1. Theora – Theora is a free lossy video compression format. The libtheora codec is the reference implementation of the Theora video compression format being developed by the Xiph.Org Foundation. It is derived from the formerly proprietary codec, released into the public domain by On2 Technologies. Theora is comparable in open standards philosophy to the BBC's Dirac codec. It is named after Edison Carter's Controller on the Max Headroom television program. It is a variable-bitrate, DCT-based video scheme. Like most video codecs, it also uses chroma subsampling, block-based motion compensation and an 8-by-8 DCT block. Pixels are grouped into various structures, namely blocks, macroblocks. It supports forward-predictive frames, but not bi-predictive frames which are found in H. 264 and VC-1. It also does not support bit-depths larger than 8 bits per component. This combination provides a completely open, royalty-free multimedia format. Theora can also be used with the Matroska container. The Theora video-compression format is essentially compatible with the VP3 video-compression format, consisting of a backward-compatible superset. VP3 streams can be converted into Theora streams without recompression. Theora video compression usually can not be decoded using old VP3 implementations.Theora
2. Ogg – Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation. Its name is derived from "ogging", jargon from the game Netrek. The Ogg format can multiplex a number of independent streams for audio, video, text, metadata. In the Ogg multimedia framework, Theora provides a lossy layer. The audio layer is most commonly provided by its successor Opus. Audio compression formats include FLAC, OggPCM. Before 2007, the.ogg extension was used for all files whose content used the Ogg container format. Since 2007, the Xiph.Org Foundation recommends that.ogg only be used for Ogg Vorbis audio files. As of August 4, the current version of the Xiph.Org Foundation's reference implementation, is libogg 1.3.0. Libogg2, has been in development, but is awaiting a rewrite as of 2008. Both software libraries are free software, released under the New BSD License. Ogg implementation was separated from Vorbis on September 2, 2000. At its inception, the Ogg project was thought to be somewhat ambitious given the power of the hardware of the time. Still, to quote the same reference: "Vorbis, on the other hand is named from the book Small Gods". The Ogg Vorbis project started in 1993.Ogg – Ogg
3. MP3 – Compared to CD quality digital audio, MP3 compression commonly achieves 75 to 95% reduction in size. MP3 files are thus 1/4 to 1/20 the size of the original audio stream. This is important for both storage concerns. The basis for such comparison is the CD-ROM audio format which requires 1411200 bit/s. A commonly used MP3 encoding setting is CBR 128 kbit/s resulting in file size 1/11 of the CD-quality file. This method is commonly referred to as perceptual coding. It then records the remaining information in an efficient manner. MP3 was later extended in the MPEG-2 standard. The first subgroup for audio was formed by several teams of engineers at Fraunhofer IIS, University of Hanover, AT&T - others. A backwards compatible MPEG-2 Audio extension with lower bit rates was published in 1995. MP3 is a streaming or format meaning that individual frames can be lost without affecting the ability to decode successfully delivered frames. Storing an MP3 stream in a file enables time shifted playback. The MP3 lossy audio data algorithm takes advantage of a perceptual limitation of human hearing called auditory masking. In 1894, the American physicist Alfred M. Mayer reported that a tone could be rendered inaudible by another tone of lower frequency. In 1959, Richard Ehmer described a complete set of auditory curves regarding this phenomenon.MP3 – Diagram of the structure of an MP3 file (MPEG version 2.5 not supported, hence 12 instead of 11 bits for MP3 Sync Word).
4. MPEG – It was established in 1988 since its inception. The first MPEG meeting was in May 1988 in Ottawa, Canada. As of late 2005, MPEG has grown to include approximately 350 members per meeting from various industries, research institutions. MPEG's official designation is ISO/IEC JTC 29/WG 11 -- Coding of moving pictures and audio. Its main result has been H. 264/MPEG -4 AVC. Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding is a group of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11. JCT-VC is co-chaired by Gary Sullivan. The MPEG standards consist of different Parts. Each part covers a certain aspect of the whole specification. The standards also specify Profiles and Levels. Levels define the range of appropriate values for the properties associated with them. Some of the approved MPEG standards were revised by later amendments and/or new editions. The first MPEG compression standard for audio and video. It is commonly limited to about 1.5 Mbit/s although the specification is capable of much higher bit rates. It was basically designed to sound to be encoded into the bitrate of a Compact Disc.MPEG – MPEG Format is used on several media. This picture relates some of the most known media to the MPEG Format version and container format (TS and PS) used.
5. Microsoft Windows – Microsoft Windows is a metafamily of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, sold by Microsoft. Active Windows families include Windows NT, Windows Phone; these may encompass subfamilies, e.g. Windows Embedded Compact or Windows Server. Defunct Windows families include Windows 9x; Windows 10 Mobile is unrelated to the defunct family Windows Mobile. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal market with over 90 % market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones. In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold were less than 25% of Android devices sold. This comparisons, however, may not be fully relevant as the two operating systems traditionally targeted different platforms. As of September 2016, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets, embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2016. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One console. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that share the same kernel. Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers, tablets and smartphones. The latest version is Windows 10.Microsoft Windows – Screenshot of Windows 10, showing the Action Center and Start Menu
6. IOS – IOS is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware. It is iPod touch. It is the second most popular mobile system globally after Android by sales. IPad tablets are also the second most popular, against Android since 2013, when Android tablet sales increased by 127 %. Originally unveiled for the iPhone, it has been extended to support other Apple devices such as the iPod Touch and the iPad. As of June 2016, Apple's App Store contained more than million iOS applications, 725,000 of which are native for iPads. These mobile apps have collectively been downloaded more than billion times. The iOS interface is based upon direct manipulation, using multi-touch gestures. Interface control elements consist of sliders, buttons. Internal accelerometers are used by some applications to respond to rotating it in three dimensions. Major versions of iOS are released annually. IOS 10, was released on September 13, 2016. It runs on the iPhone 5 and later, iPad and later, iPad Pro, iPad Mini 2 and later, the 6th-generation iPod Touch. In iOS, there are four abstraction layers: the Core OS, Core Services, Cocoa Touch layers. IOS 10 dedicates around 1.8 GB of the device's memory for itself.IOS
7. OS X – Within the market by web usage, it is the second most widely used desktop OS after Microsoft Windows. Launched as Mac OS X, the series is the latest in the family of Macintosh operating systems. Mac OS X succeeded the final release of, Mac OS 9 in 1999. An early version of the system, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999. Mac OS X 10.0, followed in March 2001. Beginning in 2013 with OS X 10.9 Mavericks, Apple names macOS releases after landmarks in California. In 2016, Apple rebranded OS X to macOS, adopting the nomenclature that it uses for their other operating systems, iOS, tvOS. The latest version of macOS is macOS 10.12 Sierra, publicly released on September 2016. MacOS is based on technologies developed until 1997 when Apple acquired the company. The "X" in Mac OS X and OS X is pronounced "ten", as it is the Roman numeral for the number 10. Its Unix-based core, named Darwin, many of its frameworks with iOS, tvOS and watchOS. A heavily modified version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV. Apple also used to have a separate line of releases of macOS designed for servers. Beginning with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, the server functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store. Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 can run only on the PowerPC-based Macs from the period.OS X – Steve Jobs talks about the transition to Intel processors
8. Musical Instrument Digital Interface – A single MIDI link can carry up to sixteen channels of information, each of which can be routed to a separate device. These messages are sent to other devices where they control sound generation and other features. Advantages of MIDI include compactness, a wide choice of electronic instruments and synthesizer or digitally-sampled sounds. MIDI technology is maintained by the MIDI Manufacturers Association. In October 1981, Kakehashi, Oberheim and Smith discussed the idea from Yamaha, Korg and Kawai. Smith proposed this standard in November 1981. MIDI's development was announced to the public in the October 1982 edition of Keyboard magazine. The MIDI Specification was published in August 1983. MIDI's appeal was originally limited to those who wanted to use electronic instruments in the production of popular music. This interoperability allowed one device to be controlled from another, which reduced the amount of hardware musicians needed to own. MIDI's introduction coincided with the introductions of samplers and digital synthesizers. The creative possibilities brought about by MIDI technology have been credited as having helped to revive the industry in the 1980s. MIDI introduced many capabilities which transformed the way musicians work. MIDI sequencing made it possible for a user with no notation skills to build complex arrangements. MIDI helped establish recording.Musical Instrument Digital Interface – MIDI allows multiple instruments to be played from a single controller (often a keyboard, as pictured here), which makes stage setups much more portable. This system fits into a single rack case, but prior to the advent of MIDI would have required four separate full-size keyboard instruments, plus outboard mixing and effects units.