1. Albert Einstein – Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist. He developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics, Einsteins work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science. Einstein is best known in popular culture for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2, near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led him to develop his theory of relativity during his time at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern. Briefly before, he aquired the Swiss citizenship in 1901, which he kept for his whole life and he continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. He also investigated the properties of light which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. In 1917, Einstein applied the theory of relativity to model the large-scale structure of the universe. He was visiting the United States when Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 and, being Jewish, did not go back to Germany and he settled in the United States, becoming an American citizen in 1940. This eventually led to what would become the Manhattan Project, Einstein supported defending the Allied forces, but generally denounced the idea of using the newly discovered nuclear fission as a weapon. Later, with the British philosopher Bertrand Russell, Einstein signed the Russell–Einstein Manifesto, Einstein was affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, until his death in 1955. Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers along with over 150 non-scientific works, on 5 December 2014, universities and archives announced the release of Einsteins papers, comprising more than 30,000 unique documents. Einsteins intellectual achievements and originality have made the word Einstein synonymous with genius, Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire, on 14 March 1879. His parents were Hermann Einstein, a salesman and engineer, the Einsteins were non-observant Ashkenazi Jews, and Albert attended a Catholic elementary school in Munich from the age of 5 for three years. At the age of 8, he was transferred to the Luitpold Gymnasium, the loss forced the sale of the Munich factory. In search of business, the Einstein family moved to Italy, first to Milan, when the family moved to Pavia, Einstein stayed in Munich to finish his studies at the Luitpold Gymnasium. His father intended for him to electrical engineering, but Einstein clashed with authorities and resented the schools regimen. He later wrote that the spirit of learning and creative thought was lost in strict rote learning, at the end of December 1894, he travelled to Italy to join his family in Pavia, convincing the school to let him go by using a doctors note. During his time in Italy he wrote an essay with the title On the Investigation of the State of the Ether in a Magnetic FieldAlbert Einstein – Albert Einstein in 1921
2. Compiler – A compiler is a computer program that transforms source code written in a programming language into another computer language, with the latter often having a binary form known as object code. The most common reason for converting source code is to create an executable program, the name compiler is primarily used for programs that translate source code from a high-level programming language to a lower level language. If the compiled program can run on a computer whose CPU or operating system is different from the one on which the compiler runs, more generally, compilers are a specific type of translator. While all programs that take a set of programming specifications and translate them, a program that translates from a low-level language to a higher level one is a decompiler. A program that translates between high-level languages is called a source-to-source compiler or transpiler. A language rewriter is usually a program that translates the form of expressions without a change of language, the term compiler-compiler is sometimes used to refer to a parser generator, a tool often used to help create the lexer and parser. A compiler is likely to many or all of the following operations, lexical analysis, preprocessing, parsing, semantic analysis, code generation. Program faults caused by incorrect compiler behavior can be difficult to track down and work around, therefore. Software for early computers was written in assembly language. The notion of a high level programming language dates back to 1943, no actual implementation occurred until the 1970s, however. The first actual compilers date from the 1950s, identifying the very first is hard, because there is subjectivity in deciding when programs become advanced enough to count as the full concept rather than a precursor. 1952 saw two important advances. Grace Hopper wrote the compiler for the A-0 programming language, though the A-0 functioned more as a loader or linker than the notion of a full compiler. Also in 1952, the first autocode compiler was developed by Alick Glennie for the Mark 1 computer at the University of Manchester and this is considered by some to be the first compiled programming language. The FORTRAN team led by John Backus at IBM is generally credited as having introduced the first unambiguously complete compiler, COBOL was an early language to be compiled on multiple architectures, in 1960. In many application domains the idea of using a higher level language quickly caught on, because of the expanding functionality supported by newer programming languages and the increasing complexity of computer architectures, compilers have become more complex. Early compilers were written in assembly language, the first self-hosting compiler – capable of compiling its own source code in a high-level language – was created in 1962 for the Lisp programming language by Tim Hart and Mike Levin at MIT. Since the 1970s, it has become practice to implement a compiler in the language it compilesCompiler – A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language, multi-target compiler
3. Altaic language family – Altaic was a proposed language family of central Eurasia and Siberia, now widely seen as discredited. Various versions included the Turkic, Mongolic, Tungusic and sometimes the Korean and￼￼ Japonic languages and these languages are spoken in a wide arc stretching from eastern Europe, through Central Asia to Anatolia and to the Korean Peninsula and Japanese archipelago in Northeast Asia. The group is named after the Altai mountain range in Central Asia, another view accepts Altaic as a valid family but includes in it only Turkic, Mongolic and Tungusic. This view was widespread prior to the 1960s but has almost no supporters among specialists today, the expanded grouping, including Korean and sometimes Japanese, came to be known as Macro-Altaic, leading to the designation of the smaller grouping as Micro-Altaic by retronymy. Most proponents of Altaic continue to support the inclusion of Korean, Micro-Altaic includes about 66 living languages, to which Macro-Altaic would add Korean, Japanese and the Ryukyuan languages for a total of about 74. Opponents maintain that the similarities are due to interaction between the language groups concerned. The inclusion of Korean and Japanese has also criticized and disputed by other linguists. Doubt is also cast on the relationship between Turkic, Tungusic and Mongolic languages by comparisons of similarities of the proto-languages, if Altaic is a legitimate family, the similarities would get bigger in the early proto-languages. This is true for all accepted linguistic families, but an analysis of the earliest written records of Mongolic and Turkic languages shows fewer similarities rather than more. This is more easily explained by language contact and areal effect and this means that they do not share a common ancestor. Because of these facts, the existence of an Altaic family of languages is mostly seen as debunked by modern linguists. However, as has been pointed out by Alexis Manaster Ramer and Paul Sidwell, von Strahlenbergs classification was the first attempt to classify a large number of languages, some of which are Altaic. The term Altaic, as applied to a family, was introduced in 1844 by Matthias Castrén. As originally formulated by Castrén, Altaic included not only Turkic, Mongolian, and Manchu-Tungus, the original Altaic family thus came to be known as the Ural–Altaic. For much of the 19th and the early 20th centuries, the theory of a common Ural–Altaic family was widespread, based on shared features as vowel harmony. However, while the Ural–Altaic hypothesis can still be found in encyclopedias, atlases, for instance, it was characterized by Sergei Starostin as an idea now completely discarded. In 1857, the Austrian scholar Anton Boller suggested adding Japanese to the Ural–Altaic family, polivanov advocated the inclusion of Korean. The first volume of his work, Lautlehre, contained the first comprehensive attempt to identify regular correspondences among the systems within the Altaic language familiesAltaic language family – The Altai Mountains in East-Central Asia give their name to the proposed language family.