. It was one of similar shorts produced by Vitagraph Studios, whose popularity made Bunny and Finch early film stars. Although its style of humor is dated, it has been recognized as a historically important representative of its genre. Upon returning home from an evening spent losing at poker, George Brown swears off gambling forever. When George talks in his sleep, she has her cousin Freddie Dewdrop follow him, allowing her to learn the truth. Together with the wives of the other poker players, she enacts a plan to end the gambling. The members of his Bible study group dress up as police officers and raid the game. The police leave the men to be scolded, purportedly in place of being arrested. As the film ends, the Browns reconcile. The intended names of the characters played by Flora Finch are not entirely clear. In the film itself, the letter written to gather the wives together identifies the two main characters as Mary and George Brown. However, Vitagraph's in-house publication included cast lists for all of the studio's films. The number of these shorts originally produced is unknown because Vitagraph's films were generally not archived.A Cure for Pokeritis – John Bunny and Flora Finch as George and Mary Brown
336. Deadalive – "Deadalive" is the fifteenth episode of the eighth season of the science fiction television series The X-Files. It was directed by Tony Wharmby. "Deadalive" explores the series' alien mythology arc. Following its North American premiere on April 2001, it received a Nielsen household rating of 7.3 and was watched by 12.4 million viewers. "Deadalive" garnered mixed reviews from television critics; while most were happy with the return of actor David Duchovny, some criticized the episode's plot holes. It later won the show's last Award, for Outstanding Makeup. In this episode, Mulder is buried. After the body of alien abductee Billy Miles revives before Mulder's body to be exhumed. When Mulder's body is uncovered, vital signs are discovered. Meanwhile, rogue FBI agent Alex Krycek uses a nanobot infection in Skinner's blood as leverage to make him kill Scully's unborn child. Eventually, Mulder reunites with Scully. "Deadalive" was a story milestone for the series, re-introducing Duchovny by aliens planning to colonize Earth in the seventh-season finale "Requiem". Spotnitz and Carter deliberately structured the episode in such a way so as to imply that Duchovny had been written out of the series. "Deadalive" featured elaborate-make-up scenes, which head make-up effects artist Matthew Mungle was given only six days to complete. In the seventh-season finale "Requiem", FBI agent Fox Mulder was abducted by aliens.Deadalive – The exhumed three-month-old body of Fox Mulder. The scene featured a double wearing a mask of David Duchovny 's head.
337. Death on the Rock – "Death on the Rock" presented evidence while attempting to surrender. It was condemned by the British government, while tabloid newspapers denounced it as sensationalist. "Death on the Rock" subsequently became the individual documentary to be the subject of an independent inquiry, in which it was largely vindicated. The project began after it emerged that the three IRA members shot in Gibraltar were found to be unarmed and not in possession of a bomb. The journalists also filmed the funerals of the IRA members in Belfast. Using the eyewitness statements, the documentary suggested that the three IRA members may have been unlawfully killed. The final contributor was the lawyer recruited by Bolton, who suggested that a judicial inquiry was necessary to resolve the conflicts. The morning after the broadcast, tabloid newspapers attacked the documentary, accusing it of sensationalism and "trial by television". Other newspapers criticised the IBA for allowing the documentary to be broadcast. The authors overall found it a "trenchant" work of journalism, made in "good faith and without ulterior motives". This Week was a current affairs series which began in 1956. The programme became a mainstay of ITV's current affairs programming. By 1988, the programme had interviewed several prime ministers and leaders including Margaret Thatcher, interviewed for three full episodes. "In light of this response", Howe continued, "they were shot" by "operating in support of the Gibraltar Police". Subsequent inquiries led to the discovery of a large quantity of explosives in Marbella, along with timers.Death on the Rock – The petrol station on Winston Churchill Avenue where two of the three IRA members were shot.
338. Deep Throat (The X-Files episode) – Written by series creator Chris Carter and directed by Daniel Sackheim, the episode introduced several elements which would become staples of the series' mythology. FBI special agents Fox Mulder and Dana Scully investigate cases linked to the paranormal, called X-Files. Mulder believes in paranormal phenomena, while the skeptical Scully attempts to discredit them. Undeterred, Mulder comes closer to the truth than ever before, only to have his progress taken away from him again. The episode introduced the Deep Throat character, played by Jerry Hardin, who served as Mulder's informant for the first season. The character was served to bridge the gap between the conspirators they would investigate. Itself focused with a setting reminiscent of Area 51 and Nellis Air Force Base. In its American broadcast, "Deep Throat" attracted positive reviews from critics. They discover Budahas in his bathroom, trembling and covered in rashes. Four months later, FBI agents Fox Mulder and Dana Scully meet at a Washington bar to discuss the Budahas case. Mulder claims that six other pilots are missing at the base, subject to rumors about experimental aircraft. While using the bar's restroom, Mulder is approached by a mysterious informant named "Deep Throat", who cautions him to avoid the case. He claims that Mulder is under surveillance, which later proves to be true. Mulder and Scully meet with Anita, who claims her husband exhibited erratic behavior before his disappearance. She takes them to a neighbor whose husband, also a test pilot, is behaving similarly.Deep Throat (The X-Files episode) – Fox Mulder under a UFO. The scenes were later described by Chris Carter as featuring the "worst effects we've ever done" on The X-Files.
339. Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge – Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge, also known by the initialism DDLJ, is an Indian romance film written and directed by Aditya Chopra and produced by Yash Chopra. Released on 20 October 1995, the film stars Shah Rukh Khan and Kajol. The plot revolves around two young non-resident Indians, who fall through Europe with their friends. Raj tries to win over Simran's family so the couple can marry, but Simran's father has long since promised her hand to his friend's son. The film was shot to August 1995. Its soundtrack album became one of the most popular of the 1990s. Many critics praised the film, which connected with different segments of society by simultaneously promoting strong family values and the following of one's own heart. Its success led other film makers to target the non-resident Indian audience, deemed more lucrative for them. It spawned many imitations of its story and style, homages to specific scenes. It is the longest-running film in the history of Indian cinema. As of 2016, over 20 years after its first release, it is still being shown at the Maratha Mandir theatre in Mumbai. Raj Malhotra and Simran Singh are non-resident Indians living in London. Simran was raised by her strict and conservative father, Baldev Singh, while Raj's father was very liberal. Simran always dreams of meeting her ideal man. One should blindly believe they come true.Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge – Theatrical release poster
340. Djaoeh Dimata – Djaoeh Dimata is a 1948 film from what is now Indonesia written and directed by Andjar Asmara for the South Pacific Film Corporation. Starring Ali Joego, it follows a woman who goes to Jakarta to find work after her husband is blinded in an accident. SPFC's first production, Djaoeh Dimata cost almost 130,000 gulden. SPFC produced six more works before closing in 1949. A copy of the film is stored at Sinematek Indonesia. Asrad, is blinded following a traffic accident and thus unable to work. As a result, his wife Soelastri travels to Jakarta, to find a job. As Asrad fears she may be unfaithful, he writes her a letter telling her to not come back. Soelastri becomes a singer, – unknown to Asrad – soon achieves wide acclaim. "Djaoeh Dimata", receives heavy airplay on the radio and soon becomes one of Asrad's favourites. Ultimately Soelastri is brought home by Soekarto, who attempts to pass her off as a maid for Asrad. When Asrad recognises his wife's voice, they are reconciled. The first two years of the 1940s saw a growth with over forty domestic productions released. Following the Japanese occupation in February 1942, nearly all film studios were closed. The ethnic Chinese-owned Multi Film, was confiscated by the Japanese to establish the film production company Nippon Eigasha in Jakarta, the colony's capital.Djaoeh Dimata – Newspaper advertisement, Surabaya
341. Dredd – Dredd is a 2012 science fiction action film directed by Pete Travis and written and produced by Alex Garland. Its eponymous character created by John Wagner and Carlos Ezquerra. Produced by British studio DNA Films, Dredd began principal photography, using 3D cameras throughout, in November 2010. Filming took place in Cape Town and Johannesburg. Dredd was released on 7 September 2012 on 21 September 2012 worldwide. Despite the critical response, the film earned just over $41 million at the box office on an estimated budget of $30 -- 45 million. Dredd has since been recognised as a cult film. The future United States is a irradiated wasteland known as the Cursed Earth. On the east coast lies Mega-City One, a violent metropolis with 800 million residents and 17,000 crimes reported daily. The only force for order are the Judges, who act as judge, executioner. Judge Dredd is tasked with evaluating new recruit Cassandra Anderson, a powerful psychic who failed the aptitude tests to be a Judge. Dredd and Anderson are sent in to learn of a drug den, which they raid. They arrest a thug named Kay, whom Anderson's probe reveals to be the one who carried out the drug dealers' executions. Dredd decides to take him for questioning. Dredd and Anderson killed, forcing the Judges to fight their way through dozens of armed thugs.Dredd – Theatrical release poster
342. E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial – E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial is a 1982 American science fiction fantasy film co-produced and directed by Steven Spielberg, written by Melissa Mathison. It stars Pat Welsh. It tells the story of Elliott, a lonely boy who befriends an extraterrestrial, dubbed "E.T.", stranded on Earth. He and his siblings help it return home while attempting to keep it hidden from their mother and the government. The concept was based on an imaginary friend Spielberg created after his parents' divorce in 1960. In 1980, Spielberg met Mathison and developed a new story from the stalled sci-fi horror film project Night Skies. It was shot from September to December 1981 in California on a budget of US$10.5 million. Unlike most motion pictures, it was shot in rough chronological order, to facilitate convincing emotional performances from the young cast. It is the highest-grossing film of the 1980s. In 1994, it was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". It was re-released in 1985, then again in 2002 to celebrate its 20th anniversary, with altered shots and additional scenes. In a Californian forest, a group of alien botanists land in a spacecraft, collecting flora samples. When government agents appear on the scene, they flee in their spaceship, leaving one of their own behind in their haste. At a suburban home, a ten-year-old fatherless boy named Elliott, is spending time with his brother, Michael, his friends. As he returns from picking up a pizza, he discovers that something is hiding in their tool shed.E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial – Theatrical release poster by John Alvin
343. Eega – Eega is a 2012 Indian bilingual fantasy film written by K. V. Vijayendra Prasad and directed by his son, S. S. Rajamouli. The film stars Sudeep, Samantha Ruth Prabhu. M. M. Keeravani composed the score. Kotagiri Venkateswara Rao edited the film. Janardhan Maharshi and Crazy Mohan wrote the dialogue for the Telugu and Tamil versions, respectively. The narrative of Eega is in the form of a bedtime story told to his daughter. Its protagonist is Nani, in love with his Bindu. Nani is murdered by a wealthy businessman named Sudeep, who considers Nani a rival. Nani tries to protect Bindu while avenging his death. Prasad developed it into a script. The film's production began on 7 December 2010 at Ramanaidu Studios in Hyderabad. Photography began on 22 February 2011 and continued until late February 2012. Makuta VFX and Annapurna Studios oversaw digital intermediate process, respectively. The two versions alongside a Malayalam-dubbed version titled Eecha, were released on 6 July 2012 in approximately 1,100 screens globally. The performances of the principal cast, visual effects received critical acclaim upon release.Eega – Poster of Eega
344. Enthiran – Enthiran is a 2010 Indian Tamil-language science fiction film directed by S. Shankar and co-written by him and Sujatha Rangarajan. The film stars Rajinikanth and Aishwarya Rai in lead roles; Danny Denzongpa, Santhanam and Karunas play supporting roles. The project backfires when the robot is manipulated into becoming homicidal. After being stalled in the phase for nearly a decade, the film's principal photography lasted two years. Enthiran marked the debut of Legacy Effects studio in Indian cinema. Enthiran was released worldwide on 1 October 2010, with its dubbed versions: Robot in Telugu. Produced by Kalanithi Maran, it was India's most expensive film up to that point. The film received generally positive reviews upon release. Critics were particularly appreciative of Rajinikanth's performance, the visual effects by V. Srinivas Mohan. Enthiran is the highest-grossing South Indian film of all time after Baahubali: The Beginning and Kabali. It won two Indian National Film Awards, two Screen Awards. A spiritual successor, titled 2.0, is scheduled for release in 2017. He introduces the robot, named Chitti, at a robotics conference in Chennai. Chitti helps Vaseegaran's medical girlfriend, cheat in her examination, then saves her from being assaulted by a group of thugs. Professor Bohra, has so far been unsuccessful.Enthiran – Theatrical release poster
345. Episode 14 (Twin Peaks) – "Episode 14", also known as "Lonely Souls", is the seventh episode of the second season of the American mystery television series Twin Peaks. The episode was directed by series co-creator David Lynch. Aided by Mike, Cooper and Truman arrest Benjamin Horne, believing him to be inhabited by Bob. Cooper is warned by The Giant that "it is happening again", while Bob's real host, Leland Palmer, murders Madeline Ferguson. Academic readings of the entry have highlighted the theme of cinematography in the revelation scene. His FBI superior, Regional Bureau Chief Gordon Cole, explaining the nature of their existence. Meanwhile, Laura's cousin, has arrived in Twin Peaks from Missoula, Montana, helps Laura's friends Donna Hayward and James Hurley investigate the killing. Donna and Maddy attempt to steal it from him. It is morning. Truman informs that preparations have been made at The Great Northern. Mike repeats his description of Bob's current location. Truman tells Hawk to search Harold Smith's apartment. Cooper tells Hawk to look for Laura Palmer's secret diary. Cole leaves for Bend, Oregon. Cooper, Doctor Hayward, Brennan, Gerard / Mike are in the lobby of The Great Northern hotel attempting to find Bob's human host.Episode 14 (Twin Peaks) – Leland Palmer inhabited by Killer Bob. The scene is the beginning of one which reveals the answer to the long-running plot arc of the series.
346. Film Booking Offices of America – Film Booking Offices of America was an American film studio of the silent era, a producer and distributor of mostly low-budget films. Robertson-Cole bought the Hallmark Exchanges from Frank J. Hall in 1920. Robertson-Cole initiated movie production in the United States in 1920. It bought 460 acres in California to establish a studio. The property, which became known as the "R.C. Ranch", enabled Robertson-Cole to centralize movie production, which previously had been scattered. The movie company had relied on equipment rentals to produce motion pictures. In 1923, the studio contracted with Western actor Fred Thomson, who would soon emerge as one of Hollywood's most popular stars. Thomson was just one of numerous screen cowboys with whom FBO became identified. The studio, whose core market was America's small towns, also put out many romantic melodramas, non-Western action pictures, comedic shorts. In 1926, financier Joseph P. Kennedy led a group that acquired the company. In June 1928, using RCA Photophone technology, FBO became only the second Hollywood studio to release a feature-length "talkie." A few months later, Kennedy and RCA chief David Sarnoff arranged the merger that created RKO, one of the major studios of Hollywood's Golden Age. The company that would become FBO began as the U.S.-based subsidiary of film distributor Robertson-Cole. This organization was similar in structure to the French Pathé Exchange company, a subsidiary of the French Pathé Frères company.Film Booking Offices of America – FBO logo from 1927.
347. Firefly (TV series) – Firefly is an American space western drama television series created by writer and director Joss Whedon, under his Mutant Enemy Productions label. Whedon served as an executive producer, along with Tim Minear. The cast portrays the nine characters who live on Serenity. Whedon pitched the show as "nine people seeing nine different things". Firefly premiered in the U.S. on September 20, 2002. By mid-December, Firefly was 98th in Nielsen ratings. It was canceled after eleven of the fourteen produced episodes were aired. Despite the relatively short span of the series, it received strong sales when it was released on DVD and has large fan support campaigns. It won a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Special Visual Effects for a Series. TV Guide ranked the series on their 2013 list of 60 shows that were "Cancelled Too Soon". The series takes place in the year 2517, on a variety of moons. The series does not reveal whether these celestial bodies are within one star system, only saying that Serenity's mode of propulsion is a "gravity-drive". The emigrants established themselves with "dozens of planets and hundreds of moons". Many of these were terraformed, a process in which a moon is altered to resemble Earth. This resulted in many of the border moons having forbidding, dry environments, well-suited to the Western genre.Firefly (TV series) – Firefly
348. Fresh Blood (Supernatural) – "Fresh Blood" is the seventh episode of the paranormal drama Supernatural's third season on The CW, is the show's fifty-first episode overall. The episode was directed by Kim Manners; it was first broadcast on November 15, 2007. It also features the demise of recurring antagonist Gordon Walker. Brown, forced to leave the show due to commitments to the Lifetime Television series Army Wives, was horrified in the episode. The episode garnered generally positive reviews from critics. Brown's performance was praised, well as the twist in his character's storyline. Also applauded were both Sam's confrontation with the resulting reconciliation at the episode's end. Hunter Gordon Walker, who believes that Sam Winchester will one day become involved in a demonic war against humanity, escapes from prison. He threatens to kill her unless she reveals the location of the brothers. She eventually acquiesces in exchange for a priceless mojo bag. Meanwhile, Sam and Dean capture the vampire Lucy, who has previously taken two victims. They discover that another vampire named Dixon spiked her drink with his own blood at a club, transforming her. She escaped to feed. Lucy, still believing that she has only been drugged, is then killed by Dean, as there is no known cure for vampirism. The brothers are interrupted by Gordon and fellow hunter Kubrick.Fresh Blood (Supernatural) – Mercedes McNab was at first reluctant to take on the role, stating, "How many times can you really play a vampire? It's pretty silly!"
349. Greatest Hits (Lost) – "Greatest Hits" is the 21st episode of the third season of Lost and 70th episode of the series. It was directed by supervising producer Stephen Williams. The episode first aired on ABC in the United States and on CTV in Canada. "Greatest Hits" was well received by critics. Lost's editors received a Golden Reel nomination. The episode takes 92 days after the crash of Oceanic Airlines Flight 815. A group of survivors prepare by the "Others", while the rest prepare to contact a nearby freighter. Charlie Pace recounts the five greatest moments of his life, which are depicted in flashbacks, as he prepares to fulfill Desmond Hume's premonitions of his death. Ben's adopted daughter Alex persuades her boyfriend Karl to canoe to the survivors' beach to warn them. The survivors' leader Jack Shephard plans to kill the ambushing Others with dynamite retrieved by resident Danielle Rousseau. Sayid Jarrah, Bernard Nadler are selected to stay behind to shoot the dynamite-rigged tents when the Others arrive. Sayid tells Jack that he may be able to communicate with the freighter roughly 130 kilometres offshore. Juliet Burke informs Sayid that this will not work because the underwater "Looking Glass" is blocking outgoing transmissions. Naomi tells Charlie that his band Drive Shaft released a successful greatest hits album after the crash of Flight 815. Flashbacks show Charlie's "greatest hits" of his life in descending order, which Charlie gives them to Desmond for Claire.Greatest Hits (Lost) – More of the backstory of Monaghan's character Charlie is featured in "Greatest Hits"
350. Harta Berdarah – Harta Berdarah is a 1940 action film from the Dutch East Indies. Directed by the recently hired Rd Ariffien and Hu for Union Films, the film was written by Saeroen and attempted to draw educated Native audiences. Reviews for the work were positive, with praise focused on its story. Although Harta Berdarah was screened as late as 1944, as with most contemporary productions it is now likely lost. In the village of Soekasari, Mardjan is forcefully evicting people who are unable to pay their taxes to the landlord Hadji Doerachman. Doerachman, though aware of this, is unwilling to stop him, even after Atikah, tries to convince him. His men evict Asmadi, his wife Tjitjih, Asmadi's sick mother. When Asmadi resists, Mardjan detains him. Meanwhile, a young man named Rachmat is visiting his aunt in Soekasari. Learning of Mardjan's dealings, Rachmat insists that Mardjan stop. When his men try to fight, Rachmat overpowers them and negotiates Asmadi's release. Afterwards, Rachmat goes back to his aunt's home. Asmadi returns to his, only to learn that his mother had died shortly after the eviction; he swears revenge. Rachmat hears screaming and finds Atikah, who has fainted after seeing a snake. After she regains consciousness, Atikah thanks him for rescuing her.Harta Berdarah – Advertisement
351. Home (The X-Files) – Directed by Kim Manners, it was written by James Wong. "Home" is a "Monster-of-the-Week" story—a stand-alone plot unconnected to the overarching mythology of The X-Files. Watched by million viewers, the initial broadcast had a Nielsen rating of 11.9. Critics praised the disturbing nature of the plot; several made comparisons to the work of director David Lynch. Some reviewers nevertheless felt that the violent matter was excessive. The series centers on FBI special agents Fox Mulder and Dana Scully, who work on cases linked to the paranormal, called "X-Files". Mulder is a believer in the paranormal; the two have developed a deep friendship. In this episode, Mulder and Scully investigate the death of an infant with severe birth defects. "Home" marks the return of writers Morgan and Wong, who left the show following its second season. The duo attempted to make their first episode upon return as shocking as possible. They were inspired including a story from Charlie Chaplin's autobiography about an encounter in an English tenement home. The graphic content of the script attracted controversy in the production process. Commentators have identified themes within the episode that satirize the American dream, explore the nature of motherhood. It has been cited by critics and crew members. In the small town of Home, Pennsylvania, a woman gives birth to a deformed baby.Home (The X-Files) – The Peacock family burying their child alive. Due to its graphic nature, as illustrated by this scene, "Home" became the first episode of The X-Files to receive a viewer discretion warning.
352. Homicide: Life on the Street (season 2) – Homicide was moved to a new timeslot of Thursdays at 10 p.m. EST, temporarily replacing the legal drama L.A. Law. NBC requested several changes including fewer episode subplots and less camera movements and jump cuts. The entire Homicide cast returned for the second season. The logistics of scheduling the filming around the actors' schedules was difficult. It was initially reported Ned Beatty would not return at all. The second season was the last to include original member Jon Polito, reportedly dismissed because NBC officials were unhappy with his physical appearance. Polito was publicly critical of the show after his dismissal. The second season marked the debut of Jean de Segonzac as Chris Tergesen as music coordinator. The show received one Emmy nomination for Outstanding Guest Actor in a Drama Series for Williams. The "Bop Gun" script won a Writers Guild of America Award. Homicide was often compared to the ABC police drama series NYPD Blue, which Baldwin called "the knockoff of Homicide". While ratings improved during the second season, NBC still demanded further changes before committing to a third season. The second seasons of Homicide were released together in a four-DVD box-set on May 2003. NBC executives asked before approving a second season. Fontana said, "We were experimenting with our first nine episodes.Homicide: Life on the Street (season 2) – Homicide executive producer Barry Levinson said NBC 's decision to evaluate the series after a four-episode season placed a great deal of pressure on the staff.
353. Ice (The X-Files) – It was written by Glen Morgan and James Wong. The broadcast of "Ice" was watched by 10 million viewers in 6.2 million households and received positive reviews from critics, who praised its tense atmosphere. The plot of the episode sees FBI special agents Fox Mulder and Dana Scully investigate the deaths of an Alaskan team. Isolated and alone, their accompanying team discover the existence of extraterrestrial parasitic organisms which drive their hosts into impulsive fits of rage. Although the producers hoped that "Ice" would save money by being shot in a single location, it ended up exceeding its budget. A mass murder–suicide occurs among a team of geophysicists at an outpost in Icy Cape, Alaska. With the scientists' bodies the group finds a dog, who attacks Mulder and Bear. Scully suspects that it may be infected with bubonic plague; she also notices movement beneath its skin. Although Bear develops similar nodules on his body, autopsies reveal no such nodules on the bodies of the scientists. Murphy finds an ice sample believed to originate from a meteor crater, theorizes that the sample might be 250,000 years old. Although Bear insists on leaving, the others are concerned about infecting the outside world. When he is asked to provide a stool sample, he tries to flee. He dies when Hodge removes a small worm from the back of his neck. Now without a pilot, the group is informed that evacuation is impossible because of the weather. Another is recovered from one of the scientists' bodies.Ice (The X-Files)
354. Into Temptation (film) – Into Temptation is a 2009 independent drama film written and directed by Patrick Coyle, starring Jeremy Sisto, Kristin Chenoweth, Brian Baumgartner, Bruce A. Young and Amy Matthews. It tells the story of a prostitute who confesses to a Catholic priest that she plans to kill herself on her birthday. In doing so plunges himself into a darker side of society. The film was partially inspired by a kind but belligerent man who had considered becoming a priest in his early life. The script won the McKnight Screenwriting Fellowship for Media Arts. Into Temptation was set in Coyle's hometown of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Supporting roles were filled with actors from the Minneapolis -- Saint Paul theater area, Coyle himself performed in a supporting role. It was distributed by First Look International. With a budget of less than $ million, filming began in May 2008. Lee Percy worked as editor. Talks fell through due to complications from the global recession. The film played at theaters in several cities. The film received generally positive reviews. It was released on DVD on October 2009.Into Temptation (film) – DVD release cover
355. Kalidas (film) – Kalidas, also known as Kalidasa, is a 1931 Indian, Tamil-language, biographical film directed by H. M. Reddy and produced by Ardeshir Irani. The first sound film to be made in South India. Kalidas, principally in Tamil, contained additional dialogue in Telugu and Hindi. Prasad spoke only Hindi. The sound was recorded using German-made technology. Kalidas was shot on the sets of India's first sound film Alam Ara. Kalidas was released on 31 October 1931, coinciding with Diwali day. It was the only Tamil film to be released that year. Despite numerous technical flaws, it became a major commercial success. The success of Kalidas spawned other films including Mahakavi Kalidasa, Mahakavi Kalidasu and Mahakavi Kalidas. In addition to its commercial success, Kalidas made her a bankable singing star. Because no print, songbook of the film is known to survive, it is a lost film. Vidhyadhari is the daughter of the king of Thejavathi. She refuses. Annoyed, the minister sets out to find another potential husband for Vidhyadhari.Kalidas (film) – Kalidas
356. Kampung Boy (TV series) – Kampung Boy is a Malaysian animated television series first broadcast in 1997. It is about the adventures of his life in a kampung. The series is adapted from an autobiography of local Lat. A main theme of Kampung Boy is the contrast between the rural way of the modern urban lifestyle. The series promotes the lifestyle as an environment, fun and conducive to the development of a intelligent child. It raises the issue of modernization, proposing that new technologies should be carefully examined before being accepted. In 1979, the autobiographical graphic novel The Kampung Boy was published. The Kampung Boy's success prompted Lat to consider using other media to reach out to the masses. After Krishnan's company offered Lat financial support to start an project, the cartoonist began plans to adapt his comic to the television screen. Lat imagined several stories that he wished to see in animated form, then looked abroad for help producing them. Lacewood Studio in Ottawa, Canada, was in charge of animating the pilot episode. World Sports and Entertainment of Los Angeles was involved well; Norman Singer organised Gerald Tripp helped Lat to write the script. Bobdog Production was responsible for animating another five episodes. However, Krishman and Lat were disappointed with the results, which had taken two years of work to produce. They thought the pilot was "slow-moving".Kampung Boy (TV series) – A frame from a Kampung Boy storyboard (from left to right): Ana, Mat, and Bo
357. Kedok Ketawa – Kedok Ketawa is a 1940 action film from the Dutch East Indies. Union Films' first production, it was directed by Jo An Djan. Starring Basoeki Resobowo, Oedjang, the film follows a young couple who fight off criminals with the help of a masked man. Advertised as an "sweet romance", Kedok Ketawa received positive reviews, particularly for its cinematography. Following the success of the film, Union produced another six works before being shut down during the Japanese occupation. The film, screened until at least August 1944, may be lost. In Cibodas, Banten, a young woman named Minarsih is rescued by the painter Basuki. They begin planning their life together. However, a rich man interested in taking Minarsih to be his wife sends a gang to kidnap her. After two battles with the gang, The Laughing Mask are victorious. Basuki and Minarsih can live together in peace. Union was funded by the ethnic Chinese businessman Ang Hock Liem, although Tjoa Ma Tjoen was in charge of day-to-day operations. The film featured fighting, comedy, singing. The film was directed by Jo An Djan and starred Oedjang, Basoeki Resobowo. Other members of the cast included Eddy Kock.Kedok Ketawa – A newspaper advertisement for Kedok Ketawa from Surabaya
358. Last Gasp (Inside No. 9) – "Last Gasp" is the fourth episode of the first series of British dark comedy anthology television programme Inside No. 9. It first aired on 26 February 2014 on BBC Two. The story revolves around the ninth birthday of the severely ill Tamsin. Tamsin's parents Jan and Graham have arranged with charity WishmakerUK for singer Frankie J Parsons to visit as a treat for their daughter. The story, written by Pemberton and Reece Shearsmith, was inspired by someone Pemberton had seen on television who collected air from different places. The episode is more comedic than critiques celebrity culture and human greed. "Last Gasp" received a fairly negative critical response; in retrospect, Shearsmith claimed the episode. A particularly scathing review by columnist Virginia Blackburn was published in the Daily Express. On its first showing, "Last Gasp" drew 872,000 viewers, lower than any previous episode. Pemberton subsequently sold a balloon containing his own breath on eBay, with proceeds going to a Sport Relief charity. The idea, which he considered "bizarre" but "very special", had "haunted" him. This gave the idea of collecting the breath of celebrities. The death of the death of Amy Winehouse, along with the associated collecting of memorabilia, also served as inspiration. For Pemberton, the house in "Last Gasp" were very "normal". The episode was filmed on location in what director David Kerr called an "utterly freezing" house.Last Gasp (Inside No. 9) – The poster for "Last Gasp", designed by Matt Owen
359. Life's Shop Window – Life's Shop Window is a 1914 American silent drama film directed by J. Gordon Edwards and starring Claire Whitney and Stuart Holmes. It is a adaptation of the eponymous 1907 novel by Annie Sophie Cory. The film depicts her husband Bernard Chetwin. She is accused of having a child out of wedlock. Forced to leave England, she reunites with her husband in Arizona. There, she is tempted before seeing the error of her ways and returning to her family. Life's Shop Window was the first film produced, rather than simply distributed, by William Fox's Box Office Attractions Company, the corporate predecessor to Fox Film. Several reviewers approved of the film's expurgated treatment of the novel's plot, although opinions of the quality of the film itself were mixed. That success was used to advertise the film elsewhere. Like many of Fox's early works, it was likely lost in the 1937 Fox fire. Bernard Chetwin is a boarder at John Anderson's farm in England. He is attracted to their orphaned servant, Lydia Wilton. They fall in love. Wilton also meets Eustace Pelham, who introduces her to his philosophy of "life's window": that many people make life decisions on purely superficial grounds. Chetwin marries Wilton in a secret ceremony.Life's Shop Window – Lydia Wilton's baby is presented to the Anderson farm
360. Little Nemo (1911 film) – Little Nemo, also known as Winsor McCay: The Famous Cartoonist of the N.Y. Herald and His Moving Comics, is a 1911 silent animated short film by American cartoonist Winsor McCay. One of the earliest animated films, it was featured characters from McCay's comic strip Little Nemo in Slumberland. Its expressive animation distinguished the film from the experiments of earlier animators. Inspired by flip books his son brought home, McCay came to see the potential of the animated medium. He claimed to be the first to make such films, though James Stuart Blackton and Émile Cohl were among those who preceded him. The short's thousand drawings on rice paper were shot at Vitagraph Studios under Blackton's supervision. Most of the film's running time is made up of a live-action sequence in which McCay bets his colleagues that he can make that move. He wins the bet with four minutes of animation in which the Little Nemo characters perform, metamorphose to McCay's whim. Four days later McCay began using it as part of his vaudeville act. Its good reception motivated him to hand-color each of the animated frames of the originally black-and-white film. The film's success led McCay to devote more time to animation. He followed up Little Nemo with How a Mosquito Operates in his best-known film, Gertie the Dinosaur, in 1914. In 1906, McCay began doing chalk talks -- performances in which he drew before live audiences. Inspired by flip books his son Robert brought home, McCay "came to see the possibility of making moving pictures" of his cartoons.Little Nemo (1911 film) – Little Nemo and the Princess ride away in the mouth of a dragon.
361. Madlax – Madlax is a 26-episode Japanese anime television series produced in 2004 by the Bee Train animation studio. Kōichi Mashimo directed the soundtrack was composed by Yuki Kajiura. The version was released by ADV Films in North America and the United Kingdom and by Madman Entertainment in Australia and New Zealand. The story revolves around two young women who do not know of the other's existence at the beginning. The main character is Margaret Burton, the sole heir of a wealthy aristocratic family in the peaceful European country Nafrece. It wasn't until Yōsuke Kuroda joined the project that the series took its final form. The first half of the series alternates between the two leads. Together, they uncover data that proves that Enfant orchestrated the entire conflict. Enfant eventually intercepts they are forced into hiding. Back in Nafrece, Margaret decides to help Vanessa and travels to Gazth-Sonika, sometimes overprotective maid Elenore Baker and Carrossea Doon. Lady Quanzitta does indeed tell them about its plans to plunge the entire world into a total war, starting with Gazth-Sonika. She reveals that Enfant's leader Friday Monday possesses supernatural powers connected to the three ancient books, one of which belongs to Margaret. Margaret uses that of her book to return her lost memories. Margaret is captured by Monday who intends to use her abilities to advance his own plans. Limelda kills Vanessa while sending the latter into clinical depression.Madlax – The central characters of the series
362. Making Waves (TV series) – Making Waves is a British television drama series produced by Carlton Television for ITV. It chronicles the professional and personal lives of the crew of the Royal Navy frigate HMS Suffolk. The series was first broadcast on 7 July 2004. The series starred Alex Ferns as Lieutenant Commander Jenny Howard. Additional filming took place around HMNB Portsmouth with the full co-operation of the Royal Navy. A limited-edition DVD of all six episodes was released in December 2004. It did not fit in with the network's existing portfolio of dramas. A six-episode series was commissioned by Nick Elliott at ITV. The project was initially managed by the MoD's Directorate of Corporate Communications, headed by Commodore Richard Leaman. Throughout pre-production Fincher negotiated a legal agreement with Carlton, whereby a financial recovery was made for anything they used, taxpayer-funded. This included use of ships, personnel. Another clause gave the Royal Navy a share of any royalties including advertising revenue and sales. There were four credited writers on the Carlton staff, with writers from the ITV centre involved in the development of the scripts. The first episode was written by Terry Cafolla, who later wrote Messiah IV: The Harrowing. The second episode was written by the third by Niall Leonard.Making Waves (TV series) – Title card
363. Martin Keamy – In the second half of the season, Keamy served as the primary antagonist. Durand was contacted for the role after one of Lost's show runners saw him to Yuma. Like other Lost actors, Durand was not informed of his character's arc when he won the role. Critics praised the writers for creating a seemingly heartless character, while Durand's performance and appearance were also reviewed positively. Keamy returned for a tenth and eleventh appearance. Originally from Las Vegas, Nevada, Martin Keamy was a First Sergeant of the United States Marine Corps, serving with distinction from 1996 to 2001. In the three years before the events of Lost in 2004, he worked in Uganda. Once he captures Ben, Keamy has orders to kill everyone by torching it. Keamy boards the freighter Kahana in Suva, Fiji sometime between December 6 and December 10. The team infiltrates the Barracks compound where Ben resides, fatally shooting three 815 survivors. Keamy attempts to negotiate for Ben's surrender in exchange for the safe release of Alex. Believing that he is bluffing, Ben does not comply, Keamy shoots Alex dead. Ben retaliates by summoning the island's monster, which brutally assaults the mercenaries and fatally wounds Mayhew. The protocol contains instructions from Widmore for finding Ben if he finds out Keamy's intention to torch the island, which he apparently had. The protocol contains details about a 1980s station called the "Orchid", previously run by a group of scientists working for the Dharma Initiative.Martin Keamy – Keamy negotiates for Ben's surrender via walkie-talkie in the episode " The Shape of Things to Come "
364. Mayabazar – Mayabazar is a 1957 Indian bilingual epic fantasy film directed by Kadiri Venkata Reddy. It was produced by B. Nagi Reddy and Aluri Chakrapani under their banner, Vijaya Vauhini Studios. The film was shot in both Telugu and Tamil with the same title, but with a few differences in the cast. The story is an adaptation of Sasirekha Parinayam, which in turn is based on the Mahabharata. It revolves around the roles of Krishna and Ghatotkacha, as they try to reunite Abhimanyu, with Balarama's daughter. The first mythological film produced by their studio, Mayabazar marked a milestone for Nagi Reddy and Chakrapani. In addition to the technical crew, 400 studio workers -- including painters -- participated in the development of the film. Director Reddy was meticulous with the pre-production and casting phases, which took nearly a year to complete. The soundtrack features twelve songs, with most of the musical score composed by Ghantasala. Telugu lyrics were written by Pingali Nagendrarao and Tamil lyrics were written by Thanjai N. Ramaiah Dass. Four of the songs were composed by S. Rajeswara Rao prior to his unexplained departure from the project. One of them was accompanied by the first illusion of moonlight in Indian cinema, shot by cinematographer Marcus Bartley. Mayabazar had a final film-reel length of 5,888 metres. The film's Telugu version was released on 27 March 1957; the Tamil version was released two weeks later, on 12 April.Mayabazar – Theatrical release poster of the Telugu version
365. Meet Kevin Johnson – "Meet Kevin Johnson" is the 80th television episode of the American Broadcasting Company's Lost and the eighth episode of the fourth season. "Meet Kevin Johnson" first aired March 20, 2008, on ABC in Canada. One month later in the episode before "Meet Kevin Johnson", Michael reappears on a freighter offshore of undercover with the alias "Kevin Johnson". The writers completed "Meet Kevin Johnson", the eighth of 16 ordered scripts, on the same day that the 2007 -- 2008 Writers Guild of America action began. Post-production finished weeks from the show's writers. ABC ultimately overruled their opposition. "Meet Kevin Johnson" was met with mixed reactions. A major point was the episode's climax, criticized for its placement in the story and its focus on secondary characters. The episode was honored with the fourth season's sole Primetime Emmy Award for its achievement in sound mixing. The episode