1. France – France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural, political, and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is also a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the FranksFrance – One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – Dordogne, approximately 18,000 BC
2. Monaco – Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state and microstate, located on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides while the other side borders the Mediterranean Sea, Monaco has an area of 2.02 km2 and a population of about 38,400 according to the last census of 2015. With 19,009 inhabitants per km², it is the second smallest, Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km, a coastline of 3.83 km, and a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m. The highest point in the country is a pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires Ward. Monacos most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins, through land reclamation, Monacos land mass has expanded by twenty percent, in 2005, it had an area of only 1.974 km2. Monaco is known as a playground for the rich and famous, in 2014, it was noted about 30% of the population was made up of millionaires, more than in Zürich or Geneva. Monaco is a principality governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields immense political power. The House of Grimaldi have ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, the official language is French, but Monégasque, Italian, and English are widely spoken and understood. The states sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. Despite Monacos independence and separate foreign policy, its defense is the responsibility of France, however, Monaco does maintain two small military units. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with the opening of the countrys first casino, Monte Carlo, since then, Monacos mild climate, scenery, and gambling facilities have contributed to the principalitys status as a tourist destination and recreation center for the rich. In more recent years, Monaco has become a major banking center and has sought to diversify its economy into services and small, high-value-added, the state has no income tax, low business taxes, and is well known for being a tax haven. It is also the host of the street circuit motor race Monaco Grand Prix. Monaco is not formally a part of the European Union, but it participates in certain EU policies, including customs, through its relationship with France, Monaco uses the euro as its sole currency. Monaco joined the Council of Europe in 2004 and it is a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Monacos name comes from the nearby 6th-century BC Phocaean Greek colony, according to an ancient myth, Hercules passed through the Monaco area and turned away the previous gods. As a result, a temple was constructed there, the temple of Hercules Monoikos, because the only temple of this area was the House of Hercules, the city was called Monoikos. It ended up in the hands of the Holy Roman Empire, an ousted branch of a Genoese family, the Grimaldi, contested it for a hundred years before actually gaining controlMonaco – Statue of Francesco Grimaldi, " Il Malizia " ("the Cunning"), disguised as a monk with a dagger hidden under the cloak of his habit. However, he was ousted by the Genoese just four years later. The Grimaldi family purchased Monaco from the Crown of Aragon in 1419.
3. Reliability of Wikipedia – Recent incidents of conflicted editing, and the use of Wikipedia for revenge editing have attracted frequent publicity. An early study in the journal Nature said that in 2005, the study by Nature was disputed by Encyclopædia Britannica, and later Nature replied to this with both a formal response and a point-by-point rebuttal of Britannicas main objections. Wikipedia is open to anonymous and collaborative editing, so assessments of its reliability usually include examination of how quickly false or misleading information is removed, a number of Incidents have also been publicized in which false information has lasted for a long time on Wikipedia. In May 2005, an anonymous editor started a controversy when he created an article about John Seigenthaler containing several false, the inaccurate information remained uncorrected for four months. A biographical article on French Wikipedia portrayed a Léon-Robert de LAstran as an 18th-century anti-slavery ship owner, which led Ségolène Royal, a student investigation later determined that the article was a hoax and de LAstran had never existed. Wikipedia allows anonymous editing, contributors are not required to provide any identification, a 2007 study at Dartmouth College of the English Wikipedia noted that, contrary to usual social expectations, anonymous editors were some of Wikipedias most productive contributors of valid content. However, the Dartmouth study was criticized by John Timmer of the Ars Technica website for its methodological shortcomings, Wikipedia trusts the same community to self-regulate and become more proficient at quality control. In contrast with all the previous intrinsic metrics, several market-oriented extrinsic measures demonstrate that large audiences trust Wikipedia in one way or another, for instance,50 percent of physicians report that theyve consulted. For information on conditions, according to a report from IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics. Scores ranged from 0 to 8, but most received marks between 5 and 8, the non-peer-reviewed study was based on Natures selection of 42 articles on scientific topics, including biographies of well-known scientists. The articles were compared for accuracy by anonymous academic reviewers, a practice for journal article reviews. Based on their reviews, on average the Wikipedia articles were described as containing 4 errors or omissions, only 4 serious errors were found in Wikipedia, and 4 in Encyclopædia Britannica. The study concluded that Wikipedia comes close to Britannica in terms of the accuracy of its science entries, Encyclopædia Britannica expressed concerns, leading Nature to release further documentation of its survey method. Based on this information, Encyclopædia Britannica denied the validity of the Nature study. Nature acknowledged the compiled nature of some of the Britannica extracts and he wrote that Wikipedia is surprisingly accurate in reporting names, dates, and events in U. S. history and described some of the errors as widely held but inaccurate beliefs. However, he stated that Wikipedia often fails to distinguish important from trivial details and he also complained about Wikipedias lack of persuasive analysis and interpretations, and clear and engaging prose. Wikipedias policies on original research, including unpublished synthesis of published data, disallow new analysis, fifty people accepted an invitation to assess an article. Of the fifty, seventy-six percent agreed or strongly agreed that the Wikipedia article was accurate, eighteen people compared the article they reviewed to the article on the same topic in the Encyclopædia BritannicaReliability of Wikipedia – Cached version of a deleted biographical hoax in the French Wikipedia. Created in January 2007, the article on the fictional 18th century naturalist Léon Robert de L'Astran was not deleted until June 2010, when a historian identified it as a hoax.
4. Battle of Rossbach – The Battle of Rossbach took place during the Seven Years War near the village of Rossbach, in the Electorate of Saxony. It is sometimes called the Battle of or at Reichardtswerben, after a nearby town, in this battle, Frederick the Great, king of Prussia, defeated an allied army composed of French forces augmented by a contingent of the Habsburg Monarchy. The French and Austrian army included almost 42,000 men, despite overwhelming odds, Frederick employed rapid movement, flanking maneuver and oblique order to achieve complete surprise. Following the battle, Frederick immediately left Rossbach and marched for 13 days to the outskirts of Breslau, there he met the Austrian army at the Battle of Leuthen in which he employed similar tactics to defeat an army considerably larger than his own. Rossbach is considered one of Fredericks greatest strategic masterpieces and he crippled an enemy army while suffering negligible casualties. His artillery also played a role in the victory, based on its ability to reposition itself rapidly responding to changing circumstances on the battlefield. Although the Seven Years War was a conflict, it took a specific intensity in the European theater based on the recently concluded War of the Austrian Succession. The 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle concluded the war with Austria. Frederick II of Prussia, known as Frederick the Great, acquired the prosperous province of Silesia, Empress Maria Theresa of Austria had signed the treaty to gain time to rebuild her military forces and forge new alliances, she was intent upon regaining ascendancy in the Holy Roman Empire. In 1754, escalating tensions between Britain and France in North America offered the Empress the opportunity to regain her lost territories, similarly, France sought to break the British dominance of Atlantic trade. France and Austria put aside their old rivalry to form a coalition of their own and this series of political maneuvers became known as the Diplomatic Revolution. After over-running Saxony, Frederick campaigned in Bohemia and defeated the Austrians on 6 May 1757 at the Battle of Prague, Frederick had one of the finest armies in Europe, his troops—any company—could fire at least four volleys a minute, and some of them could fire five. By summer 1757, Prussia was threatened on two fronts, in the east, the Russians under Field Marshal Stepan Fyodorovich Apraksin besieged Memel with 75,000 troops. Memel had one of the strongest fortresses in Prussia, however, after five days of artillery bombardment the Russian army was able to storm it. The Russians then used Memel as a base to invade East Prussia, however, the Russians were not yet able to take Königsberg after using up their supplies of cannonballs at Memel and Gross-Jägersdorf and retreated soon afterward. Logistics of supplies remained a problem for the Russians throughout the war. Still, the Imperial Russian Army was a new threat to Prussia, forcing Frederick to abandon his invasion of Bohemia, as summer ended, a combined French and Reichsarmee army commanded by Prince Soubise approaching from the west. The Franco-Imperial allied army marched into Thuringia, a march is only as fast as its slowest components, and Frederick obtained needed supplies ahead of the army, which enabled him to abandon his supply wagonsBattle of Rossbach – Contemporary painting of the battle
5. Wings of Desire – Wings of Desire is a 1987 Franco-German romantic fantasy film directed by Wim Wenders. The film is invisible, immortal angels who populate Berlin and listen to the thoughts of the human inhabitants. Even though the city is populated, many of the people are isolated or estranged from their loved ones. One of the angels, played by Bruno Ganz, falls in love with a beautiful, the film is shot in both a rich, sepia-toned black-and-white and color, with the former being used to represent the world as experienced by the angels. Wim Wenders won best director award both at Cannes film festival and European film Awards for the film, the film was selected as the West German entry for the Best Foreign Language Film Academy award and BAFTA award, and was accepted as a nominee for the latter. The film has cult status and is included in Criterion Collection since 2009, the film was followed by a sequel - Faraway, So Close. in 1993. City of Angels, an American remake, was released in 1998 and their raison dêtre is, as Cassiel says, to assemble, testify, preserve reality. In addition to the story of two angels, the film is also a meditation on Berlins past, present, and future, Damiel and Cassiel have always existed as angels, they existed in Berlin before it was a city, and before there were even any humans. Among the Berliners they encounter in their wanderings is an old man named Homer, Cassiel follows the old man as he looks for the then-demolished Potsdamer Platz in an open field, and finds only the graffiti-covered Berlin Wall. She lives by herself in a caravan, dances alone to the music of Crime & the City Solution, a subplot follows Peter Falk, who has arrived in Berlin to make a film about Berlins Nazi past. When he sheds his immortal existence, he experiences life for the first time, he bleeds, sees colors for the first time, tastes food, meanwhile, Cassiel inadvertently taps into the mind of a young man just about to commit suicide by jumping off a building. Cassiel tries to save the man but is unable to do so. Eventually, Damiel meets the trapeze artist Marion at a bar, in the end, Damiel is united with the woman he has desired for so long. The film ends with the message, To be continued, the story is concluded in Wenders 1993 sequel, In weiter Ferne, so nah. The director also employed Peter Handke, who wrote much of the dialogue, the poetic narrations, and the films recurring poem Song of Childhood. The movie was made with a minimalist script, it is a mood piece exploring people, the city, and a concept, Peter Falk wasnt meant to be a sketch artist until Wenders discovered Falks talent. Bruno Ganz and Otto Sander were cast because they were old friends, the film was shot by the 77-year-old cinematographer Henri Alekan, who had worked on Jean Cocteaus La Belle et la Bête. It represents the point of view in monochrome -- they cannot see colors --Wings of Desire – Theatrical release poster
6. 1962 Tour de France – The 1962 Tour de France was the 49th edition of the Tour de France, one of cyclings Grand Tours. The 4, 274-kilometre race consisted of 22 stages, including two split stages, starting in Nancy on 24 June and finishing at the Parc des Princes in Paris on 15 July, after more than 30 years, the Tour was again contested by trade teams. Jacques Anquetil of the Saint-Raphaël–Helyett–Hutchinson team defended his title to win his third Tour de France, Jef Planckaert placed second and Raymond Poulidor was third. The points classification was won by Anquetils teammate Rudi Altig, federico Bahamontes of Margnat–Paloma–DAlessandro won the mountains classification. The team classification was won by Saint-Raphaël–Helyett–Hutchinson, and Eddy Pauwels was given the award for the most combative rider, Altig and Pauwels won the most stages, with three. From 1930 to 1961, the Tour de France was contested by teams, but in 1962. For the first time, the French cyclists were outnumbered, there were 52 Italian cyclists and 50 French cyclists, riders represented a further six nations, all from Europe. Of start list of 150, the number of riding the Tour de France for the first time was 66. The average age of riders in the race was 27.46 years, of the total average ages, Legnano–Pirelli was the youngest team and Margnat–Paloma–DAlessandro was the oldest. From the riders began the race,94 made it to the finish in Paris. This team also included Rudi Altig, and during the 1962 Vuelta a España, Altig had beaten his team leader, the team manager of the Saint Raphael team was Anquetils former rival Raphael Géminiani, and Anquetil had asked his sponsors to replace Géminiani for the Tour. Raymond Poulidor, the new star who had not started the 1961 Tour because of the team format. He started the race injured, as he had broken his hand recently, the tour director Goddet convinced Rik Van Looy, the winner of the last two world championships, to enter the Tour, Goddet hoped that this he could add excitement. The 1962 Tour de France started on 24 June in Nancy, and had no rest days. The Tour included six new start or finish locations, Spa, in stages 1 and 2, Herentals, in stages 2a and 2b, Luçon, in stages 8a and 8b, and Nevers, in stages 21 and 22. On stage 18 the Col de la Bonette mountain pass was used for the first in the Tour de France, the Tour started in Belgium, and world champion Rik Van Looy wanted to wear the yellow jersey in his own country. In the final, he was in the group of 20 cyclists. Pre-race favourites Poulidor and Bahamontes already lost more than eight minutes, the second stage finished in the home town of Van Looy, where he took a wrong turn and lost the chance of winning the stage1962 Tour de France – The finish of stage 2a in Herentals won by André Darrigade
7. Rhine Campaign of 1796 – After sending large reinforcements to Italy in May, Austria was forced onto the defensive. Both French armies penetrated deeply into southern Germany in August, in battles at Amberg on 24 August and Würzburg on 3 September Charles defeated Jourdan and compelled his army to retreat to the west bank of the Rhine. With Jourdan neutralized, Charles left Franz von Werneck to keep an eye on the Army of Sambre-et-Meuse, Moreau briskly repulsed Latour at Biberach and safely reached the Rhine before Charles cut him off from France. However, in the battles of Emmendingen and Schliengen in October, during the winter the Austrians reduced the French bridgeheads at Kehl and Huningue. Despite Charles splendid success in Germany, Austria was losing the war in Italy to a new French army commander named Napoleon Bonaparte, in a decree on 6 January 1796, Lazare Carnot gave Germany priority over Italy as a theater of war. Jean Baptiste Jourdan commanding the Army of Sambre-et-Meuse was instructed to besiege Mainz, farther south, Jean Victor Marie Moreau leading the Army of Rhin-et-Moselle was ordered to mask Mannheim and invade Swabia. On the secondary front, Napoleon Bonaparte was to invade Italy, neutralize the Kingdom of Sardinia, hopefully, the Italian army would cross the Alps via the County of Tyrol and join the other French armies in crushing the Austrian forces in southern Germany. By the spring of 1796, Jourdan and Moreau each had 70,000 men while Bonapartes army numbered 63,000, including reserves and garrisons. Additionally, François Christophe de Kellermann counted 20,000 troops in the Army of the Alps, the First French Republics finances were in poor shape so its armies were expected to invade new territories and then live off the conquered lands. At the end of the Rhine Campaign of 1795 the two called a truce. This accord lasted until 20 May 1796 when the Austrians announced that it would end on 31 May, the Army of the Lower Rhine was commanded by the 25-year-old Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen and counted 90,000 troops. The 20, 000-man right wing under Duke Ferdinand Frederick Augustus of Württemberg was on the east bank of the Rhine behind the Sieg River observing the French bridgehead at Düsseldorf, the garrisons of Mainz Fortress and Ehrenbreitstein Fortress counted 10,000 more. The remainder of Charles army was posted on the west bank behind the Nahe River, dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser led the 80, 000-strong Army of the Upper Rhine. Its right wing occupied Kaiserslautern on the west bank while the wing under Anton Sztáray, Michael von Fröhlich and Louis Joseph. The original Austrian strategy was to capture Trier and to use their position on the west bank to strike at each of the French armies in turn, however, Wurmser was sent to Italy with 25,000 reinforcements after news arrived of Bonapartes early successes. In the new situation, the Aulic Council gave Archduke Charles command over both Austrian armies and ordered him to hold his ground. At the start of the campaign, the 80, 000-man Army of Sambre-et-Meuse held the west bank of the Rhine down to the Nahe, on the armys left flank, Jean Baptiste Kléber had 22,000 troops in an entrenched camp at Düsseldorf. Carnots grand plan called for the two French armies to press against the Austrian flanks, but first, Jourdans army would push south from DüsseldorfRhine Campaign of 1796 – French advance guard overwhelming Swabians at Kehl
8. Battle of Emmendingen – The Battle of Emmendingen was fought between the French Army of Rhin-et-Moselle under Jean Victor Marie Moreau and the Austrian Army of the Upper Rhine commanded by Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen. The Austrians won the battle and forced the French to withdraw to the south where the Battle of Schliengen was fought five days later, the action occurred during the War of the First Coalition, the first conflict of the larger French Revolutionary Wars. Emmendingen is located on the Elz River in Baden-Württemberg, capital of the district Emmendingen of Germany and it is located at the Elz River,14 km north of Freiburg im Breisgau. At the end of the Rhine Campaign of 1795 the two called a truce in January 1796. This agreement lasted until 20 May 1796 when the Austrians announced that it would end on 31 May, the Coalition Army of the Lower Rhine included 90,000 troops. The 20, 000-man right wing under Duke Ferdinand Frederick Augustus of Württemberg stood on the east bank of the Rhine behind the Sieg River, the garrisons of Mainz Fortress and Ehrenbreitstein Fortress counted 10,000 more. Charles posted the remainder of the Habsburg and Coalition force on the west bank behind the Nahe, dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser led the 80, 000-strong Army of the Upper Rhine. Its right wing occupied Kaiserslautern on the west bank while the wing under Anton Sztáray, Michael von Fröhlich and Louis Joseph. The original Austrian strategy was to capture Trier and to use their position on the west bank to strike at each of the French armies in turn, however, after news arrived in Vienna of Bonapartes successes, Wurmser was sent to Italy with 25,000 reinforcements. Reconsidering the situation, the Aulic Council gave Archduke Charles command over both Austrian armies and ordered him to hold his ground. On the French side, the 80, 000-man Army of Sambre-et-Meuse held the west bank of the Rhine down to the Nahe, on the armys left flank, Jean Baptiste Kléber had 22,000 troops in an entrenched camp at Düsseldorf. Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino led Moreaus right wing, Louis Desaix commanded the center, Ferinos wing consisted of three infantry and cavalry divisions under Bourcier and Delaborde. Desaixs command counted three divisions led by Beaupuy, Delmas and Xaintrailles, saint-Cyrs wing had two divisions commanded by Duhesme, and Taponier. The French grand plan called for two French armies to press against the flanks of the armies in the German states while simultaneously a third army approached Vienna through Italy. According to plan, Jourdan’s army feinted toward Mannheim, and Charles quickly reapportioned his troops, on June 23–24, Moreau reinforced the bridgehead with his forward guard. After pushing the imperial militia from their post on the bridgehead, anxious that his supply lines would be overextended, Charles began a retreat to the east. At this point, the inherent jealousies and competition between generals came into play, Moreau could have joined up with Jourdan’s army in the north, but did not, he proceeded eastward, pushing Charles into Bavaria. Jourdan also moved eastward, pushing Wartensleben’s autonomous corps into the Ernestine duchies, there followed a summer of strategic retreats, flanking, and reflanking maneuversBattle of Emmendingen – Moreau's troops withdraw through the Val d'Enfer (Valley of Hell)
9. Flag of Guernsey – The flag of Guernsey was adopted in 1986 and consists of the red St Georges Cross with an additional gold Norman cross within it. The creation was prompted by confusion at international sporting events over competitors from Guernsey and it was designed by the Guernsey Flag Investigation Committee led by Deputy Bailiff Sir Graham Dorey. The flag was first unveiled on the island on 15 February 1985, the gold cross represents William the Bastard, Duke of Normandy. William purportedly was given such a cross by Pope Alexander II, since 2000, a red ensign with the cross in the fly has been used as the governments civil ensign and blue ensign. Prior to 1985, Guernsey had no official flag and instead used the St Georges Cross as its flag when one was officially required. The Government of Guernsey carried out studies in 1906 and 1935 to determine any unique. In 1983, the Bailiff of Guernsey argued the need for a new flag for Guernsey because of the caused by using the flag of England. Research was carried out by Deputy Bailiff Sir Graham Dorey, of Guernseys Flag Investigation Committee, the committee considered a number of designs. Consideration was given to using the coat of arms of Guernsey on a St Georges Cross and it was also decided that to do so would be to focus on English symbols, not recognising Guernseys independence or Norman history. The committee eventually settled on including a cross on top of the St Georges Cross. The gold cross was chosen as it was a symbol of King William the Conqueror, seen on a banner at the Battle of Hastings, the new flags design was to symbolise that the islanders were of Norman descent but loyal to the English Crown. In 1985 Queen Elizabeth II, Duke of Normandy, granted a Royal Warrant for the flag to become the flag of Guernsey. Thereafter, the Guernsey flag was used in the Grosse Rocque ceremony, replacing the Union Jack, the flag would then fly for a year before being replaced with a new one. The flag of Guernsey is flown all of the States of Guernsey buildings except on designated flag-flying days. These days mostly relate to birthdays and anniversaries of senior members of the Royal Family as well as Commonwealth Day, the flag later provided inspiration for the flag of Alderney. It has also inspired other symbols, the flag is not universally supported. Some Guernsey sports fans complain that the flag lacks Guernseys sporting colour of green or the crest of Guernsey, in the 2000s, a green and white tricolour with the coat of arms of Guernsey in the centre was created to be used as Guernseys unofficial sporting flag. At the same time as the flag of Guernsey was adopted and this was created as a British red ensign incorporating the Guernsey gold crossFlag of Guernsey – Guernsey
10. 2014 24 Hours of Le Mans – The 82nd 24 Hours of Le Mans was an automobile endurance racing event held from 11 to 15 June 2014 at the Circuit de la Sarthe at Le Mans, France. It was the 82nd running of the event, as organized by the Automobile Club de lOuest since 1923, the race was the third round and the premier event of the 2014 FIA World Endurance Championship, with half of the races fifty-five entries contesting the championship. The race was won by the No.2 Audi driven by Swiss Marcel Fässler, German André Lotterer, and Frenchman Benoît Tréluyer and this victory was Audis thirteenth since the company debuted at the race in 1999. The Audi team took the lead after the No.7 Toyota came to a stop after leading half the race distance, but were challenged by Porsche when two Audis required turbocharger replacements. The No.1 Audi finished in place, three laps behind the race winners, while the No.8 Toyota recovered from an accident in the first hour to finish in third. The LMP1-L category was won by the No.12 Rebellion Racing Rebellion-Toyota of Nick Heidfeld, Mathias Beche, and Nicolas Prost, the sole finisher in the class. The LMP2 class finished with the Jota Sport Zytek-Nissan of Simon Dolan, Oliver Turvey, approximately 263,000 spectators attended the event, the largest crowd since 1989. The 2014 Le Mans schedule was moved one week to avoid conflicts with other major motorsports series. An optional eight-hour test session for all invited participants and reserves, as well as entries, started the 2014 event on 1 June. Three qualifying sessions, each two hours long, took place on 11 and 12 June, the race started at 15,00 Central European Summer Time on 14 June and ended 24 hours later. Following the death of Allan Simonsen during the 2013 race, the ACO announced improvements to several sections of the circuit, tertre Rouge was reprofiled and new barriers and tire walls were added at the corners exit onto the Mulsanne Straight. Run-off areas in the Corvette corners were expanded, and Tecpro barriers were added behind the walls at the start of the Porsche corners. Large kerbs were added to the paved run-off at the second Ford chicane to deter cars from cutting the corner. A new safety system was implemented, which allows for the intervention of safety vehicles on a section of the circuit without the need for neutralizing the entire race with safety cars. The system, termed a zone, requires cars to slow. Speeds within the zones are monitored by GPS systems now required on every car, in conjunction with the slow zone procedure an onboard marshalling system will warn drivers of the location of slow zones. New regulations require rookies, as well as drivers who have not competed at Le Mans in the past five years, the course includes examples of night and wet racing at Le Mans, as well as the new safety car and slow zone procedures. Some second-place finishers are also granted automatic invitations in certain series, as with the 2013 race, the American Le Mans Series was given two at large entries rather than entries for each class2014 24 Hours of Le Mans – Marcel Fässler, André Lotterer, and Benoît Tréluyer hoist the winners trophy during the podium ceremony
11. 2014 Tour de France – The 2014 Tour de France was the 101st edition of the race, one of cyclings Grand Tours. The 3,660. 5-kilometre race included 21 stages, starting in Leeds, United Kingdom, on 5 July, the race also visited Belgium for part of a stage. Vincenzo Nibali of the Astana team won the race by more than seven minutes, jean-Christophe Péraud placed second, with Thibaut Pinot third. Marcel Kittel of Giant–Shimano was the first rider to wear the general classifications yellow jersey after winning stage one and he lost it after the next stage to Vincenzo Nibali, who won the stage. Nibali held the lead until the end of the ninth stage. The yellow jersey returned to Nibali the following stage, and he held it until the conclusion of the race, the points classification was decided early in the race and was won by Cannondales Peter Sagan. Rafał Majka of Tinkoff–Saxo, winner of two stages, won the mountains classification. Pinot finished as the best young rider, the team classification was won by Ag2r–La Mondiale and Alessandro De Marchi was given the award for the most combative rider. Kittel won the most stages, with four, twenty-two teams participated in the 2014 edition of the Tour de France. All of the eighteen UCI ProTeams were automatically invited, and obliged, the riders arrived at the arena by a ceremonial ride from the University of Leeds. The event included performances from Embrace and Opera North, in front of an audience of 10,000, each squad was allowed a maximum of nine riders, therefore the start list contained a total of 198 riders. Of these,47 were riding the Tour de France for the first time, the total number of riders that finished the race was 164. The riders came from 34 countries, France, Spain, Italy, Netherlands, Germany, Australia, giant–Shimanos Ji Cheng was the first Chinese rider to participate in the Tour. Riders from eight countries won stages during the race, German riders won the largest number of stages, the average age of riders in the race was 29.88 years, ranging from the 20-year-old Danny van Poppel to the 42-year-old Jens Voigt, both Trek Factory Racing riders. Voigt, riding in his year as a professional, equalled Stuart OGradys record for most appearances in the Tour with 17. Garmin–Sharp had the highest average age, while Trek Factory Racing had the lowest, the teams entering the race were, According to many observers before the race the top two favourites for the general classification were Chris Froome and Alberto Contador, respectively. Their closest rivals were thought to have been Vincenzo Nibali and Alejandro Valverde, a possible contender was the 2013 Tour runner-up, Nairo Quintana, who had chosen not to ride the Tour after his 2014 Giro dItalia win that took place during May. Andy Schleck, who was awarded the 2010 Tour title, was selected by his team as a domestique2014 Tour de France – Countdown clock at Trinity Leeds
12. 2015 24 Hours of Le Mans – The 83rd 24 Hours of Le Mans was an automobile endurance event held from 10 to 14 June 2015 at the Circuit de la Sarthe, Le Mans, France. It was the 83rd running of the 24 Hour race organised by the Automobile Club de lOuest as well as the round of the 2015 FIA World Endurance Championship. A test day was two weeks prior to the race on 31 May. A record-breaking 263,500 people attended the event, the No.18 Porsche 919 Hybrid of Neel Jani, Romain Dumas, and Marc Lieb started from pole position after Jani broke the circuits lap record in qualifying. The race was won by the No.19 Porsche of Nick Tandy and Le Mans rookies Earl Bamber and Nico Hülkenberg, followed a lap behind by the second Porsche of Mark Webber, Brendon Hartley and Timo Bernhard. Audis best car, driven by the title defenders Benoît Tréluyer, Marcel Fässler, and André Lotterer, finished third and this was the seventeenth overall victory for Porsche, and their first since 1998. The LMP2 category was won by the KCMG Oreca-Nissan driven by Richard Bradley, Matthew Howson, the trio led all but nine laps of the race but only held a 48-second lead over the Jota Sport Gibson-Nissan at the races end. Corvette Racing won their first class victory since 2011 despite one of their two cars being withdrawn after an accident in qualifying. Oliver Gavin, Tommy Milner, and Jordan Taylor held a five-lap margin in LMGTE Pro over the AF Corse Ferrari in second, the LMGTE Am class was led for most of the time by the No. The result meant Lotterer, Tréluyer and Fässler remained the leaders of the Drivers Championship on 80 points,20 ahead of Tandy, Dumas, Jani and Lieb dropped from second to fourth and Bernhard, Hartley and Webber stood in fifth place. The 2015 Le Mans schedule was confirmed in an FIA World Motor Sport Council meeting in Munich on 26 June 2014 and it was the 83rd running of the event, and the third of nine scheduled rounds of the 2015 FIA World Endurance Championship. An optional eight-hour test session for all invited participants and reserves, as well as entries, started the 2015 event on 31 May. Three qualifying sessions, each two hours long, took place on 10 and 11 June, the race started at 15,00 Central European Summer Time on 13 June and ended 24 hours later. Anthony Davidson and Sébastien Buemi were fourth on 19 points, and Timo Bernhard, Brendon Hartley, Audi were leading the Manufacturers Championship with 70 points,17 ahead of their rival Porsche in second, the third-place manufacturer Toyota had scored 47 points. Audi had so far dominated the season by winning the first two races of the campaign, Dumas, Jani and Lieb had twice finished in second while Davidson and Buemi along with Bernhard, Hartley and Webber had achieved third-place results. Following the introduction of slow zones during the 201424 Hours of Le Mans, the races organiser, the limited speed in the zones was increased from 60 km/h to 80 km/h. The number of zones around the circuit had also increased from 19 to 35, modifications were made to the circuit from Mulsanne Corner to the Corvette Curves. The circuit was widened on the road connecting Mulsanne to Indianapolis, the first corner of the Porsche Curves had a larger run-off area on the outside while SAFER barriers had been installed on the inside wall2015 24 Hours of Le Mans – The podium for the overall race winners
13. Gojira (band) – Gojira is a French heavy metal band from Bayonne. Originally formed as Godzilla in 1996, they changed their name to Gojira in 2001 prior to releasing any studio albums. The bands lineup, consisting of brothers Joe Duplantier and Mario Duplantier as well as lead guitarist Christian Andreu and they have released six studio albums and three live DVDs. They are known for their lyrics and have gone from utmost obscurity to being placed amongst the genres leading new millennium upstarts. Gojira have received Grammy nominations for Best Rock Album for their latest album Magma, Gojira was formed in 1996 by Joe and Mario Duplantier, Christian Andreu, and Alexandre Cornillon in their hometown of Ondres. Gojiras music combines elements of metal, groove metal, thrash metal. The band started touring and recording under the name Godzilla and released their demos Victim, Possessed, Saturate and Wisdom Comes in 1996,1997,1999 and 2000, respectively. After touring, supporting Cannibal Corpse, Edge of Sanity, Impaled Nazarene and supporting Immortal in September 1999 and they changed their name to Gojira, the rōmaji spelling of the fictional monster Godzilla. Their debut album Terra Incognita was released under the new name in 2001, the band released their second studio album in 2003, The Link. After the success of the first two albums and their performances they made a DVD in Bordeaux produced by Gabriel Editions. Since 19 May 2004, The Link Alive has been on sale in France, in 2005, Gojira decided to sign with French-based Listenable Records to help give them exposure outside France with the album From Mars to Sirius. Gojira was featured on Children of Bodoms US tour in late 2006, joining Amon Amarth, furthermore, Gojira supported Trivium on the UK dates of their European tour in 2007 with Sanctity and Annihilator. Later they supported Lamb of God on their 2007 American tour along with Trivium, in late 2007 they took part in the Radio Rebellion Tour, featuring co-headliners Behemoth and Job for a Cowboy, as well as Beneath the Massacre. In October 2007, Listenable Records re-released Gojiras 1997 demo Possessed as a limited edition, the Way of All Flesh was released on 13 October in Europe via Listenable Records and 14 October in North America through Prosthetic Records in 2008. On 25 July 2008, the announced the track listing. Joe Duplantier stated about the album, This record is a lot darker — like, the music is darker and more violent. The album will be intense, more brutal, and more melodic than its predecessor. Thats the theme — its about death itself, he explained and its also about the immortality of the soulGojira (band) – Gojira performs at Tuska Open Air Metal Festival in 2006
14. Wiki markup – Wiki markup, also known as wikitext language and wikicode, is a lightweight markup language used to write pages at wiki-based websites that is a simplified/alternative/intermediate to HTML. Its purpose is to be converted by wiki software into HTML and it was created in 1995 to format pages on the original wiki site, WikiWikiWeb. There is no accepted standard wikitext language. The grammar, structure, justification, keywords and so on depend on the wiki software used on the particular website. Different Wiki programs may use of different sets of HTML elements within wikitext. In some cases, permitted HTML elements may be configured by individual wiki sites, MediaWiki supports many common HTML tags. All wikitext markup languages have a way of hyperlinking to other pages within the site. Many wikis, especially the ones, used CamelCase to mark words that should be automatically linked. In MediaWiki, this convention was replaced with the notation, which Wikipedia calls free links, Creole is an effort for a common wiki markup language to be used across different Wikis. There are several engines that have implemented Creole. Version 1.0 of the specification was released in July 2007 and it is not supported by MediaWiki. VisualEditor is a more user-friendly online rich-text editor and an alternative to editing the raw wiki markup source code, VisualEditor was developed by the Wikimedia Foundation in partnership with Wikia. In 2013, the beta was available for Mediawiki. org, in 2015, VisualEditor was offered to all users of most language editions of Wikipedia. What you see is Wiki - Questioning WYSIWYG in the Internet Age MediaWiki alternative parsers MediaWikis simple text formatWiki markup – Screenshot of the edit window in a Wikipedia article. Note the <nowiki> tag, used to escape wiki markup and HTML. HTML comments can be seen inside the <!-- --> tags.
15. Saint-Inglevert Airfield – Saint-Inglevert Airfield is a general aviation airfield at Saint-Inglevert, Pas-de-Calais, France. In the First World War an airfield was established near Saint-Inglevert by the Royal Flying Corps, later passing to the Royal Air Force on formation, in 1920, a civil airfield was established on a different site which was a designated customs airfield. During the Second World War, Saint-Inglevert was occupied by the Royal Air Force, the airfield was captured by the Germans towards the end of the Battle of France and occupied by the Luftwaffe. It was abandoned in 1941, but in 1943 field artillery units were based around the airfield as part of the Atlantic Wall, although civil flying returned to Saint-Inglevert post-war, the airfield was abandoned in 1957 and returned to agriculture. It was reopened by laéroclub du Boulonnais in 1986, Saint-Inglevert airfield is located on a 130-metre-high hill to the north west of the village of Saint-Inglevert, and east of Hervelinghen. It lies 13 kilometres south west of Calais, there was a Royal Flying Corps airfield at Saint-Inglevert during the First World War, but not on the site of the current airfield. In April 1918, No.21 Squadron Royal Air Force were based at Saint-Inglevert, flying Royal Aircraft Factory R. E.8 aircraft. From 29 June to 23 October, No.214 Squadron RAF were based there flying Handley Page O/400s, and in November, they were replaced by No.115 Squadron RAF, who were flying the same type of aircraft. Two more squadrons, No.97 Squadron RAF and No.100 Squadron RAF, were based there from 17 November, All Royal Air Force squadrons departed from Saint-Inglevert on 4 March 1919. In 1920, an airfield was established at Saint-Inglevert on a different site to the military airfield. Facilities developed over the years to two hangars, customs facilities and ultra short wave radio. In March 1920, a Notice to Airmen was issued stating that Saint-Inglevert was open and fuel, oil and water were available, a proposal to designate Saint-Inglevert as a customs airfield in order to relieve Le Bourget of some of its workload was made in April 1920. Facilities then in existence included hangars, repair facilities and a radio station, later that month, it was notified that an aerial lighthouse had been installed at the airfield, flashing the Morse letter A, and Saint-Inglevert became a customs airport on 20 May. By July, the provision of signals at Saint-Inglevert had begun. A 10-metre-long arrow was displayed indicating the wind direction, in August, it was reported that Saint-Inglevert was sending weather report by radio seven times a day to Le Bourget. By October, aids available included a windsock and a landing T, requirements for aircraft to perform clockwise or anticlockwise circuits when landing were indicated by the flying of a red or white flag respectively. The aerial lighthouse was reported to be out of action in November 1920. As part of a series of trials to assess the viability of civil aviation in France, three laps of a circuit Paris – Orléans – Rouen – Saint-Inglevert – Metz – Dijon – Paris were flownSaint-Inglevert Airfield – Messerschmitt Bf 109 F-2 of Werner Mölders, leader of Jagdgeschwader 51 at the time it was based at Saint-Inglevert
16. Daft Punk – Daft Punk are a French electronic music duo formed in 1993 by Guy-Manuel de Homem-Christo and Thomas Bangalter. The duo were managed from 1996 to 2008 by Pedro Winter, the duo released their debut studio album Homework through Virgin Records in 1997 to highly positive reviews. The duos next album Discovery was even more successful, driven by the release of the hit singles One More Time, Digital Love, in March 2005, the duo released their third album Human After All to mixed reviews. However, the singles Robot Rock and Technologic achieved considerable success in the United Kingdom, Daft Punk toured throughout 2006 and 2007 and released the live album Alive 2007, which won a Grammy Award for Best Electronic/Dance Album. The duo later composed the score for the Disney film Tron, Legacy in 2010, in January 2013, Daft Punk left Virgin for Columbia Records, and released their next album Random Access Memories in 2013 to worldwide critical acclaim. The albums lead single Get Lucky became a success, peaking on top 10 charts in 32 countries. Random Access Memories won five Grammy Awards in 2014, including Album of the Year, Daft Punk later gained their first number one on the Billboard Hot 100 with the song Starboy, a collaboration with The Weeknd. Thomas Bangalter and Guy-Manuel de Homem-Christo met in 1987 while attending the Lycée Carnot, the two became good friends and later recorded demo tracks with others from the school. This eventually led to the formation of the group called Darlin with Laurent Brancowitz in 1992. Bangalter and de Homem-Christo played bass and guitar, respectively, while Brancowitz performed on drums, the trio had branded themselves after The Beach Boys song of the same name, which they covered along with an original composition. Stereolab released both tracks on a multi-artist Duophonic Records EP and invited the band to open for stage shows in the United Kingdom, Bangalter felt that The rock n roll thing we did was pretty average, I think. It was so brief, maybe six months, four songs, a negative review in Melody Maker by Dave Jennings subsequently dubbed the music a daft punky thrash. Instead of dismissing the review, they found it amusing, as de Homem-Christo stated, We struggled so long to find Darlin, and this happened so quickly. Darlin soon disbanded, leaving Brancowitz to pursue other efforts with Phoenix, Bangalter and de Homem-Christo formed Daft Punk and experimented with drum machines and synthesisers. In September 1993, Daft Punk attended a rave at EuroDisney, the demo tape given to Macmillan at the rave formed the basis for Daft Punks debut single, The New Wave, a limited release in 1994. The single also contained the final mix of The New Wave called Alive, Daft Punk returned to the studio in May 1995 to record Da Funk. It became the duos first commercially successful single the same year, after the success of Da Funk, Daft Punk looked to find a manager. The duo eventually settled on Pedro Winter, who promoted themDaft Punk – Daft Punk at the premiere of Tron: Legacy in 2010. From left: Thomas Bangalter, Guy-Manuel de Homem-Christo
17. Louvre Abu Dhabi – The Louvre Abu Dhabi is a planned museum, to be located in Abu Dhabi, UAE. On Tuesday 7 March 2007, the Louvre in Paris announced that a new Louvre museum would be completed by 2012 in Abu Dhabi, the opening has been repeatedly delayed, first to late 2016 and most recently to 2017. This is part of an agreement between the city of Abu Dhabi and the French government. The museum is to be located on the Saadiyat Island Cultural District, the final cost of the construction is expected to be between €83 million and €108 million. Artwork from around the world will be showcased at the museum, however, the construction of the museum has caused much controversy in the art world, as many objections have been raised as to the motives of the Louvre in this deal. The establishment of this museum was approved by the French Parliament on 9 October 2007, the architect for the building will be Jean Nouvel and the engineers are Buro Happold. Jean Nouvel also designed the Institut du Monde Arabe in Paris and it will be chaired by French financier and member of the countrys Académie des Beaux-Arts, Marc Ladreit de Lacharrière, publisher of the periodical Revue des Deux Mondes. Bruno Maquart, the former Executive Director of Centre Georges Pompidou, Saadiyat Islands Cultural District plans to house the largest single cluster of world-class cultural assets. The museum will be designed as a seemingly floating dome structure, the overall effect is meant to represent rays of sunlight passing through date palm fronds in an oasis. The total area of the museum will be approximately 24,000 square metres, piling works In Louvre were to be completed by August 2010, with the piling and enabling works package awarded to the German specialized company. The total of 4536 piles consisted of RC Piles and H-Piles and was completed on 3 August 2010, on 29 October 2011, Tourism Development & Investment Company, the project manager owned by the government of Abu Dhabi, announced it would delay establishing the museum. The company gave no new date, according to the UAE newspapers Gulf News and The National, the delay could be explained by a review of the emirates economic strategy. In January 2012 it was confirmed that the Louvre Abu Dhabis new opening date would be 2015, construction on the main phase of the museum began in early 2013 by a consortium headed by Arabtec, Constructora San José and Oger Abu Dhabi. This stage includes waterproofing and the two basement levels, along with four pillars that will support the 7,000 tonne dome. Work on the construction of the spaces and initial preparation for the dome began in the fourth quarter of 2013. On 5 December 2013, the first element of the canopy was lifted into place. On 17 March 2014 TDIC announced the completion of the first permanent gallery structure to mark the first anniversary of the start of construction. At this time, it was claimed that a total of ten million man hours had been worked and 120,538 cubic meters of concrete usedLouvre Abu Dhabi – Model of the future Louvre Abu Dhabi
18. Louis Braille – Louis Braille was a French educator and inventor of a system of reading and writing for use by the blind or visually impaired. His system remains known worldwide simply as braille, blinded in both eyes as a result of an early childhood accident, Braille mastered his disability while still a boy. He excelled in his education and received scholarship to Frances Royal Institute for Blind Youth, while still a student there, he began developing a system of tactile code that could allow blind people to read and write quickly and efficiently. Inspired by the cryptography of Charles Barbier, Braille constructed a new method built specifically for the needs of the blind. He presented his work to his peers for the first time in 1824, in adulthood, Braille served as a professor at the Institute and had an avocation as a musician, but he largely spent the remainder of his life refining and extending his system. It went unused by most educators for years after his death, but posterity has recognized braille as a revolutionary invention. Louis Braille was born in Coupvray, France, a town about twenty miles east of Paris. He and his three elder siblings – Monique Catherine, Louis-Simon, and Marie Céline – lived with their parents, Simon-René and Monique, Simon-René maintained a successful enterprise as a leatherer and maker of horse tack. As soon as he could walk, Braille spent time playing in his fathers workshop, at the age of three, the child was toying with some of the tools, trying to make holes in a piece of leather with an awl. Squinting closely at the surface, he pressed down hard to drive the point in, a local physician bound and patched the affected eye and even arranged for Braille to be met the next day in Paris by a surgeon, but no treatment could save the damaged organ. Due to his age, Braille did not realize at first that he had lost his sight. His parents made many efforts – quite uncommon for the era – to raise their youngest child in a normal fashion and he learned to navigate the village and country paths with canes his father hewed for him, and he grew up seemingly at peace with his disability. Brailles bright and creative mind impressed the teachers and priests. Braille studied in Coupvray until the age of ten, Braille, the last of the familys children to leave the household, departed for the school in February 1819. At that time the Royal Institute was an underfunded, ramshackle affair, the children were taught how to read by a system devised by the schools founder, Valentin Haüy. Not blind himself, Haüy was a philanthropist who devoted his life to helping the blind and he designed and manufactured a small library of books for the children using a technique of embossing heavy paper with the raised imprints of Latin letters. Readers would trace their fingers over the text, comprehending slowly, Braille was helped by the Haüy books, but he also despaired over their lack of depth, the amount of information kept in such books was necessarily small. Because the raised letters were made in a complex artisanal process using wet paper pressed against copper wire, so that the young Louis could send letters back home, Simon-René provided him with an alphabet made from bits of thick leatherLouis Braille – Bust of Louis Braille by Étienne Leroux, Bibliothèque nationale de France
19. AMX-30 – The AMX-30 is a main battle tank designed by GIAT and first delivered to the French Army in 1966. The first five tanks were issued to the 501st Régiment de Chars de Combat in August of that year, the production version of the AMX-30 weighed 36 metric tons, and sacrificed protection for increased mobility. The French believed that it would have required too much armour to protect against the latest anti-tank threats, protection, instead, was provided by the speed and the compact dimensions of the vehicle, including a height of 2.28 metres. It had a 105 mm gun, firing a then advanced high explosive anti-tank warhead known as the Obus G. The Obus G used a shell, separated from the main charge by ball bearings. Mobility was provided by the 720 horsepower HS-110 diesel engine, although the troublesome transmission adversely affected the tanks performance and it was preceded by two post-war French medium tank designs. The first, the ARL44, was an interim tank and its replacement, the AMX50, was cancelled in the mid-1950s in favor of adopting the M47 Patton tank. In 1956, the French government entered a development program with Germany. As a result, both decided to adopt tanks based on their own prototypes. The German tank became known as the Leopard 1, while the French prototype became the AMX-30, as early as 1969, the AMX-30 and variants were ordered by Greece, soon followed by Spain. In the coming years, the AMX-30 would be exported to Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Qatar, by the end of production,3,571 units of AMX-30s and its variants had been manufactured. Both Spain and Venezuela later began extensive modernization programs to extend the life of their vehicles, in the 1991 Gulf War, AMX-30s were deployed by both the French and Qatari armies. Qatari AMX-30s saw action against Iraqi forces at the Battle of Khafji, France and most other nations replaced their AMX-30s with more up-to-date equipment by the end of the 20th century. The tank was powered by a Maybach HL-230575 horsepower engine, although the 48-metric-ton vehicle was comparable to contemporary battle tanks in firepower and engine power, it suffered from distinct disadvantages, including an antiquated track design. While 600 were planned, only 60 were ultimately produced by 1950 and that year, these were issued to the French Armys 503rd Tank Regiment. Given that the ARL44 had been considered only a vehicle for the French Armys armoured forces since inception. The new vehicle was based on the new requirement for a single battle tank. The new vehicle was designated the AMX50 and its hull and suspension were similar to that of the German Panther tank, which had been used by the French Army in the immediate post-warAMX-30 – Prototype of AMX-30C2 sporting a 105 rifled tank gun
20. Henri-Georges Clouzot – Henri-Georges Clouzot was a French film director, screenwriter and producer. He is best remembered for his work in the film genre, having directed The Wages of Fear and Les Diaboliques. Clouzot also directed films, including The Mystery of Picasso. Clouzot was an fan of the cinema and, desiring a career as a writer. He was later hired by producer Adolphe Osso to work in Berlin, after being fired from German studios due to his friendship with Jewish producers, Clouzot returned to France, where he spent years bedridden after contracting tuberculosis. Upon recovering, Clouzot found work in Nazi occupied France as a screenwriter for the German-owned company Continental Films, at Continental, Clouzot wrote and directed films that were very popular in France. His second film Le Corbeau drew controversy over its harsh look at provincial France, as a result of his association with Continental, Clouzot was barred by the French government from filmmaking until 1947. After the ban was lifted, Clouzot reestablished his reputation and popularity in France during the late 1940s with successful films including Quai des Orfèvres. After the release of his comedy film Miquette et sa mère, Clouzot married Véra Gibson-Amado, in the early and mid-1950s, Clouzot drew acclaim from international critics and audiences for The Wages of Fear and Les Diaboliques. Both films would serve as material for remakes decades later. After the release of La Vérité, Clouzots wife Véra died of an attack and Clouzots career suffered due to depression, illness. Clouzots career became less active in years, limited to a few television documentaries. Clouzot wrote several unused scripts in the 1970s and died in Paris in 1977, Henri-Georges Clouzot was born in Niort, France, to mother Suzanne Clouzot and father Georges Clouzout, a book store owner. He was the first of three children in a middle-class family, Clouzot showed talent by writing plays and playing piano recitals. In 1922, Clouzots fathers bookstore went bankrupt and his moved to Brest, France. In Brest, Henri-Georges Clouzot went to Naval School, but was unable to become a Naval Cadet due to his myopia, at the age of 18, Clouzot left for Paris to study political science. While living in Paris, he became friends with several magazine editors and his writing talents led him to theater and cinema as a playwright, lyricist and adaptor-screenwriter. The quality of his work led producer Adolphe Osso to hire him and send him to Germany to work in Studio Babelsberg in Berlin, throughout the 1930s, Clouzot worked by writing and translating scripts, dialogue and occasionally lyrics for over twenty filmsHenri-Georges Clouzot – Henri-Georges and Véra Clouzot in 1953
21. Old Rouen tramway – There have been two separate generations of trams in Rouen. The first generation tramway was a network built in Rouen, Normandy, northern France, that started service in 1877. There were no trams at all in Rouen between 1953 and 1994, when the modern Rouen tramway opened, Local officials therefore adopted the tramway as a new mode of transport. At first they were horse-drawn, and later steam-powered, the tramway was electrified in 1896, although the 1920s saw a slight growth in traffic, the networks expansion slowed to a halt. Private motoring had arrived to put an end to its monopoly, the rising power of buses and trolleybuses, the Great Depression in France, and above all the Second World War that ravaged Rouen and Normandy, condemned the tramway to death. The last trams stopped running in 1953, after years of service. However, in 1994, a new Rouen tramway came to the Norman capital, Rouen was integrated into the French Kingdom after Philip II of France annexed Normandy in 1204, and it continued as one of the largest cities in the kingdom under the Ancien Régime. It prospered during the 19th century, with the trades of textiles and Rouen manufactory alongside the newer chemical. The navigable Seine, emptying at Rouen, had been Parisians route to the sea ever since the Middle Ages, napoleon Bonaparte said Rouen, Le Havre forment une même ville dont la Seine est la grand-rue. Rouen and Orléans were the first large cities to be connected by rail to Paris, from 1873 to 1875 the city fathers commissioned a study into building railways connecting the most populous areas of Rouen. A decree was signed on 5 May 1876, committing to a publicly owned standard gauge network, nine lines stretching 27,500 m, or 1,370 chains were decreed, The town was authorised to tender construction and operation to one or more contractors. It quickly chose the only candidate, Gustav Palmer Harding. He was the representative of Merryweather & Sons, builders of steam tram engines. This decision knitted the close links between the city and Great Britain that remained for nearly half a century. Naturally, Mr Harding wanted to promote his companys machines, so he made his views known to the municipal authorities. Finally convinced, they authorised him to use power from Maromme. Merryweather & Sons, whose depot was on the Avenue du Mont-Riboudet, small and light —4.7 tonnes — these reversible locomotives had two coupled axles, fully covered by a wooden body. They looked the same as a normal carriage so as not to frighten the horses and these steam carriages had enclosed lower decks, the upper decks were roofed but had open sidesOld Rouen tramway – Network map (drawn in 1994)
22. John Calvin – John Calvin was an influential French theologian, pastor and reformer during the Protestant Reformation. Various Congregational, Reformed, and Presbyterian churches, which look to Calvin as the expositor of their beliefs, have spread throughout the world. Calvin was a polemic and apologetic writer who generated much controversy. He also exchanged cordial and supportive letters with many reformers, including Philipp Melanchthon, in addition to his seminal Institutes of the Christian Religion, Calvin wrote commentaries on most books of the Bible, confessional documents, and various other theological treatises. Originally trained as a humanist lawyer, he broke from the Roman Catholic Church around 1530, at the invitation of Martin Bucer, Calvin proceeded to Strasbourg, where he became the minister of a church of French refugees. He continued to support the movement in Geneva, and in 1541 he was invited back to lead the church of the city. Following his return, Calvin introduced new forms of government and liturgy. During this period, Michael Servetus, a Spaniard regarded by both Roman Catholics and Protestants as having a view of the Trinity, arrived in Geneva. He was denounced by Calvin and burned at the stake for heresy by the city council, following an influx of supportive refugees and new elections to the city council, Calvins opponents were forced out. Calvin spent his final years promoting the Reformation both in Geneva and throughout Europe, John Calvin was born as Jehan Cauvin on 10 July 1509, at Noyon, a town in Picardy, a province of the Kingdom of France. He was the first of four sons who survived infancy and his mother, Jeanne le Franc, was the daughter of an innkeeper from Cambrai. She died of a cause in Calvins childhood, after having borne four more children. Calvins father, Gérard Cauvin, had a career as the cathedral notary and registrar to the ecclesiastical court, he died in 1531. Gérard intended his three sons — Charles, Jean, and Antoine — for the priesthood, however, by age 12, he was employed by the bishop as a clerk and received the tonsure, cutting his hair to symbolise his dedication to the Church. He also won the patronage of a family, the Montmors. Through their assistance, Calvin was able to attend the Collège de la Marche, Paris, once he completed the course, he entered the Collège de Montaigu as a philosophy student. In 1525 or 1526, Gérard withdrew his son from the Collège de Montaigu, according to contemporary biographers Theodore Beza and Nicolas Colladon, Gérard believed that Calvin would earn more money as a lawyer than as a priest. After a few years of study, Calvin entered the University of Bourges in 1529John Calvin – Calvin was originally interested in the priesthood, but he changed course to study law in Orléans and Bourges. Painting titled Portrait of Young John Calvin from the collection of the Library of Geneva.
23. Tanit (yacht) – It occurred during Operation Atalanta, a European Union mission in Somali waters. The pirates had attempted to extract a ransom by holding the yachts occupants hostage, tanit, a privately owned French yacht named after the Phoenician lunar goddess, with its five crew and passengers was sailing to Zanzibar when it was boarded by pirates on 4 April. Among the hostages were a family of three including a boy, and two friends of the family who joined them in Aden. The ships owners, the Lemaçons, started from Vannes in July 2008 and this was a family trip “to escape consumer society”. They planned to visit Kenya and Zanzibar, even after meeting with a couple whose yacht, Carré dAs IV, had been captured by pirates, and later rescued by French commandos, they continued on their journey. The pirates headed the vessel for the coast but were two days later by a French frigate. French forces attempted to negotiate with the pirates offering them money and offering to exchange the mother, instead, they were overheard discussing using explosives to blow up the yacht. Fifty commandos were sent from France to a French base at Djibouti on 9 April, the French attempted to negotiate with the pirates, and even offered to exchange one of the hostages for an officer. The pirates refused to cooperate, stating that they could get better terms once they reached the coast, seeing the pirates were uncooperative a sniper on-board one of the vessels managed to shoot down the sails and to damage the mast and the yacht. This the French believed would put them in a better negotiating position, allegedly, after threats to execute the hostages were heard, the French Navy decided the next day to board the boat and free the hostages. French commandos attacked the vessel from different directions in two speedboats. The pirates opened fire and the special forces fired back. French naval commandos boarded the vessel and rescued the hostages. However, Florent Lemaçon, the captain and father of the three-year-old boy, was being held hostage in his cabin. When French commandos entered, they engaged in a shootout with the pirates, after the fighting ended the four freed hostages were taken in one of the frigates, to Djibouti, and from there transported back to France. Three pirates were taken to Rennes for questioningTanit (yacht) – The French frigate Floreal
24. Basque language – Basque is the language spoken by the Basques. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the languages of Europe and indeed, as a language isolate. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, the Basque language is spoken by 27% of Basques in all territories. Of these, 93% are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country, native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish territories and the three ancient provinces in France. However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising the Basque language was more than merely tolerated, overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of process, a standardized form of the Basque language. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain and they take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region, a language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, the Basque alphabet uses the Latin script. In Basque, the name of the language is officially Euskara, three etymological theories of the name Euskara are taken seriously by linguists and Vasconists. In French, the language is normally called basque, though in recent times euskara has become common, Spanish has a greater variety of names for the language. Today, it is most commonly referred to as el vasco, la lengua vasca, both terms, vasco and basque, are inherited from Latin ethnonym Vascones, which in turn goes back to the Greek term οὐασκώνους, an ethnonym used by Strabo in his Geographica. The Spanish term Vascuence, derived from Latin vasconĭce, has acquired negative connotations over the centuries and is not well-liked amongst Basque speakers generally, Basque is geographically surrounded by Romance languages but is a language isolate unrelated to them. It is the last remaining descendant of one of the languages of Western Europe. Consequently, its prehistory may not be reconstructible by means of the comparative method except by applying it to differences between dialects within the language. Little is known of its origins, but a form of the Basque language likely was present in Western Europe before the arrival of the Indo-European languages to the area. Others find this unlikely, see the aizkora controversy, Latin inscriptions in Gallia Aquitania preserve a number of words with cognates in the reconstructed proto-Basque language, for instance, the personal names Nescato and CisonBasque language – Family transmission of Basque language (Basque as initial language)
25. Being and Nothingness – Being and Nothingness, An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology, sometimes subtitled A Phenomenological Essay on Ontology, is a 1943 book by philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre. Sartres main purpose is to assert the individuals existence as prior to the individuals essence and his overriding concern in writing the book was to demonstrate that free will exists. While a prisoner of war in 1940 and 1941, Sartre read Martin Heideggers Being and Time, reading Being and Time initiated Sartres own philosophical enquiry. Born into the reality of ones body, in a material universe. Consciousness has the ability to conceptualize possibilities, and to them appear. Sartres existentialism shares its philosophical starting point with René Descartes, The first thing we can be aware of is our existence, in Nausea, the main characters feeling of dizziness towards his own existence is induced by things, not thinking. This dizziness occurs in the face of ones freedom and responsibility for giving a meaning to reality, as an important break with Descartes, Sartre rejects the primacy of knowledge, as summed up in the phrase Existence precedes essence and offers a different conception of knowledge and consciousness. Important ideas in Being and Nothingness build on Edmund Husserls phenomenology, to both philosophers, consciousness is intentional, meaning that there is only consciousness of something. For Sartre, intentionality implies that there is no form of self that is hidden inside consciousness, an ego must be a structure outside consciousness, so that there can be consciousness of the ego. Being and Nothingness is a reply to Martin Heideggers Being and Time, in which he addressed being in its own right and laid ground for Sartres thought. In the introduction, Sartre sketches his own theory of consciousness, being, based on an examination of the nature of phenomena, he describes the nature of two types of being, being-in-itself and being-for-itself. While being-in-itself is something that can only be approximated by human being, in the first chapter, Sartre develops a theory of nothingness which is central to the whole book, especially to his account for bad faith and freedom. For him, nothingness is not just a concept that sums up negative judgements such as Pierre is not here. Though it is evident that non-being always appears within the limits of a human expectation, a concrete nothingness, e. g. not being able to see, is part of a totality, the life of the blind man in this world. This totality is modified by the nothingness which is part of it, in the totality of consciousness and phenomenon, both can be considered separately, but exist only as a whole. The human attitude of inquiry, of asking questions, puts consciousness at distance from the world, every question brings up the possibility of a negative answer, of non-being, e. g. For Sartre, this is how nothingness can exist at all, non-being can neither be part of the being-in-itself nor can it be as a complement of it. Being-for-itself is the origin of negation, the relation between being-for-itself and being-in-itself is one of questioning the latterBeing and Nothingness – Cover of the first edition
26. Girondist – The Girondins were members of a loosely knit political faction during the French Revolution. From 1791 to 1793, the Girondins were active within the Legislative Assembly and they were part of the Jacobin movement, though not every Girondin was a member of the Jacobin Club. The Girondins campaigned for the end of the monarchy, but then resisted the spiraling momentum of the Revolution and they came into conflict with The Mountain, a radical faction within the Jacobin Club. This conflict eventually led to the fall of the Girondins and their mass execution, Girondin leader Jacques-Pierre Brissot proposed an ambitious military plan to spread the Revolution internationally, thus the Girondins were the war party in 1792–93. Other prominent Girondins included Jean Marie Roland and his wife Madame Roland and they had an ally in the English-born, sometime American activist Thomas Paine. Brissot and Madame Roland were executed and Jean Roland committed suicide when he learned what had transpired, Paine was arrested and imprisoned but narrowly escaped execution. The famous painting Death of Marat depicts the killing of the radical journalist Jean-Paul Marat by the Girondin sympathizer Charlotte Corday. The collective name Girondins is used to describe a a loosely knit group of French deputies who contested the Montagnards for control of the National Convention and they were never an official organization or political party. Other names were employed at the time too, but Girondins ultimately became the term favored by historians, the term became standard with Alphonse de Lamartines History of the Girondists in 1847. Twelve deputies represented the département of the Gironde, and there were six who sat for this département in both the Legislative Assembly of 1791-92 and the National Convention of 1792-95. Five were lawyers, Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud, Marguerite Élie Guadet, Armand Gensonné, Jean Antoine Laffargue de Grangeneuve, the other, Jean François Ducos, was a tradesman. Madame Roland, whose salon became their gathering place, had a influence on the spirit. The group was identified by its enemies at the start of the National Convention, Brissotins and Girondins were terms of opprobrium used by their enemies in a separate faction of the Jacobin Club, who freely denounced them as enemies of democracy. In the Legislative Assembly, the Girondins represented the principle of democratic revolution within France and they supported an aggressive foreign policy and constituted the war party in the period 1792-93, when revolutionary France initiated a long series of revolutionary wars with other European powers. Brissot proposed a military plan to spread the Revolution internationally. The Girondins also called for war against Austria, arguing it would rally patriots around the Revolution, liberate oppressed peoples from despotism, in all of this activity, there was no apparent line of cleavage between La Gironde and The Mountain. Montagnards and Girondins alike were opposed to the monarchy, both were democrats as well as republicans, both were prepared to appeal to force in order to realise their ideals. Despite being accused of wanting to weaken the government, the Girondins desired as little as the Montagnards to break up the unity of FranceGirondist – The Girondists in the La Force Prison after their arrest. Woodcut from 1845.
27. Territorial formation of France – This article describes the process by which the territorial extent of metropolitan France came to be as it is since 1947. The territory of the French State is spread throughout the world, Metropolitan France is that part which is in Europe. Occidental France, which arose from the Treaty of Verdun of 843, the first kings, the Capetians, were too much occupied with imposing their authority in their own realm to be expansionist. They deftly exploited dissent among their turbulent vassals, applying pressure on them and on the Church, the great conflicts with the kings of England were important occasions for asserting royal power. The 13th century re-annexations of Normandy and of Languedoc to the French kingdom were two important stages in the unification of the kingdom, France soon lost the County of Barcelona, from the end of the 9th century. The crossing beyond Rhone, which for a time remained the frontier, did not begin until the 14th century. Louis XI regained his inheritance of the two most powerful prerogatives granted to branches of the dynasty, Burgundy and Anjou including Provence in the Holy Roman Empire. From 1635 to 1748, Richelieu and Louis XIV undertook an expansion of the frontiers of the kingdom towards the north and their aim was to check the aspiration of the Austrian royal house towards its own predominance in Europe. The loss of French Flanders had brought the frontier dangerously close to the French capital, Alsace, Artois and Franche-Comté were annexed between 1648 and 1697. The Duchy of Lorraine remained some time an enclave in the French kingdom before it too was incorporated in 1766 and this and the purchase of Corsica in 1768 brought the territory of the kingdom into a consolidated block. During the period of the French Revolution and First Empire, France expanded temporarily on the bank of the Rhine. The frontier in the north east lost its definition, on the whole, it remained stable from 1697 to 1789 when it became vague, following no particular line. It was re-established, more or less on its old line in 1815, France did lose some places such as Landau and Saarlouis. These strategic losses and the construction of a powerful German state may be seen as giving rise to later diplomatic, but even after the Armistice of 1918, France was unable to make new territorial gains towards the north-east, into the Saarland. Subsequently in the 19th century, there were only a few developments, the Duchy of Savoy and the County of Nice were definitively re-attached to France, by plebiscite in 1860. Alsace-Lorraine was annexed by Germany in 1871 but became French again in 1918, other alterations were made temporarily, by the occupying power, during the period of World War II. Modern Metropolitan France lies to an extent, within clear limits of physical geography. Roughly half of its margin lies on sea coasts, in the south-west, its border lies among the peaks of the Pyrenees mountain rangeTerritorial formation of France – France in the Carolingian Empire from 843 to 888
28. Arbel Fauvet Rail – Arbel Fauvet Rail is a railway rolling stock manufacturer based in Douai, France. In 2010 the company was acquired by Titagarh Wagons and renamed AFR Titagarh, the factory made a variety of different metal parts including wheels for railway vehicles. In 1894 the Forges de Douai was founded as public company with Pierre, parts for artillery pieces, and other military equipment began to be produced around this time in Douai. In 1910 a third plant was opened which included an open hearth furnace, by 1914 the plants in Douai covered over 86,000 m2 and the Société Arbel was employing 2500 workers. By the recapture of the plant in 1918 essentially all the equipment had been looted. Re construction was complete by 1922, in 1929 the plants in Couzon were sold to the Compagnie générale du duralumin et du cuivre and the company was renamed Établissements Arbel in 1936. During the Second World War the factory was damaged in 1940 and 1944. After rebuilding, the factory in Douai continued the tradition of wagon construction, after 1970 the plant became a subsidiary of Arbel Industrie. Recession in the 1980s caused restructuring and in 1985 the operations were merged with Fauvet Girel to form Arbel Fauvet Rail, in 1907 the Établissements Girel works was founded in Paris, and in 1914 Edouard Fauvet established a factory in La Courneuve. In 1923 Girel transferred its factory from Paris to Saint-Laurent-Blangy, after the death of his father Edouard Fauvet in 1931, Maurice-Fauvet took over the control of the company. In 1935 he refocused the business to specialise in the construction of tank wagons, at its peak the Fauvet-Girel company employed around 1000 workers. The company merged with Arbel in 1985, a result of which was restructuring which saw the closure of the Saint-Laurent-Blangy factory in 1990, Arbel Fauvet Rail was formed in 1985 by the merger of Fauvet Girel and the Douai wagon plant subsidiary of Arbel Industrie. In June 2007 the company was taken over by IGF Industries, the company went into receivership in February 2009 and in 2010 the company was acquired by Titagarah Wagons Limited for €2 million, with a proposed investment of €13 million. Main production is located on site of 25 hectares, including 52,000 m2 covered facilities. The company manufactures freight rolling stock including tank, hopper and car carrier wagons, the company also supplied many intermodal wagons to the SNCF and IntercontainerArbel Fauvet Rail – builder's plate of a 1931 tank wagon
29. Merir – Merir or Melieli is a small outlying island of the Palau group, in the western Pacific Ocean. The island measures 0.90 km² and is uninhabited, there is an abandoned village in the north-west of the island which previously hosted a radio station. The island itself is covered with trees but it is surrounded by a beach around which is a lagoon, outside this, the whole is surrounded by a coral reef and the open ocean. Together with the islands of Sonsorol and Fanna, which are 110 km to the north-west, and the island of Pulo Anna 50 km away, Merir forms the state of Sonsorol in the republic of PalauMerir – Luxuriant vegetation and beach scene in western Merir
30. Simone Weil – Simone Weil was a French philosopher, mystic, and political activist. After her graduation from formal education, Weil became a teacher, taking a path that was unusual among twentieth-century left-leaning intellectuals, she became more religious and inclined towards mysticism as her life progressed. Weil wrote throughout her life, though most of her writings did not attract attention until after her death. In the 1950s and 1960s, her work became famous on continental Europe and her thought has continued to be the subject of extensive scholarship across a wide range of fields. A meta study from the University of Calgary found that between 1995 and 2012 over 2,500 new scholarly works had been published about her, Albert Camus described her as the only great spirit of our times. Weil was born in her parents apartment in Paris on 3 February 1909 and her mother was Saolomea Weil and her father Bernard was a medical doctor. Both were Alsatian Jews who had moved to Paris after the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine by Germany, Weil was a healthy baby for her first six months, until she had a severe attack of appendicitis—thereafter she struggled with poor health throughout her life. She was the second of her parents two children, her brother was mathematician André Weil, with whom she would always enjoy a close relationship. Their parents were agnostic and fairly affluent, raising their children in an attentive and supportive atmosphere, Weil suffered some distress due to her fathers having to leave home for several years due to being drafted in World War I. According to several Weil scholars, such as Eva Fogelman and Robert Coles, despite the fact that Weil was generally highly affectionate, she almost always avoided any form of physical contact, even with female friends. From her late years, Weil would generally disguise her fragile beauty by adopting a masculine appearance, hardly ever using makeup. Weil was a student, proficient in Ancient Greek by age 12. She later learned Sanskrit after reading the Bhagavad Gita, like the Renaissance thinker Pico della Mirandola, her interests in other religions were universal and she attempted to understand each religious tradition as an expression of transcendent wisdom. As a teenager, Weil studied at the Lycée Henri IV under the tutelage of her admired teacher Émile Chartier and her first attempt at the entrance examination for the École Normale Supérieure in June 1927 ended in failure, due to her low marks in history. In 1928 she was successful in gaining admission and she finished first in the exam for the certificate of General Philosophy and Logic, Simone de Beauvoir finished second. During these years, Weil attracted much attention with her radical opinions and she was called the Red virgin, and even The Martian by her admired mentor. At the École Normale Supérieure, she studied philosophy, earning her DES in 1931 with a thesis under the title Science et perfection dans Descartes and she received her agrégation that same year. Weil taught philosophy at a school for girls in Le PuySimone Weil – Simone Weil, 1921
31. Bischwiller – Bischwiller is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in northeastern France just west of the Moder River. The city is 7.8 kilometers southeast of Haguenau,8 kilometers west-northwest from the German border and the Rhine River, the Moder river, a Rhine tributary, flows across the town. Among the other streams cross the area can be cited the following tributaries of the Morder, the Rothbaechel, the Erlengraben. The last one is formed by the confluence of two streams named Weihergraben and Schnuchgraben. Due to its large Turkish minority, Bischwiller is often dubbed Turkwiller. S, communes of the Bas-Rhin department INSEE commune file Rapp, comte Jean, Memoirs of General Count Rapp, First Aide-de-camp to Napoleon, H. Colburn and Company Official websiteBischwiller – La Laub, former town hall, now a museum
32. Foreign relations of France – Foreign relations France includes the governments external relations with other countries and international organizations since the end of the Middle Ages. France played the single most important role in European diplomacy and warfare before 1815, in the 19th century it built a colonial empire second only to the British Empire, but was humiliated in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, which marked the rise of Germany to dominance in Europe. France was on the side of the First World War. Since 1945 France has been a member of the United Nations, of NATO. Its main ally since 1945 has been Germany, as a charter member of the United Nations, France holds one of the permanent seats in the Security Council and is a member of most of its specialized and related agencies. France is also a member of the Union for the Mediterranean. Under the long reigns of kings Louis XIV and Louis XV, France was second in size to Russia but first in terms of economic and it fought numerous expensive wars, usually to protect its voice in the selection of monarchs in neighboring countries. A high priority was blocking the growth of power of the Habsburg rivals who controlled Austria, warfare defined the foreign policies of Louis XIV, and his personality shaped his approach. Impelled by a mix of commerce, revenge, and pique, in peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. He taught his diplomats their job was to create tactical and strategic advantages for the French military, while his battlefield generals were not especially good, Louis XIV had excellent support staff. His chief engineer Vauban perfected the arts of fortifying French towns, the finance minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert dramatically improved the financial system so that it could support an army of 250,000 men. The system deteriorated under Louis XV so that wars drained the increasingly inefficient financial system, Louis XIV made France prouder in psychology but poorer in wealth, military glory and cultural splendor were exalted above economic growth. Under Louis XIV, France fought three wars, the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg. There were also two lesser conflicts, the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions, Louis XV did merge Lorraine and Corsica into France. However France was badly defeated in the Seven Years War and forced to give up its holdings in North America and it ceded New France to Great Britain and Louisiana to Spain, and was left with a bitter grudge that sought revenge in 1778 by helping the Americans win independence. Norman Davies characterized Louis XVs reign as one of debilitating stagnation, characterized by lost wars, a few scholars defend Louis, arguing that his highly negative reputation was based on propaganda meant to justify the French Revolution. Jerome Blum described him as a perpetual adolescent called to do a mans job, France played a key role helping the American Patriots win their War of Independence against Britain 1775–1783. Motivated by a rivalry with Britain and by revenge for its territorial losses during Seven Years WarForeign relations of France – Napoleon Bonaparte retreating from Moscow, by Adolf Northern.
33. Jean-Marie Le Pen – Jean-Marie Le Pen is a French politician who led the National Front party from its foundation in 1972 until 2011. His progression in the late 1980s is known as the Lepénisation des esprits or Le Pen-isation of spirits due to its effect on mainstream political opinion. Le Pen focuses on issues related to immigration to France, the European Union, traditional culture and values, law and order and he advocates immigration restrictions, the death penalty, raising incentives for homemakers, and euroscepticism. His progress to the round in the 21 April 2002 presidential election left its mark on French public life. His longevity in politics and his five attempts to become president of France have made him a figure in French political life. He was expelled from the party by his daughter Marine Le Pen on 20 August 2015 after new controversial statements and found himself marginalized in the French political landscape. Jean-Marie Le Pen was born on 20 June 1928 in La Trinité-sur-Mer, a seaside village in Brittany, the son of Anne Marie Hervé and Jean Le Pen. He was orphaned as an adolescent, when his fathers boat was blown up by a mine in 1942 and he was raised as a Roman Catholic and studied at the Jesuit high school François Xavier in Vannes, then at the lycée of Lorient. In November 1944, aged 16, he was turned down by Colonel Henri de La Vaissière when he attempted to join the French Forces of the Interior. He then entered the faculty of law in Paris, and started to sell the monarchist Action Françaises newspaper, Aspects de la France and he was repeatedly convicted of assault. Le Pen started his career as the head of the student union in Toulouse. He became president of the Association corporative des étudiants en droit and he was excluded from this organisation in 1951. After his time in the military, he studied political science and his graduate thesis, submitted in 1971 by him and Jean-Loup Vincent, was titled Le courant anarchiste en France depuis 1945 or The anarchist movement in France since 1945. After receiving his law diploma, he enlisted in the army in the Foreign Legion. He arrived in Indochina after the 1954 battle of Dien Bien Phu, which had been lost by France, Le Pen was then sent to Suez in 1956, but arrived only after the cease-fire. In 1953, a year before the beginning of the Algerian War, he contacted President Vincent Auriol, within two days, there were 40 volunteers from his university, a group that would later help victims of an earthquake in Italy. In Paris in 1956, he was elected to the National Assembly as a member of Pierre Poujades UDCA populist party, Le Pen,28 years old, was the youngest member of the Assembly. The next year, following his break with Poujade, Le Pen was reelected to the National Assembly as a member of the Centre National des Indépendants et Paysans party, Le Pen claimed that he had lost his left eye when he was savagely beaten during the 1958 election campaignJean-Marie Le Pen – Jean-Marie Le Pen MEP
34. Marie Antoinette – Marie Antoinette (/ˈmæriˌæntwəˈnɛt/, /ˌɑ̃ːntwə-/, /ˌɑ̃ːtwə-/, US /məˈriː-/, French, born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna, was the last Queen of France and Navarre before the French Revolution. She was born an Archduchess of Austria, and was the fifteenth and second youngest child of Empress Maria Theresa and Francis I, in April 1770, upon her marriage to Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne, she became Dauphine of France. After eight years of marriage, Marie Antoinette gave birth to a daughter, Marie-Thérèse Charlotte, the Diamond Necklace affair damaged her reputation further. On 10 August 1792, the attack on the Tuileries forced the family to take refuge at the Assembly. On 21 September 1792, the monarchy was abolished, after a two-day trial begun on 14 October 1793, Marie Antoinette was convicted by the Revolutionary Tribunal of high treason, and executed by guillotine on Place de la Révolution on 16 October 1793. Maria Antonia was born on 2 November 1755, at the Hofburg Palace and she was the youngest daughter of Empress Maria Theresa, ruler of the Habsburg Empire, and her husband Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. Her godparents were Joseph I and Mariana Victoria, King and Queen of Portugal, Archduke Joseph, shortly after her birth, she was placed under the care of the Governess of the Imperial children, Countess von Brandeis. Maria Antonia was raised with her older sister Maria Carolina. As to her relationship with her mother, it was difficult, despite the private tutoring she received, results of her schooling were less than satisfactory. At the age of ten she could not write correctly in German or in any language used at court, such as French. Under the teaching of Christoph Willibald Gluck, Maria Antonia developed into a good musician and she learned to play the harp, the harpsichord and the flute. During the familys gatherings in the evenings, she would sing and she also excelled at dancing, had an exquisite poise, and loved dolls. Following the Seven Years War and the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756, Empress Maria Theresa decided to end hostilities with her longtime enemy, on 14 May she met her husband at the edge of the forest of Compiègne. Upon her arrival in France, she adopted the French version of her name, a further ceremonial wedding took place on 16 May 1770 in the Palace of Versailles and, after the festivities, the day ended with the ritual bedding. The lack of consummation of the marriage plagued the reputation of both Louis-Auguste and Marie Antoinette for the seven years. The initial reaction to the marriage between Marie Antoinette and Louis-Auguste was mixed, on the one hand, the Dauphine was beautiful, personable and well-liked by the common people. Her first official appearance in Paris on 8 June 1773 was a resounding success, on the other hand, those opposed to the alliance with Austria, and others, for personal reasons, had a difficult relationship with Marie Antoinette. Madame du Barry, for example, was Louis XVs mistress and had political influence over himMarie Antoinette – Marie Antoinette with the Rose Portrait by Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun, 1783.
35. Wikify – Wiki markup, also known as wikitext language and wikicode, is a lightweight markup language used to write pages at wiki-based websites that is a simplified/alternative/intermediate to HTML. Its purpose is to be converted by wiki software into HTML and it was created in 1995 to format pages on the original wiki site, WikiWikiWeb. There is no accepted standard wikitext language. The grammar, structure, justification, keywords and so on depend on the wiki software used on the particular website. Different Wiki programs may use of different sets of HTML elements within wikitext. In some cases, permitted HTML elements may be configured by individual wiki sites, MediaWiki supports many common HTML tags. All wikitext markup languages have a way of hyperlinking to other pages within the site. Many wikis, especially the ones, used CamelCase to mark words that should be automatically linked. In MediaWiki, this convention was replaced with the notation, which Wikipedia calls free links, Creole is an effort for a common wiki markup language to be used across different Wikis. There are several engines that have implemented Creole. Version 1.0 of the specification was released in July 2007 and it is not supported by MediaWiki. VisualEditor is a more user-friendly online rich-text editor and an alternative to editing the raw wiki markup source code, VisualEditor was developed by the Wikimedia Foundation in partnership with Wikia. In 2013, the beta was available for Mediawiki. org, in 2015, VisualEditor was offered to all users of most language editions of Wikipedia. What you see is Wiki - Questioning WYSIWYG in the Internet Age MediaWiki alternative parsers MediaWikis simple text formatWikify – Screenshot of the edit window in a Wikipedia article. Note the <nowiki> tag, used to escape wiki markup and HTML. HTML comments can be seen inside the <!-- --> tags.