1. Theora – Theora is a free lossy video compression format. It is developed by the Xiph. Org Foundation and distributed without licensing fees alongside their other free and open media projects, including the Vorbis audio format, the libtheora video codec is the reference implementation of the Theora video compression format being developed by the Xiph. Org Foundation. Theora is derived from the formerly proprietary VP3 codec, released into the domain by On2 Technologies. It is comparable in open standards philosophy to the BBCs Dirac codec, Theora is named after Theora Jones, Edison Carters Controller on the Max Headroom television program. Theora is a variable-bitrate, DCT-based video compression scheme, like most common video codecs, Theora also uses chroma subsampling, block-based motion compensation and an 8-by-8 DCT block. Pixels are grouped into structures, namely blocks, super blocks. Theora supports intra-coded frames and forward-predictive frames, but not bi-predictive frames which are found in H.264, Theora also does not support interlacing, or bit-depths larger than 8 bits per component. Theora video streams can be stored in any container format. This combination provides an open, royalty-free multimedia format. It can also be used with the Matroska container, the Theora video-compression format is essentially compatible with the VP3 video-compression format, consisting of a backward-compatible superset. Theora is a superset of VP3, and VP3 streams can be converted into Theora streams without recompression, VP3 video compression can be decoded using Theora implementations, but Theora video compression usually cannot be decoded using old VP3 implementations. Theoras predecessor On2 TrueMotion VP3 was originally a proprietary and patent-encumbered video codec developed by On2 Technologies, VP3.1 was introduced in May 2000 and followed three months later by the VP3.2 release, which is the basis for Theora. In August 2001, On2 Technologies announced that they would be releasing an open version of their VP3.2 video compression algorithm. In September 2001, On2 Technologies published the code of the VP3.2 codec under the VP3.2 Public License 0.1. The license only granted the right to modify the code if the resulting larger work continued to support playback of VP3.2 data. In March 2002, On2 responded to the reception by relicensing the VP3 codec under the GNU Lesser General Public License. In June 2002, On2 donated VP3 to the Xiph. Org Foundation, On2 also made an irrevocable, royalty-free license grant for any patent claims it might have over the software and any derivatives, allowing anyone to use any VP3-derived codec for any purpose. In August 2002, On2 entered into an agreement with the Xiph. Org Foundation to make VP3 the basis of a new, free video codec, On2 declared Theora to be VP3s successorTheora
2. Ogg – Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph. Org Foundation. The creators of the Ogg format state that it is unrestricted by software patents and is designed to provide for efficient streaming and its name is derived from ogging, jargon from the computer game Netrek. The Ogg container format can multiplex a number of independent streams for audio, video, text, in the Ogg multimedia framework, Theora provides a lossy video layer. The audio layer is most commonly provided by the music-oriented Vorbis format or its successor Opus, lossless audio compression formats include FLAC, and OggPCM. Before 2007, the. ogg filename extension was used for all files whose content used the Ogg container format, since 2007, the Xiph. Org Foundation recommends that. ogg only be used for Ogg Vorbis audio files. As of August 4,2011, the current version of the Xiph. Org Foundations reference implementation, is libogg 1.3.0, another version, libogg2, has been in development, but is awaiting a rewrite as of 2008. Both software libraries are free software, released under the New BSD License, Ogg reference implementation was separated from Vorbis on September 2,2000. It is sometimes assumed that the name Ogg comes from the character of Nanny Ogg in Terry Pratchetts Discworld novels, Ogg is derived from ogging, jargon from the computer game Netrek, which came to mean doing something forcefully, possibly without consideration of the drain on future resources. At its inception, the Ogg project was thought to be somewhat ambitious given the power of the PC hardware of the time, still, to quote the same reference, Vorbis, on the other hand is named after the Terry Pratchett character from the book Small Gods. The Ogg Vorbis project started in 1993 and it was originally named Squish but that name was already trademarked, so the project underwent a name change. The new name, OggSquish, was used until 2001 when it was changed again to Ogg, Ogg has since come to refer to the container format, which is now part of the larger Xiph. org multimedia project. Today, Squish refers to an audio coding format typically used with the Ogg container format. The Ogg bitstream format, spearheaded by the Xiph, the format consists of chunks of data each called an Ogg page. Each page begins with the characters, OggS, to identify the file as Ogg format, a serial number and page number in the page header identifies each page as part of a series of pages making up a bitstream. Multiple bitstreams may be multiplexed in the file where pages from each bitstream are ordered by the time of the contained data. Bitstreams may also be appended to existing files, a known as chaining. A BSD-licensed library, called libvorbis, is available to encode and decode data from Vorbis streams, independent Ogg implementations are used in several projects such as RealPlayer and a set of DirectShow filters. Mogg, the Multi-Track-Single-Logical-Stream Ogg-Vorbis, is the multi-channel or multi-track Ogg file format, the following is the field layout of an Ogg page header, Capture pattern –32 bits The capture pattern or sync code is a magic number used to ensure synchronization when parsing Ogg filesOgg – Ogg
3. MP3 – Compared to CD quality digital audio, MP3 compression commonly achieves 75 to 95% reduction in size. MP3 files are thus 1/4 to 1/20 the size of the digital audio stream. This is important for both transmission and storage concerns, the basis for such comparison is the CD digital audio format which requires 1411200 bit/s. A commonly used MP3 encoding setting is CBR128 kbit/s resulting in file size 1/11 of the original CD-quality file, the MP3 lossy compression works by reducing the accuracy of certain parts of a continuous sound that are considered to be beyond the auditory resolution ability of most people. This method is referred to as perceptual coding or psychoacoustics. It uses psychoacoustic models to discard or reduce the precision of less audible to human hearing. MP3 was designed by the Moving Picture Experts Group as part of its MPEG-1 standard, the first subgroup for audio was formed by several teams of engineers at Fraunhofer IIS, University of Hanover, AT&T-Bell Labs, Thomson-Brandt, CCETT, and others. MPEG-1 Audio, which included MPEG-1 Audio Layer I, II and III was approved as a draft of ISO/IEC standard in 1991, finalised in 1992. A backwards compatible MPEG-2 Audio extension with lower sample and bit rates was published in 1995, MP3 is a streaming or broadcast format meaning that individual frames can be lost without affecting the ability to decode successfully delivered frames. Storing an MP3 stream in a file enables time-shifted playback, the MP3 lossy audio data compression algorithm takes advantage of a perceptual limitation of human hearing called auditory masking. In 1894, the American physicist Alfred M. Mayer reported that a tone could be rendered inaudible by another tone of lower frequency, in 1959, Richard Ehmer described a complete set of auditory curves regarding this phenomenon. Ernst Terhardt et al. created an algorithm describing auditory masking with high accuracy and this work added to a variety of reports from authors dating back to Fletcher, and to the work that initially determined critical ratios and critical bandwidths. A wide variety of compression algorithms were reported in IEEEs refereed Journal on Selected Areas in Communications. The genesis of the MP3 technology is described in a paper from Professor Hans Musmann who chaired the ISO MPEG Audio group for several years. The immediate predecessors of MP3 were Optimum Coding in the Frequency Domain, the first practical implementation of an audio perceptual coder in hardware, was an implementation of a psychoacoustic transform coder based on Motorola 56000 DSP chips. Another predecessor of the MP3 format and technology is to be found in the perceptual codec MUSICAM based on an integer arithmetics 32 sub-bands filterbank, driven by a psychoacoustic model. It was primarily designed for Digital Audio Broadcasting and digital TV and this codec incorporated into a broadcasting system using COFDM modulation was demonstrated on air and on the field together with Radio Canada and CRC Canada during the NAB show in 1991. F. As a doctoral student at Germanys University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Karlheinz Brandenburg began working on music compression in the early 1980sMP3 – Diagram of the structure of an MP3 file (MPEG version 2.5 not supported, hence 12 instead of 11 bits for MP3 Sync Word).
4. MPEG – The Moving Picture Experts Group is a working group of authorities that was formed by ISO and IEC to set standards for audio and video compression and transmission. It was established in 1988 by the initiative of Hiroshi Yasuda and Leonardo Chiariglione, the first MPEG meeting was in May 1988 in Ottawa, Canada. As of late 2005, MPEG has grown to include approximately 350 members per meeting from various industries, universities and it was formed in 2001 and its main result has been H. 264/MPEG-4 AVC. Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding is a group of video coding experts from ITU-T Study Group 16, jCT-VC is co-chaired by Jens-Rainer Ohm and Gary Sullivan. The MPEG standards consist of different Parts, each part covers a certain aspect of the whole specification. The standards also specify Profiles and Levels, Profiles are intended to define a set of tools that are available, and Levels define the range of appropriate values for the properties associated with them. Some of the approved MPEG standards were revised by later amendments and/or new editions, MPEG has standardized the following compression formats and ancillary standards, MPEG-1, Coding of moving pictures and associated audio for digital storage media at up to about 1.5 Mbit/s. The first MPEG compression standard for audio and video and it is commonly limited to about 1.5 Mbit/s although the specification is capable of much higher bit rates. It was basically designed to allow moving pictures and sound to be encoded into the bitrate of a Compact Disc and it is used on Video CD and can be used for low-quality video on DVD Video. It was used in digital satellite/cable TV services before MPEG-2 became widespread, to meet the low bit requirement, MPEG-1 downsamples the images, as well as uses picture rates of only 24–30 Hz, resulting in a moderate quality. It includes the popular MPEG-1 Audio Layer III audio compression format, MPEG-2, Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information. Transport, video and audio standards for broadcast-quality television, MPEG-2 standard was considerably broader in scope and of wider appeal – supporting interlacing and high definition. It is also used on Blu-ray Discs, but these normally use MPEG-4 Part 10 or SMPTE VC-1 for high-definition content, mPEG-3 is not to be confused with MP3, which is MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III. MPEG-4 uses further coding tools with additional complexity to achieve higher compression factors than MPEG-2, in addition to more efficient coding of video, MPEG-4 moves closer to computer graphics applications. In more complex profiles, the MPEG-4 decoder effectively becomes a rendering processor, MPEG-4 supports Intellectual Property Management and Protection, which provides the facility to use proprietary technologies to manage and protect content like digital rights management. It also supports MPEG-J, a fully programmatic solution for creation of interactive multimedia applications. Several new higher-efficiency video standards are included, notably, MPEG-4 Part 2, MPEG-4 AVC may be used on HD DVD and Blu-ray Discs, along with VC-1 and MPEG-2. MPEG-4 has been chosen as the scheme for over-the-air in BrazilMPEG – MPEG Format is used on several media. This picture relates some of the most known media to the MPEG Format version and container format (TS and PS) used.
5. Microsoft Windows – Microsoft Windows is a metafamily of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft. It consists of families of operating systems, each of which cater to a certain sector of the computing industry with the OS typically associated with IBM PC compatible architecture. Active Windows families include Windows NT, Windows Embedded and Windows Phone, defunct Windows families include Windows 9x, Windows 10 Mobile is an active product, unrelated to the defunct family Windows Mobile. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20,1985, Microsoft Windows came to dominate the worlds personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system, however, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones. In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25% that of Android devices sold and this comparison however may not be fully relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. As of September 2016, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets, smartphones, the most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2016. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One game console, Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released almost at the time and share the same kernel. Windows, The operating system for personal computers, tablets. The latest version is Windows 10, the main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple Inc. for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server, The operating system for server computers, the latest version is Windows Server 2016. Unlike its clients sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme, the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE, A lightweight version of its Windows sibling meant to operate as an operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers. The latest version is Windows PE10.0.10586.0, Windows Embedded, Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device that was too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. The following Windows families are no longer being developed, Windows 9x, Microsoft now caters to the consumers market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile, The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile operating systemMicrosoft Windows – Screenshot of Windows 10, showing the Action Center and Start Menu
6. IOS – IOS is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware. It is the system that presently powers many of the companys mobile devices, including the iPhone, iPad. It is the second most popular operating system globally after Android. IPad tablets are also the second most popular, by sales, originally unveiled in 2007 for the iPhone, iOS has been extended to support other Apple devices such as the iPod Touch and the iPad. As of January 2017, Apples App Store contains more than 2.2 million iOS applications,1 million of which are native for iPads and these mobile apps have collectively been downloaded more than 130 billion times. The iOS user interface is based upon direct manipulation, using multi-touch gestures, interface control elements consist of sliders, switches, and buttons. Internal accelerometers are used by applications to respond to shaking the device or rotating it in three dimensions. Apple has been praised for incorporating thorough accessibility functions into iOS, enabling users with vision. Major versions of iOS are released annually, the current version, iOS10, was released on September 13,2016. In iOS, there are four layers, the Core OS, Core Services, Media. In 2005, when Steve Jobs began planning the iPhone, he had a choice to either shrink the Mac, forstall was also responsible for creating a software development kit for programmers to build iPhone apps, as well as an App Store within iTunes. The operating system was unveiled with the iPhone at the Macworld Conference & Expo on January 9,2007, and released in June of that year. At the time of its unveiling in January, Steve Jobs claimed, iPhone runs OS X and runs applications, but at the time of the iPhones release. Initially, third-party native applications were not supported, Steve Jobs reasoning was that developers could build web applications through the Safari web browser that would behave like native apps on the iPhone. In October 2007, Apple announced that a native Software Development Kit was under development, on March 6,2008, Apple held a press event, announcing the iPhone SDK. The iOS App Store was opened on July 10,2008 with an initial 500 applications available.2 million in January 2017, as of March 2016,1 million apps are natively compatible with the iPad tablet computer. These apps have collectively been downloaded more than 130 billion times, App intelligence firm Sensor Tower has estimated that the App Store will reach 5 million apps by the year 2020. On September 5,2007, Apple released the iPod Touch, Apple also sold more than one million iPhones during the 2007 holiday seasonIOS
7. OS X – Within the market of desktop, laptop and home computers, and by web usage, it is the second most widely used desktop OS after Microsoft Windows. Launched in 2001 as Mac OS X, the series is the latest in the family of Macintosh operating systems, Mac OS X succeeded classic Mac OS, which was introduced in 1984, and the final release of which was Mac OS9 in 1999. An initial, early version of the system, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999, the first desktop version, Mac OS X10.0, followed in March 2001. In 2012, Apple rebranded Mac OS X to OS X. Releases were code named after big cats from the release up until OS X10.8 Mountain Lion. Beginning in 2013 with OS X10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after landmarks in California, in 2016, Apple rebranded OS X to macOS, adopting the nomenclature that it uses for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, and tvOS. The latest version of macOS is macOS10.12 Sierra, macOS is based on technologies developed at NeXT between 1985 and 1997, when Apple acquired the company. The X in Mac OS X and OS X is pronounced ten, macOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, and many of its frameworks with iOS, tvOS and watchOS. A heavily modified version of Mac OS X10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV, Apple also used to have a separate line of releases of Mac OS X designed for servers. Beginning with Mac OS X10.7 Lion, the functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store. Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 can run only on the PowerPC-based Macs from the time period, Mac OS X10.5 Leopard was released as a Universal binary, meaning the installer disc supported both Intel and PowerPC processors. In 2009, Apple released Mac OS X10.6 Snow Leopard, in 2011, Apple released Mac OS X10.7 Lion, which no longer supported 32-bit Intel processors and also did not include Rosetta. All versions of the system released since then run exclusively on 64-bit Intel CPUs, the heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985. There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, and then launched in 1989 and its graphical user interface was built on top of an object-oriented GUI toolkit using the Objective-C programming language. This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP, then called OPENSTEP, previous Macintosh operating systems were named using Arabic numerals, e. g. Mac OS8 and Mac OS9. The letter X in Mac OS Xs name refers to the number 10 and it is therefore correctly pronounced ten /ˈtɛn/ in this context. However, a common mispronunciation is X /ˈɛks/, consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility. Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API, the consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X10.0. Reviews were variable, with praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interfaceOS X – Steve Jobs talks about the transition to Intel processors
8. Musical Instrument Digital Interface – A single MIDI link can carry up to sixteen channels of information, each of which can be routed to a separate device. These messages are sent via a MIDI cable to other devices where they control sound generation, a simple example of a MIDI setup is the use of a MIDI controller such as an electronic musical keyboard to trigger sounds created by a sound module. This MIDI data can also be recorded into a hardware or software device called a sequencer, advantages of MIDI include compactness, ease of modification and manipulation and a wide choice of electronic instruments and synthesizer or digitally-sampled sounds. MIDI technology was standardized in 1983 by a panel of industry representatives. In June 1981, Roland founder Ikutaro Kakehashi proposed the idea of standardization to Oberheim Electronics founder Tom Oberheim, in October 1981, Kakehashi, Oberheim and Smith discussed the idea with representatives from Yamaha, Korg and Kawai. Smith proposed this standard at the Audio Engineering Society show in November 1981, MIDIs development was announced to the public by Robert Moog, in the October 1982 edition of Keyboard magazine. By the time of the January 1983 Winter NAMM Show, Smith was able to demonstrate a MIDI connection between his Prophet 600 analog synthesizer and a Roland JP-6, the MIDI Specification was published in August 1983. The MIDI standard was unveiled by Ikutaro Kakehashi and Dave Smith, MIDIs appeal was originally limited to professional musicians and record producers who wanted to use electronic instruments in the production of popular music. The standard allowed different instruments to speak with other and with computers. This interoperability allowed one device to be controlled from another, which reduced the amount of hardware musicians needed to own, MIDIs introduction coincided with the dawn of the personal computer era and the introductions of samplers and digital synthesizers. The creative possibilities brought about by MIDI technology have been credited as having helped to revive the industry in the 1980s. MIDI introduced many capabilities which transformed the way musicians work, MIDI sequencing made it possible for a user with no notation skills to build complex arrangements. A musical act with as few as one or two members, each operating multiple MIDI-enabled devices, could deliver a performance which sounds similar to that of a larger group of musicians. By performing preproduction in an environment, an artist can reduce recording costs by arriving at a recording studio with a song that is already partially completed and worked out. Educational technology enabled by MIDI has transformed music education and those new to the subject of MIDI might confuse it with digital audio. MIDI symbolically represents a note, whereas digital audio represents the sound produced by the note, MIDI was invented so that musical instruments could communicate with each other and so that one instrument can control another. Analog synthesizers that have no digital component and were built prior to MIDIs development can be retrofit with kits that convert MIDI messages into analog control voltages. When a note is played on a MIDI instrument, it generates a signal that can be used to trigger a note on another instrumentMusical Instrument Digital Interface – MIDI allows multiple instruments to be played from a single controller (often a keyboard, as pictured here), which makes stage setups much more portable. This system fits into a single rack case, but prior to the advent of MIDI would have required four separate full-size keyboard instruments, plus outboard mixing and effects units.
9. Firefox – Mozilla Firefox is a free and open-source web browser developed by the Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary the Mozilla Corporation. Firefox was created in 2002, under the name Phoenix by the Mozilla community members who wanted a standalone rather than the Mozilla Application Suite bundle. Even during its phase, Firefox proved to be popular with its testers and was praised for its speed, security. Firefox was released in November 2004, and was successful with 60 million downloads within nine months. Firefox is considered the successor of Netscape Navigator, as the Mozilla community was created by Netscape in 1998 before their acquisition by AOL. Firefox usage grew to a peak of 32% at the end of 2009, usage then declined in competition with Google Chrome. As of January 2016, Firefox has between 9% and 16% of worldwide usage as a browser, making it the second most popular web browser. Firefox is still the most popular browser in Cuba, Eritrea, and Germany, with 85. 93%,79. 39%. It is also the most popular browser in many other African countries. According to Mozilla, as of December 2014 there were half a billion Firefox users around the world, the Firefox project began as an experimental branch of the Mozilla project by Dave Hyatt, Joe Hewitt, and Blake Ross. They believed the requirements of Netscapes sponsorship and developer-driven feature creep compromised the utility of the Mozilla browser. To combat what they saw as the Mozilla Suites software bloat, they created a stand-alone browser, on April 3,2003, the Mozilla Organization announced that they planned to change their focus from the Mozilla Suite to Firefox and Thunderbird. The community-driven SeaMonkey was formed and eventually replaced the Mozilla Application Suite in 2005, the Firefox project has undergone several name changes. Phoenix was renamed due to issues with Phoenix Technologies, the replacement name, Firebird. In response, the Mozilla Foundation stated that the browser would always bear the name Mozilla Firebird to avoid confusion, after further pressure, on February 9,2004, Mozilla Firebird became Mozilla Firefox. The name Firefox was said to be derived from a nickname of the red panda, for the abbreviation of Firefox, Mozilla prefers Fx or fx, though it is often abbreviated as FF. The Firefox project went through many versions before the version 1.0 was released on November 9,2004, search, which is a front end of Microsoft search engine Bing, by default in most localizations. Firefox Hello is scheduled to be removed in September 2016, functions can be added through add-ons created by third-party developersFirefox – Firefox mascot at the FISL 16 (2015)