1. Albert Einstein – Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist. Einstein developed the general theory of one of the two pillars of modern physics. Einstein's work is also known on the philosophy of science. Einstein is best known in popular culture for his mass -- energy equivalence E = mc2. This led him to develop his special theory of relativity. Einstein continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. Einstein also investigated the thermal properties of light which laid the foundation of the theory of light. In 1917, he applied the general theory of relativity to model the large-scale structure of the universe. Einstein settled in the U.S. becoming an American citizen in 1940. This eventually led to what would become the Manhattan Project. He largely denounced the idea of using the newly discovered nuclear fission as a weapon. Later, with the British philosopher Bertrand Russell, he signed the Russell -- Einstein Manifesto, which highlighted the danger of nuclear weapons. He was affiliated with the Institute until his death in 1955. He published more than 300 scientific papers along over 150 non-scientific works. On 5 universities and archives announced the release of Einstein's papers, comprising more than 30,000 unique documents.Albert Einstein – Albert Einstein in 1921
2. Compiler – The most common reason for converting source code is to create an executable program. The name "compiler" is primarily used for programs that translate source code from a high-level programming language to a lower level language. More generally, compilers are a specific type of translator. A program that translates from a low level language to a higher level one is a decompiler. A program that translates between high-level languages is usually called a source-to-source compiler or transpiler. A language rewriter is usually a program that translates the form of expressions without a change of language. The term compiler-compiler is sometimes used to refer to a parser generator, a tool often used to help create the lexer and parser. A compiler is likely to perform many or all of the following operations: lexical analysis, code optimization. Software for early computers was primarily written in assembly language. The first high-level programming language was proposed by Konrad Zuse in 1943. The FORTRAN team led by John Backus at IBM is generally credited as having introduced the first complete compiler in 1957. COBOL was an early language to be compiled on multiple architectures, in 1960. In many application domains the idea of using a higher level language quickly caught on. Because of the expanding functionality supported by newer programming languages and the increasing complexity of computer architectures, compilers have become more complex. Early compilers were written in assembly language.Compiler – A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language, multi-target compiler
3. Altaic language family – Altaic is a proposed language family of central Eurasia, now widely seen as discredited. Various versions included the Turkic, Mongolic, Tungusic, sometimes the Koreanic, less often the Japonic languages. These languages are spoken in a wide arc stretching from northeast Asia through Central Asia to Anatolia and eastern Europe. The group is named after the Altai Mountains, a mountain range in Central Asia. Another view accepts Altaic as a valid family but includes in it only Turkic, Mongolic, Tungusic. This view was widespread prior to the 1960s but has almost no supporters among specialists today. The expanded grouping, including Korean and sometimes Japanese, came to be known as "Macro-Altaic", leading to the designation of the smaller grouping as "Micro-Altaic" by retronymy. Most proponents of Altaic continue to support the inclusion of Korean. Micro-Altaic includes about 66 living languages, to which Macro-Altaic would add Korean, Japanese, the Ryukyuan languages for a total of about 74. Opponents maintain that the similarities are due to areal interaction between the language groups concerned. Also they critice the inclusion of Korean and Japanese. Doubt is also cast on the relationship between Turkic, Tungusic, Mongolic languages by comparisons of similarities of the proto-languages. If Altaic is a legitimate family, the similarities would get bigger in the early proto-languages. This is true for all accepted linguistic families. But an analysis of the earliest written records of Mongolic and Turkic languages shows much less similarities than more.Altaic language family – The Altai Mountains in East-Central Asia give their name to the proposed language family.