1. France – France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural, political, and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is also a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the FranksFrance – One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – Dordogne, approximately 18,000 BC
2. Monaco, Principality and Diocese of – Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state and microstate, located on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides while the other side borders the Mediterranean Sea, Monaco has an area of 2.02 km2 and a population of about 38,400 according to the last census of 2015. With 19,009 inhabitants per km², it is the second smallest, Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km, a coastline of 3.83 km, and a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m. The highest point in the country is a pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires Ward. Monacos most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins, through land reclamation, Monacos land mass has expanded by twenty percent, in 2005, it had an area of only 1.974 km2. Monaco is known as a playground for the rich and famous, in 2014, it was noted about 30% of the population was made up of millionaires, more than in Zürich or Geneva. Monaco is a principality governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields immense political power. The House of Grimaldi have ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, the official language is French, but Monégasque, Italian, and English are widely spoken and understood. The states sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. Despite Monacos independence and separate foreign policy, its defense is the responsibility of France, however, Monaco does maintain two small military units. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with the opening of the countrys first casino, Monte Carlo, since then, Monacos mild climate, scenery, and gambling facilities have contributed to the principalitys status as a tourist destination and recreation center for the rich. In more recent years, Monaco has become a major banking center and has sought to diversify its economy into services and small, high-value-added, the state has no income tax, low business taxes, and is well known for being a tax haven. It is also the host of the street circuit motor race Monaco Grand Prix. Monaco is not formally a part of the European Union, but it participates in certain EU policies, including customs, through its relationship with France, Monaco uses the euro as its sole currency. Monaco joined the Council of Europe in 2004 and it is a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Monacos name comes from the nearby 6th-century BC Phocaean Greek colony, according to an ancient myth, Hercules passed through the Monaco area and turned away the previous gods. As a result, a temple was constructed there, the temple of Hercules Monoikos, because the only temple of this area was the House of Hercules, the city was called Monoikos. It ended up in the hands of the Holy Roman Empire, an ousted branch of a Genoese family, the Grimaldi, contested it for a hundred years before actually gaining controlMonaco, Principality and Diocese of – Statue of Francesco Grimaldi, " Il Malizia " ("the Cunning"), disguised as a monk with a dagger hidden under the cloak of his habit. However, he was ousted by the Genoese just four years later. The Grimaldi family purchased Monaco from the Crown of Aragon in 1419.
3. Dancing Plague of 1518 – The Dancing Plague of 1518 was a case of dancing mania that occurred in Strasbourg, Alsace in July 1518. Around 400 people took to dancing for days without rest, and, over the period of one month, some of those affected died of heart attack, stroke. The outbreak began in July 1518, when a woman, Mrs. Troffea and this lasted somewhere between four and six days. Within a week,34 others had joined, and within a month, there were around 400 dancers, some of these people eventually died from heart attacks, strokes, or exhaustion. One report indicates that for a period the plague killed around fifteen people per day, historical documents, including physician notes, cathedral sermons, local and regional chronicles, and even notes issued by the Strasbourg city council are clear that the victims danced. It is not known why these people danced, some even to their deaths, however, instead of prescribing bleeding, authorities encouraged more dancing, in part by opening two guildhalls and a grain market, and even constructing a wooden stage. The authorities did this because they believed that the dancers would recover only if they danced continuously night, to increase the effectiveness of the cure, authorities even paid for musicians to keep the afflicted moving. Historian John Waller stated that a runner could not have lasted the intense workout that these men and women did hundreds of years ago. Modern theories include food-poisoning caused by the toxic and psychoactive chemical products of ergot fungi, the same fungus has also been implicated in other major historical anomalies, including the Salem witch trials. Seven other cases of dancing plague were reported in the region during the medieval era. Dancing mania Sydenhams chorea Tanganyika laughter epidemic Tarantism Backman, Eugene Louis, religious Dances in the Christian Church and in Popular Medicine. A Time to Dance, A Time to Die, The Extraordinary Story of the Dancing Plague of 1518, the Dancing Plague, The Strange, True Story of an Extraordinary Illness. The Dancing Plague of 1518 by Doug MacGowanDancing Plague of 1518 – Engraving of Hendrik Hondius portrays three women affected by the plague. Work based on original drawing by Pieter Brueghel, who supposedly witnessed a subsequent outbreak in 1564 in Flanders
4. Battle of Rossbach – The Battle of Rossbach took place during the Seven Years War near the village of Rossbach, in the Electorate of Saxony. It is sometimes called the Battle of or at Reichardtswerben, after a nearby town, in this battle, Frederick the Great, king of Prussia, defeated an allied army composed of French forces augmented by a contingent of the Habsburg Monarchy. The French and Austrian army included almost 42,000 men, despite overwhelming odds, Frederick employed rapid movement, flanking maneuver and oblique order to achieve complete surprise. Following the battle, Frederick immediately left Rossbach and marched for 13 days to the outskirts of Breslau, there he met the Austrian army at the Battle of Leuthen in which he employed similar tactics to defeat an army considerably larger than his own. Rossbach is considered one of Fredericks greatest strategic masterpieces and he crippled an enemy army while suffering negligible casualties. His artillery also played a role in the victory, based on its ability to reposition itself rapidly responding to changing circumstances on the battlefield. Although the Seven Years War was a conflict, it took a specific intensity in the European theater based on the recently concluded War of the Austrian Succession. The 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle concluded the war with Austria. Frederick II of Prussia, known as Frederick the Great, acquired the prosperous province of Silesia, Empress Maria Theresa of Austria had signed the treaty to gain time to rebuild her military forces and forge new alliances, she was intent upon regaining ascendancy in the Holy Roman Empire. In 1754, escalating tensions between Britain and France in North America offered the Empress the opportunity to regain her lost territories, similarly, France sought to break the British dominance of Atlantic trade. France and Austria put aside their old rivalry to form a coalition of their own and this series of political maneuvers became known as the Diplomatic Revolution. After over-running Saxony, Frederick campaigned in Bohemia and defeated the Austrians on 6 May 1757 at the Battle of Prague, Frederick had one of the finest armies in Europe, his troops—any company—could fire at least four volleys a minute, and some of them could fire five. By summer 1757, Prussia was threatened on two fronts, in the east, the Russians under Field Marshal Stepan Fyodorovich Apraksin besieged Memel with 75,000 troops. Memel had one of the strongest fortresses in Prussia, however, after five days of artillery bombardment the Russian army was able to storm it. The Russians then used Memel as a base to invade East Prussia, however, the Russians were not yet able to take Königsberg after using up their supplies of cannonballs at Memel and Gross-Jägersdorf and retreated soon afterward. Logistics of supplies remained a problem for the Russians throughout the war. Still, the Imperial Russian Army was a new threat to Prussia, forcing Frederick to abandon his invasion of Bohemia, as summer ended, a combined French and Reichsarmee army commanded by Prince Soubise approaching from the west. The Franco-Imperial allied army marched into Thuringia, a march is only as fast as its slowest components, and Frederick obtained needed supplies ahead of the army, which enabled him to abandon his supply wagonsBattle of Rossbach – Contemporary painting of the battle
5. 2014 24 Hours of Le Mans – The 82nd 24 Hours of Le Mans was an automobile endurance racing event held from 11 to 15 June 2014 at the Circuit de la Sarthe at Le Mans, France. It was the 82nd running of the event, as organized by the Automobile Club de lOuest since 1923, the race was the third round and the premier event of the 2014 FIA World Endurance Championship, with half of the races fifty-five entries contesting the championship. The race was won by the No.2 Audi driven by Swiss Marcel Fässler, German André Lotterer, and Frenchman Benoît Tréluyer and this victory was Audis thirteenth since the company debuted at the race in 1999. The Audi team took the lead after the No.7 Toyota came to a stop after leading half the race distance, but were challenged by Porsche when two Audis required turbocharger replacements. The No.1 Audi finished in place, three laps behind the race winners, while the No.8 Toyota recovered from an accident in the first hour to finish in third. The LMP1-L category was won by the No.12 Rebellion Racing Rebellion-Toyota of Nick Heidfeld, Mathias Beche, and Nicolas Prost, the sole finisher in the class. The LMP2 class finished with the Jota Sport Zytek-Nissan of Simon Dolan, Oliver Turvey, approximately 263,000 spectators attended the event, the largest crowd since 1989. The 2014 Le Mans schedule was moved one week to avoid conflicts with other major motorsports series. An optional eight-hour test session for all invited participants and reserves, as well as entries, started the 2014 event on 1 June. Three qualifying sessions, each two hours long, took place on 11 and 12 June, the race started at 15,00 Central European Summer Time on 14 June and ended 24 hours later. Following the death of Allan Simonsen during the 2013 race, the ACO announced improvements to several sections of the circuit, tertre Rouge was reprofiled and new barriers and tire walls were added at the corners exit onto the Mulsanne Straight. Run-off areas in the Corvette corners were expanded, and Tecpro barriers were added behind the walls at the start of the Porsche corners. Large kerbs were added to the paved run-off at the second Ford chicane to deter cars from cutting the corner. A new safety system was implemented, which allows for the intervention of safety vehicles on a section of the circuit without the need for neutralizing the entire race with safety cars. The system, termed a zone, requires cars to slow. Speeds within the zones are monitored by GPS systems now required on every car, in conjunction with the slow zone procedure an onboard marshalling system will warn drivers of the location of slow zones. New regulations require rookies, as well as drivers who have not competed at Le Mans in the past five years, the course includes examples of night and wet racing at Le Mans, as well as the new safety car and slow zone procedures. Some second-place finishers are also granted automatic invitations in certain series, as with the 2013 race, the American Le Mans Series was given two at large entries rather than entries for each class2014 24 Hours of Le Mans – Marcel Fässler, André Lotterer, and Benoît Tréluyer hoist the winners trophy during the podium ceremony
6. 2014 Tour de France – The 2014 Tour de France was the 101st edition of the race, one of cyclings Grand Tours. The 3,660. 5-kilometre race included 21 stages, starting in Leeds, United Kingdom, on 5 July, the race also visited Belgium for part of a stage. Vincenzo Nibali of the Astana team won the race by more than seven minutes, jean-Christophe Péraud placed second, with Thibaut Pinot third. Marcel Kittel of Giant–Shimano was the first rider to wear the general classifications yellow jersey after winning stage one and he lost it after the next stage to Vincenzo Nibali, who won the stage. Nibali held the lead until the end of the ninth stage. The yellow jersey returned to Nibali the following stage, and he held it until the conclusion of the race, the points classification was decided early in the race and was won by Cannondales Peter Sagan. Rafał Majka of Tinkoff–Saxo, winner of two stages, won the mountains classification. Pinot finished as the best young rider, the team classification was won by Ag2r–La Mondiale and Alessandro De Marchi was given the award for the most combative rider. Kittel won the most stages, with four, twenty-two teams participated in the 2014 edition of the Tour de France. All of the eighteen UCI ProTeams were automatically invited, and obliged, the riders arrived at the arena by a ceremonial ride from the University of Leeds. The event included performances from Embrace and Opera North, in front of an audience of 10,000, each squad was allowed a maximum of nine riders, therefore the start list contained a total of 198 riders. Of these,47 were riding the Tour de France for the first time, the total number of riders that finished the race was 164. The riders came from 34 countries, France, Spain, Italy, Netherlands, Germany, Australia, giant–Shimanos Ji Cheng was the first Chinese rider to participate in the Tour. Riders from eight countries won stages during the race, German riders won the largest number of stages, the average age of riders in the race was 29.88 years, ranging from the 20-year-old Danny van Poppel to the 42-year-old Jens Voigt, both Trek Factory Racing riders. Voigt, riding in his year as a professional, equalled Stuart OGradys record for most appearances in the Tour with 17. Garmin–Sharp had the highest average age, while Trek Factory Racing had the lowest, the teams entering the race were, According to many observers before the race the top two favourites for the general classification were Chris Froome and Alberto Contador, respectively. Their closest rivals were thought to have been Vincenzo Nibali and Alejandro Valverde, a possible contender was the 2013 Tour runner-up, Nairo Quintana, who had chosen not to ride the Tour after his 2014 Giro dItalia win that took place during May. Andy Schleck, who was awarded the 2010 Tour title, was selected by his team as a domestique2014 Tour de France – Countdown clock at Trinity Leeds
7. 2015 24 Hours of Le Mans – The 83rd 24 Hours of Le Mans was an automobile endurance event held from 10 to 14 June 2015 at the Circuit de la Sarthe, Le Mans, France. It was the 83rd running of the 24 Hour race organised by the Automobile Club de lOuest as well as the round of the 2015 FIA World Endurance Championship. A test day was two weeks prior to the race on 31 May. A record-breaking 263,500 people attended the event, the No.18 Porsche 919 Hybrid of Neel Jani, Romain Dumas, and Marc Lieb started from pole position after Jani broke the circuits lap record in qualifying. The race was won by the No.19 Porsche of Nick Tandy and Le Mans rookies Earl Bamber and Nico Hülkenberg, followed a lap behind by the second Porsche of Mark Webber, Brendon Hartley and Timo Bernhard. Audis best car, driven by the title defenders Benoît Tréluyer, Marcel Fässler, and André Lotterer, finished third and this was the seventeenth overall victory for Porsche, and their first since 1998. The LMP2 category was won by the KCMG Oreca-Nissan driven by Richard Bradley, Matthew Howson, the trio led all but nine laps of the race but only held a 48-second lead over the Jota Sport Gibson-Nissan at the races end. Corvette Racing won their first class victory since 2011 despite one of their two cars being withdrawn after an accident in qualifying. Oliver Gavin, Tommy Milner, and Jordan Taylor held a five-lap margin in LMGTE Pro over the AF Corse Ferrari in second, the LMGTE Am class was led for most of the time by the No. The result meant Lotterer, Tréluyer and Fässler remained the leaders of the Drivers Championship on 80 points,20 ahead of Tandy, Dumas, Jani and Lieb dropped from second to fourth and Bernhard, Hartley and Webber stood in fifth place. The 2015 Le Mans schedule was confirmed in an FIA World Motor Sport Council meeting in Munich on 26 June 2014 and it was the 83rd running of the event, and the third of nine scheduled rounds of the 2015 FIA World Endurance Championship. An optional eight-hour test session for all invited participants and reserves, as well as entries, started the 2015 event on 31 May. Three qualifying sessions, each two hours long, took place on 10 and 11 June, the race started at 15,00 Central European Summer Time on 13 June and ended 24 hours later. Anthony Davidson and Sébastien Buemi were fourth on 19 points, and Timo Bernhard, Brendon Hartley, Audi were leading the Manufacturers Championship with 70 points,17 ahead of their rival Porsche in second, the third-place manufacturer Toyota had scored 47 points. Audi had so far dominated the season by winning the first two races of the campaign, Dumas, Jani and Lieb had twice finished in second while Davidson and Buemi along with Bernhard, Hartley and Webber had achieved third-place results. Following the introduction of slow zones during the 201424 Hours of Le Mans, the races organiser, the limited speed in the zones was increased from 60 km/h to 80 km/h. The number of zones around the circuit had also increased from 19 to 35, modifications were made to the circuit from Mulsanne Corner to the Corvette Curves. The circuit was widened on the road connecting Mulsanne to Indianapolis, the first corner of the Porsche Curves had a larger run-off area on the outside while SAFER barriers had been installed on the inside wall2015 24 Hours of Le Mans – The podium for the overall race winners
8. Wiki markup – Wiki markup, also known as wikitext language and wikicode, is a lightweight markup language used to write pages at wiki-based websites that is a simplified/alternative/intermediate to HTML. Its purpose is to be converted by wiki software into HTML and it was created in 1995 to format pages on the original wiki site, WikiWikiWeb. There is no accepted standard wikitext language. The grammar, structure, justification, keywords and so on depend on the wiki software used on the particular website. Different Wiki programs may use of different sets of HTML elements within wikitext. In some cases, permitted HTML elements may be configured by individual wiki sites, MediaWiki supports many common HTML tags. All wikitext markup languages have a way of hyperlinking to other pages within the site. Many wikis, especially the ones, used CamelCase to mark words that should be automatically linked. In MediaWiki, this convention was replaced with the notation, which Wikipedia calls free links, Creole is an effort for a common wiki markup language to be used across different Wikis. There are several engines that have implemented Creole. Version 1.0 of the specification was released in July 2007 and it is not supported by MediaWiki. VisualEditor is a more user-friendly online rich-text editor and an alternative to editing the raw wiki markup source code, VisualEditor was developed by the Wikimedia Foundation in partnership with Wikia. In 2013, the beta was available for Mediawiki. org, in 2015, VisualEditor was offered to all users of most language editions of Wikipedia. What you see is Wiki - Questioning WYSIWYG in the Internet Age MediaWiki alternative parsers MediaWikis simple text formatWiki markup – Screenshot of the edit window in a Wikipedia article. Note the <nowiki> tag, used to escape wiki markup and HTML. HTML comments can be seen inside the <!-- --> tags.
9. AMX-30 – The AMX-30 is a main battle tank designed by GIAT and first delivered to the French Army in 1966. The first five tanks were issued to the 501st Régiment de Chars de Combat in August of that year, the production version of the AMX-30 weighed 36 metric tons, and sacrificed protection for increased mobility. The French believed that it would have required too much armour to protect against the latest anti-tank threats, protection, instead, was provided by the speed and the compact dimensions of the vehicle, including a height of 2.28 metres. It had a 105 mm gun, firing a then advanced high explosive anti-tank warhead known as the Obus G. The Obus G used a shell, separated from the main charge by ball bearings. Mobility was provided by the 720 horsepower HS-110 diesel engine, although the troublesome transmission adversely affected the tanks performance and it was preceded by two post-war French medium tank designs. The first, the ARL44, was an interim tank and its replacement, the AMX50, was cancelled in the mid-1950s in favor of adopting the M47 Patton tank. In 1956, the French government entered a development program with Germany. As a result, both decided to adopt tanks based on their own prototypes. The German tank became known as the Leopard 1, while the French prototype became the AMX-30, as early as 1969, the AMX-30 and variants were ordered by Greece, soon followed by Spain. In the coming years, the AMX-30 would be exported to Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Qatar, by the end of production,3,571 units of AMX-30s and its variants had been manufactured. Both Spain and Venezuela later began extensive modernization programs to extend the life of their vehicles, in the 1991 Gulf War, AMX-30s were deployed by both the French and Qatari armies. Qatari AMX-30s saw action against Iraqi forces at the Battle of Khafji, France and most other nations replaced their AMX-30s with more up-to-date equipment by the end of the 20th century. The tank was powered by a Maybach HL-230575 horsepower engine, although the 48-metric-ton vehicle was comparable to contemporary battle tanks in firepower and engine power, it suffered from distinct disadvantages, including an antiquated track design. While 600 were planned, only 60 were ultimately produced by 1950 and that year, these were issued to the French Armys 503rd Tank Regiment. Given that the ARL44 had been considered only a vehicle for the French Armys armoured forces since inception. The new vehicle was based on the new requirement for a single battle tank. The new vehicle was designated the AMX50 and its hull and suspension were similar to that of the German Panther tank, which had been used by the French Army in the immediate post-warAMX-30 – Prototype of AMX-30C2 sporting a 105 rifled tank gun
10. Henri-Georges Clouzot – Henri-Georges Clouzot was a French film director, screenwriter and producer. He is best remembered for his work in the film genre, having directed The Wages of Fear and Les Diaboliques. Clouzot also directed films, including The Mystery of Picasso. Clouzot was an fan of the cinema and, desiring a career as a writer. He was later hired by producer Adolphe Osso to work in Berlin, after being fired from German studios due to his friendship with Jewish producers, Clouzot returned to France, where he spent years bedridden after contracting tuberculosis. Upon recovering, Clouzot found work in Nazi occupied France as a screenwriter for the German-owned company Continental Films, at Continental, Clouzot wrote and directed films that were very popular in France. His second film Le Corbeau drew controversy over its harsh look at provincial France, as a result of his association with Continental, Clouzot was barred by the French government from filmmaking until 1947. After the ban was lifted, Clouzot reestablished his reputation and popularity in France during the late 1940s with successful films including Quai des Orfèvres. After the release of his comedy film Miquette et sa mère, Clouzot married Véra Gibson-Amado, in the early and mid-1950s, Clouzot drew acclaim from international critics and audiences for The Wages of Fear and Les Diaboliques. Both films would serve as material for remakes decades later. After the release of La Vérité, Clouzots wife Véra died of an attack and Clouzots career suffered due to depression, illness. Clouzots career became less active in years, limited to a few television documentaries. Clouzot wrote several unused scripts in the 1970s and died in Paris in 1977, Henri-Georges Clouzot was born in Niort, France, to mother Suzanne Clouzot and father Georges Clouzout, a book store owner. He was the first of three children in a middle-class family, Clouzot showed talent by writing plays and playing piano recitals. In 1922, Clouzots fathers bookstore went bankrupt and his moved to Brest, France. In Brest, Henri-Georges Clouzot went to Naval School, but was unable to become a Naval Cadet due to his myopia, at the age of 18, Clouzot left for Paris to study political science. While living in Paris, he became friends with several magazine editors and his writing talents led him to theater and cinema as a playwright, lyricist and adaptor-screenwriter. The quality of his work led producer Adolphe Osso to hire him and send him to Germany to work in Studio Babelsberg in Berlin, throughout the 1930s, Clouzot worked by writing and translating scripts, dialogue and occasionally lyrics for over twenty filmsHenri-Georges Clouzot – Henri-Georges and Véra Clouzot in 1953
11. Old Rouen tramway – There have been two separate generations of trams in Rouen. The first generation tramway was a network built in Rouen, Normandy, northern France, that started service in 1877. There were no trams at all in Rouen between 1953 and 1994, when the modern Rouen tramway opened, Local officials therefore adopted the tramway as a new mode of transport. At first they were horse-drawn, and later steam-powered, the tramway was electrified in 1896, although the 1920s saw a slight growth in traffic, the networks expansion slowed to a halt. Private motoring had arrived to put an end to its monopoly, the rising power of buses and trolleybuses, the Great Depression in France, and above all the Second World War that ravaged Rouen and Normandy, condemned the tramway to death. The last trams stopped running in 1953, after years of service. However, in 1994, a new Rouen tramway came to the Norman capital, Rouen was integrated into the French Kingdom after Philip II of France annexed Normandy in 1204, and it continued as one of the largest cities in the kingdom under the Ancien Régime. It prospered during the 19th century, with the trades of textiles and Rouen manufactory alongside the newer chemical. The navigable Seine, emptying at Rouen, had been Parisians route to the sea ever since the Middle Ages, napoleon Bonaparte said Rouen, Le Havre forment une même ville dont la Seine est la grand-rue. Rouen and Orléans were the first large cities to be connected by rail to Paris, from 1873 to 1875 the city fathers commissioned a study into building railways connecting the most populous areas of Rouen. A decree was signed on 5 May 1876, committing to a publicly owned standard gauge network, nine lines stretching 27,500 m, or 1,370 chains were decreed, The town was authorised to tender construction and operation to one or more contractors. It quickly chose the only candidate, Gustav Palmer Harding. He was the representative of Merryweather & Sons, builders of steam tram engines. This decision knitted the close links between the city and Great Britain that remained for nearly half a century. Naturally, Mr Harding wanted to promote his companys machines, so he made his views known to the municipal authorities. Finally convinced, they authorised him to use power from Maromme. Merryweather & Sons, whose depot was on the Avenue du Mont-Riboudet, small and light —4.7 tonnes — these reversible locomotives had two coupled axles, fully covered by a wooden body. They looked the same as a normal carriage so as not to frighten the horses and these steam carriages had enclosed lower decks, the upper decks were roofed but had open sidesOld Rouen tramway – Network map (drawn in 1994)
12. Tanit (yacht) – It occurred during Operation Atalanta, a European Union mission in Somali waters. The pirates had attempted to extract a ransom by holding the yachts occupants hostage, tanit, a privately owned French yacht named after the Phoenician lunar goddess, with its five crew and passengers was sailing to Zanzibar when it was boarded by pirates on 4 April. Among the hostages were a family of three including a boy, and two friends of the family who joined them in Aden. The ships owners, the Lemaçons, started from Vannes in July 2008 and this was a family trip “to escape consumer society”. They planned to visit Kenya and Zanzibar, even after meeting with a couple whose yacht, Carré dAs IV, had been captured by pirates, and later rescued by French commandos, they continued on their journey. The pirates headed the vessel for the coast but were two days later by a French frigate. French forces attempted to negotiate with the pirates offering them money and offering to exchange the mother, instead, they were overheard discussing using explosives to blow up the yacht. Fifty commandos were sent from France to a French base at Djibouti on 9 April, the French attempted to negotiate with the pirates, and even offered to exchange one of the hostages for an officer. The pirates refused to cooperate, stating that they could get better terms once they reached the coast, seeing the pirates were uncooperative a sniper on-board one of the vessels managed to shoot down the sails and to damage the mast and the yacht. This the French believed would put them in a better negotiating position, allegedly, after threats to execute the hostages were heard, the French Navy decided the next day to board the boat and free the hostages. French commandos attacked the vessel from different directions in two speedboats. The pirates opened fire and the special forces fired back. French naval commandos boarded the vessel and rescued the hostages. However, Florent Lemaçon, the captain and father of the three-year-old boy, was being held hostage in his cabin. When French commandos entered, they engaged in a shootout with the pirates, after the fighting ended the four freed hostages were taken in one of the frigates, to Djibouti, and from there transported back to France. Three pirates were taken to Rennes for questioningTanit (yacht) – The French frigate Floreal
13. Being and Nothingness – Being and Nothingness, An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology, sometimes subtitled A Phenomenological Essay on Ontology, is a 1943 book by philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre. Sartres main purpose is to assert the individuals existence as prior to the individuals essence and his overriding concern in writing the book was to demonstrate that free will exists. While a prisoner of war in 1940 and 1941, Sartre read Martin Heideggers Being and Time, reading Being and Time initiated Sartres own philosophical enquiry. Born into the reality of ones body, in a material universe. Consciousness has the ability to conceptualize possibilities, and to them appear. Sartres existentialism shares its philosophical starting point with René Descartes, The first thing we can be aware of is our existence, in Nausea, the main characters feeling of dizziness towards his own existence is induced by things, not thinking. This dizziness occurs in the face of ones freedom and responsibility for giving a meaning to reality, as an important break with Descartes, Sartre rejects the primacy of knowledge, as summed up in the phrase Existence precedes essence and offers a different conception of knowledge and consciousness. Important ideas in Being and Nothingness build on Edmund Husserls phenomenology, to both philosophers, consciousness is intentional, meaning that there is only consciousness of something. For Sartre, intentionality implies that there is no form of self that is hidden inside consciousness, an ego must be a structure outside consciousness, so that there can be consciousness of the ego. Being and Nothingness is a reply to Martin Heideggers Being and Time, in which he addressed being in its own right and laid ground for Sartres thought. In the introduction, Sartre sketches his own theory of consciousness, being, based on an examination of the nature of phenomena, he describes the nature of two types of being, being-in-itself and being-for-itself. While being-in-itself is something that can only be approximated by human being, in the first chapter, Sartre develops a theory of nothingness which is central to the whole book, especially to his account for bad faith and freedom. For him, nothingness is not just a concept that sums up negative judgements such as Pierre is not here. Though it is evident that non-being always appears within the limits of a human expectation, a concrete nothingness, e. g. not being able to see, is part of a totality, the life of the blind man in this world. This totality is modified by the nothingness which is part of it, in the totality of consciousness and phenomenon, both can be considered separately, but exist only as a whole. The human attitude of inquiry, of asking questions, puts consciousness at distance from the world, every question brings up the possibility of a negative answer, of non-being, e. g. For Sartre, this is how nothingness can exist at all, non-being can neither be part of the being-in-itself nor can it be as a complement of it. Being-for-itself is the origin of negation, the relation between being-for-itself and being-in-itself is one of questioning the latterBeing and Nothingness – Cover of the first edition
14. Territorial formation of France – This article describes the process by which the territorial extent of metropolitan France came to be as it is since 1947. The territory of the French State is spread throughout the world, Metropolitan France is that part which is in Europe. Occidental France, which arose from the Treaty of Verdun of 843, the first kings, the Capetians, were too much occupied with imposing their authority in their own realm to be expansionist. They deftly exploited dissent among their turbulent vassals, applying pressure on them and on the Church, the great conflicts with the kings of England were important occasions for asserting royal power. The 13th century re-annexations of Normandy and of Languedoc to the French kingdom were two important stages in the unification of the kingdom, France soon lost the County of Barcelona, from the end of the 9th century. The crossing beyond Rhone, which for a time remained the frontier, did not begin until the 14th century. Louis XI regained his inheritance of the two most powerful prerogatives granted to branches of the dynasty, Burgundy and Anjou including Provence in the Holy Roman Empire. From 1635 to 1748, Richelieu and Louis XIV undertook an expansion of the frontiers of the kingdom towards the north and their aim was to check the aspiration of the Austrian royal house towards its own predominance in Europe. The loss of French Flanders had brought the frontier dangerously close to the French capital, Alsace, Artois and Franche-Comté were annexed between 1648 and 1697. The Duchy of Lorraine remained some time an enclave in the French kingdom before it too was incorporated in 1766 and this and the purchase of Corsica in 1768 brought the territory of the kingdom into a consolidated block. During the period of the French Revolution and First Empire, France expanded temporarily on the bank of the Rhine. The frontier in the north east lost its definition, on the whole, it remained stable from 1697 to 1789 when it became vague, following no particular line. It was re-established, more or less on its old line in 1815, France did lose some places such as Landau and Saarlouis. These strategic losses and the construction of a powerful German state may be seen as giving rise to later diplomatic, but even after the Armistice of 1918, France was unable to make new territorial gains towards the north-east, into the Saarland. Subsequently in the 19th century, there were only a few developments, the Duchy of Savoy and the County of Nice were definitively re-attached to France, by plebiscite in 1860. Alsace-Lorraine was annexed by Germany in 1871 but became French again in 1918, other alterations were made temporarily, by the occupying power, during the period of World War II. Modern Metropolitan France lies to an extent, within clear limits of physical geography. Roughly half of its margin lies on sea coasts, in the south-west, its border lies among the peaks of the Pyrenees mountain rangeTerritorial formation of France – France in the Carolingian Empire from 843 to 888
15. Arbel Fauvet Rail – Arbel Fauvet Rail is a railway rolling stock manufacturer based in Douai, France. In 2010 the company was acquired by Titagarh Wagons and renamed AFR Titagarh, the factory made a variety of different metal parts including wheels for railway vehicles. In 1894 the Forges de Douai was founded as public company with Pierre, parts for artillery pieces, and other military equipment began to be produced around this time in Douai. In 1910 a third plant was opened which included an open hearth furnace, by 1914 the plants in Douai covered over 86,000 m2 and the Société Arbel was employing 2500 workers. By the recapture of the plant in 1918 essentially all the equipment had been looted. Re construction was complete by 1922, in 1929 the plants in Couzon were sold to the Compagnie générale du duralumin et du cuivre and the company was renamed Établissements Arbel in 1936. During the Second World War the factory was damaged in 1940 and 1944. After rebuilding, the factory in Douai continued the tradition of wagon construction, after 1970 the plant became a subsidiary of Arbel Industrie. Recession in the 1980s caused restructuring and in 1985 the operations were merged with Fauvet Girel to form Arbel Fauvet Rail, in 1907 the Établissements Girel works was founded in Paris, and in 1914 Edouard Fauvet established a factory in La Courneuve. In 1923 Girel transferred its factory from Paris to Saint-Laurent-Blangy, after the death of his father Edouard Fauvet in 1931, Maurice-Fauvet took over the control of the company. In 1935 he refocused the business to specialise in the construction of tank wagons, at its peak the Fauvet-Girel company employed around 1000 workers. The company merged with Arbel in 1985, a result of which was restructuring which saw the closure of the Saint-Laurent-Blangy factory in 1990, Arbel Fauvet Rail was formed in 1985 by the merger of Fauvet Girel and the Douai wagon plant subsidiary of Arbel Industrie. In June 2007 the company was taken over by IGF Industries, the company went into receivership in February 2009 and in 2010 the company was acquired by Titagarah Wagons Limited for €2 million, with a proposed investment of €13 million. Main production is located on site of 25 hectares, including 52,000 m2 covered facilities. The company manufactures freight rolling stock including tank, hopper and car carrier wagons, the company also supplied many intermodal wagons to the SNCF and IntercontainerArbel Fauvet Rail – builder's plate of a 1931 tank wagon
16. Simone Weil – Simone Weil was a French philosopher, mystic, and political activist. After her graduation from formal education, Weil became a teacher, taking a path that was unusual among twentieth-century left-leaning intellectuals, she became more religious and inclined towards mysticism as her life progressed. Weil wrote throughout her life, though most of her writings did not attract attention until after her death. In the 1950s and 1960s, her work became famous on continental Europe and her thought has continued to be the subject of extensive scholarship across a wide range of fields. A meta study from the University of Calgary found that between 1995 and 2012 over 2,500 new scholarly works had been published about her, Albert Camus described her as the only great spirit of our times. Weil was born in her parents apartment in Paris on 3 February 1909 and her mother was Saolomea Weil and her father Bernard was a medical doctor. Both were Alsatian Jews who had moved to Paris after the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine by Germany, Weil was a healthy baby for her first six months, until she had a severe attack of appendicitis—thereafter she struggled with poor health throughout her life. She was the second of her parents two children, her brother was mathematician André Weil, with whom she would always enjoy a close relationship. Their parents were agnostic and fairly affluent, raising their children in an attentive and supportive atmosphere, Weil suffered some distress due to her fathers having to leave home for several years due to being drafted in World War I. According to several Weil scholars, such as Eva Fogelman and Robert Coles, despite the fact that Weil was generally highly affectionate, she almost always avoided any form of physical contact, even with female friends. From her late years, Weil would generally disguise her fragile beauty by adopting a masculine appearance, hardly ever using makeup. Weil was a student, proficient in Ancient Greek by age 12. She later learned Sanskrit after reading the Bhagavad Gita, like the Renaissance thinker Pico della Mirandola, her interests in other religions were universal and she attempted to understand each religious tradition as an expression of transcendent wisdom. As a teenager, Weil studied at the Lycée Henri IV under the tutelage of her admired teacher Émile Chartier and her first attempt at the entrance examination for the École Normale Supérieure in June 1927 ended in failure, due to her low marks in history. In 1928 she was successful in gaining admission and she finished first in the exam for the certificate of General Philosophy and Logic, Simone de Beauvoir finished second. During these years, Weil attracted much attention with her radical opinions and she was called the Red virgin, and even The Martian by her admired mentor. At the École Normale Supérieure, she studied philosophy, earning her DES in 1931 with a thesis under the title Science et perfection dans Descartes and she received her agrégation that same year. Weil taught philosophy at a school for girls in Le PuySimone Weil – Simone Weil, 1921
17. Bischwiller – Bischwiller is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in northeastern France just west of the Moder River. The city is 7.8 kilometers southeast of Haguenau,8 kilometers west-northwest from the German border and the Rhine River, the Moder river, a Rhine tributary, flows across the town. Among the other streams cross the area can be cited the following tributaries of the Morder, the Rothbaechel, the Erlengraben. The last one is formed by the confluence of two streams named Weihergraben and Schnuchgraben. Due to its large Turkish minority, Bischwiller is often dubbed Turkwiller. S, communes of the Bas-Rhin department INSEE commune file Rapp, comte Jean, Memoirs of General Count Rapp, First Aide-de-camp to Napoleon, H. Colburn and Company Official websiteBischwiller – La Laub, former town hall, now a museum
18. Jean-Marie Le Pen – Jean-Marie Le Pen is a French politician who led the National Front party from its foundation in 1972 until 2011. His progression in the late 1980s is known as the Lepénisation des esprits or Le Pen-isation of spirits due to its effect on mainstream political opinion. Le Pen focuses on issues related to immigration to France, the European Union, traditional culture and values, law and order and he advocates immigration restrictions, the death penalty, raising incentives for homemakers, and euroscepticism. His progress to the round in the 21 April 2002 presidential election left its mark on French public life. His longevity in politics and his five attempts to become president of France have made him a figure in French political life. He was expelled from the party by his daughter Marine Le Pen on 20 August 2015 after new controversial statements and found himself marginalized in the French political landscape. Jean-Marie Le Pen was born on 20 June 1928 in La Trinité-sur-Mer, a seaside village in Brittany, the son of Anne Marie Hervé and Jean Le Pen. He was orphaned as an adolescent, when his fathers boat was blown up by a mine in 1942 and he was raised as a Roman Catholic and studied at the Jesuit high school François Xavier in Vannes, then at the lycée of Lorient. In November 1944, aged 16, he was turned down by Colonel Henri de La Vaissière when he attempted to join the French Forces of the Interior. He then entered the faculty of law in Paris, and started to sell the monarchist Action Françaises newspaper, Aspects de la France and he was repeatedly convicted of assault. Le Pen started his career as the head of the student union in Toulouse. He became president of the Association corporative des étudiants en droit and he was excluded from this organisation in 1951. After his time in the military, he studied political science and his graduate thesis, submitted in 1971 by him and Jean-Loup Vincent, was titled Le courant anarchiste en France depuis 1945 or The anarchist movement in France since 1945. After receiving his law diploma, he enlisted in the army in the Foreign Legion. He arrived in Indochina after the 1954 battle of Dien Bien Phu, which had been lost by France, Le Pen was then sent to Suez in 1956, but arrived only after the cease-fire. In 1953, a year before the beginning of the Algerian War, he contacted President Vincent Auriol, within two days, there were 40 volunteers from his university, a group that would later help victims of an earthquake in Italy. In Paris in 1956, he was elected to the National Assembly as a member of Pierre Poujades UDCA populist party, Le Pen,28 years old, was the youngest member of the Assembly. The next year, following his break with Poujade, Le Pen was reelected to the National Assembly as a member of the Centre National des Indépendants et Paysans party, Le Pen claimed that he had lost his left eye when he was savagely beaten during the 1958 election campaignJean-Marie Le Pen – Jean-Marie Le Pen MEP
19. French architecture – French architecture ranks high among Frances many accomplishments. A crucial factor in development, coined the Roman Architectural Revolution, was the invention of concrete. Social elements such as wealth and high densities in cities forced the ancient Romans to discover new solutions of their own. Notable examples in France during the period are Alyscamps in Arles, the Alyscamps is a large Roman necropolis, which is a short distance outside the walls of the old town of Arles. It was one of the most famous necropolises of the ancient world, the name is a corruption of the Latin Elisii Campi. They were famous in the Middle Ages and are referred to by Ariosto in Orlando Furioso, the Alyscamps continued to be used well into medieval times, although the removal of Saint Trophimus relics to the cathedral in 1152 reduced its prestige. Plans often continued the Roman basilica tradition, but also influences from as far away as Syria and Armenia. In the East, most structures were in timber, but stone was more common for significant buildings in the West, most major churches have been rebuilt, usually more than once, but many Merovingian plans have been reconstructed from archaeology. There are no Roman precedents for this Frankish innovation, a number of other buildings, now lost, including the Merovingian foundations of Saint-Denis, St. Gereon in Cologne, and the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés in Paris, are described as similarly ornate. Architecture of a Romanesque style developed simultaneously in parts of France in the 10th century, the style, sometimes called First Romanesque or Lombard Romanesque, is characterised by thick walls, lack of sculpture and the presence of rhythmic ornamental arches known as a Lombard band. The Angoulême Cathedral is one of several instances in which the Byzantine churches of Constantinople seem to have been influential in the design in which the spaces are roofed by domes. This structure has necessitated the use of thick walls. There are radiating chapels around the apse, which is a typically French feature and was to evolve into the chevette, notre-Dame in Domfront, Normandy is a cruciform church with a short apsidal east end. The nave has lost its aisle, and has some of its length. The crossing has a tower rises in two differentiated stages and is surmounted by a pyramidical spire of a type seen widely in France and Germany. The Abbey of Fongombault in France shows the influence of the Abbey of Cluny, the cruciform plan is clearly visible. There is a chevette of chapels surrounding the chance apse, the crossing is surmounted by a tower. Begun in the 1060s, it was a prototype for Gothic facades, the spires and the pinnacles, which appear to rise inevitably from the towers, are of the early 13th centuryFrench architecture – South side of the Cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, view from the Seine
20. Vichy France – Vichy France is the common name of the French State headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II. In particular, it represents the southern, unoccupied Free Zone that governed the southern part of the country, from 1940 to 1942, while the Vichy regime was the nominal government of France as a whole, Germany militarily occupied northern France. Thus, while Paris remained the de jure capital of France, following the Allied landings in French North Africa in November 1942, southern France was also militarily occupied by Germany and Italy. The Vichy government remained in existence, but as a de facto client and it vanished in late 1944 when the Allies occupied all of France. After being appointed Premier by President Albert Lebrun, Marshal Pétain ordered the French Governments military representatives to sign an armistice with Germany on 22 June 1940, Pétain subsequently established an authoritarian regime when the National Assembly of the French Third Republic granted him full powers on 10 July 1940. At that point, the Third Republic was dissolved, calling for National Regeneration, the French Government at Vichy reversed many liberal policies and began tight supervision of the economy, with central planning a key feature. Labour unions came under government control. The independence of women was reversed, with a put on motherhood. Paris lost its status in European art and culture. The media were tightly controlled and stressed virulent anti-Semitism, and, after June 1941, the French State maintained nominal sovereignty over the whole of French territory, but had effective full sovereignty only in the unoccupied southern zone libre. It had limited and only civil authority in the zones under military occupation. The occupation was to be a state of affairs, pending the conclusion of the war. The French Government at Vichy never joined the Axis alliance, Germany kept two million French soldiers prisoner, carrying out forced labour. They were hostages to ensure that Vichy would reduce its forces and pay a heavy tribute in gold, food. French police were ordered to round up immigrant Jews and other such as communists. Public opinion in some quarters turned against the French government and the occupying German forces over time, when it became clear that Germany was losing the war, and resistance to them increased. Most of the legal French governments leaders at Vichy fled or were subject to show trials by the GPRF, thousands of collaborators were summarily executed by local communists and the Resistance in so-called savage purges. The last of the French State exiles were captured in the Sigmaringen enclave by de Gaulles French 1st Armoured Division in April 1945, in 1940, Marshal Pétain was known as a First World War hero, the victor of the battle of VerdunVichy France – French prisoners of war are marched off under German guard, 1940
21. Charles de Gaulle – Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle was a French general and statesman. He was the leader of Free France and the head of the Provisional Government of the French Republic, in 1958, he founded the Fifth Republic and was elected as the 18th President of France, a position he held until his resignation in 1969. He was the dominant figure of France during the Cold War era, born in Lille, he graduated from Saint-Cyr in 1912. He was an officer of the First World War, wounded several times. During the interwar period, he advocated mobile armoured divisions, during the German invasion of May 1940, he led an armoured division which counterattacked the invaders, he was then appointed Under-Secretary for War. Refusing to accept his governments armistice with Nazi Germany, de Gaulle exhorted the French population to resist occupation and he led a government in exile and the Free French Forces against the Axis. Despite frosty relations with Britain and especially the United States, he emerged as the leader of the French resistance. He became Head of the Provisional Government of the French Republic in June 1944, frustrated by the return of petty partisanship in the new Fourth Republic, he resigned in early 1946 but continued to be politically active as founder of the RPF party. He retired in the early 1950s and wrote his War Memoirs, when the Algerian War was ripping apart the unstable Fourth Republic, the National Assembly brought him back to power during the May 1958 crisis. De Gaulle founded the Fifth Republic with a presidency. He granted independence to Algeria and progressively to other French colonies and he restored cordial Franco-German relations to create a European counterweight between the Anglo-American and Soviet spheres of influence. However, he opposed any development of a supranational Europe, favouring a Europe of sovereign nations, De Gaulle openly criticised the US intervention in Vietnam and the exorbitant privilege of the US dollar. In his later years, his support for an independent Quebec, De Gaulle resigned in 1969 after losing a referendum in which he proposed more decentralization. He died a year later at his residence in Colombey-les-Deux-Églises, leaving his Presidential memoirs unfinished, many French political parties and figures claim the Gaullist legacy. De Gaulle was ranked as Le Plus Grand Français de tous les temps, De Gaulle was born in the industrial region of Lille in the Nord departement, the third of five children. He was raised in a devoutly Catholic and traditional family and his father, Henri de Gaulle, was a professor of history and literature at a Jesuit college who eventually founded his own school. Henri de Gaulle came from a line of parliamentary gentry from Normandy and Burgundy. De Gaulles mother, Jeanne, descended from a family of entrepreneurs from LilleCharles de Gaulle – Charles de Gaulle in 1961
22. Louisiana Purchase – The Louisiana Purchase was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory by the United States from France in 1803. The U. S. paid fifty million francs and a cancellation of debts worth eighteen million francs for a total of sixty-eight million francs, the Louisiana territory included land from fifteen present U. S. states and two Canadian provinces. Its non-native population was around 60,000 inhabitants, of whom half were African slaves, the Kingdom of France controlled the Louisiana territory from 1699 until it was ceded to Spain in 1762. Napoleon in 1800, hoping to re-establish an empire in North America, however, Frances failure to put down the revolt in Saint-Domingue, coupled with the prospect of renewed warfare with the United Kingdom, prompted Napoleon to sell Louisiana to the United States. The Americans originally sought to purchase only the city of New Orleans and its adjacent coastal lands. The Louisiana Purchase occurred during the term of the third President of the United States, before the purchase was finalized, the decision faced Federalist Party opposition, they argued that it was unconstitutional to acquire any territory. Constitution did not contain provisions for acquiring territory, but he asserted that his constitutional power to negotiate treaties was sufficient. Throughout the second half of the 18th century, Louisiana was a pawn on the chessboard of European politics and it was controlled by the French, who had a few small settlements along the Mississippi and other main rivers. Following French defeat in the Seven Years War, Spain gained control of the territory west of the Mississippi, the United States controlled the area east of the Mississippi and north of New Orleans. The main issue for the Americans was free transit of the Mississippi to the sea, as the lands were being gradually settled by a few American migrants, many Americans, including Jefferson, assumed that the territory would be acquired piece by piece. The risk of power taking it from a weakened Spain made a profound reconsideration of this policy necessary. New Orleans was already important for shipping goods to and from the areas of the United States west of the Appalachian Mountains. Pinckneys Treaty, signed with Spain on October 27,1795, gave American merchants right of deposit in New Orleans, Americans used this right to transport products such as flour, tobacco, pork, bacon, lard, feathers, cider, butter, and cheese. The treaty also recognized American rights to navigate the entire Mississippi, in 1798 Spain revoked this treaty, prohibiting American use of New Orleans, and greatly upsetting the Americans. In 1801, Spanish Governor Don Juan Manuel de Salcedo took over from the Marquess of Casa Calvo, Napoleon Bonaparte had gained Louisiana for French ownership from Spain in 1800 under the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso, but the treaty was kept secret. Louisiana remained nominally under Spanish control, until a transfer of power to France on November 30,1803, another ceremony was held in St. Louis a few months later, in part because during winter conditions the news of the New Orleans formalities did not reach Upper Louisiana. The March 9–10,1804, event is remembered as Three Flags Day, James Monroe and Robert R. Livingston had traveled to Paris to negotiate the purchase of New Orleans in January 1803. Their instructions were to negotiate or purchase control of New Orleans and its environs, the Louisiana Purchase was by far the largest territorial gain in U. S. historyLouisiana Purchase – 1804 map of " Louisiana ", edged on the west by the Rocky Mountains
23. Bourbon Family Compact – The Pacte de Famille is one of three separate, but similar alliances between the Bourbon kings of France and Spain. The first of these was made on November 7,1733 by King Philip V of Spain, Philip V was the grandson of Louis XIV and had become the first Bourbon King of Spain in 1700 upon the extinction of Spanish Habsburgs. In addition, Spanish possessions in Italy were ceded to the branch of the House of Habsburg. He had married Maria Leszczyńska, the daughter of King Stanislaus I of Poland, because of this marriage alliance France became involved in the War of the Polish Succession in 1733. Philip V formed a plan to use this conflict to win back lost territory in Italy for his sons, because of his close relationship with Louis XV their alliance became known as the Family Compact. Louis failed to restore Stanislas to the Polish throne, but the Bourbons would gain the Duchy of Lorraine, the second Family Compact was made on October 25,1743 again by King Philip V of Spain and King Louis XV of France in the Treaty of Fontainebleau. This pact was signed in the middle of the War of Austrian Succession, the result was the expansion of Spanish influence in Italy when Philip Vs fourth son Philip, became in 1748 Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla. The third Family Compact was made on 15 August 1761 by King Charles III of Spain, Charles III was the son of Philip V, making him Louiss first cousin. At this time France was fighting the Seven Years War against Great Britain, charless alliance reversed the policy of his predecessor, Ferdinand VI, who wished to keep Spain out of the war. The agreement involved Spains allies Naples and Tuscany, when Spain became involved, the British occupied the Philippines and Cuba. Charles III recovered these possessions in the Treaty of Paris, on April 12,1779 France and Spain signed the Treaty of Aranjuez, by which Spain joined the American Revolutionary War against Great Britain. This Pact was seen as a renewal of the third Pacte de Famille, in August 1796 Manuel Godoy negotiated and signed the Second Treaty of San Ildefonso with France which required that Spain declare war on Great Britain. This treaty can not be considered a Family Compact, since the French Bourbons at that time had killed or fled France because of the French revolution. François Velde, The Pacte de Famille of 1761, in English, includes French-language text of the PactBourbon Family Compact – Both Kingdoms (France & Spain) to the House of Bourbon.
24. Antoine de la Sale – Antoine de la Sale was a French courtier, educator and writer. He participated in a number of campaigns in his youth and he only began writing when he had reached middle age. He lived in Italy at the time, but returned to France in the 1440s, where he acted as umpire in tournaments and he became the tutor of the sons of Louis de Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol, to whom he dedicated a moral work in 1451. His most successful work was Little John of Saintré, written in 1456 and he was born in Provence, probably at Arles, the illegitimate son of Bernardon de la Salle, a celebrated Gascon mercenary, mentioned in Froissarts Chronicles. His mother was a peasant, Perrinette Damendel, in 1402 Antoine entered the court of the third Angevin dynasty at Anjou, probably as a page. In 1407 he was at Messina with Louis II, Duke of Bourbon, the next years he perhaps spent in Brabant, for he was present at two tournaments given at Brussels and Ghent. In 1415 he took part in the expedition by John I of Portugal against the Moors in Ceuta. In 1420 he accompanied the 17-year-old Louis III of Anjou in his attempt to assert his claim as King of Naples and he travelled from Norcia to the Monti Sibillini and the neighboring Pilates Lake. The story of his adventures on this trip and of the legends and Sibyls grotto form a chapter of La Salade. In 1426 La Sale probably returned with Louis III of Anjou, who was also comte de Provence, to Provence, where he was acting as viguier of Arles in 1429. The title is of course a play on his own name, but he explains it as being due to the subject matter of the book. The work covered geography, history, protocol and military tactics, one complete original copy has survived, and two early printed editions. It includes Queen Sibyls Paradise, and Trip to the Lipari Isles, in 1439 he was again in Italy in charge of the castle of Capua, with John II and his young wife, Marie de Bourbon, when the place was besieged by the king of Aragon. La Sale married Lione de la Sellana de Brusa in the same year and he was about fifty-three, she was fifteen. René abandoned Naples in 1442, and Antoine no doubt returned to France about the same time. His advice was sought at the tournaments which celebrated the marriage of the unfortunate Margaret of Anjou at Nancy in 1445, for his new pupils he wrote at Chatelet-sur-Oise, in 1451, a moral work entitled La Salle. He followed his patron to Genappe in Brabant when the Dauphin took refuge at the Burgundian court, Cent Nouvelles nouvelles, a collection of licentious stories supposed to be narrated by various persons at the court of Philippe le Bon, was apparently collected or edited by him. A completed copy of this was presented to the Duke of Burgundy at Dijon in 1462, if then La Sale was the author, he probably was still living, otherwise the last mention of him is in 1461Antoine de la Sale – Frontispiece of an 1830 edition of Little John of Saintré, showing a fictitious author's portrait
25. Albert Camus – Albert Camus was a French philosopher, author, and journalist. His views contributed to the rise of the known as absurdism. He wrote in his essay The Rebel that his life was devoted to opposing the philosophy of nihilism while still delving deeply into individual freedom. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1957, Camus did not consider himself to be an existentialist despite usually being classified as a follower of it, even in his lifetime. In a 1945 interview, Camus rejected any ideological associations, No, Sartre and I are always surprised to see our names linked. Camus was born in French Algeria to a Pied-Noir family and studied at the University of Algiers, in 1949, Camus founded the Group for International Liaisons to denounce two ideologies found in both the USSR and the USA. Albert Camus was born on 7 November 1913 in Dréan in French Algeria and his mother was of Spanish descent and could only hear out of her left ear. His father, Lucien, an agricultural worker of Alsatian descent, was wounded in the Battle of the Marne in 1914 during World War I. Lucien died from his wounds in an army hospital on 11 October. Camus and his mother, a house cleaner, lived without many basic material possessions during his childhood in the Belcourt section of Algiers. In 1923, Camus was accepted into the Lycée Bugeaud and eventually was admitted to the University of Algiers, after he contracted tuberculosis in 1930, he had to end his football activities, he had been a goalkeeper for a prominent Algerian university team. In addition, he was able to study part-time. To earn money, he took odd jobs, as a tutor, car parts clerk. Camus joined the French Communist Party in early 1935, seeing it as a way to fight inequalities between Europeans and natives in Algeria. He did not suggest he was a Marxist or that he had read Das Kapital, in 1936, the independence-minded Algerian Communist Party was founded. Camus joined the activities of the Algerian Peoples Party, which got him into trouble with his Communist party comrades, Camus then became associated with the French anarchist movement. The anarchist André Prudhommeaux first introduced him at a meeting in 1948 of the Cercle des Étudiants Anarchistes as a sympathiser familiar with anarchist thought, Camus wrote for anarchist publications such as Le Libertaire, La révolution Prolétarienne, and Solidaridad Obrera, the organ of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT. Camus stood with the anarchists when they expressed support for the uprising of 1953 in East Germany and he again allied with the anarchists in 1956, first in support of the workers uprising in Poznań, Poland, and then later in the year with the Hungarian RevolutionAlbert Camus – Portrait from New York World-Telegram and Sun Photograph Collection, 1957.
26. Claude Debussy – Achille-Claude Debussy, known since the 1890s as Claude-Achille Debussy or Claude Debussy, was a French composer. He and Maurice Ravel were the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music and he was made Chevalier of the Legion of Honour in 1903. He was among the most influential composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Debussys music is noted for its sensory content and frequent usage of nontraditional tonalities. The prominent French literary style of his period was known as Symbolism, Debussy, the oldest of five children, was born Achille-Claude Debussy on 22 August 1862 in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France. His father, Manuel-Achille Debussy, owned a shop there, his mother. The family moved to Paris in 1867, but in 1870 Debussys pregnant mother fled with Claude to his aunts home in Cannes to escape the Franco-Prussian War. At the age of seven, he began lessons with an Italian violinist in his early 40s named Jean Cerutti. In 1871 he drew the attention of Marie Mauté de Fleurville, Debussy always believed her, although there is no independent evidence to support her claim. His talents soon became evident, and in 1872, at age ten, Debussy entered the Paris Conservatoire and he also became a lifelong friend of fellow student and distinguished pianist Isidor Philipp. After Debussys death, many pianists sought Philipps advice on playing his works, Debussy was experimental from the outset, favouring dissonances and intervals that were not taught at the Academy. Like Georges Bizet, he was a brilliant pianist and a sight reader. However, Debussy never once won a competition, and his personal opinion on competitions are that it is rather. The rules are taught in places called Conservatories, Art Schools, the contests, preceded by strict training, take place once a year and the umpires of the game are members of the institute —Monsieur Croche. The pieces he played in public at this time included sonata movements by Beethoven, Schumann and Weber,2, a movement from the Piano Concerto No. 1, and the Allegro de concert, during the summers of 1880,1881, and 1882, he accompanied Nadezhda von Meck, the wealthy patroness of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, as she travelled with her family in Europe. Despite von Mecks closeness to Tchaikovsky, the Russian master appears to have had effect on Debussy. In September 1880 she sent his Danse bohémienne for Tchaikovskys perusal, a month later Tchaikovsky wrote back to her, It is a pretty piece. Not a single idea is expressed fully, the form is terribly shriveled, Debussy did not publish the piece, and the manuscript remained in the von Meck family, it was eventually sold to BClaude Debussy – Claude Debussy in 1908
27. French Revolution – Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history, the causes of the French Revolution are complex and are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years War and the American Revolutionary War, the French government was deeply in debt, Years of bad harvests leading up to the Revolution also inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and the aristocracy. Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates-General in May 1789, a central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime. The next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the intent on thwarting major reforms. The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy, in a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats closely shaped the course of the Revolution, internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution significantly, culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins. Large numbers of civilians were executed by revolutionary tribunals during the Terror, after the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795. The rule of the Directory was characterised by suspended elections, debt repudiations, financial instability, persecutions against the Catholic clergy, dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. The modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution, almost all future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day, the French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not merely national, for it aimed at benefiting all humanity. Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of republics and democracies and it became the focal point for the development of all modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism, nationalism, socialism, feminism, and secularism, among many others. The Revolution also witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France, historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the sphere in France. A perfect example would be the Palace of Versailles which was meant to overwhelm the senses of the visitor and convince one of the greatness of the French state and Louis XIV. Starting in the early 18th century saw the appearance of the sphere which was critical in that both sides were active. In France, the emergence of the public sphere outside of the control of the saw the shift from Versailles to Paris as the cultural capital of France. In the 1750s, during the querelle des bouffons over the question of the quality of Italian vs, in 1782, Louis-Sébastien Mercier wrote, The word court no longer inspires awe amongst us as in the time of Louis XIVFrench Revolution – The August Insurrection in 1792 precipitated the last days of the monarchy.
28. Rennes – Rennes is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern France at the confluence of the Ille and the Vilaine. Rennes is the capital of the region of Brittany, as well as the Ille-et-Vilaine department, renness history goes back more than 2,000 years, at a time when it was a small Gallic village named Condate. Together with Vannes and Nantes, it was one of the cities of the historic province of Brittany. After the French Revolution, Rennes remained for most of its history a parliamentary, administrative, since the 1950s, Rennes has grown in importance through rural flight and its modern industrial development, partly automotive. The city developed extensive building plans to accommodate upwards of 200,000 inhabitants, during the 1980s, Rennes became one of the main centres in telecommunication and high technology industry. It is now a significant digital innovation centre in France, in 2015, the city is the tenth largest in France, with a metropolitan area of about 700,000 inhabitants. With more than 63,000 students in 2013, is also the eighth-largest university campus of France, the inhabitants of Rennes are called Rennais in French. In 2012, lExpress named Rennes as the most liveable city in France, Rennes is the administrative capital of the French department of Ille-et-Vilaine. It has a long history due to its location at the confluence of two rivers and its proximity to the regions from which arose various challenges to the borders of Brittany. Without inscriptions, as the Celtic practice was, the Redones coinage features a charioteer whose pony has a human head, large hoards of their coins were unearthed in the treasure of Amanlis found in June 1835 and that of Saint-Jacques-de-la-Lande, discovered in February 1941. The museum at Rennes contains a representative collection. In 57 BC the Redones joined the Gaulish coalition against Rome which was suppressed by Crassus, in 52 BC, the Redones responded to the call of Vercingetorix to furnish a large contingent of warriors. The oldest known Rennais is Titus Flavius Postuminus, known to us from his steles found in Rennes in 1969. As indicated by his name, he would have been born under the Flavian dynasty, under the reign of Titus, one of the steles tells us, in Latin, that he took charge over all the public affairs in the Civitas Riedonum. He was twice duumvir and flamen for life for Mars Mullo, during the Roman era, the strategic position of the town contributed to its importance. To the west the principal Roman route, via Osismii, stretched from Condate Riedonum to Vorgium, in 275, the threat of barbarians led to the erection of a robust brick wall around Rennes. The Holy See of Rennes had been established by 453, with a church having occupied the site of the current Rennes Cathedral since the start of the 6th century. One of the earliest bishops of Rennes, Melaine - who would become the patron saint - played an important role in the peace treaty between the Franks and the Armoricans in 497Rennes
29. Sarah Bernhardt – Sarah Bernhardt was a French stage and early film actress. She was referred to as the most famous actress the world has ever known, Bernhardt made her fame on the stages of France in the 1870s, at the beginning of the Belle Epoque period, and was soon in demand in Europe and the Americas. She developed a reputation as a dramatic actress and tragedienne. In her later career she starred in some of the earliest films ever produced, Sarah Bernhardt was born in Paris as Rosine Bernardt on October 23,1844. She was the daughter of a Dutch-Jewish courtesan, or upper-class prostitute, Judith Bernard. Four different addresses in Paris are claimed as her birthplace,125 rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré,5 rue de lEcole-de-Medicine,22 rue de la Michodière and 265 rue Saint-Honoré. The father, whoever he was, left a sum of one hundred francs for her future dowry when she came of age. Sarah lived for months with the nurse and her husband in the tiny apartment of the concierge. While there, the child showed the first signs of tuberculosis. Sarah was discovered on the street by her aunt Rosine, who was passing by, when Sarahs mother finally returned to Paris, Sarah was taken to her apartment at 265 rue Saint-Honoré, where she lived, attended by servants, rarely ever seeing her mother. At the age of eight, Sarah could neither read or writer and her mother sent her away to a school for young ladies in Auteuil run by a Madame Fressard, where for the first time she was with other children her own age. The other children made fun of her appearance and curly hair. During the two years she attended the school, her mother came to see her only twice and she completely forgot all of her lines and fled the stage in tears. At the age of ten, by obtaining the sponsorship of the Duc de Morny, her mother sent Sarah to Grandchamp, at the convent, she was soon on the stage again, performing the part of the Archangel Raphael in the story of Tobias and the Angel. She received her first communion as a Roman Catholic in 1856, however, she never forgot her Jewish heritage. When asked years later by a reporter if she were a Christian, she replied, No, Im a Roman Catholic, Im waiting until Christians become better. At the age of fifteen, her mother withdrew her from the school and her mother summoned a family council, which also included the Duc de Morny, one of her friends. Morny proposed that Sarah should become an actress, an idea which horrified the young girl, Morny arranged for her to attend her first theater performance at the Comedie Française in a party which included her mother, the Duc de Morny, and his friend Alexandre DumasSarah Bernhardt – Bernhardt around 1878
30. Toulouse – Toulouse is the capital city of the southwestern French department of Haute-Garonne, as well as of the Occitanie region. The city lies on the banks of the River Garonne,150 kilometres from the Mediterranean Sea,230 km from the Atlantic Ocean and it is the fourth-largest city in France with 466,297 inhabitants in January 2014. The Toulouse Metro area is, with 1312304 inhabitants as of 2014, Frances 4th metropolitan area after Paris, Lyon and Marseille and ahead of Lille and Bordeaux. Toulouse is the centre of the European aerospace industry, with the headquarters of Airbus, the Galileo positioning system, the SPOT satellite system, the Airbus Group, ATR and the Aerospace Valley. The city also hosts the European headquarters of Intel and CNESs Toulouse Space Centre, thales Alenia Space, and Astrium Satellites, Airbus Groups satellite system subsidiary, also have a significant presence in Toulouse. The University of Toulouse is one of the oldest in Europe and, with more than 103,000 students, is the fourth-largest university campus in France, after the Universities of Paris, Lyon and Lille. The air route between Toulouse Blagnac and Paris Orly is the busiest in Europe, transporting 2.4 million passengers in 2014, according to the rankings of LExpress and Challenges, Toulouse is the most dynamic French city. It is now the capital of the Occitanie region, the largest region in metropolitan France, sernin, the largest remaining Romanesque building in Europe, designated in 1998 because of its significance to the Santiago de Compostela pilgrimage route. Toulouse is in the south of France, north of the department of Haute-Garonne, the city is traversed by the Canal de Brienne, the Canal du Midi and the rivers Garonne, Touch and Hers-Mort. Toulouse has a subtropical climate which can be qualified as submediterranean due to its proximity to the Mediterranean climate zone. The Garonne Valley was a point for trade between the Pyrenees, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic since at least the Iron Age. The historical name of the city, Tolosa, it is of unknown meaning or origin, possibly from Aquitanian, or from Iberian, Tolosa enters the historical period in the 2nd century BC, when it became a Roman military outpost. After the conquest of Gaul, it was developed as a Roman city of Gallia Narbonensis. In the 5th century, Tolosa fell to the Visigothic kingdom and became one of its cities, in the early 6th century even serving as its capital. From this time, Toulouse was the capital of Aquitaine within the Frankish realm, in 721, Duke Odo of Aquitaine defeated an invading Umayyad Muslim army at the Battle of Toulouse. Odos victory was an obstacle to Muslim expansion into Christian Europe. Charles Martel, a later, won the Battle of Tours. The Frankish conquest of Septimania followed in the 750s, and a quasi-independent County of Toulouse emerged within the Carolingian sub-kingdom of Aquitaine by the late 8th centuryToulouse – Montage of Toulouse Top: Pont Saint Pierre and Garonne River Middle: Place du Capitole, Pont Neuf Bottom: Capitole de Toulouse, Ariane 5 at Cité de l'espace, Médiathèque José Cabanis
31. Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen – Not to be confused with Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen of 1793, a second declaration, written in 1793 but never formally adopted. The Declaration was directly influenced by Thomas Jefferson, working with General Lafayette, influenced also by the doctrine of natural right, the rights of man are held to be universal, valid at all times and in every place, pertaining to human nature itself. It became the basis for a nation of free individuals protected equally by law and it is included in the preamble of the constitutions of both the Fourth French Republic and Fifth Republic and is still current. The content of the document emerged largely from the ideals of the American Revolution, in August 1789, Honoré Mirabeau played a central role in conceptualizing and drafting the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. The draft was modified during the debates. A second and lengthier declaration, known as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen of 1793, was written in 1793 but never formally adopted. As can be seen in the texts, the French declaration is heavily influenced by the philosophy of the Enlightenment, by Enlightenment principles of human rights. Declaration of Independence which preceded it, Thomas Jefferson—the primary author of the U. S. Declaration of Independence—was at the time in France as a U. S. diplomat, in the ratification by the states of the U. S. Constitution in 1788, critics had demanded a written Bill of Rights, in response, James Madisons proposal for a U. S. Bill of Rights was introduced in New York on 8 June 1789,11 weeks before the French declaration. Considering the 6 to 8 weeks it took news to cross the Atlantic, but, as Lafebvre notes, both texts emerged from the same shared intellectual heritage. The same people took part in shaping both documents, Lafayette admired Jefferson, and Jefferson in turn found Lafayette useful, writing in 1787 that Lafayette was a most valuable auxiliary to me and his zeal is unbounded, & his weight with those in power, great. The declaration is in the spirit of secular law, which does not base itself on religious doctrine or authority, in contrast with traditional natural law theory. The declaration defines a set of individual and collective rights for all men. Influenced by the doctrine of natural rights, these rights are held to be universal, for example, Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be founded only upon the general good and they have certain natural rights to property, to liberty, and to life. According to this theory, the role of government is to recognize, furthermore, government should be carried on by elected representatives. At the time of writing, the contained in the declaration were only awarded to menDeclaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen – The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789 is a fundamental document of the French Revolution and in the history of human rights.
32. TGV – TGV is Frances intercity high-speed rail service, operated by SNCF, the national rail operator. It was developed in the 1970s by GEC-Alsthom and SNCF, originally designed as turbotrains to be powered by gas turbines, the prototypes evolved into electric trains with the 1973 oil crisis. A TGV test train set the record for the fastest wheeled train, in mid-2011, scheduled TGV trains operated at the highest speeds in conventional train service in the world, regularly reaching 320 km/h on the LGV Est, LGV Rhin-Rhône, and LGV Méditerranée. The commercial success of the first LGV, the LGV Sud-Est, led to an expansion of the network to the south, and new lines in the west, north, and east. Eager to emulate the TGVs success, neighbouring countries Italy, Spain, Several future lines are planned, including extensions within France and to surrounding countries. Cities such as Tours have become part of a TGV commuter belt around Paris, in 2007, SNCF generated profits of €1.1 billion driven largely by higher margins on the TGV network. The idea of the TGV was first proposed in the 1960s, at the time the French government favoured new technology, exploring the production of hovercraft and the Aérotrain air-cushion vehicle. Simultaneously, SNCF began researching high-speed trains on conventional tracks, in 1976, the government agreed to fund the first line. By the mid-1990s, the trains were so popular that SNCF president Louis Gallois declared TGV The train that saved French railways, TGV001 was not a wasted prototype, its gas turbine was only one of its many new technologies for high-speed rail travel. It also tested high-speed brakes, needed to dissipate the large amount of energy of a train at high speed, high-speed aerodynamics. It was articulated, i. e. two adjacent carriages shared a bogie, allowing free yet controlled motion with respect to one another and it reached 318 km/h, which remains the world speed record for a non-electric train. Its interior and exterior were styled by British-born designer Jack Cooper, whose work formed the basis of early TGV designs, changing the TGV to electric traction required a significant design overhaul. The first electric prototype, nicknamed Zébulon, was completed in 1974, testing such as innovative body mounting of motors, pantographs, suspension. Body mounting of motors allowed over 3 tonnes to be eliminated from the power cars, the prototype travelled almost 1,000,000 km during testing. In 1976 the French government funded the TGV project, and construction of the LGV Sud-Est, the line was given the designation LN1, Ligne Nouvelle 1. After two pre-production trainsets had been tested and substantially modified, the first production version was delivered on 25 April 1980, the LGV opened to the public between Paris and Lyon on 27 September 1981. Contrary to its earlier fast services, SNCF intended TGV service for all types of passengers and this commitment to a democratised TGV service was enhanced in the Mitterrand era with the promotional slogan Progress means nothing unless it is shared by all. The TGV was considerably faster than normal trains, cars, or aeroplanes, the trains became widely popular, the public welcoming fast and practical travelTGV – Three TGV trains at Paris Gare de l'Est
33. Italian War of 1521-1526 – The Italian War of 1521–26, sometimes known as the Four Years War, was a part of the Italian Wars. The war pitted Francis I of France and the Republic of Venice against the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Henry VIII of England, and the Papal States. The conflict arose from animosity over the election of Charles as Emperor in 1519–20, the war broke out across Western Europe late in 1521, when a French–Navarrese expedition attempted to reconquer Navarre while a French army invaded the Low Countries. A Spanish army drove the Navarrese forces back into the Pyrenees, and other Imperial forces attacked northern France, at the Battle of Bicocca on 27 April 1522, Imperial and Papal forces defeated the French, driving them from Lombardy. Following the battle, fighting spilled onto French soil, while Venice made a separate peace. The English invaded France in 1523, while Charles de Bourbon, alienated by Franciss attempts to seize his inheritance, betrayed Francis, a French attempt to regain Lombardy in 1524 failed and provided Bourbon with an opportunity to invade Provence at the head of a Spanish army. Francis himself led an attack on Milan in 1525, his disastrous defeat at the Battle of Pavia. Only a few weeks after his release, however, he repudiated the terms of the treaty, although the Italian Wars would continue for another three decades, they would end with France having failed to regain any substantial territories in Italy. By 1518, the peace that had prevailed in Europe after the Battle of Marignano was beginning to crumble. The major powers were outwardly friendly, pledging by the Treaty of London to come to the aid of any of the signatories that was attacked and they were divided, however, on the question of the Imperial succession. The Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I, intending for a Habsburg to succeed him, began to campaign on behalf of Charles of Spain, maximilians death in 1519 brought the Imperial election to the forefront of European politics. Pope Leo X, threatened by the presence of Spanish troops a mere forty miles from the Vatican, the prince-electors themselves, with the exception of Frederick of Saxony, who refused to countenance the campaigning, promised their support to both candidates at once. The final outcome, however, was not determined by the exorbitant bribes and he was crowned Holy Roman Emperor on 23 October 1520, by which point he already controlled both the Spanish crown and the hereditary Burgundian lands in the Low Countries. Cardinal Wolsey, hoping to increase Henry VIIIs influence on the continent, Henry and Francis staged an extravagant meeting at the Field of the Cloth of Gold. Immediately afterwards, Wolsey entertained Charles in Calais, in December, the French began to plan for war. Francis did not wish to openly attack Charles because Henry had announced his intention to intervene against the first party to break the tenuous peace, instead, he turned to more covert support for incursions into German and Spanish territory. One attack would be made on the Meuse River, under the leadership of Robert de la Marck, simultaneously, a French-Navarrese army would advance through Navarre after reconquering St-Jean-Pied-de-Port. Charles was meanwhile preoccupied with the issue of Martin Luther, whom he confronted at the Diet of Worms in March 1521, the Emperor viewed Catholicism as a natural way of binding the diverse principalities of the Holy Roman Empire to himItalian War of 1521-1526 – The Battle of Pavia by an unknown Flemish artist (oil on panel, 16th century)
34. Nostradamus – Michel de Nostredame, usually Latinised as Nostradamus, was a French physician and reputed seer who published collections of prophecies that have since become widely famous. He is best known for his book Les Propheties, the first edition of which appeared in 1555, the earliest ancestor who can be identified on the paternal side is Astruge of Carcassonne, who died about 1420. Michels known siblings included Delphine, Jean, Pierre, Hector, Louis, Bertrand, Jean II, at the age of 15 Nostredame entered the University of Avignon to study for his baccalaureate. After little more than a year, he was forced to leave Avignon when the university closed its doors during an outbreak of the plague, after leaving Avignon, Nostredame, by his own account, traveled the countryside for eight years from 1521 researching herbal remedies. In 1529, after years as an apothecary, he entered the University of Montpellier to study for a doctorate in medicine. The expulsion document, BIU Montpellier, Register S2 folio 87, however, some of his publishers and correspondents would later call him Doctor. After his expulsion, Nostredame continued working, presumably still as an apothecary, in 1531 Nostredame was invited by Jules-César Scaliger, a leading Renaissance scholar, to come to Agen. There he married a woman of uncertain name, who bore him two children, in 1534 his wife and children died, presumably from the plague. After their deaths, he continued to travel, passing through France, finally, in 1547, he settled in Salon-de-Provence in the house which exists today, where he married a rich widow named Anne Ponsarde, with whom he had six children—three daughters and three sons. But it seems he could have dabbled in horoscopes, necromancy, scrying, following popular trends, he wrote an almanac for 1550, for the first time Latinising his name from Nostredame to Nostradamus. He was so encouraged by the success that he decided to write one or more annually. Taken together, they are known to have contained at least 6,338 prophecies, as well as at least eleven annual calendars, all of them starting on 1 January and not, as is sometimes supposed, in March. When obliged to attempt this himself on the basis of the tables of the day, he frequently made errors. He then began his project of writing a book of one thousand mainly French quatrains, for technical reasons connected with their publication in three installments, the last fifty-eight quatrains of the seventh Century have not survived in any extant edition. The quatrains, published in a book titled Les Propheties, received a reaction when they were published. Some people thought Nostradamus was a servant of evil, a fake, or insane, catherine de Médicis, wife of King Henry II of France, was one of Nostradamus greatest admirers. After reading his almanacs for 1555, which hinted at unnamed threats to the family, she summoned him to Paris to explain them. In 1538 he came into conflict with the Church in Agen after an Inquisitor visited the area looking for Anti-Catholic viewsNostradamus – Nostradamus: original portrait by his son Cesar
35. Olivier Messiaen – Olivier-Eugène-Prosper-Charles Messiaen was a French composer, organist, and ornithologist, one of the major composers of the 20th century. His music is complex, harmonically and melodically it often uses modes of limited transposition. Messiaen also drew on his Roman Catholic faith for his pieces and he travelled widely and wrote works inspired by diverse influences such as Japanese music, the landscape of Bryce Canyon in Utah and the life of St. Francis of Assisi. He said he perceived colours when he heard certain musical chords, combinations of these colours, for a short period Messiaen experimented with the parametrisation associated with total serialism, in which field he is often cited as an innovator. His style absorbed many global musical influences such as Indonesian gamelan, Messiaen entered the Paris Conservatoire at the age of 11 and was taught by Paul Dukas, Maurice Emmanuel, Charles-Marie Widor and Marcel Dupré, among others. He was appointed organist at the de la Sainte-Trinité, Paris, in 1931. He taught at the Schola Cantorum de Paris during the 1930s, the piece was first performed by Messiaen and fellow prisoners for an audience of inmates and prison guards. He was appointed professor of harmony soon after his release in 1941 and his many distinguished pupils included Quincy Jones, Pierre Boulez, Karlheinz Stockhausen and Yvonne Loriod, who became his second wife. He found birdsong fascinating, notating bird songs worldwide and incorporating birdsong transcriptions into his music and his innovative use of colour, his conception of the relationship between time and music, and his use of birdsong are among the features that make Messiaens music distinctive. Olivier-Eugène-Prosper-Charles Messiaen was born December 10,1908 in Avignon, France and he was the elder of two sons of Cécile Sauvage, a poet, and Pierre Messiaen, a teacher of English who translated the plays of William Shakespeare into French. Messiaens mother published a sequence of poems, Lâme en bourgeon, the last chapter of Tandis que la terre tourne, Messiaen later said this sequence of poems influenced him deeply and he cited it as prophetic of his future artistic career. At the outbreak of World War I, Pierre Messiaen enlisted, there Messiaen became fascinated with drama, reciting Shakespeare to his brother with the help of a home-made toy theatre with translucent backdrops made from old cellophane wrappers. At this time he adopted the Roman Catholic faith. Later, Messiaen felt most at home in the Alps of the Dauphiné and he took piano lessons having already taught himself to play. His interest included the recent music of French composers Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel, around this time he began to compose. In 1918 his father returned from the war and the moved to Nantes. The following year Pierre Messiaen gained a teaching post in Paris, Messiaen entered the Paris Conservatoire in 1919, aged 11. At the Conservatoire, Messiaen made excellent academic progress, in 1924, aged 15, he was awarded second prize in harmony, having been taught in that subject by professor Jean GallonOlivier Messiaen – Olivier Messiaen in 1946
36. Samuel Beckett – Samuel Barclay Beckett was an Irish avant-garde novelist, playwright, theatre director, and poet, who lived in Paris for most of his adult life and wrote in both English and French. He is widely regarded as among the most influential writers of the 20th century, Becketts work offers a bleak, tragicomic outlook on human existence, often coupled with black comedy and gallows humour, and became increasingly minimalist in his later career. He is considered one of the last modernist writers, and one of the key figures in what Martin Esslin called the Theatre of the Absurd. Beckett was awarded the 1969 Nobel Prize in Literature for his writing, which—in new forms for the novel and he was elected Saoi of Aosdána in 1984. The Becketts were members of the Anglican Church of Ireland, the family home, Cooldrinagh in the Dublin suburb of Foxrock, was a large house and garden complete with tennis court built in 1903 by Samuels father, William. Samuel Beckett was born on Good Friday,13 April 1906, to William Frank Beckett, a quantity surveyor and descendant of the Huguenots, and Maria Jones Roe, a nurse, Beckett had one older brother, Frank Edward Beckett. At the age of five, Beckett attended a local playschool, where he started to learn music, in 1919, Beckett went to Portora Royal School in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh. A natural athlete, Beckett excelled at cricket as a left-handed batsman, later, he was to play for Dublin University and played two first-class games against Northamptonshire. As a result, he became the only Nobel literature laureate to have played first class cricket, Beckett studied French, Italian, and English at Trinity College, Dublin from 1923 to 1927. He was elected a Scholar in Modern Languages in 1926, Beckett graduated with a BA and, after teaching briefly at Campbell College in Belfast, took up the post of lecteur danglais at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris from November 1928 to 1930. While there, he was introduced to renowned Irish author James Joyce by Thomas MacGreevy and this meeting had a profound effect on the young man. Beckett assisted Joyce in various ways, one of which was research towards the book that became Finnegans Wake, in 1929, Beckett published his first work, a critical essay entitled Dante. Becketts close relationship with Joyce and his family cooled, however, Becketts first short story, Assumption, was published in Jolass periodical transition. In 1930, Beckett returned to Trinity College as a lecturer, in November 1930, he presented a paper in French to the Modern Languages Society of Trinity on the Toulouse poet Jean du Chas, founder of a movement called le Concentrisme. It was a parody, for Beckett had in fact invented the poet and his movement that claimed to be at odds with all that is clear. Beckett later insisted that he had not intended to fool his audience, when Beckett resigned from Trinity at the end of 1931, his brief academic career was at an end. He spent some time in London, where in 1931 he published Proust, two years later, following his fathers death, he began two years treatment with Tavistock Clinic psychoanalyst Dr. Wilfred Bion. Aspects of it became evident in Becketts later works, such as Watt, in 1932, he wrote his first novel, Dream of Fair to Middling Women, but after many rejections from publishers decided to abandon itSamuel Beckett – Beckett in 1977
37. Sophie Blanchard – Sophie Blanchard was a French aeronaut and the wife of ballooning pioneer Jean-Pierre Blanchard. Blanchard was the first woman to work as a professional balloonist, known throughout Europe for her ballooning exploits, Blanchard entertained Napoleon Bonaparte, who promoted her to the role of Aeronaut of the Official Festivals, replacing André-Jacques Garnerin. On the restoration of the monarchy in 1814 she performed for Louis XVIII, ballooning was a risky business for the pioneers. Blanchard lost consciousness on a few occasions, endured freezing temperatures, in 1819, she became the first woman to be killed in an aviation accident when, during an exhibition in the Tivoli Gardens in Paris, she launched fireworks that ignited the gas in her balloon. Her craft crashed on the roof of a house and she fell to her death, Sophie Blanchard was born Marie Madeleine-Sophie Armant to Protestant parents at Trois-Canons, near La Rochelle. Little is known of her life before her marriage to Jean-Pierre Blanchard, the date of her marriage is unclear, sources quote dates as early as 1794 or 1797, but most state 1804, the year of her first ascent. Blanchard had abandoned his first wife, Victoire Lebrun, and their four children to travel round Europe pursuing his ballooning career and she was terrified of loud noises and of riding in carriages, but was fearless in the air. She and her husband were in an accident on a joint flight in 1807, in which they crashed, the shock apparently left her mute for a while. Sophie made her first ascent in a balloon with Blanchard in Marseilles on 27 December 1804, the couple faced bankruptcy as a result of Blanchards poor business sense, and they believed a female balloonist was a novelty that might attract enough attention to solve their financial problems. She described the feeling as an incomparable sensation, Sophie made a second ascent with Blanchard and for her third ascent on 18 August 1805, she flew solo from the garden of the Cloister of the Jacobins in Toulouse. She was not the first woman balloonist, on 20 May 1784, the Marchioness and Countess of Montalembert, the Countess of Podenas and a Miss de Lagarde had taken a trip on a tethered balloon in Paris. Thible, a singer, had made an ascent to entertain Gustav III of Sweden in Lyon on 4 June 1784. Blanchard was, however, the first woman to pilot her own balloon, in 1809, her husband died from injuries sustained when he fell from his balloon in the Hague after suffering a heart attack. After his death, Sophie continued to make ascents, specialising in night flights and his niece, Élisa Garnerin, was Blanchards chief rival as a female aeronaut, and it was rare for a suitable event to lack a performance by one or the other. Blanchard may have given some demonstrations of parachuting herself, but her primary interest was in ballooning, the couple had still been in debt at the time of Blanchards death, so to minimise her expenses Sophie was as frugal as possible in her choice of balloon. She used a gas balloon, as it allowed her to ascend in a basket little bigger than a chair. A hydrogen balloon also freed her from having to tend a fire to keep the craft airborne, because she was small and light, she was able to cut back on the amount of gas used to inflate the balloon. Sophie had used, or at least owned, a hot air balloon and she became a favourite of Napoleon, and he appointed her to replace André-Jacques Garnerin in 1804Sophie Blanchard – Blanchard shown in an 1859 engraving by Jules Porreau
38. Thierry Henry – Thierry Daniel Henry is a retired French professional footballer who played as a forward, and the current second assistant manager of the Belgium national team. He played for Monaco, Juventus, Barcelona, New York Red Bulls, at international level he represented France and is his countrys record goalscorer. Henry made his debut with Monaco in 1994. Good form led to an international call-up in 1998, after which he signed for the Serie A defending champions Juventus, a year later he signed for Premier League club Arsenal for £11 million. It was at Arsenal that Henry made his name as a world-class player, under long-time mentor and coach Arsène Wenger, Henry became a prolific striker and Arsenals all-time leading scorer with 228 goals in all competitions. He won two titles and three FA Cups at the club. In 2003 and 2004 Henry was runner-up for the FIFA World Player of the Year and he was named the PFA Players Player of the Year twice, and the FWA Footballer of the Year three times. Henry spent his two seasons with Arsenal as club captain, leading them to the 2006 UEFA Champions League Final. In June 2007, after eight years with Arsenal, he transferred to Barcelona for a fee of €24 million, in 2009, he was an integral part of the clubs historic treble when they won La Liga, the Copa del Rey and the UEFA Champions League. He went on to achieve an unprecedented sextuple by also winning the Supercopa de España, the UEFA Super Cup, in total, Henry has been named in the UEFA Team of the Year five times. In 2010, he joined the New York Red Bulls of Major League Soccer and he returned to Arsenal on loan for two months in 2012. In 2013, Henry with the New York Red Bulls won the MLS Supporters Shield, Henry enjoyed success with the French national team, winning the 1998 FIFA World Cup, UEFA Euro 2000 and 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup. In October 2007, he surpassed Michel Platinis record to become Frances top goalscorer, after amassing 123 appearances and 51 goals, Henry retired from international football after the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Henry was also one of the top commercially marketed footballers, he was ranked ninth in the world in 2006, in August 2016 he was appointed as the second assistant manager of Belgiums national team, alongside head coach Roberto Martínez and fellow assistant Graeme Jones. Henry is of Antillean heritage, his father, Antoine, is from Guadeloupe and he was born and raised in Les Ulis suburb of Paris which, despite sometimes being seen as a tough neighbourhood, provided good footballing facilities. As a seven-year-old, Henry showed great potential, prompting Claude Chezelle to recruit him to the local club CO Les Ulis and his father pressured him to attend training, although the youngster was not particularly drawn to football. He joined US Palaiseau in 1989, but after a year his father out with the club, so Henry moved to ES Viry-Châtillon. US Palaiseau coach Jean-Marie Panza, Henrys future mentor, followed him there, in 1990, Monaco sent scout Arnold Catalano to watch Henry, then at the age of 13 in a matchThierry Henry – Thierry Henry playing for the MLS All-Stars in 2013.
39. France national rugby union team – The France national rugby union team represents France in rugby union. They compete annually against England, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and they have won the championship outright sixteen times, shared it a further eight times, and have completed nine grand slams. Eight former French players have been inducted into the World Rugby Hall of Fame, Rugby was introduced to France in 1872 by the British, and on New Years Day 1906 the national side played its first Test match – against New Zealand in Paris. France played sporadically against the Home Nations until they joined them to form a Five Nations tournament in 1910, France also competed in the rugby competitions at early Summer Olympics, winning the gold medal in 1900 and two silver medals in the 1920s. The national team came of age during the 1950s and 1960s and they won their first Grand Slam in 1968. Since the inaugural World Cup in 1987, France have qualified for the stage of every tournament. They have reached the three times, losing to the All Blacks in 1987 and 2011 and to Australia in 1999. France hosted the 2007 Rugby World Cup, where, as in 2003, France traditionally play in blue shirts with white shorts and red socks, and are commonly referred to as les tricolores or les bleus. The French emblem is a golden rooster imposed upon a red shield and their alternative strip is composed of a white shirt and navy blue shorts and socks. Rugby was introduced to France in 1872 by English merchants and students, on 26 February 1890, a French rugby team recruited from the Janson Desailly Lyceum defeated an international team at the Bois de Boulogne. Although France were represented at the 1900 Summer Olympics, their first official test match did not take place till New Years Day,1906 against the New Zealand All Blacks in Paris. France then played intermittently against the Home Nations until they joined them to form the Five Nations tournament in 1910, in 1913 France faced South Africas Springboks for the first time, losing 38–5. France also competed at the 1920 and 1924 Summer Olympics, France were ejected from the Five Nations in 1932 after being accused of professionalism in the French leagues at a time when rugby union was strictly amateur. Forced to play against weaker opposition, France went on a winning streak, France was invited to rejoin the Five Nations in 1939 but did not compete until 1947 as international rugby was suspended during World War II. French rugby came of age during the 1950s and 1960s, they won their first Five Nations championship and their first championship was won in 1954 when they shared the title with England and Wales. France won their first outright Five Nations championship in 1959, they won with two wins, a draw and a defeat, France first toured South Africa winning the test series in 1958. The Springboks also visited Paris in 1961, the test was not completed due to fighting amongst the players. France also toured New Zealand and Australia in 1961 losing both tests against the All Blacks but defeating Australias Wallabies and they won their first Five Nations Grand Slam in 1968 by beating all four other competing teams, and won numerous titles in the following yearsFrance national rugby union team – France playing Wales during the Six Nations Championship.
40. Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu – Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis, Duke of Richelieu and Fronsac, commonly referred to as Cardinal Richelieu, was a French clergyman, nobleman, and statesman. He was consecrated as a bishop in 1607 and was appointed Foreign Secretary in 1616, Richelieu soon rose in both the Catholic Church and the French government, becoming a cardinal in 1622, and King Louis XIIIs chief minister in 1624. He remained in office until his death in 1642, he was succeeded by Cardinal Mazarin, Cardinal de Richelieu was often known by the title of the kings Chief Minister or First Minister. He sought to consolidate power and crush domestic factions. By restraining the power of the nobility, he transformed France into a strong and his chief foreign policy objective was to check the power of the Austro-Spanish Habsburg dynasty, and to ensure French dominance in the Thirty Years War that engulfed Europe. Although he was a cardinal, he did not hesitate to make alliances with Protestant rulers in attempting to achieve his goals. While a powerful figure, events like the Day of the Dupes show that in fact he very much depended on the kings confidence to keep this power. As alumnus of the University of Paris and headmaster of the Collège de Sorbonne, Richelieu was also famous for his patronage of the arts, most notably, he founded the Académie Française, the learned society responsible for matters pertaining to the French language. Richelieu is also known by the sobriquet lÉminence rouge, from the red shade of a cardinals clerical dress and this in part allowed the colony to eventually develop into the heartland of Francophone culture in North America. He is also a character in The Three Musketeers by Alexandre Dumas. Born in Paris, Armand du Plessis was the fourth of five children, at the age of nine, young Richelieu was sent to the College of Navarre in Paris to study philosophy. Thereafter, he began to train for a military career and his private life seems to have been typical of a young officer of the era, in 1605, aged twenty, he was treated by Théodore de Mayerne for gonorrhea. King Henry III had rewarded Richelieus father for his participation in the Wars of Religion by granting his family the bishopric of Luçon. The family appropriated most of the revenues of the bishopric for private use, they were, however, challenged by clergymen, to protect the important source of revenue, Richelieus mother proposed to make her second son, Alphonse, the bishop of Luçon. Alphonse, who had no desire to become a bishop, became instead a Carthusian monk, thus, it became necessary that the younger Richelieu join the clergy. He had strong interests, and threw himself into studying for his new post. In 1606 King Henry IV nominated Richelieu to become Bishop of Luçon, as Richelieu had not yet reached the canonical minimum age, it was necessary that he journey to Rome for a special dispensation from the Pope. This secured, Richelieu was consecrated bishop in April 1607, soon after he returned to his diocese in 1608, Richelieu was heralded as a reformerArmand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu – Portrait of Cardinal Richelieu, 1633–40, Philippe de Champaigne, National Gallery, London
41. Battle of the Somme – The Battle of the Somme, also known as the Somme Offensive, was a battle of the First World War fought by the armies of the British and French empires against the German Empire. It took place between 1 July and 18 November 1916 on both sides of the reaches of the River Somme in France. The battle was intended to hasten a victory for the Allies and was the largest battle of the First World War on the Western Front, more than one million men were wounded or killed, making it one of the bloodiest battles in human history. The French and British had committed themselves to an offensive on the Somme during Allied discussions at Chantilly, Oise, in December 1915. Initial plans called for the French army to undertake the main part of the Somme offensive, the first day on the Somme was, in terms of casualties, also the worst day in the history of the British army, which suffered 57,470 casualties. These occurred mainly on the front between the Albert–Bapaume road and Gommecourt, where the attack was defeated and few British troops reached the German front line, the battle is notable for the importance of air power and the first use of the tank. At the end of the battle, British and French forces had penetrated 10 km into German-occupied territory, the Anglo-French armies failed to capture Péronne and halted 5 km from Bapaume, where the German armies maintained their positions over the winter. Debate continues over the necessity, significance and effect of the battle, David Frum opined that a century later, the Somme remains the most harrowing place-name in the history of the British Empire. Allied war strategy for 1916 was decided at the Chantilly Conference from 6–8 December 1915, in December 1915, General Sir Douglas Haig replaced Field Marshal Sir John French as Commander-in-Chief of the BEF. Haig favoured a British offensive in Flanders close to BEF supply routes, to drive the Germans from the Belgian coast, Haig was not formally subordinate to Marshal Joseph Joffre but the British played a lesser role on the Western Front and complied with French strategy. A week later the Germans began an offensive against the French at Verdun, by 31 May, the ambitious Franco-British plan for a decisive victory, had been reduced to a limited offensive to relieve pressure on the French at Verdun with a battle of attrition on the Somme. The Chief of the German General Staff, Erich von Falkenhayn, intended to end the war by splitting the Anglo-French Entente in 1916, Falkenhayn chose to attack towards Verdun to take the Meuse heights and make Verdun untenable. The British would then have to begin a hasty relief offensive, Falkenhayn expected the relief offensive to fall south of Arras against the Sixth Army and be destroyed. If such Franco-British defeats were not enough, Germany would attack the remnants of armies and end the western alliance for good. Eloi, south of Ypres and reduced the German counter-offensive strategy north of the Somme, to one of passive, the Battle of Verdun began a week after Joffre and Haig agreed to mount an offensive on the Somme. The battle changed the nature of the offensive on the Somme, as French divisions were diverted to Verdun, German overestimation of the cost of Verdun to the French contributed to the concentration of German infantry and guns on the north bank of the Somme. The German offensive at Verdun was suspended in July, and troops, guns, the Brusilov Offensive, absorbed the extra forces that had been requested on 2 June by Fritz von Below, commanding the German Second Army, for a spoiling attack on the Somme. During the offensive the Russians inflicted c. 1,500,000 losses including c. 407,000 prisoners, three divisions were ordered from France to the Eastern Front on 9 June and the spoiling attack on the Somme was abandonedBattle of the Somme – The Western Front 1915–1916.
42. Jules Massenet – Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet was a French composer of the Romantic era best known for his operas, of which he wrote more than thirty. The two most frequently staged are Manon and Werther and he also composed oratorios, ballets, orchestral works, incidental music, piano pieces, songs and other music. While still a schoolboy, Massenet was admitted to Frances principal music college, there he studied under Ambroise Thomas, whom he greatly admired. After winning the top musical prize, the Prix de Rome, in 1863, he composed prolifically in many genres. Massenet had a sense of the theatre and of what would succeed with the Parisian public. Despite some miscalculations, he produced a series of successes that made him the composer of opera in France in the late 19th. Like many prominent French composers of the period, Massenet became a professor at the Conservatoire and he taught composition there from 1878 until 1896, when he resigned after the death of the director, Ambroise Thomas. Among his students were Gustave Charpentier, Ernest Chausson, Reynaldo Hahn, by the time of his death, Massenet was regarded by many critics as old-fashioned and unadventurous although his two best-known operas remained popular in France and abroad. After a few decades of neglect, his works began to be favourably reassessed during the mid-20th century, Massenet was born at Montaud, then an outlying hamlet and now a part of the city of Saint-Étienne, in the Loire. He was the youngest of the four children of Alexis Massenet and his second wife Eléonore-Adelaïde née Royer de Marancour, Massenet senior was a prosperous ironmonger, his wife was a talented amateur musician who gave Jules his first piano lessons. By early 1848 the family had moved to Paris, where settled in a flat in Saint-Germain-des-Prés. Massenet was educated at the Lycée Saint-Louis and, from either 1851 or 1853 and his biographer Demar Irvine dates the audition and admission as January 1853. Both sources agree that Massenet continued his education at the lycée in tandem with his musical studies. At the Conservatoire Massenet studied solfège with Augustin Savard and the piano with François Laurent and he pursued his studies, with modest distinction, until the beginning of 1855, when family concerns disrupted his education. Alexis Massenets health was poor, and on advice he moved from Paris to Chambéry in the south of France. On his return he lodged with relations in Montmartre and resumed his studies, the familys finances were no longer comfortable, and to support himself Massenet took private piano students and played as a percussionist in theatre orchestras. His work in the pit gave him a good working knowledge of the operas of Gounod and other composers, classic. He gained some work as a piano accompanist, in the course of which he met Wagner who, in 1861 Massenets music was published for the first time, the Grande Fantasie de Concert sur le Pardon de Ploërmel de Meyerbeer, a virtuoso piano work in nine sectionsJules Massenet – Massenet photographed by Pierre Petit, 1880
43. Le Cid (opera) – Le Cid is an opera in four acts and ten tableaux by Jules Massenet to a French libretto by Louis Gallet, Édouard Blau and Adolphe dEnnery. It is based on the play of the name by Pierre Corneille. It was first performed by a star-studded cast at the Paris Opéra on 30 November 1885 in the presence of President Grévy, with Jean de Reszke as Rodrigue. The opera had been seen 150 times there by 1919 but faded from the repertory and was not performed again in Paris until the 2015 revival at the Palais Garnier. While the opera itself is not in the operatic repertory. After the premiere, the Paris Opera continued to revive Le Cid until 1919, a new production was mounted at the Opéra in the 2014-15 season, conducted by Michel Plasson with Roberto Alagna and Annick Massis among the principals. Local premieres took place in Frankfurt, Antwerp, and Vienna in 1887, followed by Rome, New Orleans Geneva, in Saint-Etienne it was produced in 1979 then at the 1994 Massenet Festival under Patrick Fournillier with Michele Command and Chris Merritt. In June 2011 the opera was staged at the Opéra de Marseille in a directed by Charles Roubaud, conducted by Jacques Lacombe. In September 2015, Odyssey Opera performed Le Cid for the first time in Boston, the performance was a semi-staged concert version conducted by Gil Rose, with tenor Paul Groves in the titular role, and received a positive review from the Boston Globe. In Burgos, a hall in the Gormas palace, to the sound of fanfares outside the friends of the Comte de Gormas recount how the King is to make Rodrigue a knight, despite his young age. Gormas desires to be named the governor of the Infant by the King, Gormas however approves the romantic attachment which his daughter Chimène has for Rodrigue. The Infanta has confessed to Chimène that she too loves Rodrigue, a gallery in the royal palace leading to an entrance to Burgos cathedral With bells sounding, the people give thanks for victory over the moors. The King now rewards Rodrigue by knighting him, and Rodrigue swears his faith to Saint Jacques de Compostelle, the King next names Don Diègue as governor of the Infant, and this is seen as an insult by the Comte de Gormas and his friends. Don Diègue holds out his hand and wishes the marriage of his son and Chimène, cursing his loss of strength and old age, Don Diègue demands that his son revenges his honour. Rodrigue bemoans his fate, and the loss of his happiness, a street in Burgos at night. In the following duel he swiftly kills the count, a crowd and a jubilant Don Diègue arrive on the scene, but when Chimène rushes out to find out about the murderer of her father she faints when she discovers his identity. It is a spring day The Infante distributes alms and dancing follows. Chimène demands justice to the King against Rodrigue and will hear of no pity or pardon for him, Don Diègue says that his son has only revenged him and that he should bear the accusationLe Cid (opera) – Jules Massenet
44. Marguerite of Navarre – Marguerite de Navarre, also known as Marguerite of Angoulême and Margaret of Navarre, was the princess of France, Queen of Navarre, and Duchess of Alençon and Berry. She was married to Henry II of Navarre and her brother became King of France, as Francis I, and the two siblings were responsible for the celebrated intellectual and cultural court and salons of their day in France. Marguerite is the ancestress of the Bourbon kings of France, being the mother of Jeanne dAlbret, whose son, Henry of Navarre, succeeded as Henry IV of France, the first Bourbon king. As an author and a patron of humanists and reformers, she was a figure of the French Renaissance. Samuel Putnam called her The First Modern Woman, Marguerite was born in Angoulême on 11 April 1492, the eldest child of Louise of Savoy and Charles, Count of Angoulême. On 16 February 1488, her father, Charles, married eleven-year-old Louise, the daughter of Philip II of Savoy and Margaret of Bourbon, Louise was considered one of the most brilliant feminine minds in France and she named their first-born, Marguerite, after her own mother. Two years after Marguerites birth, the family moved from Angoulême to Cognac, where the Italian influence reigned supreme, Marguerites brother, Francis, later to be King Francis I of France, was born there on 12 September 1494. She had several half-siblings, from illegitimate relationships of her father, another half-sister, Souveraine, was born to Jeanne le Conte, also one of her fathers mistresses. Her father died when she was four, her one-year-old brother became heir presumptive to the throne of France. Thanks to her mother, who was nineteen when widowed, Marguerite was carefully tutored from her earliest childhood. The young princess was to be called Maecenas to the ones of her brothers kingdom. Never, she wrote, shall a man attain to the love of God who has not loved to perfection some creature in this world. When Marguerite was ten, Louise tried to marry her to the Prince of Wales, who would later become Henry VIII of England, perhaps the one real love in her life was Gaston de Foix, Duc de Nemours, nephew of King Louis XII. Gaston went to Italy, however, and died a hero at Ravenna, at the age of seventeen Marguerite was married to Charles IV of Alençon, aged twenty, by the decree of King Louis XII. With this decree, Marguerite was forced to marry a generally kind, had become the bride of a laggard and a dolt. She had been bartered to save the royal pride of Louis, there were no offspring from this marriage. After the death of Queen Claude, she took in her two nieces Madeleine and Marguerite, for whom she would continue to care during her second marriage, after the death of her first husband in 1525, Marguerite married Henry II of Navarre. Ferdinand II of Aragon had invaded the Kingdom of Navarre in 1512, and Henry ruled only Lower Navarre, the independent principality of Béarn, a Venetian ambassador of that time praised Marguerite as knowing all the secrets of diplomatic art, hence to be treated with deference and circumspectionMarguerite of Navarre – Marguerite de Navarre
45. Georges Bizet – Georges Bizet, registered at birth as Alexandre César Léopold Bizet, was a French composer of the romantic era. During a brilliant student career at the Conservatoire de Paris, Bizet won many prizes and he was recognised as an outstanding pianist, though he chose not to capitalise on this skill and rarely performed in public. Returning to Paris after almost three years in Italy, he found that the main Parisian opera theatres preferred the established classical repertoire to the works of newcomers. His keyboard and orchestral compositions were largely ignored, as a result, his career stalled. Restless for success, he began many theatrical projects during the 1860s, neither of his two operas that reached the stage in this time—Les pêcheurs de perles and La jolie fille de Perth—were immediately successful. The production of Bizets final opera, Carmen, was delayed because of fears that its themes of betrayal and murder would offend audiences. After its premiere on 3 March 1875, Bizet was convinced that the work was a failure, Bizets marriage to Geneviève Halévy was intermittently happy and produced one son. After his death, his work, apart from Carmen, was generally neglected, manuscripts were given away or lost, and published versions of his works were frequently revised and adapted by other hands. He founded no school and had no obvious disciples or successors, after years of neglect, his works began to be performed more frequently in the 20th century. Later commentators have acclaimed him as a composer of brilliance and originality whose premature death was a significant loss to French musical theatre, Georges Bizet was born in Paris on 25 October 1838. He was registered as Alexandre César Léopold, but baptised as Georges on 16 March 1840 and his father, Adolphe Bizet, had been a hairdresser and wigmaker before becoming a singing teacher despite his lack of formal training. He also composed a few works, including at least one published song, in 1837 Adolphe married Aimée Delsarte, against the wishes of her family who considered him a poor prospect, the Delsartes, though impoverished, were a cultured and highly musical family. Aimée was an accomplished pianist, while her brother François Delsarte was a singer and teacher who performed at the courts of both Louis Philippe and Napoleon III. François Delsartes wife Rosine, a prodigy, had been an assistant professor of solfège at the Conservatoire de Paris at the age of 13. Georges, a child, showed early aptitude for music and quickly picked up the basics of musical notation from his mother. This precocity convinced his ambitious parents that he was ready to begin studying at the Conservatoire even though he was only nine years old. Georges was interviewed by Joseph Meifred, the horn virtuoso who was a member of the Conservatoires Committee of Studies, Meifred was so struck by the boys demonstration of his skills that he waived the age rule and offered to take him as soon as a place became available. Bizet was admitted to the Conservatoire on 9 October 1848, two weeks before his 10th birthday and he made an early impression, within six months he had won first prize in solfège, a feat that impressed Pierre-Joseph-Guillaume Zimmermann, the Conservatoires former professor of pianoGeorges Bizet – Georges Bizet in 1875
46. Carmen – Carmen is an opera in four acts by French composer Georges Bizet. The libretto was written by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy, based on a novella of the title by Prosper Mérimée. The opera was first performed at the Opéra-Comique in Paris on 3 March 1875, Bizet died suddenly after the 33rd performance, unaware that the work would achieve international acclaim within the following ten years. The opera is written in the genre of opéra comique with musical numbers separated by dialogue and it is set in southern Spain and tells the story of the downfall of Don José, a naïve soldier who is seduced by the wiles of the fiery gypsy Carmen. José abandons his sweetheart and deserts from his military duties, yet loses Carmens love to the glamorous toreador Escamillo. The depictions of life, immorality, and lawlessness. After the premiere, most reviews were critical, and the French public was generally indifferent, Carmen initially gained its reputation through a series of productions outside France, and was not revived in Paris until 1883, thereafter it rapidly acquired popularity at home and abroad. Later commentators have asserted that Carmen forms the bridge between the tradition of opéra comique and the realism or verismo that characterised late 19th-century Italian opera. The opera has been recorded many times since the first acoustical recording in 1908, in the Paris of the 1860s, despite being a Prix de Rome laureate, Bizet struggled to get his stage works performed. The capitals two main state-funded opera houses—the Opéra and the Opéra-Comique—followed conservative repertoires that restricted opportunities for young native talent, Bizet was delighted with the Opéra-Comique commission, and expressed to his friend Edmund Galabert his satisfaction in the absolute certainty of having found my path. It was Bizet who first proposed an adaptation of Prosper Mérimées novella Carmen, Bizet may first have encountered the story during his Rome sojourn of 1858–60, since his journals record Mérimée as one of the writers whose works he absorbed in those years. Cast details are as provided by Mina Curtiss from the original piano, the stage designs are credited to Charles Ponchard. Place, Seville, Spain, and surrounding hills Time, Around 1820 Act 1 A square, on the right, a door to the tobacco factory. A group of soldiers relax in the square, waiting for the changing of the guard, moralès tells her that José is not yet on duty and invites her to wait with them. She declines, saying she will return later, José arrives with the new guard, which is greeted and imitated by a crowd of urchins. As the factory bell rings, the cigarette girls emerge and exchange banter with young men in the crowd, Carmen enters and sings her provocative habanera on the untameable nature of love. The men plead with her to choose a lover, and after some teasing she throws a flower to Don José, as the women go back to the factory, Micaëla returns and gives José a letter and a kiss from his mother. He reads that his mother wants him to home and marry MicaëlaCarmen – Cartoon from Journal amusant, 1911
47. Don Quixote – Don Quixote, fully titled The history of the valorous and wittie Knight-Errant Don-Quixote of the Mancha, is a Spanish novel by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. Published in two volumes, in 1605 and 1615, Don Quixote is considered the most influential work of literature from the Spanish Golden Age, the story follows the adventures of an hidalgo named Mr. He recruits a simple farmer, Sancho Panza, as his squire, Don Quixote, in the first part of the book, does not see the world for what it is and prefers to imagine that he is living out a knightly story. Throughout the novel, Cervantes uses such techniques as realism, metatheatre. Arthur Schopenhauer cited Don Quixote as one of the four greatest novels written, along with Tristram Shandy, La Nouvelle Héloïse. Cervantes wrote that the first chapters were taken from The Archive of La Mancha, and this metafictional trick appears to give a greater credibility to the text, implying that Don Quixote is a real character and that the story truly occurred several decades back. However, it was common practice in that era for fictional works to make some pretense of being factual. As a result, he is given to anger and believes every word of these fictional books of chivalry to be true. Imitating the protagonists of these books, he decides to become a knight-errant in search of adventure. He spends the night holding vigil over his armor and becomes involved in a fight with muleteers who try to remove his armor from the horse trough so that they can water their mules. In a pretended ceremony, the innkeeper dubs him a knight to be rid of him and sends him on his way. Don Quixote next frees a young boy tied to a tree and beaten by his master, and makes his master swear to treat the boy fairly, Don Quixote then encounters traders from Toledo, who insult the imaginary Dulcinea. He attacks them, only to be beaten and left on the side of the road. While Don Quixote is unconscious in his bed, his niece, the housekeeper, the parish curate, a large part of this section consists of the priest deciding which books deserve to be burned and which to be saved. This gives an occasion for many comments on books Cervantes liked and disliked, for example, Cervantes own pastoral novel La Galatea is saved, while the rather unbelievable romance Felixmarte de Hyrcania is burned. After the books are dealt with, they seal up the room contained the library. After a short period of feigning health, Don Quixote requests his neighbor, Sancho Panza, to be his squire, Sancho, who is both greedy and unintelligent, agrees to the offer and sneaks away with Don Quixote in the early dawn. It is here that their famous adventures begin, starting with Don Quixotes attack on windmills that he believes to be ferocious giants, the two next encounter a group of friars accompanying a lady in a carriageDon Quixote – Title page of first edition (1605)
48. Strasbourg – Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located close to the border with Germany in the region of Alsace. In 2014, the city proper had 276,170 inhabitants, Strasbourgs metropolitan area had a population of 773,347 in 2013, making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est regions inhabitants. The transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014, Strasbourg is the seat of several European institutions, such as the Council of Europe and the Eurocorps, as well as the European Parliament and the European Ombudsman of the European Union. The city is also the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine, Strasbourgs historic city centre, the Grande Île, was classified a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. The largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque, was inaugurated by French Interior Minister Manuel Valls on 27 September 2012. Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road, rail, the port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Duisburg, Germany. Before the 5th century, the city was known as Argantorati, a Celtic Gaulish name Latinized first as Argentorate, after the 5h century, the city became known by a completely different name Gallicized as Strasbourg. That name is of Germanic origin and means Town of roads, Strasbourg is situated on the eastern border of France with Germany. This border is formed by the River Rhine, which forms the eastern border of the modern city. The historic core of Strasbourg however lies on the Grande Île in the River Ill, which flows parallel to, and roughly 4 kilometres from. The natural courses of the two eventually join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city. This section of the Rhine valley is an axis of north-south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself. The city is some 400 kilometres east of Paris, in spite of its position far inland, Strasbourgs climate is classified as Oceanic, with warm, relatively sunny summers and cold, overcast winters. Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains largely constant throughout the year, on average, snow falls 30 days per year. The highest temperature recorded was 38.5 °C in August 2003. The lowest temperature recorded was −23.4 °C in December 1938. Nonetheless, the disappearance of heavy industry on both banks of the Rhine, as well as effective measures of traffic regulation in and around the city have reduced air pollutionStrasbourg
49. 1826 – As of the start of 1826, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 15 – The French newspaper Le Figaro begins publication in Paris, january 30 – The Menai Suspension Bridge, built by engineer Thomas Telford, is opened between the island of Anglesey and the mainland of Wales. February 8 – Unitarian Bernardino Rivadavia becomes the first President of Argentina, February 11 University College London is founded, under the name University of London. Swaminarayan writes the Shikshapatri, an important text within Swaminarayan Hinduism, February 13 – The American Temperance Society is founded. February 24 – Treaty of Yandabo ends First Anglo-Burmese War, Britain gains Assam, Manipur, Rakhine, march 1 – Chunee the elephant is put to death in London. After arsenic and shooting fail, he is killed with a sword, march 10 – João VI, King of Portugal and the former Emperor of Brazil, dies after a short illness that had started six day earlier after he had been served dinner while visiting Jerónimos Monastery. An investigative autopsy 174 years later discover that he had been killed by arsenic poisoning. King Joãos son, the Emperor Pedro I of Brazil, sails back to Portugal and briefly reigns as King Pedro IV before turning over the Portuguese throne to his daughter, april 1 – Samuel Morey patents an internal combustion engine. April 10 – Third Siege of Missolonghi ends with the massacre of thousands of the Greek defenders by the Ottoman besiegers, may 28 – Pedro I of Brazil abdicates as King of Portugal. June – Photography, Nicéphore Niépce makes a true photograph, june 14–15 – The Auspicious Incident, Mahmud II, sultan of Ottoman Empire, crushes the last mutiny of janissaries in Istanbul. June 21 – Greek War of Independence, Attempted Ottoman–Egyptian invasion of Mani begins, june 22 – The Pan-American Congress of Panama tries to unify the republics of the Americas. Early July – Ludwig van Beethoven puts the finishing touches on the String Quartet in C sharp Minor, Opus 131, July 4 – Former US Presidents Thomas Jefferson and John Adams both die on the 50th Anniversary of the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence. July 26 – The last auto-da-fé is held in Valencia, august – The town of Crawford Notch suffers a landslide. Those killed include the Willey family, after whom Mount Willey is named, august 10 – The first Cowes Regatta is held on the Isle of Wight in the UK. August 18 – Explorer Alexander Gordon Laing becomes the first European to reach Timbuktu, september 21 – Construction of the Rideau Canal begins in Canada. October 1 – Opening of the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway in Scotland, october 7 – The first train operates over the Granite Railway in Massachusetts. November 3 –The Paris Stock Exchange opens at the Palais de la Bourse, december 21 – Fredonian Rebellion, American settlers in Mexican Texas make the first attempt to secede from Mexico, establishing the Republic of Fredonia, which will survive for just over a month. December 25 The Eggnog Riot breaks out at the United States Military Academy in West Point, New York during the morning hours1826 – The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826
50. Panorama – A panorama is any wide-angle view or representation of a physical space, whether in painting, drawing, photography, film, seismic images or a three-dimensional model. The word was coined in the 18th century by the English painter Robert Barker to describe his panoramic paintings of Edinburgh. The motion-picture term panning is derived from panorama, a panoramic view is also purposed for multi-media, cross-scale applications to an outline overview along and across repositories. This so-called cognitive panorama is a view over, and a combination of. The device of the panorama existed in painting, particularly in murals, as early as 20 A. D. in those found in Pompeii, cartographic experiments during the Enlightenment era preceded European panorama painting and contributed to a formative impulse toward panoramic vision and depiction. In the mid-19th century, panoramic paintings and models became a popular way to represent landscapes, topographic views. Audiences of Europe in this period were thrilled by the aspect of illusion, immersed in a winding 360 degree panorama, the panorama was a 360-degree visual medium patented under the title Apparatus for Exhibiting Pictures by the artist Robert Barker in 1787. The earliest that the word appeared in print was on June 11,1791 in the British newspaper The Morning Chronicle. The inaugural exhibition, a View of Edinburgh, was first shown in that city in 1788, by 1793, Barker had built The Panorama rotunda at the center of Londons entertainment district in Leicester Square, where it remained until closed in 1863. Large scale installations enhance the illusion for an audience of being surrounded with a real landscape, the Bourbaki Panorama in Lucerne, Switzerland was created by Edouard Castres in 1881. The painting measures about 10 metres in height with a circumference of 112 meters, in the United States of America is the Atlanta Cyclorama, depicting the Civil War Battle of Atlanta. It was first displayed in 1887, and is 42 feet high by 358 feet circumference, also on a gigantic scale, and still extant, is the Racławice Panorama located in Wrocław, Poland, which measures 15 x 120 metres. In addition to historical examples, there have been panoramas painted and installed in modern times, prominent among these is the Velaslavasay Panorama in Los Angeles. Panoramic photography soon came to painting as the most common method for creating wide views. Not long after the introduction of the Daguerreotype in 1839, photographers began assembling multiple images of a view into a wide image. Pinhole cameras of a variety of constructions can be used to make panoramic images and this generates an egg-shaped image with more than 180° view. They could run autonomously with silent synchronization pulses to control projector advance and fades, precisely overlapping slides placed in slide mounts with soft-edge density masks would merge seamlessly on the screen to create the panorama. Cutting and dissolving between sequential images generated animation effects in the panorama format, digital photography of the late twentieth century greatly simplified this assembly process, which is now known as image stitchingPanorama – Panorama of the inner courtyard of the Great Mosque of Kairouan, in Tunisia
51. Verdon (river) – The Verdon is a 166-kilometre long river] in south-eastern France, left tributary of the Durance. Its source is at an elevation of 2,819 metres, in the south-western Alps, the Verdon is best known for its impressive canyon, the Verdon Gorge. This limestone canyon, also called the Grand Canyon of Verdon,20 kilometres long, the name comes from the green appearance of the waters of the river, in the canyon. Lac de Sainte-Croix http, //www. geoportail. fr The Verdon at the Sandre databaseVerdon (river) – A view from the Verdon Gorge
52. Paris – Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is also a rail, highway, and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, notably, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has also been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are also pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a townParis – In the 1860s Paris streets and monuments were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, making it literally "The City of Light."
53. Train wreck – A train wreck or train crash is a type of disaster involving one or more trains. Train wrecks have often been covered in popular media and in folklore. A head-on collision between two trains is called a cornfield meet in the US. Because train wrecks usually cause widespread property damage as well as injury or death, for example, in the U. S. state of California, the penalty for intentionally causing a non-fatal train wreck is life imprisonment with the possibility of parole. For a fatal train wreck, the legal consequences are either life imprisonment without the possibility of parole. The willful wrecking of a train is punishable by death or life imprisonment without parole by the United States federal government, the unusual harshness of Californias train wrecking statute has been expressly recognized by its appellate courts. The Supreme Court of California explained in 1972 that train wrecking is one of only eight crimes in the California Codes for which a sentence is authorized. Death Rode the Rails, American Railroad Accidents and Safety, 1828-1965 excerpt BBC News, a voice from the signal-box, or, railway accidents and their causesTrain wreck – Versailles rail accident in 1842, 55 people were killed including the French explorer Jules Dumont d'Urville.
54. Franco-Prussian War – The conflict was caused by Prussian ambitions to extend German unification and French fears of the shift in the European balance of power that would result if the Prussians succeeded. On 16 July 1870, the French parliament voted to declare war on the German Kingdom of Prussia, the German coalition mobilised its troops much more quickly than the French and rapidly invaded northeastern France. The German forces were superior in numbers, had training and leadership and made more effective use of modern technology, particularly railroads. The German states proclaimed their union as the German Empire under the Prussian king Wilhelm I, the Treaty of Frankfurt of 10 May 1871 gave Germany most of Alsace and some parts of Lorraine, which became the Imperial territory of Alsace-Lorraine. French determination to regain Alsace-Lorraine and fear of another Franco-German war, along with British apprehension about the balance of power, the causes of the Franco-Prussian War are deeply rooted in the events surrounding the unification of Germany. In the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Prussia had annexed numerous territories and this new power destabilized the European balance of power established by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 after the Napoleonic Wars. France was strongly opposed to any further alliance of German states, in Prussia, some officials considered a war against France both inevitable and necessary to arouse German nationalism in those states that would allow the unification of a great German empire. Bismarck also knew that France should be the aggressor in the conflict to bring the southern German states to side with Prussia, many Germans also viewed the French as the traditional destabilizer of Europe, and sought to weaken France to prevent further breaches of the peace. The immediate cause of the war resided in the candidacy of Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, France feared encirclement by an alliance between Prussia and Spain. The Hohenzollern princes candidacy was withdrawn under French diplomatic pressure, releasing the Ems Dispatch to the public, Bismarck made it sound as if the king had treated the French envoy in a demeaning fashion, which inflamed public opinion in France. They also argue that he wanted a war to resolve growing domestic political problems, other historians, notably French historian Pierre Milza, dispute this. According to Milza, the Emperor had no need for a war to increase his popularity, the Ems telegram had exactly the effect on French public opinion that Bismarck had intended. This text produced the effect of a red flag on the Gallic bull, gramont, the French foreign minister, declared that he felt he had just received a slap. Napoleons new prime minister, Emile Ollivier, declared that France had done all that it could humanly and honorably do to prevent the war, a crowd of 15–20,000 people, carrying flags and patriotic banners, marched through the streets of Paris, demanding war. On 19 July 1870 a declaration of war was sent to the Prussian government, the southern German states immediately sided with Prussia. The French Army consisted in peacetime of approximately 400,000 soldiers, some of them were veterans of previous French campaigns in the Crimean War, Algeria, the Franco-Austrian War in Italy, and in the Mexican campaign. Under Marshal Adolphe Niel, urgent reforms were made, universal conscription and a shorter period of service gave increased numbers of reservists, who would swell the army to a planned strength of 800,000 on mobilisation. Those who for any reason were not conscripted were to be enrolled in the Garde Mobile, however, the Franco-Prussian War broke out before these reforms could be completely implementedFranco-Prussian War – Clockwise from top left: Prussian infantry at the Battle of Spicheren; Jeanniot 's 1886 La ligne de feu (Battle of Mars-La-Tour); Werner 's depiction of the capitulation of Sedan; Neuville 's 1873 Les dernières cartouches (Battle of Bazeilles).
55. Mont Blanc – Mont Blanc or Monte Bianco, both meaning White Mountain, is the highest mountain in the Alps and the highest in Europe west of Russia after the Caucasus peaks. It rises 4,808 m above sea level and is ranked 11th in the world in topographic prominence, the mountain lies in a range called the Graian Alps, between the regions of Aosta Valley, Italy, and Savoie and Haute-Savoie, France. The location of the summit is on the line between the valleys of Ferret and Veny in Italy and the valleys of Montjoie, and Arve in France. The Mont Blanc massif is popular for mountaineering, hiking, skiing, the three towns and their communes which surround Mont Blanc are Courmayeur in Aosta Valley, Italy, and Saint-Gervais-les-Bains and Chamonix in Haute-Savoie, France. The latter town was the site of the first Winter Olympics, a cable car ascends and crosses the mountain range from Courmayeur to Chamonix, through the Col du Géant. The 11.6 km Mont Blanc Tunnel, constructed between 1957 and 1965, runs beneath the mountain and is a major transport route. The first recorded ascent of Mont Blanc was on 8 August 1786 by Jacques Balmat and this climb, initiated by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, who gave a reward for the successful ascent, traditionally marks the start of modern mountaineering. The first woman to reach the summit was Marie Paradis in 1808, nowadays the summit is ascended by an average of 20,000 mountaineer-tourists each year. It could be considered an easy, yet arduous, ascent for someone who is well-trained and acclimatized to the altitude, from lAiguille du Midi, Mont Blanc seems quite close, being 1,000 m higher. Some routes require knowledge of mountaineering, a guide. All routes are long and arduous, involving delicate passages and the hazard of rock-fall or avalanche, climbers may also suffer altitude sickness, occasionally life threatening, particularly if they do not acclimatize to it. Since the French Revolution, the issue of the ownership of the summit has been debated, from 1416 to 1792, the entire mountain was within the Duchy of Savoy. In 1723 the Duke of Savoy, Victor Amadeus II, acquired the Kingdom of Sardinia, the resulting state of Sardinia was to become preeminent in the Italian unification. In September 1792, the French revolutionary Army of the Alps under Anne-Pierre de Montesquiou-Fézensac seized Savoy without much resistance, in a treaty of 15 May 1796, Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia was forced to cede Savoy and Nice to France. This act further states that the border should be visible from the town of Chamonix, however, neither the peak of the Mont Blanc is visible from Courmayeur nor the peak of the Mont Blanc de Courmayeur is visible from Chamonix because part of the mountains lower down obscure them. After the Napoleonic Wars, the Congress of Vienna restored the King of Sardinia in Savoy, Nice and Piedmont, his traditional territories, forty-five years later, after the Second Italian War of Independence, it was replaced by a new legal act. This act was signed in Turin on 24 March 1860 by Napoleon III and Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy, a demarcation agreement, signed on 7 March 1861, defined the new border. With the formation of Italy, for the first time Mont Blanc was located on the border of France, the 1860 act and attached maps are still legally valid for both the French and Italian governmentsMont Blanc – South face of Mont Blanc / Monte Bianco from Savoie
56. Napoleon III – Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte was the only President of the French Second Republic and, as Napoleon III, the Emperor of the Second French Empire. He was the nephew and heir of Napoleon I and he was the first President of France to be elected by a direct popular vote. He remains the longest-serving French head of state since the French Revolution, during the first years of the Empire, Napoleons government imposed censorship and harsh repressive measures against his opponents. Some six thousand were imprisoned or sent to penal colonies until 1859, thousands more went into voluntary exile abroad, including Victor Hugo. From 1862 onwards, he relaxed government censorship, and his came to be known as the Liberal Empire. Many of his opponents returned to France and became members of the National Assembly, Napoleon III is best known today for his grand reconstruction of Paris, carried out by his prefect of the Seine, Baron Haussmann. He launched similar public works projects in Marseille, Lyon, Napoleon III modernized the French banking system, greatly expanded and consolidated the French railway system, and made the French merchant marine the second largest in the world. He promoted the building of the Suez Canal and established modern agriculture, Napoleon III negotiated the 1860 Cobden–Chevalier free trade agreement with Britain and similar agreements with Frances other European trading partners. Social reforms included giving French workers the right to strike and the right to organize, womens education greatly expanded, as did the list of required subjects in public schools. In foreign policy, Napoleon III aimed to reassert French influence in Europe and he was a supporter of popular sovereignty and of nationalism. In Europe, he allied with Britain and defeated Russia in the Crimean War and his regime assisted Italian unification and, in doing so, annexed Savoy and the County of Nice to France, at the same time, his forces defended the Papal States against annexation by Italy. Napoleon doubled the area of the French overseas empire in Asia, the Pacific, on the other hand, his armys intervention in Mexico which aimed to create a Second Mexican Empire under French protection ended in failure. Beginning in 1866, Napoleon had to face the power of Prussia. In July 1870, Napoleon entered the Franco-Prussian War without allies, the French army was rapidly defeated and Napoleon III was captured at the Battle of Sedan. The French Third Republic was proclaimed in Paris, and Napoleon went into exile in England, charles-Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, later known as Louis Napoleon and then Napoleon III, was born in Paris on the night of 20–21 April 1808. His presumed father was Louis Bonaparte, the brother of Napoleon Bonaparte. His mother was Hortense de Beauharnais, the daughter by the first marriage of Napoleons wife Joséphine de Beauharnais, as empress, Joséphine proposed the marriage as a way to produce an heir for the Emperor, who agreed, as Joséphine was by then infertile. Louis married Hortense when he was twenty-four and she was nineteen and they had a difficult relationship, and only lived together for brief periodsNapoleon III – Napoleon III
57. Aiguille du Midi – The Aiguille du Midi is a mountain in the Mont Blanc massif within the French Alps. It is a popular tourist destination and can be directly accessed by cable car from Chamonix. It receives half a million visits a year and puts visitors as close to Mont Blanc as they can without having any mountaineering experience and it still holds the record as the highest vertical ascent cable car in the world, from 1,035 m to 3842 m. There are two sections, from Chamonix to Plan de lAiguille at 2,317 m and then directly, without any support pillar, the span of the second section is 2,867 m measured directly, but only 2,500 m measured horizontally. Thus it remains the second longest span width, measured directly, the cable car travels from Chamonix to the top of the Aiguille du Midi – an altitude gain of over 2,800 m – in 20 minutes, costing around €57 for an adult-ticket from Chamonix and back. The Aiguille summit contains a viewing platform, a café. Even in summer, temperatures in the viewing areas can reach -10 °C. Because of the danger, tourists are unable to leave the facilities on the Midis summit. However, mountaineers and skiers are able to pass through a tunnel to reach the steep, in December 2013, a glass skywalk called Step into the Void opened at the top of the Aiguille du Midi peak. The view is 1035 meters straight down, and one can see Mont Blanc to the south, a further tourist development currently under construction is Le Pipe – a tubular walkway that will completely circle the summit. During summer months only, the Vallée Blanche Cable Car crosses peak-to-peak from Aiguille du Midi to Pointe Helbronner at the Italian side of the Mont Blanc Massif. Pointe Helbronner is served by cable car, Skyway Monte Bianco. This makes it possible to travel by air from Chamonix, France to Courmayeur and it is very popular, and therefore busy, and is often used as an alpine training climb as it requires all-round mountaineering skills. Graded at PD+ to AD, the round-trip can easily be completed from Chamonix in one day, Mont Blanc du Tacul Usually done from the Cosmiques Hut, but fit parties sometimes take the first morning telepherique and descend from the Midi. Alternatively it can be combined with a return to the cable car station via an ascent of the Cosmiques ridge. The Traverse of Mont Blanc, also known in French as La Voie des Trois Mont Blancs or just La Traversée, is a long route, graded at PD+ which starts from the Cosmiques Hut. This popular route is exposed to danger than the Gouter Route. The account should be treated as apocryphal as, by definition, the sun would reliably be seen from the church to pass over at noon only if the mountain were due southAiguille du Midi – The Aiguille du Midi in summer
58. Phonautogram – The phonautograph is the earliest known device for recording sound. Invented by Frenchman Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville, it was patented on March 25,1857 and it transcribed sound waves as undulations or other deviations in a line traced on smoke-blackened paper or glass. Apparently, it did not occur to anyone before the 1870s that the recordings, called phonautograms, contained information about the sound that they could, in theory. Because the phonautogram tracing was an insubstantial two-dimensional line, direct physical playback was impossible in any case, several phonautograms recorded before 1861 were successfully played as sound in 2008 by optically scanning them and using a computer to process the scans into digital audio files. Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville, a printer and bookseller by trade, was inspired when he happened to read about the anatomy of the ear in the course of his business. His phonautograph was constructed as an analog of the ear canal, eardrum, Scott created several variations of the device. A pig bristle or other very lightweight stylus was connected to the membrane, sometimes by an indirect linkage which roughly simulated the ossicles and served as an amplifying lever. The bristle traced a line through a coating of lampblack—finely divided carbon deposited by the flame of an oil or gas lamp—on a moving surface of paper or glass. The cylinder was carried on a threaded rod so that it progressed along its axis as it rotated. The length of the recording that could be accommodated depended on the speed of rotation, if only longer-term dynamics such as the cadences of speech were being studied, the cylinder could be rotated much more slowly and a longer recording could be made. Some phonautographs included a tuning fork or other means of recording a known reference frequency. In at least one instance, a return to the devices conceptual origins was made by employing the preserved parts of an actual human ear. Ten years later, the experiments of Emile Berliner, the creator of the disc Gramophone. It traced a clear sound-modulated spiral line through a black coating on a glass disc. The photoengraving method first proposed by Cros was then used to produce a disc with a playable groove. Arguably, these circa 1887 experiments by Berliner were the first known reproductions of sound from phonautograph recordings, however, as far as is known, no attempt was ever made to use this method to play any of the surviving early phonautograms made by Scott. High-quality images of them were obtained, in 2008, the team played back the recordings as sound for the first time. Modern computer-based image processing methods were used to accomplish the playback, no matter what hardware and software are used, the basic principle involved is relatively simplePhonautogram – An early phonautograph (1859). The barrel is made of plaster of paris.
59. Army of Sambre-et-Meuse – The Army of Sambre-et-Meuse is the best known of the armies of the French Revolution. It was formed on 29 June 1794 by combining three forces, the Army of the Ardennes, the wing of the Army of the Moselle. It had a brief but celebrated existence, on 29 September 1797, the Army of Sambre-et-Meuse merged with the Army of the Rhine and Moselle to become the Army of Germany. The various elements of the army won a key victory at the Battle of Fleurus on 16 June 1794, the merging of the forces into the Army of Sambre-et-Meuse was made official soon afterwards. Shortly after Fleurus, the Allied position in Flanders collapsed and the French armies overran both the Austrian Netherlands and the Dutch Republic in the winter of 1794-1795, after the storming of Tournai and Ostend, the Convention declared that the army had merited honors. The Sambre-et-Meuse won more honors after the storming of Brussels, Maastricht, the army participated in the conquest of the Netherlands and the Siege of Luxembourg. In 1795, the Sambre-et-Meuse fought on the middle Rhine, the army crossed the Rhine in 1796 to invade Germany but met defeat at the battles of Amberg and Würzburg during the summer. The army won a victory over the Austrians at the Battle of Neuwied on 18 April 1797Army of Sambre-et-Meuse – This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (February 2013)
60. Robert Planquette – Jean Robert Planquette was a French composer of songs and operettas. The son of a singer, Planquette was born in Paris and he did not finish his studies, lacking the funds to do so, and worked as a café pianist and composer and singing. A few romances that he composed brought less fame than did his song, Sambre et Meuse, first sung in 1867 by Lucien Fugère, in 1876, the director of the Théâtre des Folies-Dramatiques gave Planquette a commission to compose his first operetta, Les cloches de Corneville. It opened in Paris in 1877, running for an extremely successful 480 performances, Planquettes music has been praised for its pathos and romantic feeling. Le Chevalier Gaston was produced in 1879 with little success, in 1880 came Les Voltigeurs du 32ieme which had a long run in London in 1887 as The Old Guard, and La Cantiniére, which was translated into English as Nectarine, though never produced. In 1882 Rip Van Winkle was produced in London and subsequently given in Paris as Rip, the libretto is an adaptation by H. B. Farnie of Washington Irvings famous tale and it was followed by La Crémaillere, Surcouf, Captain Thérése, La Cocarde tricolore, Le Talisman, Panurge and Mamzelle Quatsous. The original orchestral version has been recorded by the Boston Pops Orchestra conducted by Arthur Fiedler, the Song of the Cabin Boy, a barcarolle from Planquettes Les cloches de Corneville was played on the violin by W. K. L. Dickson in the first experiment in history in synchronizing sound and motion pictures and it is viewable online as Dickson Experimental Sound Film. All operettas and all premieres in Paris, unless otherwise noted, a Dictionary of Music and Musicians. The New Grove Dictionary of Music & Musicians, obituary, Robert Planquette in The Musical Times, Vol.44, No. 721, p.177 Robert Planquette on data. bnfRobert Planquette – Robert Planquette (album leaf with photo portrait and autograph musical quotation)
61. Wipo of Burgundy – Wipo of Burgundy was a priest and writer. He was a chaplain to the Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II, whose biography he wrote in chronicle form, Gesta Chuonradi II imperatoris. Present at the election of Conrad II, he most likely followed the emperor on his campaigns into Burgundy and against the Slavs and he presented his work to Conrad’s son Henry III in 1046, not long after Henry was crowned. In this Wipo fully understands his subject, is fresh and animated, but he does not fully grasp the general conditions of the age, especially the emperor’s manifold relations to the ruling princes and the Church. His style is simple and fluent, and his language well-chosen and he mentioned Henry’s younger sister Matilda as a fiancée of King Henry I of France and records her death and burial at Worms, Germany in 1034. Among his other extant writings are the maxims, Proverbia, presented to Henry in 1041, it is a eulogy of the emperor mixed with earnest exhortations, emphasizing that right and law are the real foundations of the throne. He wrote a lament in Latin on Conrad’s death, and is believed to have written the famous sequence for Easter, breslau, Wiponis Gesta Chuonradi II ceteraque quae supersunt opera. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Herbermann, CharlesWipo of Burgundy – Wipo wrote Tetralogus Heinrici, a eulogy of Emperor Henry III (depicted)
62. Marguerite Sylva – Marguerite Sylva was a Belgian born mezzo-soprano who achieved fame not only on the opera stage but also in operetta and musical theatre. She was particularly known for her performances in the role of Bizets Carmen. Sylva was a recording artist for Edison Records and made many recordings for the company between 1910 and 1912. Both she and her sister Edith were trained in music at the Belgian Royal Conservatory, Marguerite primarily studied the piano but also took private singing lessons. Edith went on to become a concert violinist of some renown, according to Marguerite Sylvas entry in the 1935 edition of American women, it was W. S. Gilbert who gave the sisters their stage names. In early 1896 they were in London, where Edith was to play her violin for Gilbert, Sylva recalled that after Edith finished playing, Gilbert asked her, Dont you do anything. She told him she sang a little and proceeded to sing the Habanera from Carmen to him and he offered her a part in his upcoming production of The Grand Duke, but she turned it down saying that she wanted to try grand opera first. After an audition with Augustus Harris, she was engaged to sing for the Drury Lane Theatre, however, with Harris death in June 1896, her opera aspirations ended. Instead she went to the United States with Herbert Beerbohm Trees theatre company for a production of Gilbert Parkers The Seats of the Mighty at the Knickerbocker Theatre, amongst the actors in the company was Gerald Du Maurier to whom she became engaged. The young couple had planned to pursue musical careers together in the United States. According to Beerbohm Tree, Sylvas mother had been opposed to the marriage, Du Maurier returned to the London stage. Sylva remained in the United States where she carved out a successful career in musical comedy, operetta. She appeared in the premiere of The Fortune Teller by Victor Herbert and toured several U. S. cities playing the leading roles in The Princess Chic, Miss Bob White. She eventually formed the Marguerite Sylva Opera Company to produce comic operas and operettas under the management of Samuel F. Nixon, in 1902 she married the theatrical manager William David Mann. The couple left for France in 1904 where Sylva again became fascinated by opera and she found a teacher, Madame Delattre, and was soon engaged by the Opéra-Comique. She made her debut there on 14 September 1906 in the role of Carmen to very good reviews. For the next three years Sylva sang with success throughout France and Germany where she was a particular favourite. In 1909, Oscar Hammerstein invited her to return to America to sing for his opera company, on 1 September 1909, Marguerite Sylva made her American operatic debut as Carmen at the Manhattan Opera HouseMarguerite Sylva – Marguerite Sylva as Carmen, her signature role. (Paris circa 1906)
63. Edison Records – Edison Records was one of the earliest record labels which pioneered sound recording and reproduction and was an important player in the early recording industry. The first phonograph cylinders were manufactured in 1888, followed by Edisons foundation of the Edison Phonograph Company in the same year, until 1910 the recordings did not carry the names of the artists. The company began to lag behind its rivals in the 1920s, Edison invented the phonograph, the first device for recording and playing back sound, in 1877. The earliest phonograph was something of a curiosity, although it was one that fascinated much of the public. Early machines were sold to entrepreneurs who made an out of traveling around the country giving phonograph concerts. Talking dolls and Talking clocks were manufactured as expensive novelties using the early phonograph, in 1887, Edison turned his attention back to improving the phonograph and the phonograph cylinder. The following year, the Edison company debuted the Perfected Phonograph, Edison introduced wax cylinders approximately 4 1⁄4 inches long and 2 1⁄4 inches in external diameter, which became the industry standard. Several experimental wax cylinder recordings of music and speech made in 1888 still exist, the wax entertainment cylinder made its commercial debut in 1889. At first, the customers were entrepreneurs who installed nickel-in-the-slot phonographs in amusement arcades, saloons. At that time, a phonograph cost the equivalent of several months wages for the worker and was driven by an electric motor powered by hazardous. When relatively affordable spring-motor-driven phonographs designed for home use appeared in the mid-1890s, blank records were an important part of the business early on. Most phonographs had or could be fitted with attachments for the users to make their own recordings, one important early use, in line with the original term for a phonograph as a talking machine, was in business for recording dictation. Attachments were added to facilitate starting, stopping, and skipping back the recording for dictation, the business phonograph eventually evolved into a separate device from the home entertainment phonograph. Edison Records brand of business phonograph was called The Ediphone, see Phonograph cylinder, Edison also holds the achievement of being one of the first companies to record the first African-American quartet to record, the Unique Quartet. A notable technological triumph of the Edison Laboratories was devising a method to mass-produce pre-recorded phonograph cylinders in molds and this was done by using very slightly tapered cylinders and molding in a material that contracted as it set. To Edisons disappointment the commercial potential of this process was not realized for some years, most of the regional Edison distributors were able to fill the small early market for recordings by mechanical duplication of a few dozen cylinders at a time. Molded cylinders did not become a significant force in the marketplace until the end of the 1890s, before using metal cylinders though Edison used paraffin paper. In 1902, Edisons National Phonograph Company introduced Edison Gold Moulded Records, cylinder records of improved hard black wax, capable of being played hundreds of times before wearing outEdison Records – 1903 advertisement
64. Enrico Caruso – Enrico Caruso was an Italian operatic tenor. He sang to acclaim at the major opera houses of Europe. Caruso also made approximately 260 commercially released recordings from 1902 to 1920, all of these recordings, which span most of his stage career, remain available today on CDs and as downloads and digital streams. Enrico Caruso came from a poor but not destitute background, born in Naples in the Via San Giovannello agli Ottocalli 7 on 25 February 1873, he was baptised the next day in the adjacent Church of San Giovanni e Paolo. His parents originally came from Piedimonte dAlife in the Province of Benevento, in the Province of Caserta in Campania, called Errico in accordance with the Neapolitan language, he would later adopt the formal Italian version of his given name, Enrico. This change came at the suggestion of a singing teacher, Caruso was the third of seven children and one of only three to survive infancy. There is a story of Carusos parents having had 21 children,18 of whom died in infancy. However, on the basis of research, biographers Pierre Key, Francis Robinson. Caruso himself and his brother Giovanni may have been the source of the exaggerated number, Carusos widow Dorothy also included the story in a memoir that she wrote about her husband. She quotes the tenor, speaking of his mother, Anna Caruso, twenty boys and one girl – too many. Carusos father, Marcellino, was a mechanic and foundry worker, initially, Marcellino thought his son should adopt the same trade, and at the age of 11, the boy was apprenticed to a mechanical engineer who constructed public water fountains. Caruso later worked alongside his father at the Meuricoffre factory in Naples, at his mothers insistence, he also attended school for a time, receiving a basic education under the tutelage of a local priest. He learned to write in a script and studied technical draftsmanship. During this period he sang in his church choir, and his voice showed enough promise for him to contemplate a career in music. Caruso was encouraged in his musical ambitions by his mother. To raise cash for his family, he work as a street singer in Naples. Aged 18, he used the fees he had earned by singing at an Italian resort to buy his first pair of new shoes and his progress as a paid entertainer was interrupted, however, by 45 days of compulsory military service. He completed this in 1894, resuming his voice lessons upon discharge from the armyEnrico Caruso – The medal that Enrico Caruso gave to Pasquale Simonelli, his New York City impresario Obverse: Caruso facing left. Lower right: Salanto, medal maker's signature.
65. Victor Talking Machine Company – The Victor Talking Machine Company was an American flagship record company headquartered in Camden, New Jersey. The company was founded by Eldridge R. Johnson, who had previously made gramophones to play Emile Berliners disc records, Victor Talking Machine Co. was incorporated officially in 1901 shortly before agreeing to allow Columbia Records use of its disc record patent. Victor had acquired the Pan-American rights to use the trademark of the fox terrier Nipper listening to a gramophone when Berliner. Barraud noticed that whenever he played a recorded by his brother. Barrauds original depicts Nipper staring intently into the horn of an Edison-Bell while both sit on a wooden surface. The London branch was managed by an American, William Barry Owen, Barraud paid a visit with a photograph of the painting and asked to borrow a horn. Owen gave Barraud an entire gramophone and asked him to paint it into the picture, the original painting still shows the contours of the Edison-Bell phonograph beneath the paint of the gramophone when viewed in the correct light. Only 13 originally commissioned His Masters Voice paintings were commissioned by the company, in 1915, the His Masters Voice logo was rendered in immense circular leaded-glass windows in the tower of the Victrola factory building. The tower remains today with replica windows installed during Radio Corporation of Americas ownership of the plant in its later years, today, one of the original windows is located at the Smithsonian museum in Washington, D. C. There are different accounts as to how the Victor name came about, a second account is that Johnson emerged as the Victor from the lengthy and costly patent litigations involving Berliner and Frank Seamans Zonophone. A third story is that Johnsons partner, Leon Douglass, derived the word from his wifes name Victoria, finally, a fourth story is that Johnson took the name from the popular Victor bicycle, which he had admired for its superior engineering. Of these four accounts the first two are the most generally accepted, perhaps coincidentally, the first use of the Victor title on a letterhead, on March 28,1901, was only nine weeks after the death of British Queen Victoria. Before 1925, recording was done by the purely mechanical. No microphone was involved and there was no means of amplification, the recording machine was essentially an exposed-horn acoustical record player functioning in reverse. The sound-vibrated center of the diaphragm was linked to a stylus that was guided across the surface of a very thick wax disc. The wax was too soft to be played back even once without seriously damaging it, although test recordings were sometimes made, although sound quality was gradually improved by a series of small refinements, the process was inherently insensitive. From the start, Victor innovated manufacturing processes and soon rose to preeminence by recording famous performers, in 1903, it instituted a three-step mother-stamper process to produce more stampers and records than previously possible. These new celebrity recordings bore red labels, and were marketed as Red Seal records, for many years these records were single-sided, only in 1923 did Victor begin offering Red Seals in double-sided formVictor Talking Machine Company
66. Faust (opera) – The manager Léon Carvalho insisted on various changes during production, including cutting several numbers. Faust was not initially well received, the publisher Antoine Choudens, who purchased the copyright for 10,000 francs, took the work on tour through Germany, Belgium, Italy and England, with Marie Miolan-Carvalho repeating her role. It was revived in Paris in 1862, and was a hit, further notable revivals at the Opéra took place on 4 December 1893 and 25 January 1908. The popularity of Faust has declined somewhat, beginning around 1950, a full production, with its large chorus and elaborate sets and costumes, is an expensive and time-consuming undertaking, particularly if the act 5 ballet is included. However, it appears as number 35 on the Operabase list of the most-performed operas worldwide and it was Faust with which the Metropolitan Opera in New York City opened for the first time on 22 October 1883. It is the eighth most frequently performed there, with 747 performances through the 2011-2012 season. It was not until the period between 1965 and 1977 that the version was performed, and all performances in that production included the Walpurgisnacht. Place, Germany Time, 16th century Fausts cabinet Faust, a scholar, determines that his studies have come to nothing and have only caused him to miss out on life. He attempts to kill himself with poison but stops each time when he hears a choir and he curses science and faith, and asks for infernal guidance. Méphistophélès appears and, with an image of Marguerite at her spinning wheel. Fausts goblet of poison is magically transformed into an elixir of youth, making the aged doctor a handsome young gentleman, at the city gates A chorus of students, soldiers and villagers sings a drinking song. Valentin, leaving for war with his friend Wagner, entrusts the care of his sister Marguerite to his youthful friend Siébel, Méphistophélès appears, provides the crowd with wine, and sings a rousing, irreverent song about the Golden Calf. Méphistophélès maligns Marguerite, and Valentin tries to him with his sword. Valentin and friends use the hilts of their swords to fend off what they now know is an infernal power. Méphistophélès is joined by Faust and the villagers in a waltz, Marguerite appears and Faust declares his admiration, but she refuses Fausts arm out of modesty. Marguerites garden The lovesick boy Siébel leaves a bouquet for Marguerite, Faust sends Méphistophélès in search of a gift for Marguerite and sings a cavatina idealizing Marguerite as a pure child of nature. Méphistophélès brings in a box containing exquisite jewelry and a hand mirror and leaves it on Marguerites doorstep. Marguerite enters, pondering her encounter with Faust at the city gates, marthe, Marguerites neighbour, notices the jewellery and says it must be from an admirerFaust (opera) – Charles Gounod
67. Marcel Journet – Marcel Journet, was a French, bass, operatic singer. He enjoyed a prominent career in England, France and Italy, Journet was born in the town of Grasse, Alpes-Maritimes, and studied at the Paris Conservatory. He made his debut at Montpellier in 1891. Journet went on to sing a wide range of roles in operas by Richard Wagner and major French and Italian composers during a distinguished, arturo Toscanini was just one of the celebrated conductors under whose baton he performed. His on-stage colleagues included such renowned singers as Nellie Melba, Luisa Tetrazzini, Enrico Caruso, Giovanni Martinelli, Titta Ruffo, Giuseppe De Luca, Journet died in Vittel, of kidney failure, aged 66. Numerous recordings testify to Journets outstanding vocal attributes and the standard of his interpretative powers. Many of these recordings have been re-issued on various CDs, most notably on the Marston, warrack, John and Rosenthal, Harold, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Opera, London, second edition,1980. Scott, Michael, The Record of Singing, Volume II, Duckworth, jean-Pierre Mouchon, Marcel Journet in Étude, n°6,1997. Jean-Pierre Mouchon, Marcel Journet in The Record Collector, volume 47, n°1, jean-Pierre Mouchon, Une basse française dexception, Marcel Journet, two volumes, Édilivre, Saint-Denis, France, vol. ISBN paper, 978-2-332-89248-5, ISBN pdf, 978-2-332-89249-2, ISBN epub, ISBN paper, 978-2-332-89251-5, ISBN pdf, 978-2-332-89252-2, ISBN epub, 978-2-332-89250-8 Discography of Marcel Journet on Victor Records from the Encyclopedic Discography of Victor RecordingsMarcel Journet – Marcel Journet
68. Pasquale Amato – Pasquale Amato was an Italian operatic baritone. Amato enjoyed an international reputation but attained the peak of his fame in New York City, Amato was born in Naples and studied locally at the Conservatory of San Pietro a Majella under Beniamino Carelli and Vincenzo Lombardo. In 1900, he made his debut at the Teatro Bellini in Naples as Germont père in La traviata, engagements followed in Genoa and Rome. Over the next few years he sang in Monte Carlo, Germany, parts of eastern Europe, in 1904, he appeared at Londons Royal Opera House with the Teatro di San Carlo Company, although well-received, he was not invited back. He was engaged by La Scala, Milan, and sang there in 1907 under the baton of Arturo Toscanini and his voice had matured by now into a top-class instrument and he was praised for his versatility and artistic integrity. In 1913 he was accorded the honour of taking part in the Verdi centenary commemoration at the Busseto Theatre and he appeared at the commemoration in La traviata and Falstaff with Toscanini conducting. Amato repeated some of these roles at the Metropolitan Opera, where Toscanini had gone to conduct and he maintained a taxing performance schedule at the Met until he left the company in 1921, appearing in a number of operatic works that he had not undertaken before. In 1910, for example, he sang in Glucks Armide, along with Olive Fremstad, Enrico Caruso, Louise Homer and Alma Gluck. In December of that year, he created the part of Jack Rance in Puccinis La fanciulla del West, singing opposite Caruso, Emmy Destinn, Dinh Gilly. In 1913, Amato created the role in Cyrano by Walter Damrosch, Frances Alda. He performed, too, in that production of Un ballo in maschera with Caruso, Destinn, Margarete Matzenauer and Frieda Hempel. In La Gioconda, he sang alongside Destinn again, and Margarethe Arndt-Ober, Amato was especially admired as Escamillo in Carmen, supporting Geraldine Farrar, Caruso and Alda, when the opera was successfully revived in 1914. In 1916, he gave the premiere American performance of the role of Giovanni in Riccardo Zandonais Francesca da Rimini, amatos punishingly busy schedule at the Met took its toll on his voice and his health in general. He retired to Italy during the 1920s, to relax and recuperate and he died at the age of 64 in Jackson Heights, Queens. Amato in his prime possessed a high baritone voice of wide compass. According to Michael Scott in The Record of Singing, it had a ringing, Amato also sang with masterful phrasing and cantabile. In short, he was one of the most distinctive singers of his age, a number of extremely impressive gramophone records of operatic arias were made by Amato in America for the Victor Talking Machine Company—including some duets with Caruso and other stars of the Met. His 1914 Victor recording of Eri tu, for example, is considered by critics to be the finest version ever committed to discPasquale Amato – Pasquale Amato
69. Carmen (opera) – Carmen is an opera in four acts by French composer Georges Bizet. The libretto was written by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy, based on a novella of the title by Prosper Mérimée. The opera was first performed at the Opéra-Comique in Paris on 3 March 1875, Bizet died suddenly after the 33rd performance, unaware that the work would achieve international acclaim within the following ten years. The opera is written in the genre of opéra comique with musical numbers separated by dialogue and it is set in southern Spain and tells the story of the downfall of Don José, a naïve soldier who is seduced by the wiles of the fiery gypsy Carmen. José abandons his sweetheart and deserts from his military duties, yet loses Carmens love to the glamorous toreador Escamillo. The depictions of life, immorality, and lawlessness. After the premiere, most reviews were critical, and the French public was generally indifferent, Carmen initially gained its reputation through a series of productions outside France, and was not revived in Paris until 1883, thereafter it rapidly acquired popularity at home and abroad. Later commentators have asserted that Carmen forms the bridge between the tradition of opéra comique and the realism or verismo that characterised late 19th-century Italian opera. The opera has been recorded many times since the first acoustical recording in 1908, in the Paris of the 1860s, despite being a Prix de Rome laureate, Bizet struggled to get his stage works performed. The capitals two main state-funded opera houses—the Opéra and the Opéra-Comique—followed conservative repertoires that restricted opportunities for young native talent, Bizet was delighted with the Opéra-Comique commission, and expressed to his friend Edmund Galabert his satisfaction in the absolute certainty of having found my path. It was Bizet who first proposed an adaptation of Prosper Mérimées novella Carmen, Bizet may first have encountered the story during his Rome sojourn of 1858–60, since his journals record Mérimée as one of the writers whose works he absorbed in those years. Cast details are as provided by Mina Curtiss from the original piano, the stage designs are credited to Charles Ponchard. Place, Seville, Spain, and surrounding hills Time, Around 1820 Act 1 A square, on the right, a door to the tobacco factory. A group of soldiers relax in the square, waiting for the changing of the guard, moralès tells her that José is not yet on duty and invites her to wait with them. She declines, saying she will return later, José arrives with the new guard, which is greeted and imitated by a crowd of urchins. As the factory bell rings, the cigarette girls emerge and exchange banter with young men in the crowd, Carmen enters and sings her provocative habanera on the untameable nature of love. The men plead with her to choose a lover, and after some teasing she throws a flower to Don José, as the women go back to the factory, Micaëla returns and gives José a letter and a kiss from his mother. He reads that his mother wants him to home and marry MicaëlaCarmen (opera) – Cartoon from Journal amusant, 1911
70. Soni Ventorum Wind Quintet – It is known worldwide for its many international tours sponsored by the United States Department of State including three tours of South America and three of Europe. In 1972 the quintet won the medal at the International Instrumental Ensembles Competition in Rio de Janeiro. The group had a long and stable history, through its concerts, tours, and recordings, the Soni Ventorum Wind Quintet established an international reputation. For many years Soni Ventorum was also the wind quintet-in-residence at the University of Washington School of Music, the quintet was founded in 1962 by Felix Skowronek, William McColl, Arthur Grossman, James Caldwell, and Christopher Leuba. Members of the ensemble were on faculty at the Conservatory of Music of Puerto Rico, members of the Puerto Rico Symphony, during its years in Puerto Rico, the quintet went on several concert tours to the US mainland, which led to recording opportunities with the Lyrichord label. In 1968 Soni Ventorum was hired by the University of Washington School of Music as the resident Woodwind Quintet, the group was active through June 2001Soni Ventorum Wind Quintet – Soni Ventorum
71. Jean-Baptiste Lully – Jean-Baptiste Lully was an Italian-born French composer, instrumentalist, and dancer who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France. He is considered a master of the French baroque style, Lully disavowed any Italian influence in French music of the period. He became a French subject in 1661, Lully was born on November 28,1632 in Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, to a family of millers. His general education and his training during his youth in Florence remain uncertain. He used to say that a Franciscan friar gave him his first music lessons and he also learned to play the violin. Guise took the boy to Paris, where the fourteen-year-old entered Mademoiselles service and he probably honed his musical skills by working with Mademoiselles household musicians and with composers Nicolas Métru, François Roberday and Nicolas Gigault. The teenagers talents as a guitarist, violinist, and dancer quickly won him the nicknames Baptiste, when Mademoiselle was exiled to the provinces in 1652 after the rebellion known as the Fronde, Lully begged his leave. Because he did not want to live in the country, by February 1653 Lully had attracted the attention of young Louis XIV, dancing with him in the Ballet royal de la nuit. By March 16,1653, Lully had been made royal composer for instrumental music and his vocal and instrumental music for court ballets gradually made him indispensable. In 1660 and 1662 he collaborated on performances of Francesco Cavallis Xerse. When Louis XIV took over the reins of government in 1661, in December 1661 the Florentine was granted letters of naturalization. The latter assertion was an untruth, from 1661 on, the trios and dances he wrote for the court were promptly published. When he became surintendant de la de la chambre du roi in 1661. He relied mainly on the Little Violins for court ballets and their collaboration began in earnest in 1664 with Le Mariage forcé. In 1672 Lully broke with Molière, who turned to Marc-Antoine Charpentier, having acquired Pierre Perrins opera privilege, Lully became the director of the Académie Royale de Musique, that is, the royal opera, which performed in the Palais-Royal. Between 1673 and 1687 he produced a new opera almost yearly and fiercely protected his monopoly over that new genre, after Queen Marie-Thérèses death in 1683 and the kings secret marriage to Mme de Maintenon, devotion came to the fore at court. The kings enthusiasm for opera dissipated, he was revolted by Lullys dissolute life, in 1686, to show his displeasure, Louis XIV made a point of not inviting Lully to perform Armide at Versailles. Lully died from gangrene, having struck his foot with his conducting staff during a performance of his Te Deum to celebrate Louis XIVs recovery from surgeryJean-Baptiste Lully – Jean-Baptiste Lully
72. Betelgeuse incident – The explosion was attributed to the failure of the ships structure during an operation to discharge its cargo of oil. The tanker was owned by Total S. A. and the oil terminal was owned and operated by Gulf Oil, the explosion and resulting fire claimed the lives of 50 people. A further fatality occurred during the operation with the loss of a Dutch diver. These vessels were so large that they would not be able to enter most of the ports on the Atlantic Ocean, North Sea. Accordingly, building a new oil terminal in Europe capable of handling the largest vessels that were planned was judged appropriate, the intention was that oil coming from the Middle East would be off-loaded at this terminal and then stored for trans-shipment to European refineries using smaller vessels. The closure of the Suez Canal in 1967 as a result of the Six-Day War reinforced the economic viability of this scheme, Oil shipments had to come round the Cape of Good Hope, thus avoiding the vessel size constraints previously imposed by the canal. In 1966, the Gulf Oil Corporation identified Whiddy Island in Bantry Bay, Ireland, Whiddy Island offered a long, sheltered, deep-water anchorage. Furthermore, it was away from any major population centres. Construction started in 1967 and the terminal was completed in 1969.3 million tonnes of oil, the offshore facility comprised an island type berth 488 m in length, around 396 m from the shore. The jetty was commonly described as a concrete structure and access to it was only possible by boat. It was claimed that the jetty was capable of accommodating vessels up to 500,000 tonnes deadweight, the construction and operation of the terminal transformed the economy of the Bantry area. In 1968, the tanker Universe Ireland went into service for Gulf, at 312,000 DWT, it was then the largest ship in the world. It was intended to use this vessel mainly to move oil between Kuwait and Whiddy Island and it was the first of six such tankers planned for use by the company. The opening of the terminal was celebrated in the Clancy Brothers song Bringin Home the Oil, the terminal was very successful for the first five years of operation, but then events began to move against it. The Suez Canal reopened and the economics of ULCCs began to appear less satisfactory than had originally been anticipated, shipping goods in the form of infrequent but very large loads involves engaging more idle capital in the form of stock than the alternatives. Also, the process of trans-shipment is costly, the whole economic basis of the Whiddy terminal was incompatible with the just-in-time approach to industrial management which was being widely adopted at the time. That apart, the late 1970s had a levelling-off in demand for oil as the result of economic recession and a rise in the price of oil. All these circumstances caused a fall in the use of the terminal to a level below that which had been planned, thus, by the late 1970s, the local Gulf operating company was struggling to maintain the viability of the terminalBetelgeuse incident – Betelgeuse, 8 January 1979
73. Battle of France – The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries in 1940 during the Second World War. Italy entered the war on 10 June 1940 and attempted an invasion of France, the German plan for the invasion of France consisted of two main operations. After the withdrawal of the BEF, the German forces began Fall Rot on 5 June, the sixty remaining French divisions made a determined resistance but were unable to overcome the German air superiority and armoured mobility. German tanks outflanked the Maginot Line and pushed deep into France, German forces occupied Paris unopposed on 14 June after a chaotic period of flight of the French government that led to a collapse of the French army. German commanders met with French officials on 18 June with the goal of forcing the new French government to accept an armistice that amounted to surrender and this led to the end of the French Third Republic. France was not liberated until the summer of 1944, in 1939, Britain and France offered military support to Poland in the likely case of a German invasion. In the dawn of 1 September 1939, the German Invasion of Poland began, France and the United Kingdom declared war on 3 September, after an ultimatum for German forces to immediately withdraw their forces from Poland was met without reply. Following this, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Canada, on 7 September, in accordance with their alliance with Poland, France began the Saar Offensive with an advance from the Maginot Line 5 km into the Saar. France had mobilised 98 divisions and 2,500 tanks against a German force consisting of 43 divisions, the French advanced until they met the then thin and undermanned Siegfried Line. On 17 September, the French supreme commander, Maurice Gamelin gave the order to withdraw French troops to their starting positions, following the Saar Offensive, a period of inaction called the Phoney War set in between the belligerents. Adolf Hitler had hoped that France and Britain would acquiesce in the conquest of Poland, on 6 October, he made a peace offer to both Western powers. On 9 October, Hitler issued a new Führer-Directive Number 6, the plan was based on the seemingly more realistic assumption that German military strength would have to be built up for several years. For the moment only limited objectives could be envisaged and were aimed at improving Germanys ability to survive a long war in the west. Hitler ordered a conquest of the Low Countries to be executed at the shortest possible notice to forestall the French and it would also provide the basis for a long-term air and sea campaign against Britain. On 10 October 1939, Britain refused Hitlers offer of peace and on 12 October, colonel-General Franz Halder, presented the first plan for Fall Gelb on 19 October. This was the codename of plans for a campaign in the Low Countries. Halders plan has been compared to the Schlieffen Plan, the given to the German strategy of 1914 in the First World War. It was similar in both plans entailed an advance through the middle of BelgiumBattle of France – Clockwise from top left: German Panzer IV tanks passing through a town in France; German soldiers marching past the Arc de Triomphe after the surrender of Paris, 14 June 1940; column of French Renault R35 tanks at Sedan, Ardennes; British and French prisoners at Veules-les-Roses; French soldiers on review within the Maginot Line fortifications.
74. Battle of Quebec (1690) – The Battle of Quebec was fought in October 1690 between the colonies of New France and Massachusetts Bay, then ruled by the kingdoms of France and England, respectively. It was the first time Quebecs defences were tested, following the capture of Port Royal in Acadia, during King Williams War, the New Englanders hoped to seize Montreal and Quebec itself, the capital of New France. The loss of the Acadian fort shocked the Canadians, and Governor-General Louis de Buade de Frontenac ordered the preparation of the city for siege. When the envoys delivered the terms of surrender, the Governor-General famously declared that his reply would be by the mouth of my cannons. Major John Walley led the army, which landed at Beauport in the Basin of Quebec. Both sides learned from the battle, the French improved the defences, while the New Englanders realized they needed more artillery. The colony of New France claimed the largest area of North America, although by population it was inferior to the neighbouring colonies of New England. By 1689, there were only about 14,000 settlers in New France, in 1690, Sir William Phips was appointed major-general by Massachusetts to command an expedition against French Acadia. He sailed with seven vessels carrying a 450-strong provincial Foot Regiment and its governor, Louis-Alexandre des Friches de Menneval, had only about 70 men, and no guns mounted, and would have been unable to resist. This shocked the French colonists, who feared that their city would be the next target. Quebec did not have extensive fortifications in 1690, and the landward side of the city to the north and west was exposed. Town Major Provost oversaw the construction of small stone redoubts in this enceinte. Facing the plains on the west side was the point of the landward defences — a windmill called Mont-Carmel where a three-gun battery was in place. The palisade line ended on the east side of the city, the batteries facing the river were also improved, with eight guns mounted beside the Château and six 18-pounders at the docksides. Temporary obstacles had also put in place on the street leading up to the upper city. Schuylers expedition was designed to seize Montreal and pin French forces south of Quebec, on 4 September the English raiders attacked settlements south of Montreal, killing some 50 habitants in the middle of their harvests. Too weak to risk a battle with the garrison, Schuyler wrapped up the New England invasion. Thus, when Phips was sighted off Tadoussac, Frontenac ordered the garrisons of Montreal, four days later the Governor arrived in Quebec with 200–300 troops freed-up by the failure of Schuylers invasion, considerably lifting the capitals spirit of resistanceBattle of Quebec (1690) – "I have no reply to make to your general other than from the mouth of my cannons and muskets." Frontenac famously rebuffs the English envoys. Watercolour on commercial board.
75. Fort Senneville – Fort Senneville is one of the outlying forts of Montreal, Quebec, Canada, built by the Canadiens of New France near the Sainte-Anne rapids in 1671. The property was part of a fief ceded to Dugué de Boisbriant in 1672 by the Sulpicians, a large stone windmill, which doubled as a watch tower, was built on a hill by late 1686 and featuring machicolation and other castle-like features. The fort was burned down by Iroquois in 1691, with only the mill left standing. Governor-General Frontenac ordered the construction of a second, more imposing fort in 1692 and it was rebuilt in 1702-1703 to protect the nearby fur trading post. With extensive cannons and swiveling wall guns, it was the most substantial castle-like fort near Montreal and it was eventually destroyed in 1776 by Benedict Arnold, under American military control, but the ruins have been maintained since then. In 2003, it was classified as a historic site, thanks to the tireless work of French explorers, the colony of New France covered the largest area, but it was numerically inferior to the neighbouring New England. An unusual feature of Montreals defence was a string of 30 outlying forts to protect against the constant Iroquois threat to the expansion of French settlements. The majority of these were simple stockades, but as artillery was not as developed as on the battlefields of Europe, roughly four of these were substantial stone forts which served as defensive residences, sometimes considered true castles, as well as imposing structures to prevent Iroquois incursions. Initially, Fort Senneville was a French stockaded fort, built in 1671 about half a mile above the Sainte-Anne rapids. A large stone windmill was built on a hill by late 1686, doubling as a tower over the Ottawa River, the Lake of Two Mountains. This windmill was like no other in New France, with walls, square loopholes for muskets, with machicolation at the top for pouring lethally hot liquids. In October 1687, the nearby Fort Sainte-Anne and the Senneville mill were attacked by Iroquois, and although several settlers were killed, a second attack was more successful in 1691, and the fort was burned down. Only the mill itself was left standing, the attack had come shortly after the 1690 Battle of Quebec, and an enraged Governor-General Frontenac ordered the construction of a second, more imposing fort. The fort was rebuilt in 1692 with thick walls and corner tower bastions. With extensive cannons and swivel guns, it was the most substantial castle-like fort near Montreal. The windmill was rebuilt in 1700, and was still in use until the 1780s. In 1703, Jacques Le Ber de Senneville constructed a stone house and fort in order to improve and protect his fur trading operations. However, after the fall of New France in 1763, it was not used by the British as a military postFort Senneville – Fort Senneville in 1895
76. Morea expedition – The Morea expedition is the name given in France to the land intervention of the French Army in the Peloponnese between 1828 and 1833, at the time of the Greek War of Independence. After the fall of Messolonghi, Western Europe decided to intervene in favour of revolutionary Greece, the intervention began when a Franco-Russo-British fleet was sent to the region, winning the Battle of Navarino in October 1827. In August 1828, a French expeditionary corps disembarked at Koroni in the southern Peloponnese, the soldiers were stationed on the peninsula until the evacuation of Egyptian troops in October, then taking control of the principal strongholds still held by Turkish troops. Although the bulk of the returned to France from the end of 1828. As during Napoleons Egyptian Campaign, when a Commission of Sciences and Arts had accompanied the military campaign, seventeen learned men representing different specialties made the voyage. Their work was of importance in increasing knowledge about the country. As an example, the maps they produced were excellent. The Morea expedition and its publications offered a description of the regions visited. They formed a scientific, aesthetic and human inventory that remained one of the best means, short of visiting them in person, in 1821, the Greeks revolted against centuries-long Ottoman rule. They won numerous victories early on and declared independence, however, the declaration contradicted the principles of the Congress of Vienna and of the Holy Alliance, which imposed a European equilibrium of the status quo, outlawing any change. In contrast to what happened elsewhere in Europe, the Holy Alliance did not intervene to stop the liberal Greek insurgents, the liberal and national uprising displeased the Austria of Metternich, the principal political architect of the Holy Alliance. However, Russia, another reactionary gendarme of Europe, looked favorably on the due to its Orthodox religious solidarity. Great Britain, a country, was interested in the regional situation primarily because it lay on the route to India. For all of Europe, Greece represented the cradle of Western civilisation, the Greek victories had been short-lived. The Sultan had called to his aid his Egyptian vassal Muhammad Ali, ibrahim’s intervention proved decisive, the Peloponnese had been reconquered in 1825, the gateway town of Messolonghi had fallen in 1826, Athens had been taken in 1827. All that Greek nationalists still held was Nafplion, Hydra, Mani, a strong current of philhellenism developed in Western Europe. Thus it was decided to intervene in favour of Greece, the cradle of civilisation, by the Treaty of London of July 1827, France, Russia and the United Kingdom recognised the autonomy of Greece, which remained a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire. The three powers agreed to an intervention in order to convince the Porte to accept the terms of the conventionMorea expedition – Capture of Koroni by General Sebastiani (Hippolyte Lecomte).
77. NATO – The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949. The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party, three NATO members are permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and are officially nuclear-weapon states. NATOs headquarters are located in Haren, Brussels, Belgium, while the headquarters of Allied Command Operations is near Mons. NATO is an Alliance that consists of 28 independent member countries across North America and Europe, an additional 22 countries participate in NATOs Partnership for Peace program, with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programmes. The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global total, Members defence spending is supposed to amount to 2% of GDP. The course of the Cold War led to a rivalry with nations of the Warsaw Pact, politically, the organization sought better relations with former Warsaw Pact countries, several of which joined the alliance in 1999 and 2004. N. The Treaty of Brussels, signed on 17 March 1948 by Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, the treaty and the Soviet Berlin Blockade led to the creation of the Western European Unions Defence Organization in September 1948. However, participation of the United States was thought necessary both to counter the power of the USSR and to prevent the revival of nationalist militarism. He got a hearing, especially considering American anxiety over Italy. In 1948 European leaders met with U. S. defense, military and diplomatic officials at the Pentagon, marshalls orders, exploring a framework for a new and unprecedented association. Talks for a new military alliance resulted in the North Atlantic Treaty and it included the five Treaty of Brussels states plus the United States, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark and Iceland. The first NATO Secretary General, Lord Ismay, stated in 1949 that the goal was to keep the Russians out, the Americans in. Popular support for the Treaty was not unanimous, and some Icelanders participated in a pro-neutrality, the creation of NATO can be seen as the primary institutional consequence of a school of thought called Atlanticism which stressed the importance of trans-Atlantic cooperation. The members agreed that an attack against any one of them in Europe or North America would be considered an attack against them all. The treaty does not require members to respond with military action against an aggressor, although obliged to respond, they maintain the freedom to choose the method by which they do so. This differs from Article IV of the Treaty of Brussels, which states that the response will be military in nature. It is nonetheless assumed that NATO members will aid the attacked member militarily, the treaty was later clarified to include both the members territory and their vessels, forces or aircraft above the Tropic of Cancer, including some Overseas departments of France. The creation of NATO brought about some standardization of allied military terminology, procedures, and technology, the roughly 1300 Standardization Agreements codified many of the common practices that NATO has achievedNATO – The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in Washington, D.C., on 4 April 1949 and was ratified by the United States that August.
78. Operation Entebbe – Operation Entebbe was a successful counter-terrorist hostage-rescue mission carried out by commandos of the Israel Defense Forces at Entebbe Airport in Uganda on 4 July 1976. The hijackers had the objective to free 40 Palestinian and affiliated militants imprisoned in Israel and 13 prisoners in four other countries in exchange for the hostages. The flight, which had originated in Tel Aviv with the destination of Paris, was diverted after a stopover in Athens via Benghazi to Entebbe, the Ugandan government supported the hijackers, and dictator Idi Amin personally welcomed them. Over the following two days,148 non-Israeli hostages were released and flown out to Paris, ninety-four, mainly Israeli, passengers along with the 12-member Air France crew, remained as hostages and were threatened with death. The IDF acted on information provided by the Israeli intelligence agency Mossad, the hijackers threatened to kill the hostages if their prisoner release demands were not met. This threat led to the planning of the rescue operation and these plans included preparation for armed resistance from Ugandan military troops. The operation took place at night, Israeli transport planes carried 100 commandos over 2,500 miles to Uganda for the rescue operation. The operation, which took a week of planning, lasted 90 minutes, of the remaining hostages,102 were rescued. Five Israeli commandos were wounded and one, the unit commander, All the hijackers, three hostages, and 45 Ugandan soldiers were killed, and thirty Soviet-built MiG-17s and MiG-21s of Ugandas air force were destroyed. Kenyan sources supported Israel, and in the aftermath of the operation Idi Amin issued orders to retaliate, Operation Entebbe, which had the military codename Operation Thunderbolt, is sometimes referred to retroactively as Operation Jonathan in memory of the units leader, Yonatan Netanyahu. He was the brother of Benjamin Netanyahu, the current Prime Minister of Israel. On 27 June 1976, Air France Flight 139, an Airbus A300B4-203, registration F-BVGG, departed from Tel Aviv, Israel, carrying 246 mainly Jewish and Israeli passengers and a crew of 12. The plane flew to Athens, Greece, where it picked up an additional 58 passengers and it departed for Paris at 12,30 pm. The hijackers diverted the flight to Benghazi, Libya, there it was held on the ground for seven hours for refuelling. During that time the hijackers released British-born Israeli citizen Patricia Martell who pretended to have a miscarriage, the plane left Benghazi, and at 3,15 pm on the 28th, more than 24 hours after the flights original departure, it arrived at Entebbe Airport in Uganda. At Entebbe, the four hijackers were joined by at least four others, supported by the forces of Ugandas President, the hijackers transferred the passengers to the transit hall of the disused former airport terminal where they kept them under guard for the following days. Amin came to visit the hostages almost on a basis, updating them on developments. They threatened that if these demands were not met, they would begin to kill hostages on 1 July 1976, as they did so, a Holocaust survivor showed Böse a camp registration number tattooed on his armOperation Entebbe – The old terminal building of the Entebbe International Airport as it appeared in 2008
79. Charlemagne – Charlemagne or Charles the Great, numbered Charles I, was the King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774 and Emperor of the Romans from 800. He united much of Europe during the early Middle Ages and he was the first recognised emperor in western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. The expanded Frankish state which Charlemagne founded was called the Carolingian Empire, Charlemagne was the oldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon. He became king in 768 following his fathers death, initially as co-ruler with his brother Carloman I, carlomans sudden death in 771 in unexplained circumstances left Charlemagne as the undisputed ruler of the Frankish Kingdom. He continued his fathers policy towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in northern Italy and he campaigned against the Saxons to his east, Christianising them upon penalty of death and leading to events such as the Massacre of Verden. Charlemagne reached the height of his power in 800 when he was crowned Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day at Old St. Peters Basilica. Charlemagne has been called the Father of Europe, as he united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire and his rule spurred the Carolingian Renaissance, a period of energetic cultural and intellectual activity within the Western Church. All Holy Roman Emperors considered their kingdoms to be descendants of Charlemagnes empire, up to the last Emperor Francis II and these and other machinations led to the eventual split of Rome and Constantinople in the Great Schism of 1054. Charlemagne died in 814, having ruled as emperor for thirteen years and he was laid to rest in his imperial capital of Aachen in what is today Germany. He married at least four times and had three sons, but only his son Louis the Pious survived to succeed him. By the 6th century, the western Germanic Franks had been Christianised, Francia, ruled by the Merovingians, was the most powerful of the kingdoms that succeeded the Western Roman Empire. Following the Battle of Tertry the Merovingians declined into powerlessness, for which they have dubbed the rois fainéants. Almost all government powers were exercised by their chief officer, the mayor of the palace, in 687, Pepin of Herstal, mayor of the palace of Austrasia, ended the strife between various kings and their mayors with his victory at Tertry. He became the governor of the entire Frankish kingdom. Pepin was the grandson of two important figures of the Austrasian Kingdom, Saint Arnulf of Metz and Pepin of Landen, Pepin of Herstal was eventually succeeded by his illegitimate son Charles, later known as Charles Martel. After 737, Charles governed the Franks in lieu of a king, Charles was succeeded in 741 by his sons Carloman and Pepin the Short, the father of Charlemagne. In 743, the brothers placed Childeric III on the throne to curb separatism in the periphery and he was the last Merovingian king. Carloman resigned office in 746, preferring to enter the church as a monk, Pepin brought the question of the kingship before Pope Zachary, asking whether it was logical for a king to have no royal powerCharlemagne – A coin of Charlemagne with the inscription KAROLVS IMP AVG (Karolus Imperator Augustus)
80. Claude Vorilhon – Raël, is the founder and current leader of the UFO religion known as Raëlism. Vorilhon began singing at an age and soon became a sports-car journalist and test driver for his own car-racing magazine. Following an extraterrestrial encounter in December 1973, he formed the Raëlian Movement and he later published several books, which detail his encounter with a being called Yahweh in 1973. He traveled the world to promote his books for over 30 years, Vorilhon was born in Vichy, Allier, France. He was raised in Ambert in the home of his maternal grandmother and his father was Jewish and his mother was a Catholic. He attended a Catholic boarding school with Le Puy-en-Velay and caused a scandal by taking part in communion without being baptized and his parents withdrew him from the boarding school to put him in school in Ambert. At age 15, Vorilhon ran away from boarding school and hitchhiked to Paris and he met with Lucien Morisse, the director of a national radio program, who was scouting for young talent. Vorilhon signed a contract and became a rising teen pop star on the radio. He took on a new identity, assuming the name Claude Celler, Vorilhon had a passion for the songs of Belgian singer Jacques Brel, and tried to imitate his singing style. Vorilhon decided to work as a sports journalist to gain access to the world of car racing and he met Marie-Paul Cristini, a nurse. They moved to Clermont-Ferrand, where Vorilhon started his own publishing house and he created a sports car magazine entitled Autopop, whose first issue was released in May 1971. One of the tasks for his new startup was the position of testing new automobiles, in the book Le Livre qui dit la vérité, Vorilhon had an alien visitation on 13 December 1973. Raël said that he was given a message by this alien, the book states that advanced human scientists from another planet with 25,000 years of scientific advances created all life on Earth through DNA manipulation. These scientists, Raël said, were originally called Elohim or those who came from the sky, Raël said he was given the mission of informing the world of humanitys origins in anticipation of the return of these extraterrestrials by building a residential embassy in neutral territory. He stated that certain mysteries were explained to him based on new interpretations of sacred texts such as the Bible. He said that, on 7 October 1975, he was contacted by one of the Elohim and he stated that his second book, Les extra-terrestres mont emmené sur leur planète, relates the teaching he received from these people. In this book, Raël describes harmonious and peaceable beings, who were free of money, sickness, Raël has been married three times. In 1974, Raël decided to give up his automobile magazine and that September, the last issue, number 34, was publishedClaude Vorilhon – Claude Vorilhon "Raël"
81. Tony Parker – William Anthony Tony Parker Jr. is a French professional basketball player for the San Antonio Spurs of the National Basketball Association. The son of a basketball player, Parker played for two years in the French basketball league before entering the 2001 NBA draft. He was selected by the San Antonio Spurs with the 28th overall pick in the draft, Parker has won four NBA championships, all of which were with the Spurs. With his pace and high field goal percentage, Parker has been named to six NBA All-Star games and he was also the 2007 NBA Finals MVP. Playing for the France national basketball team, Parker was named as the EuroBasket 2013 MVP following his teams victory over Lithuania in the medal game. The point guard finished as the top scorer with 19 points per game. In 2015 he became the leading scorer in the EuroBasket competition. Parker is also a music artist with his own music album and he married actress Eva Longoria on 7 July 2007. In November 2010, both filed for divorce. Parker was born in Bruges, Belgium, and raised in France and his father, Tony Parker Sr. an African American, played basketball at Loyola University Chicago as well as professionally overseas. His mother, Pamela Firestone, is a Dutch model, Parkers great-uncle Jan Wienese is an Olympic gold medalist in rowing. Parker enjoyed close relationships with his brothers, and they would attend their fathers basketball games together. Parkers two younger brothers were heavily involved in basketball, T. J. and Pierre would go on to play basketball at college. As Parker built his skill, he played the point guard position, recognizing that his speed and he was eventually asked to attend the INSEP in Paris. After playing in the French amateur leagues for two seasons, Parker turned professional and signed with Paris Basket Racing in 1999, in the summer of 2000, Parker was invited to the Nike Hoop Summit in Indianapolis. In a contest between the American and European All-Stars, Parker recorded 20 points, seven assists, four rebounds, the Frenchmans performance prompted a recruiting war among several colleges, including UCLA and Georgia Tech. Parker decided to forgo the NCAA and to remain in France, before the 2001 NBA draft, Parker was invited to the San Antonio Spurs summer camp. Coach Gregg Popovich had him play against Spurs scout and ex-NBA player Lance Blanks, Parker was overwhelmed by Blanks tough and physical defense, and Popovich was ready to send him away after just 10 minutesTony Parker – Tony Parker
82. Champagne (wine region) – The Champagne wine region is a wine region within the historical province of Champagne in the northeast of France. The area is best known for the production of the white wine that bears the regions name. EU law and the laws of most countries reserve the term Champagne exclusively for wines that come from this region located about 100 miles east of Paris, the towns of Reims and Épernay are the commercial centers of the area. Located at the edges of France, the history of the Champagne wine region has had a significant role in the development of this unique terroir. The areas proximity to Paris promoted the economic success in its wine trade but also put the villages. The principal grapes grown in the region include Chardonnay, Pinot noir, Pinot noir is the most widely planted grape in the Aube region and grows very well in Montagne de Reims. Pinot Meunier is the dominant grape in the Vallée de la Marne region, the Côte des Blancs is dedicated almost exclusively to Chardonnay. The Champagne province is located near the limits of the wine world along the 49th parallel. The high altitude and mean temperature of 10 °C creates a difficult environment for wine grapes to fully ripen. Ripening is aided by the presence of forests which helps to stabilize temperatures, the cool temperatures serve to produce high levels of acidity in the resulting grape which is ideal for sparkling wine. During the growing season, the mean July temperature is 18 °C, the average annual rainfall is 630 mm, with 45 mm falling during the harvest month of September. Throughout the year, growers must be mindful of the hazards of fungal disease, ancient oceans left behind chalk subsoil deposits when they receded 70 million years ago. Earthquakes that rocked the region over 10 million years ago pushed the marine sediments of belemnite fossils up to the surface to create the belemnite chalk terrain. The belemnite in the soil allows it to heat from the sun. This soil contributes to the lightness and finesse that is characteristic of Champagne wine, the Aube area is an exception with predominately clay based soil. The chalk is used in the construction of underground cellars that can keep the wines cool through the bottle maturation process. The tradition of crowning kings at Reims contributed to the reputation of the wines that came from this area, the Counts of Champagne ruled the area as an independent county from 950 to 1316. In 1314, the last Count of Champagne assumed the throne as King Louis X of France, the location of Champagne played a large role in its historical prominence as it served as a crossroads for both military and trade routesChampagne (wine region) – Champagne vineyards in Verzenay in the Montagne de Reims subregion
83. French cuisine – French cuisine consists of the cooking traditions and practices from France. In the 14th century Guillaume Tirel, a chef known as Taillevent, wrote Le Viandier. During that time, French cuisine was influenced by Italian cuisine. Cheese and wine are a part of the cuisine. They play different roles regionally and nationally, with many variations, gastro-tourism and the Guide Michelin helped to acquaint people with the rich bourgeois and peasant cuisine of the French countryside starting in the 20th century. Gascon cuisine has also had influence over the cuisine in the southwest of France. Many dishes that were once regional have proliferated in variations across the country, knowledge of French cooking has contributed significantly to Western cuisines. Its criteria are used widely in Western cookery school boards and culinary education, in November 2010, French gastronomy was added by the UNESCO to its lists of the worlds intangible cultural heritage. In French medieval cuisine, banquets were common among the aristocracy, multiple courses would be prepared, but served in a style called service en confusion, or all at once. Food was generally eaten by hand, meats being sliced off in large pieces held between the thumb and two fingers, the sauces were highly seasoned and thick, and heavily flavored mustards were used. Meals often ended with an issue de table, which changed into the modern dessert. The ingredients of the time varied according to the seasons and the church calendar, and many items were preserved with salt, spices, honey. Late spring, summer, and autumn afforded abundance, while winter meals were more sparse, livestock were slaughtered at the beginning of winter. Beef was often salted, while pork was salted and smoked, bacon and sausages would be smoked in the chimney, while the tongue and hams were brined and dried. Cucumbers were brined as well, while greens would be packed in jars with salt, fruits, nuts and root vegetables would be boiled in honey for preservation. Whale, dolphin and porpoise were considered fish, so during Lent, artificial freshwater ponds held carp, pike, tench, bream, eel, and other fish. Poultry was kept in yards, with pigeon and squab being reserved for the elite. Game was highly prized, but very rare, and included venison, wild boar, hare, rabbit, kitchen gardens provided herbs, including some, such as tansy, rue, pennyroyal, and hyssop, which are rarely used todayFrench cuisine – A nouvelle cuisine presentation
84. Great French Wine Blight – The Great French Wine Blight was a severe blight of the mid-19th century that destroyed many of the vineyards in France and laid waste to the wine industry. It was caused by an aphid that originated in North America and was carried across the Atlantic in the late 1850s, while France is considered to have been worst affected, the blight also did a great deal of damage to vineyards in other European countries. While the Phylloxera was thought to have arrived around 1858, it was first recorded in France in 1863, while many of the French wine growers disliked this idea, many found themselves with no other option. The method proved to be an effective remedy, the Reconstitution of the many vineyards that had been lost was a slow process, but eventually the wine industry in France was able to return to relative normality. The aphid that was the source of the damage in France was first noted following the growing of the European vine Vitis vinifera by French colonists in Florida. These plantations were a failure, and later experiments with related species of vine also failed, the aphids initially went unnoticed by the colonists, despite their great numbers, and the pressure to successfully start a vineyard in America at the time. It became common knowledge among the settlers that their European vines, variety, simply would not grow in American soil, and they resorted to growing Native American plants, and established plantations of these native vines. Exceptions did exist, vinifera plantations were well-established in California before the aphids found their way there, the proboscis of the grape phylloxera has both a venom canal from which it injects its deadly venom and a feeding tube through which it takes in vine sap and nutrients. As the toxin from the venom corrodes the root structure of a vine, the sap pressure falls and, as a result, thus, anyone digging up a diseased and dying vine will not find Phylloxera clinging to the roots of the plant. It is believed that the advent of steamships was a factor as well, as the ships were faster, and the Phylloxera were able to survive the quicker ocean voyage. The first known documented instance of an attack by the Phylloxera in France was in the village of Pujaut in the department of Gard of the province of Languedoc. The wine makers there did not notice the aphids, just as the French colonists in America had not, the only description of the disease that was given by these wine growers was that it reminded them distressingly of consumption. The blight quickly spread throughout France, but it was years before the cause of the disease was determined. Over 40% of French grape vines and vineyards were devastated over a 15-year period, the French economy was badly hit by the blight, many businesses were lost, and wages in the wine industry were cut to less than half. There was also a trend of migration to, among other places, Algiers. The production of raisins and sugar wines caused problems for the domestic industry that threatened to persist even after the blight itself. The damage to the French economy, is estimated to have slightly over 10 billion Francs. Research into identifying the cause of the began in 1868Great French Wine Blight – Charles Valentine Riley in 1870 confirmed the theory proposed by Planchon.
85. Languedoc wine – Languedoc-Roussillon wine, including the vin de pays labeled Vin de Pays dOc, is produced in southern France. The area has around 700,000 acres under vines and is the single biggest wine-producing region in the world, in 2001, the region produced more wine than the United States. The history of Languedoc wines can be traced to the first vineyards planted along the coast near Narbonne by the early Greeks in the fifth century BC, along with parts of Provence, these are the oldest planted vineyards in France. The region of Languedoc has belonged to France since the thirteenth century, the two regions were joined as one administrative region in the late 1980s. From the 4th century through the 18th and early 19th centuries, in Paris during the 14th century, wines from the St. Chinian area were prescribed in hospitals for their healing powers. During the advent of the Industrial Age in the late 19th century, the use of highly prolific grape varieties produced high yields and thin wines, which were normally blended with red wine from Algeria to give them more body. The phylloxera epidemic in the 19th century severely affected the Languedoc wine industry, american rootstock that was naturally resistant to phylloxera did not take well to the limestone soil on the hillside. In place of these vines, acres of the lower quality Aramon, Alicante Bouschet, during both World Wars the Languedoc was responsible for providing the daily wine rations given to French soldiers. In 1962, Algeria gained its independence from France, bringing about an end to the blending of the stronger Algerian red wine to mask the thin le gros rouge. Sales have been improved by many vineyards that concentrate on creating a brand name rather than relying on the sometimes infamous regional designations. The Languedoc-Roussillon region shares many terrain and climate characteristics with the regions of Southern Rhone. The region stretches 150 miles from the Banyuls AOC at the Spanish border and Pyrenees in the west, along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea to the Rhone River and Provence in the east. The northern boundaries of the sit on the Massif Central with the Cévennes mountain ranges. Many vineyards are located along the Hérault River, vineyards in the Languedoc are generally planted along the coastal plains of the Mediterranean while those in the Roussillon are to be found in the narrow valleys around the Pyrenees. The peak growing season is dry and the majority of annual rainfall occurs during the winter. In the Languedoc, the area is the most arid. The regions Mediterranean climate is conducive to growing a large amount of a wide variety of grapes. The average annual temperature is 57 °F, in December 2006, the French government responded to global warming concerns and relaxed some of the irrigation regulationsLanguedoc wine – A vineyard in Villeneuve-lès-Maguelone bordering the Gulf of Lion.
86. 2007 24 Hours of Le Mans – The 200724 Hours of Le Mans was the 75th Grand Prix of Endurance, and took place at the Circuit de la Sarthe, Le Mans, France from 16–17 June 2007. Four classes of cars raced together, with each class having honors for its highest finishers, the faster LMP1 and LMP2 classes were for custom-built Le Mans Prototypes, and the slower GT1 and GT2 classes were for modified grand tourer road cars. There was heavy attrition in the LMP2 class, in only two competitors finished the race. In the GT1 class, Aston Martin achieved its first win over the Corvette since returning to the event in 2005, the GT2 class was a battle between Ferrari and Porsche, won by Porsche. The race was attended by over 250,000 spectators, between the 2006 and 2007 races, the Circuit de la Sarthe was upgraded, most obviously by the reprofiling of the Tertre Rouge corner. The new corner was moved inward, to create a long flowing curve instead of the single point apex it had been previously, a new pedestrian tunnel – below the Mulsanne Straight, immediately after Tertre Rouge – was also built. The work had been planned to be carried out before the 2006 event, nine new garages were built at the end of the pit lane, replacing the four temporary garages that had been built a few years earlier. The additional garages allowed the ACO to increase the number of entries it could grant from 50 to 55, the paddock behind the garages was also re-organized with more facilities added for spectators, including more shops, new landscaping, and the Audi Tower monument. The public roads from the Indianapolis corner to the Porsche Curves were re-surfaced and this also increased safety by allowing the cars to slow themselves more efficiently using their brakes and tyres on tarmac. LMP1s with petrol engines kept their 90 litre tanks, LMP2, GT1, and GT2 class cars had to be fitted with 5% smaller air restrictors than they had run in 2006, in order to decrease power. GT1 and GT2 classes were allowed to run ethanol and other alternative fuels if approved by the ACO, the International Motor Sports Association initially decided to not abide by the LMP2 restrictor change for the American Le Mans Series, although that decision was reversed following Le Mans. SERO decided not to conform to the new ACO regulations in the Japan Le Mans Challenge until 2008. The ACO also announced rule changes specific to Le Mans, The number of invited entries was increased from 50 to 55, all entries had to run Shell fuel in either diesel or petrol form. The temperature inside closed-cockpit cars was not to exceed 32 °C in cars with air conditioning or 10 °C above the ambient air temperature in cars without, the ACO would monitor cockpit temperature, and stop any car in which those limits were exceeded. Noise level regulation was revised, the noise emitted from the car had to be less than 113 dB, older LMP900 and LMP675 class prototypes were not allowed to be entered. Only newer LMP1 and LMP2 class cars were allowed to compete. It was also decided that the race would start at 3,00 pm local time, one hour earlier than the normal 4,00 pm, teams earned automatic invitations to the event from the ACO for winning certain races and championships in their respective classes. Teams were limited to no more than two entries, if a team had already earned its two entries, additional invitations were extended to the next best-performing competitor2007 24 Hours of Le Mans – 2007 24 Hours of Le Mans
87. Angevin Empire – Its rulers were Henry II, Richard I, and John. The empire was established by Henry II, as King of England, Count of Anjou, in 1152, through marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine, he became ruler of the Duchy of Aquitaine. Despite the extent of Angevin rule, Henrys son, John, was defeated in the Anglo-French War by Philip II of France of the House of Capet following the Battle of Bouvines, John lost control of all his continental possessions, apart from Gascony in southern Aquitaine. This defeat set the scene for the Saintonge War and the Hundred Years War, the term Angevin Empire is a neologism defining the lands of the House of Plantagenet, Henry II and his sons Richard I and John. Another son, Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany, ruled Brittany, the term Angevin Empire was coined by Kate Norgate in her 1887 publication, England under the Angevin Kings. In France, the term Espace Plantagenêt is sometimes used to describe the fiefdoms the Plantagenets had acquired. The term Angevin itself is the demonym for the residents of Anjou and its capital, Angers. The demonym, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, has been in use since 1653, the use of the term Empire has engendered controversy among some historians, over whether the term is accurate for the actual state of affairs at the time. The area was a collection of the inherited and acquired by Henry. Other historians argue that Henry IIs empire was powerful, centralised. There was no title, as implied by the term Angevin Empire. However, even if the Plantagenets themselves did not claim any imperial title, some chroniclers, often working for Henry II himself, Auvergne was also in the empire for part of the reigns of Henry II and Richard, in their capacity as dukes of Aquitaine. Henry II and Richard I pushed further claims over the County of Berry but these were not completely fulfilled and the county was lost completely by the time of the accession of John in 1199. The frontiers of the empire were sometimes well known and therefore easy to mark, one characteristic of the Angevin Empire was its polycratic nature, a term taken from a political pamphlet written by a subject of the Angevin Empire, the Policraticus by John of Salisbury. This meant that rather than the empire being controlled fully by the ruling monarch, he would delegate power to specially appointed subjects in different areas. England was under the firmest control of all the lands in the Angevin Empire, due to the age of many of the offices that governed the country, England was divided in shires with sheriffs in each enforcing the common law. A justiciar was appointed by the king to stand in his absence when he was on the continent, as the kings of England were more often in France than England they used writs more frequently than the Anglo-Saxon kings, which actually proved beneficial to England. Under William Is rule, Anglo-Saxon nobles had been replaced by Anglo-Norman ones who couldnt own large expanses of contiguous landsAngevin Empire – Chinon Castle, the administrative centre and location of the main treasury in the Angevin Empire.
88. French people – The French are an ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France. This connection may be legal, historical, or cultural, modern French society can be considered a melting pot. To be French, according to the first article of the French Constitution, is to be a citizen of France, regardless of origin, race. The debate concerning the integration of this view with the underlying the European Community remains open. A large number of foreigners have traditionally been permitted to live in France, indeed, the country has long valued its openness, tolerance and the quality of services available. Application for French citizenship is often interpreted as a renunciation of previous state allegiance unless a dual citizenship agreement exists between the two countries, the European treaties have formally permitted movement and European citizens enjoy formal rights to employment in the state sector. Seeing itself as a nation with universal values, France has always valued. However, the success of such assimilation has recently called into question. There is increasing dissatisfaction with, and within, growing ethno-cultural enclaves, the 2005 French riots in some troubled and impoverished suburbs were an example of such tensions. However they should not be interpreted as ethnic conflicts but as social conflicts born out of socioeconomic problems endangering proper integration, the name France etymologically derives from the word Francia, the territory of the Franks. The Franks were a Germanic tribe that overran Roman Gaul at the end of the Roman Empire, in the pre-Roman era, all of Gaul was inhabited by a variety of peoples who were known collectively as the Gaulish tribes. Gaul was militarily conquered in 58-51 BCE by the Roman legions under the command of General Julius Caesar, the area then became part of the Roman Empire. Over the next five centuries the two cultures intermingled, creating a hybridized Gallo-Roman culture, the Gaulish vernacular language disappeared step by step to be replaced everywhere by Vulgar Latin, which would later develop under Frankish influence into the French language in the North of France. With the decline of the Roman Empire in Western Europe, a federation of Germanic peoples entered the picture, the Franks were Germanic pagans who began to settle in northern Gaul as laeti, already during the Roman era. They continued to filter across the Rhine River from present-day Netherlands, at the beginning, they served in the Roman army and reached high commands. Their language is spoken as a kind of Dutch in northern France. Another Germanic people immigrated massively to Alsace, the Alamans, which explains the Alemannic German spoken there and they were competitors of the Franks, thats why it became at the Renaissance time the word for German in French, Allemand. By the early 6th century the Franks, led by the Merovingian king Clovis I and his sons, had consolidated their hold on much of modern-day France, the Vikings eventually intermarried with the local people, converting to Christianity in the processFrench people – Louis XIV of France "The Sun-King"