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1. France – France, officially the French Republic, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country consisting of territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. Overseas France include several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France has a total population of 66.7 million. It is a semi-presidential republic with the capital in the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse and Bordeaux. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. France emerged as a major European power with its victory in the Hundred Years' War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would be the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europe's dominant political, military power under Louis XIV. In the 19th century Napoleon established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies typically retained close economic and military connections with France.France – One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – Dordogne, approximately 18,000 BC
2. Monaco – Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state and microstate, located on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides while the other side borders the Mediterranean Sea. Monaco has a land border of 4.4 km, a coastline of 4.1 km, a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m. Monaco's most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins. Through reclamation, Monaco's land mass has expanded by twenty percent. Monaco is known as a playground for the famous, due to its tax laws. In 2014, it was noted about 30% of the population was made up of millionaires, similar to Zürich or Geneva. Monaco is a principality governed with Prince Albert II as head of state. Although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields political power. The House of Grimaldi have ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, since 1297. Monégasque, Italian, English are widely spoken and understood. The state's sovereignty was officially recognized with Monaco becoming a full United Nations voting member in 1993. Despite separate foreign policy, its defense is the responsibility of France. However, Monaco does maintain two military units. Economic development was spurred in the 19th century with the opening of the country's first casino, Monte Carlo, a railway connection to Paris.Monaco – Statue of Francesco Grimaldi, " Il Malizia " ("the Cunning"), disguised as a monk with a dagger hidden under the cloak of his habit. However, he was ousted by the Genoese just four years later. The Grimaldi family purchased Monaco from the Crown of Aragon in 1419.
3. Reliability of Wikipedia – The use of Wikipedia for ` revenge editing' have attracted frequent publicity. Wikipedia is open to collaborative editing, so assessments of its reliability usually include examination of how quickly false or misleading information is removed. Several incidents have also been publicized in which false information has lasted for a long time in Wikipedia. In May 2005, an anonymous editor started a controversy when he created an article about John Seigenthaler containing several defamatory statements. The inaccurate information remained uncorrected for four months. A investigation later determined that the article was a hoax and de L'Astran had never existed. Wikipedia allows anonymous editing; contributors are not required to provide any identification, or even an address. However, the Dartmouth study was criticized by John Timmer of the Ars Technica website for its methodological shortcomings. Wikipedia trusts the same community to become more proficient at quality control. In contrast with all the intrinsic metrics, several "market-oriented" extrinsic measures demonstrate that large audiences trust Wikipedia in one way or another. For instance, "50 percent of physicians report that they've consulted... for information on health conditions", according to a report from IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics. Most received marks between 5 and 8. The non-peer-reviewed study was based on Nature's selection including biographies of well-known scientists. The articles were compared by anonymous academic reviewers, a customary practice for journal article reviews. Based on their reviews, on average the Wikipedia articles were described as containing 4 omissions, while the Britannica articles 3.Reliability of Wikipedia – Cached version of a deleted biographical hoax in the French Wikipedia. Created in January 2007, the article on the fictional 18th century naturalist Léon Robert de L'Astran was not deleted until June 2010, when a historian identified it as a hoax.
4. Serge Crasnianski – Serge Crasnianski is a French entrepreneur who founded in 1963 the Grenoble based Key Independent System. Since then he has filed several hundred patents. The latest ones refer in a non vacuum environment. After taking KIS worldwide since then KIS has been Photo-Me's manufacturing business. He became a non-executive Director of PMI in 1994. He in May 2010 assumed the full role of Chief Executive. Crasnianski remains the largest shareholder in Photo-Me International with a holding of 22.11% as at April 30, 2010.] The company has diversified with a division called ` Revolution'. Revolution is a 24/7 outdoor self-service launderette. This division is trading beyond expectations with 2000 units planned for the end of 2015. Founding of KIS April 2008 Photo-Me's ex-CEO seen in boardroom power playSerge Crasnianski – Serge Crasnianski
5. Hyppyja – La Voltige is an 1895 French short black-and-white silent documentary film directed and produced by Louis Lumière. It was filmed in Rhône, Rhône-Alpes, France. Given its age, this short film is available to freely download from the Internet. As with all Lumière movies, this film was made in a 35 mm format with an aspect ratio of 1.33:1. It was filmed by means of an all-in-one camera, which also serves as a film projector and developer. A horse stand in a field. After six unsuccessful attempts he is set to ride off Sidesaddle. Complete video at The Lumiere Institute La Voltige at the Internet Movie Database La Voltige on YouTubeHyppyja – The poster advertising the Lumière brothers cinematographe
6. La Voltige – La Voltige is an 1895 French short black-and-white silent documentary film directed and produced by Louis Lumière. It was filmed in Rhône, Rhône-Alpes, France. Given its age, this short film is available to freely download from the Internet. As with all Lumière movies, this film was made in a 35 mm format with an aspect ratio of 1.33:1. It was filmed by means of an all-in-one camera, which also serves as a film projector and developer. A horse stand in a field. After six unsuccessful attempts he is set to ride off Sidesaddle. Complete video at The Lumiere Institute La Voltige at the Internet Movie Database La Voltige on YouTubeLa Voltige – The poster advertising the Lumière brothers cinematographe
7. Hyppyjae – La Voltige is an 1895 French short black-and-white silent documentary film directed and produced by Louis Lumière. It was filmed in Lyon, Rhône, Rhône-Alpes, France. Given its age, this short film is available to freely download from the Internet. As with all Lumière movies, this film was made with an aspect ratio of 1.33:1. It was filmed by means of an all-in-one camera, which also serves as developer. Three men and a horse stand in a field. After six unsuccessful attempts he is finally able to seat himself and is set to ride off Sidesaddle. Complete video at The Lumiere Institute La Voltige at the Internet Movie Database La Voltige on YouTubeHyppyjae – The poster advertising the Lumière brothers cinematographe
8. Nevenoiou – Nominoe or Nomenoe was the first Duke of Brittany from 846 to his death. He is the Breton pater patriae and to Breton nationalists he is known as Tad ar Vro. He was younger brother of Count Riwallon or Rivallon III of Poher. After a general rebellion which had enveloped the Carolingian Empire was put down, a general assembly was held in May 831. It was there that the emperor Louis the Pious appointed a Breton, to rule the Bretons. Nominoe was a staunch ally of Louis the Pious until the emperor's death in 840. His chief source of income after he broke with his overlord was plunder from raids into Frankish territory and from the despoliation of churches. He did have the political authority to exact payment in the form of land from a man who had murdered his follower Catworet. The title Duke of Brittany is primarily a chronicler's invention of the tenth century. Breton soldiers, as well as Gascons, certainly took part in the military show of the Oaths of Strasbourg. Nominoe was thereafter a constant enemy of Charles and his authority in Neustria, often acting in concert with Lothair, Lambert, Pepin II of Aquitaine. When, in June 844, Charles was besieging Toulouse, Nominoe plundered the territory. In November 843, Charles had marched far to no effect. Lambert and Pepin complied, but Nominoe ignored the Frankish bishops. In 844 and 847 according to the Annales Bertiniani, Nominoe made war on the Vikings.Nevenoiou – Nominoe Triumphant: Tad ar Vro, an illustration by Jeanne Malivel
9. Coty, Inc. – Coty, Inc. is an American beauty products manufacturer based in New York founded in Paris, France, by François Coty in 1904. Its main products are skin and body care products. It is known for its cooperation with designers and celebrities for the creation of fragrances. In 1904, François Coty founded Coty in Paris, with a goal to revolutionize the fragrance industry. In 1912, Coty opened subsidiaries in London and New York. Coty, Inc. acquired a interest in the European Coty companies in 1929. During the Great Depression, sales in the United States fell in 1933. With World War II imminent, the foreign companies were folded into the newly created Panama-based Coty International Corporation in 1939. The ownership remained the same, the two corporations had interlocking directorships. The ownership transferred from Coty to his ex-wife Yvonne, who had, by then, married Leon Cotnareanu. The management was passed on to Philip Cotnareanu, who changed his name over time. After the Great Depression, Philip secured bank financing to keep Coty going and, in one of his first decisions, raised prices for the entire line. New lines of goods added periodically, including, in 1955, a toilet-goods line for men named ` Preferred Stock'. Research laboratories were established in overseas. In Coty's first postwar year, net profit reached $1.24 million.Coty, Inc. – Coty Inc.
10. Ubisoft Entertainment Inc – Ubisoft Entertainment SA is a French multinational video game publisher, headquartered in Rennes, France. Yves Guillemot soon made deals with Electronic Arts, Sierra On-Line, MicroProse to distribute their games in France. By the end of the decade, Ubisoft began expanding to other markets, including the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany. They entered the video game distribution and wholesale markets, by 1993 they had become the largest distributor of video games in France. In the early 1990s, Ubisoft initiated its in-house game development program, which led to the 1994 opening of a studio in Montreuil, France. It later became their administrative and commercial head office, even as the company continues to register its headquarters in Rennes. Ubisoft became a publicly traded company in 1996 and continued its expansion around the globe, opening locations in Annecy, Shanghai, Milan and Montreal. The publisher established an online division. However, in February 2004, Ubisoft cancelled the online portion of Uru and backed out of the publishing deal on The Matrix Online. The company is noted for its teams of female game developers/testers, known as the Frag Dolls. In March 2001, Gores Technology Group sold The Learning Company's entertainment division to them. The sale included the rights to intellectual properties such as the Myst and Prince of Persia series. In July 2006, Ubisoft bought the franchise for most assets. In November 2008, Ubisoft acquired Massive Entertainment from Activision. In January 2013, Ubisoft acquired South Park: The Stick of Truth from THQ for $3.265 million.Ubisoft Entertainment Inc – Ubisoft head office in Montreuil
11. Ubisoft – Ubisoft Entertainment SA is a French multinational video game publisher, headquartered in Rennes, France. Yves Guillemot soon made deals with Electronic Arts, MicroProse to distribute their games in France. By the end of the decade, Ubisoft began expanding to other markets, including the United States, Germany. By 1993 they had become the largest distributor of video games in France. In the early 1990s, Ubisoft initiated its in-house game program, which led to the 1994 opening of a studio in Montreuil, France. It later became their commercial head office, even as the company continues to register its headquarters in Rennes. Ubisoft continued its expansion around the globe, opening locations in Annecy, Shanghai, Milan and Montreal. The publisher established an online division. However, in February 2004, Ubisoft backed out of the publishing deal on The Matrix Online. The company is noted for its teams of female game developers/testers, known as the Frag Dolls. In March 2001, Gores Technology Group sold The Learning Company's division to them. The sale included the rights to intellectual properties such as the Myst and Prince of Persia series. In July 2006, Ubisoft bought the Driver franchise for the franchise, technology rights, most assets. In November 2008, Ubisoft acquired Massive Entertainment from Activision. In January 2013, Ubisoft acquired South Park: The Stick of Truth for $3.265 million.Ubisoft – Ubisoft head office in Montreuil
12. Ubi Soft Entertainment Ltd. – Ubisoft Entertainment SA is a French multinational video game publisher, headquartered in Rennes, France. Yves Guillemot soon made deals with Electronic Arts, Sierra On-Line, MicroProse to distribute their games in France. By the end of the decade, Ubisoft began expanding to other markets, including the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany. They entered the video game distribution and wholesale markets, by 1993 they had become the largest distributor of video games in France. In the early 1990s, Ubisoft initiated its in-house game development program, which led to the 1994 opening of a studio in Montreuil, France. It later became their administrative and commercial head office, even as the company continues to register its headquarters in Rennes. Ubisoft became a publicly traded company in 1996 and continued its expansion around the globe, opening locations in Annecy, Shanghai, Milan and Montreal. The publisher established an online division. However, in February 2004, Ubisoft cancelled the online portion of Uru and backed out of the publishing deal on The Matrix Online. The company is noted for its teams of female game developers/testers, known as the Frag Dolls. In March 2001, Gores Technology Group sold The Learning Company's entertainment division to them. The sale included the rights to intellectual properties such as the Myst and Prince of Persia series. In July 2006, Ubisoft bought the franchise for the franchise, most assets. In November 2008, Ubisoft acquired Massive Entertainment from Activision. In January 2013, Ubisoft acquired South Park: The Stick of Truth from THQ for $3.265 million.Ubi Soft Entertainment Ltd. – Ubisoft head office in Montreuil
13. 2014 24 Hours of Le Mans – It was the 82nd running of the event, as organized since 1923. This victory was Audi's thirteenth since the company debuted at the race in 1999. The category was won by the No. 12 Rebellion Racing Rebellion-Toyota of Nick Heidfeld, Mathias Beche, Nicolas Prost, the sole finisher in the class. Approximately 263,000 spectators attended the largest crowd since 1989. The 2014 Le Mans schedule was moved forward one week to avoid conflicts with major motorsports series. Three qualifying sessions, each two hours long, took place on 12 June. The race ended 24 hours later. Following the death of Allan Simonsen during the 2013 race, the ACO announced improvements to several sections of the circuit. New barriers and tire walls were added at the corner's exit onto the Mulsanne Straight. Tecpro barriers were added behind the tire walls at the start of the Porsche corners. Large kerbs were added to the paved run-off at the second Ford chicane to deter cars from cutting the corner. The system, termed a slow zone, requires cars to maintain a speed of 60 km/h within a specific zone. Speeds within the zones are monitored by GPS systems now required on every car. In conjunction with the slow procedure an onboard marshalling system will warn drivers of the location of slow zones. The course includes examples of night and as well as the new safety car and slow zone procedures.2014 24 Hours of Le Mans – Marcel Fässler, André Lotterer, and Benoît Tréluyer hoist the winners trophy during the podium ceremony
14. 2014 Tour de France – The 2014 Tour de France was the 101st edition of the race, one of cycling's Grand Tours. The 3,358.1-kilometre race included 21 stages, finishing on the Champs-Élysées in Paris on 27 July. The race also visited Belgium for part of a stage. Vincenzo Nibali of the Astana team won the race by the biggest winning margin since 1997. Jean-Christophe Péraud placed second, with Thibaut Pinot third. Marcel Kittel of Giant–Shimano was the first rider to wear the general classification's yellow jersey after winning stage one. He lost it to Vincenzo Nibali, who won the stage. Nibali held the lead until the end of the ninth stage, when it was taken by Lotto -- Belisol's Tony Gallopin. He held it until the conclusion of the race. The points classification was won by Cannondale's Peter Sagan. Rafał Majka of Tinkoff -- winner of two mountain stages, won the mountains classification. Pinot finished as the best young rider. The classification was won by Ag2r -- La Mondiale and Alessandro De Marchi was given the award for the most combative rider. Kittel won the most stages, with four. Twenty-two teams participated in the 2014 edition of the Tour de France.2014 Tour de France – Countdown clock at Trinity Leeds
15. Jean-Nicolas Corvisart – Jean-Nicolas Corvisart-Desmarets was an important figure in the history of French medicine. Born in 1755, Corvisart translated Leopold von Auenbrugg's Inventum Novum from Latin into French. Corvisart began to perfect the technique. From 1777 he studied in Paris later qualifying as docteur régent of the Faculté de Paris. In 1797, Corvisart began to teach at the Collège de France, where he gained a reputation in cardiology. Among his students were René Laennec, Guillaume Dupuytren, Marie François Xavier Bichat and Pierre Bretonneau. In 1804, Corvisart became October 1815. In 1820 he was made a member of Académie Nationale de Médecine. He died the following year at Courbevoie. Cours élémentaire de matière médicale: suivi d'un précis de l'art de formuler, Volume 1 1793 - Basic course of materia medica. Journal List >Heart >v.78; Jul 1997 >PMC484851 Jean Nicolas Corvisart. M. K. Davies and A. Hollman Biographie des célébrités militaires des armées de terre et de mer de 1789 à 1850/CJean-Nicolas Corvisart – This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2014)
16. Henri Cochet – Henri Jean Cochet was a French tennis player. Born in Villeurbanne, Rhône, he won one professional Major during his singles career. Cochet was ranked World No. 1 player for four consecutive years, 1928 by A. Wallis Myers. , after a less than stellar pro career, he was reinstated as an amateur in 1946. The Four Musketeers were inducted simultaneously in Newport, Rhode Island in 1976. He died in Paris. Henri Cochet was born on 14 December 1901 in Villeurbanne to Antoinette Gailleton. His father was a groundkeeper in a Lyonnese club where Henri worked as a ball boy and thus had a chance to practise for free. Cochet began playing at the age of eight along with his sister. A silk-factory owner and French-ranked player Georges Cozon, recognized his talent and volunteered to coach him. Cochet entered his local tournament in 1920 where he met his mentor in the final. Cochet then moved on to win a series of matches at Aix-les-Bains mostly handicap matches. Also in 1921 Cochet won the military Championship of France. Meanwhile, his sister Aimée Cochet also became a player and later was on the main draw of the 1930 Wimbledon Championships. Immediately after he entered the amateur scene he won every major tournament of the era.Henri Cochet – Henri Cochet at the 1924 Olympics
17. 2015 24 Hours of Le Mans – A test day was held two weeks prior to the race on 31 May. A record-breaking 263,500 people attended the event. Audi's best car, driven by the title defenders Benoît Tréluyer, André Lotterer, finished third, a further lap behind the two Porsche vehicles. This was their first since 1998. The LMP2 category was won by the KCMG Oreca-Nissan driven by Richard Bradley, Nicolas Lapierre. The trio only held a 48-second lead over the Jota Sport Gibson-Nissan at the race's end. Corvette Racing won their first class victory despite one of their two cars being withdrawn after an accident in qualifying. Following the introduction of slow zones during the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the Automobile Club de l'Ouest revised the system for 2015. The limited speed in the zones was increased to 80 km/h. The number of zones around the circuit had also increased with a new lighting system to assist marshals added to each zone. Modifications were made to the Corvette Curves. The first corner of the Porsche Curves had a larger run-off area on the outside while SAFER barriers had been installed on the inside wall. The Corvette corner now featured a gravel run-off. Some championship runner-ups were also granted automatic invitations in certain series. All current FIA World Endurance Championship full-season entries automatically earned invitations.2015 24 Hours of Le Mans – The podium for the overall race winners
18. Catalan Countries – The Catalan Countries include Catalonia, Valencia, other minor entities. The geographical delimitation is somewhat ambiguous, because while originally the term was applied strictly to the Catalan-speaking areas, nowadays are also included. The supporters of the unity of the Catalan Countries advocate to self-determination and its independence. Països Catalans has different meanings depending on the context. However, it is not universally accepted, even as a linguistic concept, in the territories it purports to unite. As a political term, it refers to a number of political projects as advocated by supporters of Catalan independence. These movements advocate amongst these territories. This often stands for political independence. The term Països Catalans was first documented in Mallorca y Valencia. Código de las Costumbres de Tortosa, I written by the Valencian Law historian Benvingut Oliver i Esteller. The term was both reinforced by the use of the term "Occitan Countries" from the Oficina de Relacions Meridionals in Barcelona by 1933. Previous unsuccessful proposals such as Comunitat Catalànica or Bacàvia diminished in use. The term is politically charged, tends to be closely associated with Catalan nationalism and supporters of Catalan independence. ERPV, PSAN, Estat Català also support this idea to a lesser extent. In 2016 the Confederation of Sovereignist Entitities of the Catalan Countries was launched in Valencia to support the right to self determination of the Catalan Countries.Catalan Countries – A mural on Belfast 's Falls Road
19. Blue Army (Poland) – The Blue Army, or Haller's Army was a Polish military contingent created in France during the latter stages of World War I. The name came from the military uniforms worn by the soldiers. The army was composed of Polish volunteers serving alongside the allied forces in France. The Blue Army played a pivotal role in ensuring Polish victory in the Polish-Ukrainian War. Haller's troops subsequently took part in Poland's defeat of the advancing Bolshevik forces during the Polish–Soviet War. In parts of Western Ukraine, Jewish authorities openly mobilized personnel to serve in the Ukrainian Galician Army. The emergence of the Blue Army was closely associated into World War I in April, 1917. Some 24,000 Poles were taken after a brief military training, they were sent to France to join General Haller, including many women volunteers. Polish-Americans were eager to fight for the American-style democracy because they themselves escaped persecution by the empires who partitioned Poland a century earlier. The imperial Germany surrendered in the 11 November 1918 armistice. The Blue Army was formally merged after the Armistice between the Allies and Germany. Meanwhile, three Polish governments emerged independently of each other. A socialist government led by Daszyński was formed in Lublin. The National Committee emerged in Kraków. Daszyński decided to join forces with Piłsudski, just released from Magdeburg.Blue Army (Poland) – Blue Army troops and General Józef Haller, c.1918
20. World War I – More than million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history. It paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the world's great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. Within weeks, the major powers were at the conflict soon spread around the world. On 28 the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia. As Russia mobilised in support of Serbia, Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, leading the United Kingdom to declare war on Germany. The Germans stopped its invasion of East Prussia. In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined opening fronts in the Caucasus, Mesopotamia and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers; Romania joined the Allies in 1916, as did the United States in 1917. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, the Ottoman Empire ceased to exist. Germany's colonies were parceled out among the winners. During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties. The League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. Economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. In Canada, Maclean's magazine in October 1914 wrote, "Some wars name themselves.World War I – Clockwise from the top: The aftermath of shelling during the Battle of the Somme, Mark V tanks cross the Hindenburg Line, HMS Irresistible sinks after hitting a mine in the Dardanelles, a British Vickers machine gun crew wears gas masks during the Battle of the Somme, Albatros D.III fighters of Jagdstaffel 11
21. Wiki markup – Its purpose is to be converted by wiki software into HTML, which, in turn, is served to web browsers. It was created on the original wiki site, WikiWikiWeb. There is commonly accepted standard language. Justification, keywords and so on depend on the particular wiki software used on the particular website. Different Wiki programs may support use of different sets of HTML elements within wikitext. In some cases, permitted HTML elements may be configured by individual wiki sites. MediaWiki supports many common HTML tags. There are different syntax conventions for these links. Many wikis, especially the earlier ones, used CamelCase to mark words that should be automatically linked. In MediaWiki, this convention was replaced with the notation, which Wikipedia calls "free links". Creole is an effort for a "common language to be used across different Wikis". There are several wiki engines that have implemented Creole. Version 1.0 of the specification was released in July 2007. It is not supported by MediaWiki. VisualEditor is an alternative to editing the raw wiki markup code.Wiki markup – Screenshot of the edit window in a Wikipedia article. Note the <nowiki> tag, used to escape wiki markup and HTML. HTML comments can be seen inside the <!-- --> tags.
22. Saint-Inglevert Airfield – Saint-Inglevert Airfield is a general aviation airfield at Saint-Inglevert, Pas-de-Calais, France. In 1920, a civil airfield was established on a different site, a designated customs airfield. During the Second World War, Saint-Inglevert was occupied by the Armée de l'Air. The airfield occupied by the Luftwaffe. In 1943 field artillery units were based around the airfield as part of the Atlantic Wall. Although civil flying returned to Saint-Inglevert post-war, the airfield was returned to agriculture. It was reopened by l'aéroclub du Boulonnais in 1986. Saint-Inglevert airfield is located to the north west of the village of Saint-Inglevert, east of Hervelinghen. It lies 13 kilometres west of Calais. There was a Royal Flying Corps airfield during the First World War, but not on the site of the current airfield. In April 1918, No. 21 Squadron Royal Air Force were based at Saint-Inglevert, flying Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.8 aircraft. All Royal Air Force squadrons departed from Saint-Inglevert on 4 March 1919. In 1920, an airfield was established at Saint-Inglevert to the former military airfield. Facilities developed over the years to include two hangars, ultra short wave radio. A proposal to designate Saint-Inglevert as a customs airfield in order to relieve Le Bourget of some of its workload was made in April 1920.Saint-Inglevert Airfield – Messerschmitt Bf 109 F-2 of Werner Mölders, leader of Jagdgeschwader 51 at the time it was based at Saint-Inglevert
23. Daft Punk – Daft Punk is a French electronic music duo formed in 1993 by Guy-Manuel de Homem-Christo and Thomas Bangalter. The duo were managed by the head of Ed Banger Records. The duo released their debut studio Homework to highly positive reviews. In March 2005, the duo released their third Human to mixed reviews. However, the singles "Robot Rock" and "Technologic" achieved considerable success in the United Kingdom. Daft Punk toured throughout 2006 and 2007 and released the live album Alive 2007, which won a Grammy Award for Best Electronic/Dance Album. The duo later released that same year. In January 2013, Daft Punk released their next album Random Access Memories in 2013 to critical acclaim. The album's lead single "Get Lucky" became an international success, peaking on top 10 charts in 32 countries. Random Access Memories won five Grammy Awards including Record of the Year for "Get Lucky". Guy-Manuel de Homem-Christo met in 1987 while attending a secondary school in Paris. The two became good friends and later recorded demo tracks with others from the school. This eventually led to the formation of the guitar-based group called Darlin' with Laurent Brancowitz in 1992. De Homem-Christo played guitar, respectively, while Brancowitz performed on drums. The trio had branded themselves after The Beach Boys song of the same name, which they covered along with an original composition.Daft Punk – Daft Punk at the premiere of Tron: Legacy in 2010. From left: Thomas Bangalter, Guy-Manuel de Homem-Christo
24. Louvre Abu Dhabi – The Louvre Abu Dhabi is a planned museum, to be located in Abu Dhabi, UAE. These both fell short of the current projection of an opening in late 2016. This is part of a thirty-year agreement between the city of the French government. The museum will be approximately 24,000 square metres in size. The final cost of the construction is expected to be between $83 million and $ million. Artwork from around the world will be showcased with particular focus placed upon bridging the gap between Eastern and Western art. The establishment of this museum was approved by the French Parliament on 9 October 2007. The architect for the building will be Jean Nouvel and the engineers are Buro Happold. Jean Nouvel also designed the Institut du Monde Arabe in Paris. The former Executive Director of Centre Georges Pompidou, will take the position of Executive Director." Saadiyat Island's Cultural District plans to house the largest single cluster of cultural assets. The museum will be designed as a "seemingly floating structure"; its web-patterned dome allowing the sun to filter through. The overall effect is meant to represent "rays of sunlight passing through palm fronds in an oasis." The total area of the museum will be approximately 24,000 square metres. Piling works In Louvre were to be completed with the piling and enabling works package awarded to the German specialized company.Louvre Abu Dhabi – Model of the future Louvre Abu Dhabi
25. Louis Braille – Louis Braille was a French educator and inventor of a system of reading and writing for use by the blind or visually impaired. His system remains known worldwide simply as braille. Blinded as a result of an early childhood accident, Braille mastered his disability while still a boy. He received scholarship to France's Royal Institute for Blind Youth. While a student there, he began developing a system of tactile code that could allow blind people to read and write quickly and efficiently. Inspired by the military cryptography of Charles Barbier, Braille constructed a new method built specifically for the needs of the blind. He presented his work for the first time in 1824. Louis Braille was born in a small town about twenty miles east of Paris. Simon-René maintained a successful enterprise as a maker of horse tack. Soon as he could walk, Braille spent time playing in his father's workshop. At the age of three, the child was toying with some of the tools, trying to make holes in a piece of leather with an awl. Due to his young age, Braille often asked why it was always dark. He grew up seemingly at peace with his disability. He was accommodated with higher education. Braille studied until the age of ten.Louis Braille – Bust of Louis Braille by Étienne Leroux, Bibliothèque nationale de France
26. AMX-30 – The AMX-30 is a main battle tank designed by GIAT and first delivered to the French Army in 1966. The first five tanks were issued to the 501st Régiment Chars de Combat in August of that year. The version of the AMX-30 weighed 36 metric tons, sacrificed protection for increased mobility. The French believed that it would have required too much armour to protect against the latest anti-tank threats, thereby reducing the tank's maneuverability. Protection, instead, was provided including a height of 2.28 metres. It had a 105 mm gun, firing a then advanced high explosive anti-tank warhead known as the Obus G. Mobility was provided by the 720 horsepower HS-110 diesel engine, although the troublesome transmission adversely affected the tank's performance. It was preceded by two French medium tank designs. The ARL 44, was an interim tank. The AMX 50, was cancelled in the mid-1950s in favor of adopting the M47 Patton tank. In 1956, the French government entered a cooperative development program in an effort to design a standardized tank. As a result, both nations decided to adopt tanks based on their own prototypes. The German tank became known as the Leopard 1, while the French prototype became the AMX-30. As early as 1969, variants were ordered by Greece, soon followed by Spain. In the coming years, the AMX-30 would be exported to Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Chile.AMX-30 – Prototype of AMX-30C2 sporting a 105 rifled tank gun
27. Henri-Georges Clouzot – Henri-Georges Clouzot was a French film director, screenwriter and producer. Clouzot also directed documentary films, including The Mystery of Picasso, declared a national treasure by the government of France. Clouzot was an early fan of the cinema and, desiring a career as a writer, moved to Paris. He was later hired by producer Adolphe Osso to work in Berlin, writing French-language versions of German films. After being fired due to his friendship with Jewish producers, Clouzot returned to France, where he spent years bedridden after contracting tuberculosis. Upon recovering, Clouzot found work as a screenwriter for the German-owned company Continental Films. At Continental, Clouzot directed films that were very popular in France. His second film Le Corbeau drew controversy at provincial France and Clouzot was fired from Continental before its release. As a result of his association with Continental, Clouzot was barred from filmmaking until 1947. After the ban was lifted, Clouzot reestablished his reputation and popularity in France with successful films including Quai des Orfèvres. After the release of his film Miquette et sa mère, Clouzot married Véra Gibson-Amado, who would star in his next three feature films. In the mid-1950s, Clouzot drew acclaim from international critics and audiences for The Wages of Fear and Les Diaboliques. Both films would serve as material for remakes decades later. Clouzot's career became two feature films in the 1960s. Clouzot died in Paris in 1977.Henri-Georges Clouzot – Henri-Georges and Véra Clouzot in 1953
28. Old Rouen tramway – There have been two separate generations of trams in Rouen. The first generation tramway was a network built in Rouen, Normandy, northern France, that started service in 1877, finally closed in 1953. There were no trams at all in Rouen between 1994, when the modern Rouen tramway opened. Local officials therefore adopted the tramway as a new mode of transport. At first they were later steam-powered; the tramway was electrified in 1896. Although the 1920s saw a slight growth in traffic, the network's expansion slowed to a halt. Private motoring had arrived to put an end to its monopoly. The last trams stopped running in 1953, after seventy-six years of service. However, in 1994, a new Rouen tramway came to the Norman capital. It prospered with the traditional trades of textiles and Rouen manufactory alongside the newer chemical and papermaking industries. The navigable Seine, emptying at Rouen, had been Parisians' route to the sea ever since the Middle Ages. Napoleon Bonaparte said "Le Havre forment une même ville dont la Seine est la grand-rue". Rouen and Orléans were the large cities to be connected by rail to Paris, on 3 May 1843. From 1873 to 1875 the city fathers commissioned a study into building railways connecting the most populous areas of Rouen. A decree was signed on 5 May 1876, committing to horse-drawn carriages.Old Rouen tramway – Network map (drawn in 1994)
29. John Calvin – John Calvin was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. Various Congregational, Reformed, Presbyterian churches, which look to Calvin as the chief expositor of their beliefs, have spread throughout the world. He was a tireless apologetic writer who generated much controversy. Calvin also exchanged cordial and supportive letters including Philipp Melanchthon and Heinrich Bullinger. In addition to his seminal Institutes of the Christian Religion, he wrote commentaries on most books of the Bible, various other theological treatises. Originally trained as a humanist lawyer, Calvin broke around 1530. At the invitation of Martin Bucer, he proceeded to Strasbourg, where he became the minister of a church of French refugees. In 1541 he was invited back to lead the church of the city. During this period, a Spaniard regarded by both Roman Catholics and Protestants as having a heretical view of the Trinity, arrived in Geneva. Calvin was burned at the stake for heresy by the city council. Following new elections to the city council, Calvin's opponents were forced out. He spent his final years promoting the Reformation both throughout Europe. John Calvin was born as Jehan Cauvin on 10 July 1509, at Noyon, a province of the Kingdom of France. Calvin was the first of four sons who survived infancy. Jeanne le Franc, was the daughter of an innkeeper from Cambrai.John Calvin – Calvin was originally interested in the priesthood, but he changed course to study law in Orléans and Bourges. Painting titled Portrait of Young John Calvin from the collection of the Library of Geneva.
30. Tanit (yacht) – It occurred in Somali waters. The pirates were ultimately defeated when the French Navy assaulted them. Among the hostages were a family of three including a three-year-old boy, two friends of the family who joined them in Aden. The Lemaçons, started from Vannes in July 2008 and sailed south to the coast of Spain. This was a trip "to escape consumer society". They planned to visit Kenya and Zanzibar. The pirates were overrun two days later by a French frigate. French forces attempted to negotiate with the pirates offering to exchange the mother and child for a French soldier. The pirates declined this. Instead, they were overheard discussing using explosives to blow up the yacht. Fifty commandos were sent from France in readiness for the assault. The French even offered to exchange one of the hostages for an officer. The pirates refused stating that they could get better terms once they reached the coast. Seeing the pirates were uncooperative a sniper on-board one of the vessels managed to shoot down the sails and to damage the mast and the yacht. Allegedly, after threats to execute the hostages were heard, the French Navy decided the next day to free the hostages.Tanit (yacht) – The French frigate Floreal
31. Basque language – Basque is the language spoken by the Basques. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and indeed, as any other known language. The Basque language is spoken in all territories. Of these, the remaining 7 % are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that the three "ancient provinces" in France. However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardized form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, Upper Navarrese in Spain, Navarrese -- Lapurdian and Souletin in France. The dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. This is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving the only one in Western Europe. Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.Basque language – Family transmission of Basque language (Basque as initial language)
32. Being and Nothingness – Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology, sometimes subtitled A Phenomenological Essay on Ontology, is a 1943 book by philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre. Sartre's main purpose is to assert the individual's existence as prior to the individual's essence. His overriding concern in writing the book was to demonstrate that free will exists. Reading Being and Time initiated Sartre's own philosophical enquiry. Born into the material reality of one's body, in a material universe, one finds oneself inserted into being. Consciousness has the ability to conceptualize possibilities, to make them appear, or to annihilate them. In the introduction, Sartre sketches his own theory of consciousness, phenomena through criticism of both earlier phenomenologists well as idealists, empiricists. Based on an examination of the nature of phenomena, he describes the nature of two types of being, being-in-itself and being-for-itself. While being-in-itself is something that can only be approximated by human being, being-for-itself is the being of consciousness. When we go about the world, we have expectations which are often not fulfilled. So Sartre claims, "It is evident that non-being always appears within the limits of a human expectation." This essentially means that in being a waiter, grocer, etc. one must believe that their social role is equivalent to their human existence. It is also essential for an existent to understand that negation allows the self to enter what Sartre calls the "great human stream". The difference between projection remains at the heart of human subjects who are swept up by their "bad faith". Let us consider this waiter in the café.Being and Nothingness – Cover of the first edition
33. Girondist – The Girondins were members of a loosely-knit political faction during the French Revolution. From 1791 to 1793, the Girondins were active within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention. They were part of the Jacobin movement, though not every Girondin was a member of the Jacobin Club. The Girondins campaigned for the end of the monarchy, but then resisted the spiraling momentum of the Revolution. They came into conflict with The Mountain, a radical faction within the Jacobin Club. This conflict eventually led to the fall of the Girondins and their mass execution, the beginning of the Reign of Terror. The term became standard with Lamartine's History of the Girondists in 1847. Girondin leader Jacques-Pierre Brissot proposed an ambitious military plan to spread the Revolution internationally, thus the Girondins were the war party in 1792–93. Other prominent Girondins included Jean Marie Roland and his wife Madame Roland. They had an ally in the English-born, sometime American activist Thomas Paine. Brissot and Madame Roland were executed and Jean Roland committed suicide when he learned what had transpired. Paine was arrested and imprisoned but narrowly escaped execution. The famous painting Death of Marat depicts the killing of the fiery radical journalist Jean-Paul Marat by the Girondin sympathizer Charlotte Corday, executed. Five were lawyers: Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud, Jean Jay. The other, Jean François Ducos, was a tradesman.Girondist – The Girondists in the La Force Prison after their arrest. Woodcut from 1845.
34. Territorial formation of France – This article describes the process by which the territorial extent of metropolitan France came to be as it is since 1947. The territory of the French State is spread throughout the world. Metropolitan France is that part, in Europe. Occidental France, which arose from the Treaty of Verdun of 843, remained stable for many years. The Capetians, were too much occupied with imposing their authority in their own realm to be expansionist. They deftly exploited dissent among their turbulent vassals, applying pressure on the Church and towns. The great conflicts with the kings of England were important occasions for asserting royal power. Of Languedoc to the French kingdom were two important stages in the unification of the kingdom. France soon lost the County of Barcelona, from the end of the 9th century. The crossing beyond Rhone, which for a long time remained the frontier, did not begin with the purchase of the Dauphiné. From 1635 to 1748, Richelieu and Louis XIV undertook an expansion of the frontiers of the kingdom towards the Rhine. Their aim was to check the aspiration of the Austrian house towards its own predominance in Europe. The loss of French Flanders had brought the frontier close to the French capital. Alsace, Artois and Franche-Comté were annexed between 1697. The Duchy of Lorraine remained some time an enclave in the French kingdom before it too was incorporated in 1766.Territorial formation of France – France in the Carolingian Empire from 843 to 888
35. Arbel Fauvet Rail – Arbel Fauvet Rail is a railway rolling stock manufacturer based in Douai, France. In 2010 the company was renamed AFR Titagarh. The factory made a variety of different metal parts including wheels for railway vehicles. In 1894 the Forges de Douai was founded as public company as directors. Parts for other military equipment began to be produced around this time in Douai. In 1910 a third plant was opened which included an open hearth furnace, other equipment for the working of steel. By 1914 the Société Arbel was employing 2500 workers. Much of the buildings also removed or destroyed. Re construction was complete by 1922. In 1929 the company was renamed Établissements Arbel in 1936. During the Second World War the factory was extensively damaged in 1944. After rebuilding, the factory in Douai continued the tradition of wagon metal forming. After 1970 the plant became a subsidiary of Arbel Industrie. In 1985 the operations were merged with Fauvet Girel to form Arbel Fauvet Rail. In 1914 Edouard Fauvet established a factory in La Courneuve.Arbel Fauvet Rail – builder's plate of a 1931 tank wagon
36. Merir – Merir or Melieli is a small outlying island of the Palau group, in the western Pacific Ocean. The island is uninhabited. There is an abandoned village in the north-west of the island which previously hosted a station. The island it is surrounded by a beach around, a lagoon. Outside this, the whole is surrounded by the open ocean.Merir – Luxuriant vegetation and beach scene in western Merir
37. Simone Weil – Simone Weil was a French philosopher, mystic, political activist. After her graduation from formal education, Weil became a teacher. Taking a path, unusual among left-leaning intellectuals, she became more religious and inclined towards mysticism as her life progressed. Weil wrote throughout her life, though most of her writings did not attract much attention until after her death. In the 1960s, her work became famous on continental Europe and throughout the English-speaking world. Her thought has continued to be the subject of extensive scholarship across a wide range of fields. A study from the University of Calgary found that between 1995 and 2012 over 2,500 new scholarly works had been published about her. Albert Camus described her as "the only great spirit of our times". Weil was born in her parents' apartment on 3 February 1909. Her mother was her father Bernard was a medical doctor. Both were Alsatian Jews who had moved to Paris by Germany. Weil was a healthy baby for her first six months, until she had a severe attack of appendicitis -- thereafter she struggled throughout her life. She was the second of her parents' two children; her older brother was mathematician André Weil, with whom she would always enjoy a close relationship. Their parents were fairly affluent, raising their children in an attentive and supportive atmosphere. Weil suffered some distress due to her father's having to leave home for several years due to being drafted in World War I.Simone Weil – Simone Weil, 1921
38. Bischwiller – Bischwiller is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in northeastern France just west of the Moder River. The city is 7.8 kilometers southeast of Haguenau, 8 kilometers west-northwest from the German border and the Rhine River, lies 22 kilometers north-northeast of Strasbourg. The Moder river, a Rhine tributary, flows across the town. Among the other streams which cross the area can be cited the following tributaries of the Morder: the Rothbaechel, the Erlengraben and the Waschgraben. The last one is formed by the confluence of two smaller streams named Weihergraben and Schnuchgraben. Due to its large Turkish minority, Bischwiller is often dubbed "Turkwiller". Communes of the Bas-Rhin department INSEE commune file Rapp, comte Jean, Memoirs of General Count Rapp: First Aide-de-camp to Napoleon, H. Colburn and Company Official websiteBischwiller – La Laub, former town hall, now a museum
39. Foreign relations of France – Foreign relations France includes the government's external relations with other countries and international organizations since the end of the Middle Ages. France played the single most important role before 1815. France fared poorly in the Second World War. Since 1945 France has been a founding member of the United Nations, of the European Coal and Steel Community. Its main ally since 1945 has been Germany. It fought expensive wars, usually to protect its voice in the selection of monarchs in neighboring countries. A high priority was blocking the growth of power of the Habsburg rivals who controlled Austria and Spain. His personality shaped his approach. Impelled "by a mix of commerce, pique," Louis sensed that warfare was the ideal way to enhance his glory. In peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. He taught his diplomats their job was to create strategic advantages for the French military. While his battlefield generals were not especially good, Louis XIV had excellent staff. His chief Vauban perfected the arts of fortifying French towns and besieging enemy cities. Jean-Baptiste Colbert dramatically improved the financial system so that it could support an army of 250,000 men. The system deteriorated under Louis XV so that wars drained the increasingly inefficient financial system.Foreign relations of France – Napoleon Bonaparte retreating from Moscow, by Adolf Northern.
40. Jean-Marie Le Pen – Jean-Marie Le Pen is a French politician who led the National Front party from its foundation in 1972 until 2011. His progression in the late 1980s is known as the "Lepénisation des esprits" or lepénisation of spirits due to its noticeable effect on mainstream political opinion. He focuses on issues related to France, the European Union, France's high rate of unemployment. Le Pen advocates the penalty, raising incentives for euroscepticism. His longevity in his five attempts to become president of France have made a major figure in political life. He was orphaned as an adolescent, when his father's boat was blown up by a mine in 1942. He was raised as a Roman Catholic and studied at the Jesuit high school François Xavier in Vannes, then at the lycée of Lorient. In November 1944, aged 16, he was turned down by Colonel Henri de La Vaissière when he attempted to join the French Forces of the Interior. He then entered the faculty of law in Paris, started to sell the monarchist Action Française's newspaper, "Aspects de la France", in the street. He was repeatedly convicted of assault. Le Pen started his political career as the head of the student union in Toulouse. He was excluded from this organisation in 1951. After his time in the military, he studied political science and law at Panthéon-Assas University. After receiving his law diploma, he enlisted in the army in the Foreign Legion. Le Pen was then sent to Suez in 1956, but arrived only after the cease-fire.Jean-Marie Le Pen – Jean-Marie Le Pen MEP
41. Marie Antoinette – Marie Antoinette (/ˈmæriˌæntwəˈnɛt/, /ˌɑ̃ːntwə-/, /ˌɑ̃ːtwə-/, US /məˈriː-/; French:; born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna, was the last Queen of France prior to the French Revolution. She was the second youngest child of Empress Maria Theresa and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. To Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne, she became Dauphine of France. After eight years of marriage, Marie Antoinette gave birth to a daughter, Marie-Thérèse Charlotte, the first of her four children. The Diamond Necklace affair damaged her reputation further. On 21 September 1792, the monarchy was abolished. Maria Antonia was born in Vienna. She was her husband Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. Her godparents were Mariana Victoria, King and Queen of Portugal; Archduchess Maria Anna acted as proxies for their newborn sister. Shortly after her birth, she was placed under the care of the Governess of the Imperial children, Countess von Brandeis. Maria Antonia was raised with her three-year older sister Maria Carolina, with whom she had a lifelong close relationship. As to her relationship with her mother, her daughter loved each other. Despite the private tutoring she received, results of her schooling were less than satisfactory. At the age of ten she could not write correctly in any language commonly used at court, such as Italian. Conversations with her were stilted.Marie Antoinette – Marie Antoinette with the Rose Portrait by Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun, 1783.
42. Wikify – Its purpose is to be converted by wiki software into HTML, which, in turn, is served to web browsers. It was created on the original wiki site, WikiWikiWeb. There is commonly accepted standard language. Justification, keywords and so on depend on the particular wiki software used on the particular website. Different Wiki programs may support use of different sets of HTML elements within wikitext. In some cases, permitted HTML elements may be configured by individual wiki sites. MediaWiki supports many common HTML tags. There are different syntax conventions for these links. Many wikis, especially the earlier ones, used CamelCase to mark words that should be automatically linked. In MediaWiki, this convention was replaced with the notation, which Wikipedia calls "free links". Creole is an effort for a "common language to be used across different Wikis". There are several wiki engines that have implemented Creole. Version 1.0 of the specification was released in July 2007. It is not supported by MediaWiki. VisualEditor is an alternative to editing the raw wiki markup code.Wikify – Screenshot of the edit window in a Wikipedia article. Note the <nowiki> tag, used to escape wiki markup and HTML. HTML comments can be seen inside the <!-- --> tags.
43. French architecture – French architecture ranks high among France's many accomplishments. A crucial factor in this development, coined the Roman Architectural Revolution, was the invention of concrete. Social elements such as wealth and high population densities in cities forced the ancient Romans to discover new solutions of their own. Notable examples in France during the period are Alyscamps in Arles and Maison Carrée in Nîmes. The Alyscamps is a large Roman necropolis, a short distance outside the walls of the old town of Arles. It was one of the most famous necropolises of the ancient world. The name is a corruption of the Latin Elisii Campi. They are referred to by Ariosto in Orlando Furioso and by Dante in the Inferno. The Alyscamps continued to be used well into medieval times, although the removal of Saint Trophimus' relics to the cathedral in 1152 reduced its prestige. Plans often continued the Roman tradition, but also took influences from as far away as Syria and Armenia. Many Merovingian plans have been reconstructed from archaeology. There are no Roman precedents for this Frankish innovation. Architecture of a Romanesque style developed simultaneously in the 10th century and prior to the later influence of the Abbey of Cluny. This structure has necessitated the use of very thick walls, the domes spring. There are radiating chapels around the apse, to evolve into the chevette.French architecture – South side of the Cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, view from the Seine
44. Vichy France – Vichy France is the common name of the French State headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II. In particular, it represents the southern, unoccupied "Free Zone" that governed the southern part of the country. From 1940 to 1942, while the Vichy regime was the nominal government of France as a whole, Germany militarily occupied northern France. Following the Allied landings in French North Africa in November 1942, southern France was also militarily occupied by Germany and Italy. The Vichy government remained in existence, but as a de facto client and puppet of Nazi Germany. It vanished in late 1944 when the Allies occupied all of France. After being appointed Premier by President Albert Lebrun, Marshal Pétain ordered the French Government's military representatives to sign an armistice with Germany on 22 June 1940. Pétain subsequently established an authoritarian regime when the National Assembly of the French Third Republic granted him full powers on 10 July 1940. At that point, the Third Republic was dissolved. Calling for "National Regeneration", the French Government at Vichy reversed many liberal policies and began tight supervision of the economy, with central planning a key feature. Labour unions came under tight government control. The independence of women was reversed, with an emphasis put on motherhood. Conservative Catholics became prominent. Paris lost its status in European culture. The media stressed virulent anti-Semitism, after June anti-Bolshevism.Vichy France – French prisoners of war are marched off under German guard, 1940
45. Falaise pocket – The Falaise Pocket or Battle of the Falaise Pocket was the decisive engagement of the Battle of Normandy in the Second World War. Four depleted panzer divisions were not enough to defeat the First U.S. Army. Operation Lüttich was a disaster, which drove the Germans deeper into the Allied envelopment. The Germans began to withdraw on 17 August and on 19 August, the Allies linked up in Chambois. By the evening of 21 August, the pocket had been sealed, with c. 50,000 Germans trapped inside. Many Germans escaped but losses in men and equipment were huge. Cherbourg was not captured by the VII U.S. On 25 July the First U.S. Army commander, Lieutenant-General Omar Bradley began Operation Cobra. On 30 July, Avranches was captured and within 24 hours the VIII U.S. Corps of the Third U.S. Army crossed the bridge at Pontaubault into Brittany and continued south and west through open country, almost without opposition. The U.S. advance was swift and by 8 August, Le Mans, the former headquarters of the German 7th Army, had been captured. On the Eastern Front, Operation Bagration had begun against Army Group Centre which left no possibility of reinforcement of the Western Front. Eight of the nine Panzer divisions in Normandy were to be used in the attack but only four could be made ready in time. The German commanders protested that their forces were incapable of an offensive but the warnings were ignored and Operation Lüttich, commenced on 7 August around Mortain. Bradley said This is an opportunity that comes to a commander not more than once in a century.Falaise pocket – A Cromwell tank and Willys MB jeep pass an abandoned German 88 mm (3.46 in) PaK 43 anti-tank gun during Totalize
46. Charles de Gaulle – Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle was a French general and statesman. He was the leader of Free France and the head of the Provisional Government of the French Republic. In 1958, he founded the Fifth Republic and was elected as the 18th President of France, a position he held until his resignation in 1969. He was the dominant figure of France during the Cold War era and his memory continues to influence French politics. Born in Lille, he graduated from Saint-Cyr in 1912. During the interwar period, he advocated mobile armoured divisions. He led a government in exile and the Free French Forces against the Axis. Despite frosty relations with Britain and especially the United States, he emerged as the undisputed leader of the French resistance. He became Head of the Provisional Government of the French Republic in June 1944, the interim government of France following its Liberation. He retired in the early 1950s and wrote his War Memoirs, which quickly became a classic of modern French literature. When the Algerian War was ripping apart the unstable Fourth Republic, the National Assembly brought him back to power during the May 1958 crisis. De Gaulle founded the Fifth Republic with a strong presidency, he was elected in the latter role. He granted independence to Algeria and progressively to other French colonies. He restored cordial Franco-German relations to create a European counterweight between the Anglo-American and Soviet spheres of influence. However, he opposed any development of a supranational Europe, favouring a Europe of sovereign nations.Charles de Gaulle – Charles de Gaulle in 1961
47. Vaux-le-Vicomte – The Château de Vaux-le-Vicomte is a baroque French château located in Maincy, near Melun, 55 kilometres southeast of Paris in the Seine-et-Marne département of France. Their collaboration marked the beginning of the "Louis XIV style" combining architecture, interior design and design. The garden's visual axis is an example of this style. Fouquet was an avid patron of the arts, attracting many artists with his generosity. Fouquet's cultivated personality subsequently brought out the best in the three. To secure the necessary grounds for the elaborate plans for Vaux-le-Vicomte's castle, Fouquet purchased and demolished three villages. The displaced villagers were then employed in the maintenance of the gardens. It was said to cost as much as 16 million livres. Its patron became for a short time a focus for fine feasts, literature and arts. The playwright Molière were among the artists close to Fouquet. At the inauguration of Vaux-le-Vicomte, a Molière play was performed, with a dinner event organized by François Vatel and an impressive firework show. The superintendent's home too luxurious. Fouquet's intentions were to flatter the king: Fouquet's plan backfired. Jean-Baptiste Colbert led the king to believe that his minister's magnificence was funded by the misappropriation of public funds. Colbert, who then replaced Fouquet as superintendent of finances, arrested him.Vaux-le-Vicomte – View from the rond d'eau of the garden
48. Economy of France – France has the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal figures and the ninth largest economy by PPP figures. It has the third-largest economy in Europe with Germany in 1st. The OECD is headquartered in the nation's financial capital. The industry is a key sector for France, helping to develop other manufacturing activities and contributing to economic growth. France's industry is a major component of the economy, as France is the most visited destination in the world. Sophia Antipolis is the major hub for the economy of France. According in 2013, France was the world's 20th country by GDP per capita with $44,099 per inhabitant. In 2013, France was listed on the United Nations's Human Development Index on the Corruption Perceptions Index. France's economy appeared to leave it earlier than most affected economies, only enduring four-quarters of contraction. With 31 of the 500 biggest companies of the world in 2015, France ranks 4th in the Fortune Global 500, behind the USA, Japan. French corporations rank amongst the largest in their industries such as AXA in insurance and Air France in air transportation. France embarked under state coordination. The 1981 election of president François Mitterrand saw a short-lived increase in governmental control of the economy, nationalising private banks. This form of increased dirigisme, was criticised early as 1982. By 1983, the government decided to start an era of rigueur or corporatization.Economy of France – La Défense is a major business district in Europe
49. Louisiana Purchase – The Louisiana Purchase was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory by the United States from France in 1803. The U.S. paid a cancellation of debts worth million francs for a total of sixty-eight million francs. The Louisiana territory included land from fifteen present U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. Its population was around 60,000 inhabitants, of whom half were African slaves. The Kingdom of France controlled the Louisiana territory from 1699 until it was ceded to Spain in 1762. Napoleon in 1800, hoping to re-establish an empire in North America, regained ownership of Louisiana. The Americans originally sought to purchase only the port city of New Orleans and its adjacent coastal lands, but quickly accepted the bargain. The Louisiana Purchase occurred during the term of the third President of the United States, Thomas Jefferson. Before the purchase was finalized, the decision faced Federalist Party opposition; they argued that it was unconstitutional to acquire any territory. Jefferson agreed that the U.S. Constitution did not contain explicit provisions for acquiring territory, but he asserted that his constitutional power to negotiate treaties was sufficient. Throughout the second half of the 18th century, Louisiana was a pawn on the chessboard of European politics. It was controlled by the French, who had a small settlements along the Mississippi and main rivers. Following French defeat in the Seven Years' War, Spain gained control of the territory west of the Mississippi. The United States controlled the area east of the Mississippi and north of New Orleans.Louisiana Purchase – 1804 map of " Louisiana ", edged on the west by the Rocky Mountains
50. Bourbon Family Compact – The Pacte de Famille is one of three separate, but similar alliances between the Bourbon kings of France and Spain. Philip V had become the first Bourbon King of Spain upon the extinction of Spanish Habsburgs. In addition, Spanish possessions in Italy were ceded to the surviving branch of the House of Habsburg. Louis XV was Philip's nephew. He had married Maria Leszczyńska, the daughter of King Stanislaus I of Poland. Because of this marriage alliance France became involved in the War of the Polish Succession in 1733. Philip V formed a plan to use this conflict to win back lost territory in Italy for his sons. He allied Spain to France. Because of his close relationship with Louis XV their alliance became known as the Family Compact. The result was the expansion of Spanish influence in Italy when Philip V's fourth son Philip, became in 1748 Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla. The third Family Compact was made on 15 August 1761 by King Charles III of Spain and Louis XV in the Treaty of Paris. Charles III was the son of Philip V, making him Louis's first cousin. At this time France was fighting the Seven Years' War against Great Britain. Charles's alliance reversed the policy of his predecessor, Ferdinand VI, who wished to keep Spain out of the war. The agreement involved Spain's allies Naples and Tuscany.Bourbon Family Compact – Both Kingdoms (France & Spain) to the House of Bourbon.
51. Antoine de la Sale – Antoine de la Sale was a French courtier, educator and writer. He only began writing when he had reached middle age, in the late 1430s. He became the tutor of Saint-Pol, to whom he dedicated a moral work in 1451. His most successful work was Little John of Saintré, written in 1456, when he was reaching the age of seventy. He was born in Provence, probably at the illegitimate son of Bernardon de la Salle, a celebrated Gascon mercenary, mentioned in Froissart's Chronicles. His mother was Perrinette Damendel. In 1402 Antoine entered the court of the third Angevin dynasty at Anjou, probably as a page. In 1407 he was with Louis II, Duke of Bourbon, who had gone there to enforce his claim to the kingdom of Sicily. The next years he perhaps spent for he was present at two tournaments given at Brussels and Ghent. In 1415 he took part in the successful expedition against the Moors in Ceuta. In 1420 he accompanied the 17-year-old Louis III of Anjou in his attempt to assert his claim as King of Naples. He travelled to the Monti Sibillini and the neighboring Pilate's Lake. The work covered geography, history, military tactics. One original copy has survived, two early printed editions. These are have often been edited separately.Antoine de la Sale – Frontispiece of an 1830 edition of Little John of Saintré, showing a fictitious author's portrait
52. Albert Camus – Albert Camus was an Algerian and French philosopher, author, journalist based in France. His views contributed to the rise of the philosophy known as absurdism. Camus wrote in his essay The Rebel that his whole life was devoted to opposing the philosophy of nihilism while still delving deeply into individual freedom. Camus won the Nobel Prize in 1957. He did not consider himself to be an existentialist despite usually being classified in his lifetime. In a 1945 interview, he rejected any ideological associations: "No, I am not an existentialist. Sartre and I are always surprised to see our names linked.". He was studied at the University of Algiers, from which he graduated in 1936. In 1949, he founded the Group for International Liaisons to "denounce two ideologies found in the USA". Albert Camus was born on 7 November 1913 in Dréan in French Algeria. His mother could only hear out of her left ear. Lucien died on 11 October. An illiterate house cleaner, lived without many basic material possessions during his childhood in the Belcourt section of Algiers. In 1923, he eventually was admitted to the University of Algiers. After he contracted tuberculosis in 1930, he had to end his football activities; he had been a goalkeeper for a prominent Algerian team.Albert Camus – Portrait from New York World-Telegram and Sun Photograph Collection, 1957.
53. Breton language – Breton /ˈbrɛtən/ is a Celtic language spoken in Brittany, France. Breton is most closely related to Cornish, both being Southwestern Brittonic languages. Welsh and the extinct Cumbric are the more distantly-related Brittonic languages. The other regional language of Brittany, Gallo, is a langue d'oïl. Gallo is consequently close to French, although not mutually intelligible, a Romance language descended from Latin. However, the number of children attending bilingual classes has risen 33% between 2006 and 2012 to 14,709. Breton is spoken in West Brittany, roughly to the west of a line linking Plouha and La Roche-Bernard. It comes from a Brittonic community that once had even established a toehold in Galicia. Old Breton is attested from the 9th century. It was the language of the upper classes until the 12th century, after which it became the language of commoners in Lower Brittany. The nobility, followed by the bourgeoisie, adopted French. The written language of the Duchy of Brittany was Latin, switching to French in the 15th century. There exists a limited tradition of Breton literature. Some Old Breton vocabulary remains in the present day as philosophical and scientific terms in Modern Breton. During the French Revolution, the government introduced policies favouring French over the regional languages, which it pejoratively referred to as patois.Breton language – Bilingual sign Huelgoat, Brittany
54. Claude Debussy – Achille-Claude Debussy, known since the 1890s as Claude-Achille Debussy or Claude Debussy, was a French composer. Maurice Ravel were the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music, though Debussy disliked the term when applied to his compositions. Debussy was made Chevalier of the Legion of Honour in 1903. Debussy's music is noted for its sensory frequent usage of nontraditional tonalities. He was born August 1862 in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France, the oldest of five children. Manuel-Achille Debussy, owned a china shop there; his mother, Victorine Manoury Debussy, was a seamstress. In 1871 Debussy drew the attention of Marie Mauté de Fleurville, who claimed to have been a pupil of Frédéric Chopin. He always believed her, although there is no independent evidence to support her claim. In 1872, at age ten, Debussy entered the Paris Conservatoire, where he spent the next 11 years. Debussy also became a lifelong friend of distinguished pianist Isidor Philipp. After Debussy's death, many pianists sought Philipp's advice on playing Debussy's works. He was experimental from the outset, favoring intervals that were not taught at the Academy. Like Georges Bizet, Debussy was an outstanding sight reader, who could have had a professional career had he so wished. The pieces he played in public at this time included sonata movements by Beethoven, Schumann and Weber, Chopin's Ballade No. 2, a movement from the Piano Concerto No.Claude Debussy – Claude Debussy in 1908
55. French Revolution – Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history. The causes of the French Revolution are complex and are still debated among historians. Years of bad harvests leading up to the Revolution also inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and the aristocracy. Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates-General in May 1789. The few years featured right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms. The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy. In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats closely shaped the course of the Revolution. Internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution significantly, culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins. Large numbers of civilians were executed with estimates ranging from 16,000 to 40,000. After the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795. The rule of the Directory was characterised by suspended elections, debt repudiations, significant military conquests abroad. Dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. The modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution.French Revolution – The August Insurrection in 1792 precipitated the last days of the monarchy.
56. French language – French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did languages such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Romanian, Catalan and others. French has evolved from the spoken Latin in Gaul, more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl -- languages historically spoken in southern Belgium, which French has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by the Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. Nation may be referred to as "Francophone" in both English and French. French is an official language in 29 countries, most of which are members of the community of French-speaking countries. French is the fourth most widely spoken tongue in the European Union. 1/5 of non-Francophone Europeans speak French. Most second-language speakers reside in particular Gabon, Algeria, Mauritius, Senegal and Ivory Coast. In 2015, French was estimated to have 190 million secondary speakers. Approximately million people are able to speak the language. The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie estimates million by 2050, 80 % of whom will be in Africa. In 2011, Bloomberg Businessweek ranked French the third most useful language after English and Standard Mandarin Chinese.French language – The "arrêt" signs (French for "stop") are used in Canada while the international stop, which is also a valid French word, is used in France as well as other French-speaking countries and regions.
57. Jean-Paul Sartre – Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, literary critic. Sartre was one of the leading figures in 20th-century French philosophy and Marxism. His work continues to influence these disciplines. He was also noted with prominent feminist theorist Simone de Beauvoir. Together, de Beauvoir challenged the cultural and social assumptions and expectations of their upbringings, which they considered bourgeois, in both lifestyle and thought. Sartre's introduction to his philosophy is Existentialism and Humanism originally presented as a lecture. Jean-Paul Sartre was born as the only child of Jean-Baptiste Sartre, an officer of the French Navy, Anne-Marie Schweitzer. His mother was of the first cousin of Nobel Prize laureate Albert Schweitzer. When Sartre was two years old, his father died of a fever overseas. When he was twelve, the family moved to La Rochelle, where he was frequently bullied. Sartre attended a private school in Paris. It was at ENS that Sartre began his lifelong, sometimes fractious, friendship with Raymond Aron. Perhaps the most decisive influence on Sartre's philosophical development was his weekly attendance at Alexandre Kojève's seminars, which continued for a number of years. From his first years in the École Normale, he was one of its fiercest pranksters. In 1927, his satirical cartoon in the revue of the school, coauthored with Georges Canguilhem, particularly upset the director Gustave Lanson.Jean-Paul Sartre – Sartre in 1950
58. Picardy – Picardy is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it is part of the new region Hauts-de-France. It is located in the northern part of France. The historical province of Picardy stretched via the north of the Aisne department. The province of Artois separated Picardy from French Flanders. According to the 843 Treaty of Verdun the region became part of West Francia, the later Kingdom of France. The name "Picardy" was not used until the 12th or 13th century. During this time, the name applied to all lands where the Picard language was spoken, which included all the territories from Paris to the Netherlands. In the Latin Quarter of Paris, people identified a "Picard Nation" of students at Sorbonne University, most of whom actually came from Flanders. During the Hundred Years' War, Picardy was the centre of the Jacquerie peasant revolt in 1358. In 1477, King Louis XI of France led an army and occupied key towns in Picardy. By the end of 1477, Louis would control all of Picardy and most of Artois. In the 16th century, the government of Picardy was created. This became a new administrative region of France, separate from what was historically defined as Picardy. The new Picardy included the Somme département, the northern half of the Aisne département, a small fringe in the north of the Oise département.Picardy – This painting by Pierre Puvis de Chavannes recalls the "Golden Age" in the history of the province of Picardy. The Walters Art Museum.
59. Rennes – Rennes is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern France at the confluence of the Ille and the Vilaine. Rennes is the capital of the region of Brittany, well as the Ille-et-Vilaine department. Rennes's history goes back more than 2,000 years, at a time when it was a Gallic village named Condate. Together with Vannes and Nantes, it was one of the major cities of the ancient Duchy of Brittany. After the French Revolution, Rennes remained for most of its history a parliamentary, garrison city of the Kingdom of France. Since the 1950s, Rennes has grown through rural flight and its modern industrial development partly automotive. The city developed extensive building plans to accommodate upwards of 200,000 inhabitants. During the 1980s, Rennes became one of the main centres in telecommunication and high industry. It is now a digital innovation centre in France. In 2015, the city is the tenth largest in France, with a metropolitan area of about inhabitants. In 2013 is also the eighth-largest university campus of France. The inhabitants of Rennes are called Rennais, Rennaise in French. In 2012, l'Express named Rennes as "the most liveable city in France". Rennes is the administrative capital of the French department of Ille-et-Vilaine. Without inscriptions, as the Celtic practice was, the Redones coinage features a charioteer whose pony has a human head.Rennes
60. Sarah Bernhardt – Sarah Bernhardt was a French stage and early film actress. She is regarded as one of the finest actors of all time. She developed a reputation as tragedienne, earning the nickname "The Divine Sarah". In her later career she starred in some of the earliest films ever produced. Bernhardt was born as Rosine Bernardt, the daughter of Julie Bernardt and an unknown father. Julie was one of six children of an itinerant Jewish spectacle merchant, "vision specialist" and petty criminal, Sara Hirsch. Five weeks after his first wife's death in 1829, Julie's father married Sara Kinsbergen. He had abandoned his five daughters and one son by 1835. Julie, together with her younger sister Rosine, left for Paris, where she was known by the name "Youle". Julie had five daughters, including a twin who died in 1843. Sarah Bernhardt added an "h" to her surname. Her birth records were lost in a fire in 1871. When Bernhardt was young her mother sent her to Grandchamp, an Augustine school near Versailles. Much of the uncertainty about the facts of Bernhardt's life arises from her tendency to distort. Fils, described her as a notorious liar.Sarah Bernhardt – Bernhardt around 1878
61. Toulouse – Toulouse is the capital city of the southwestern French department of Haute-Garonne, as well as of the Occitanie region. It is the fourth-largest city in France with 458,298 inhabitants in January 2013. Moreover, with 1,291,517 inhabitants at the January 2013 census, the Toulouse metropolitan area is also the fourth-largest in France, after Paris, Lyon and Marseille. The city also hosts the largest space centre in Europe. Airbus Group's satellite system subsidiary, also have a significant presence in Toulouse. The route between Paris Orly is the busiest in Europe, transporting 2.4 million passengers in 2014. According to the rankings of L'Express and Challenges, Toulouse is the most dynamic French city. It is now the capital of the Occitanie region, the largest region in metropolitan France. Toulouse is in the south of France, north of the department of Haute-Garonne, on the axis of communication between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The city is traversed by the rivers Garonne, Touch and Hers-Mort. Toulouse has a subtropical climate which can be qualified as "submediterranean" due to its proximity to the Mediterranean zone. The Garonne Valley was a focal point for trade between the Atlantic since at least the Iron Age. Tolosa enters the historical period in the 2nd BC, when it became a military outpost. After the conquest of Gaul, it was developed as a Roman city of Gallia Narbonensis. From this time, Toulouse was the capital of Aquitaine within the Frankish realm.Toulouse – Montage of Toulouse Top: Pont Saint Pierre and Garonne River Middle: Place du Capitole, Pont Neuf Bottom: Capitole de Toulouse, Ariane 5 at Cité de l'espace, Médiathèque José Cabanis
62. Louis XIV – His reign of 110 days is the longest of any monarch of a major country in European history. In this age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralization of power. Louis began his personal rule of France after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin. There were also the War of the Reunions. Under his rule, the Edict of Nantes, which granted rights to Huguenots, was abolished. The revocation effectively forced Huguenots to convert in a wave of dragonnades, which managed to virtually destroy the French Protestant minority. His personality shaped his approach. Impelled "by a mix of commerce, pique," Louis sensed that warfare was the ideal way to enhance his glory. In peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. He taught his diplomats their job was to create strategic advantages for the French military. Louis XIV was born to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. He was named Louis Dieudonné and bore the traditional title of French heirs apparent: Dauphin. At the time of his birth, his parents had been married for 23 years. His mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1631. Leading contemporaries thus regarded him as his birth a miracle of God.Louis XIV – Louis XIV by Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701)
63. Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen – Not to be confused with Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen of 1793, a second declaration, written in 1793 but never formally adopted. The Declaration was directly influenced by Thomas Jefferson, working with General Lafayette, who introduced it. It became the basis for a nation of free individuals protected equally by law. It is included in the preamble of the constitutions of both the Fourth French Republic and Fifth Republic and is still current. The inspiration and content of the document emerged largely from the ideals of the American Revolution. In August 1789, Honoré Mirabeau played a central role in conceptualizing and drafting the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. The draft was later modified during the debates. A second and lengthier declaration, known as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen of 1793, was written in 1793 but never formally adopted. Declaration of Independence which preceded it. Thomas Jefferson—the primary author of the U.S. Declaration of Independence—was at the time in France as a U.S. diplomat, worked closely with Lafayette in designing a bill of rights for France. In the ratification by the states of the U.S. Constitution in 1788, critics had demanded a written Bill of Rights. In response, James Madison's proposal for a U.S. Bill of Rights was introduced in New York on 8 June 1789, 11 weeks before the French declaration. Considering the 6 to 8 weeks it took news to cross the Atlantic, it is possible that the French knew of the American text.Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen – The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789 is a fundamental document of the French Revolution and in the history of human rights.
64. Prince's Palace of Monaco – The Prince's Palace of Monaco is the official residence of the Prince of Monaco. Built in 1191 during its long and often dramatic history it has been bombarded and besieged by many foreign powers. Since the end of the 13th century, it has been the home of the Grimaldi family who first captured it in 1297. This unique requirement, at such a late stage in history, has made the palace of the most unusual in Europe. Thus, their politics are directly reflected in the evolution of the palace. Theatricality became reality when the American film star Grace Kelly became chatelaine of the palace in 1956. In the 21st century, the palace remains the residence of the current Prince of Monaco. The palace is a blend of architectural styles; its ancient origins are indicated by a lack of symmetry. Thus to evaluate the architecture, blocks have to be observed separately. These wings are however united by their rusticated ground floor. This Renaissance architecture seems to mask the towers of which rise behind the differing classical façades. These towers -- many complete with machicolations -- were actually mostly rebuilt during the 19th century. At the rear of the palace the medieval fortifications seem untouched by time.. . The most notable of the many rooms are the state apartments.Prince's Palace of Monaco – Illustration 1: Prince's Palace of Monaco
65. TGV – TGV is France's intercity high-speed rail service, operated by SNCF, the national rail operator. It was developed by GEC-Alsthom and SNCF. Originally designed as turbotrains to be powered by gas turbines, the prototypes evolved with the 1973 oil crisis. A TGV train set the record for the fastest wheeled train, reaching 574.8 km/h on 3 April 2007. Neighbouring countries Italy, Spain, Germany developed their own high-speed rail services. Future lines are planned, including extensions within France and to surrounding countries. Cities such as Tours have become part of a "TGV belt" around Paris. In 2007, SNCF generated profits of $ billion driven largely by higher margins on the TGV network. The idea of the TGV was first proposed in the 1960s, after Japan had begun construction of the Shinkansen in 1959. At the time the French government favoured new technology, exploring the production of the Aérotrain air-cushion vehicle. Simultaneously, SNCF began researching high-speed trains on conventional tracks. In 1976, the government agreed to fund the first line. By the mid-1990s, the trains were so popular that SNCF president Louis Gallois declared TGV "The train that saved French railways". TGV 001 was not a wasted prototype: its turbine was only one of its many new technologies for high-speed rail travel. It also tested high-speed brakes, needed to dissipate the large amount of kinetic energy of a train at high speed, signalling.TGV – Three TGV trains at Paris Gare de l'Est
66. Battle of Austerlitz – The Battle of Austerlitz, also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of the most important and decisive engagements of the Napoleonic Wars. The battle occurred in the Austrian Empire. Austerlitz brought the War of the Third Coalition with the Treaty of Pressburg signed by the Austrians later in the month. After eliminating an Austrian army during the Ulm Campaign, French forces managed to capture Vienna in November 1805. The Austrians avoided further conflict until the arrival of the Russians bolstered Allied numbers. Napoleon then ordered his forces to retreat so he could feign a grave weakness. A forced march from Vienna by his III Corps plugged the gap left by Napoleon just in time. With the Allied center demolished, the French sent the Allies fleeing chaotically, capturing thousands of prisoners in the process. The Allied disaster significantly shook the faith of Emperor Francis in the British-led effort. The Treaty of Pressburg followed shortly after, on 26 December. Pressburg took the Coalition while reinforcing the earlier treaties of Campo Formio and of Lunéville between the two powers. The treaty confirmed the Austrian loss of lands in Italy and Bavaria to Napoleon's German allies. These achievements, however, did not establish a lasting peace on the continent. Prussian worries about growing French influence in Central Europe sparked the War of the Fourth Coalition in 1806. Europe had been since the start of the French Revolutionary Wars in 1792.Battle of Austerlitz – Napoléon at the Battle of Austerlitz, by François Gérard (Galerie des Batailles, Versailles).
67. Italian War of 1521-1526 – The Italian War of 1521–26, sometimes known as the Four Years' War, was a part of the Italian Wars. The war broke out across Western Europe late in 1521, when a French–Navarrese expedition attempted to reconquer Navarre while a French army invaded the Low Countries. A Spanish army drove the Navarrese forces back into the Pyrenees, other Imperial forces attacked northern France, where they were stopped in turn. At the Battle of Bicocca on 27 April 1522, Imperial and Papal forces defeated the French, driving them from Lombardy. Following the battle, fighting again spilled onto French soil, while Venice made a separate peace. The English invaded France in 1523, while Charles de Bourbon, alienated by Francis's attempts to seize his inheritance, betrayed Francis and allied himself with the Emperor. A French attempt to regain Lombardy in 1524 failed and provided Bourbon with an opportunity to invade Provence at the head of a Spanish army. Only a few weeks after his release, however, he repudiated the terms of the treaty, starting the War of the League of Cognac. Although the Italian Wars would continue for another three decades, they would end with France having failed to regain any substantial territories in Italy. By 1518, the peace that had prevailed in Europe after the Battle of Marignano was beginning to crumble. They were divided, however, on the question of the Imperial succession. Maximilian's death in 1519 brought the Imperial election to the forefront of European politics. Pope Leo X, threatened by the presence of Spanish troops a mere forty miles from the Vatican, supported the French candidacy. The prince-electors themselves, with the exception of Frederick of Saxony, who refused to countenance the campaigning, promised their support to both candidates at once. The final outcome, however, was not determined by the exorbitant bribes, which included Leo promising to make the Archbishop of Mainz his permanent legate.Italian War of 1521-1526 – The Battle of Pavia by an unknown Flemish artist (oil on panel, 16th century)
68. Military history of France – The first major recorded wars in the territory of modern-day France itself revolved around the Gallo-Roman conflict that predominated from 60 BC to 50 BC. The Romans eventually emerged victorious through the campaigns of Julius Caesar. After the decline of the Roman Empire, a Germanic tribe known as the Franks took control of Gaul by defeating competing tribes. In the Middle Ages, rivalries with England prompted major conflicts such as the Hundred Years' War. In parallel, France developed its first empire in Asia, Africa, in the Americas. French armies secured victories in dynastic conflicts against the Spanish, Polish, Austrian crowns. At the same time, France was fending off attacks on its colonies. As the 18th century advanced, global competition with Great Britain led to the Seven Years' War, where France lost its North American holdings. Internal political upheaval eventually led in the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. France reached the zenith of its power during this period, dominating the European continent in an unprecedented fashion under Napoleon Bonaparte. By 1815, however, it had been restored to the same borders it controlled before the Revolution. The rest of the 19th century witnessed the growth of the Second French colonial empire as well as French interventions in Belgium, Spain, Mexico. Major wars were fought against Russia in the Crimea, Austria in Italy, Prussia within France itself. Following defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, Franco–German rivalry erupted again in the First World War. Its allies were victorious this time.Military history of France – In July 1453, a French army crushed its English opponents at the Battle of Castillon, the last major engagement of the Hundred Years War. The decisive victory at Castillon showcased the power of artillery against charging masses of infantry and allowed the French to capture Bordeaux a few months later. The English subsequently lost their major remaining possessions on the European continent.
69. War of the League of Cambrai – Although the League was initially successful, friction between Julius and Louis caused it to collapse by 1510; Julius then allied himself against France. Julius, humiliated by the failure of the Imperial invasion, turned with an offer of alliance. On 10 representatives of the Papacy, France, the Holy Roman Empire and Ferdinand I of Spain concluded the League of Cambrai against the Republic. On 15 Louis left Milan at the head of a French army and moved rapidly into Venetian territory. Alviano, disregarding the new orders, continued the engagement; his army was eventually destroyed. The Venetian collapse was complete. D'Este, having been appointed Gonfalonier on 19 April, seized the Polesine for himself. The newly arrived Imperial governors, however, quickly proved to be unpopular. In mid-July, the citizens of Padua, aided cavalry under the command of the proveditor Andrea Gritti, revolted. Padua was restored to Venetian control on 17 July 1509. The success of the revolt finally pushed Maximilian into action. In early August, a massive Imperial army, accompanied by bodies of Spanish troops, set out from Trento into the Veneto. In mid-November, Pitigliano returned to the offensive; Venetian troops easily defeated the remaining Imperial forces, capturing Vicenza, Este, Feltre and Belluno. Although a subsequent attack on Verona failed, Pitigliano destroyed a Papal army in the process. Francesco Guicciardini credited the decisive victory to Alfonso himself.War of the League of Cambrai – Pope Julius II, painted by Raphael (oil on wood, c. 1511). Julius attempted to secure Papal authority in Italy by creating the League of Cambrai, an alliance aimed at curbing Venetian power.
70. Alain Prost – Alain Marie Pascal Prost, OBE, Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur is a French former racing driver. A four-time Formula One Drivers' Champion, only Juan Manuel Fangio, Michael Schumacher have equalled or surpassed his number of titles. Until 2001 he held the record for most Grand Prix victories. Schumacher surpassed Prost's total of 51 victories at the 2001 Belgian Grand Prix. In 1999, he received the World Sports Awards of the Century in the motor category. He discovered karting during a family holiday. During early 1990s, he formed a fierce rivalry mainly with Ayrton Senna, but also Nelson Piquet and Nigel Mansell. This time Prost, driving for Ferrari, lost out. Before the end of a winless 1991 season he was fired for his public criticism of the team. After a sabbatical in 1992, he joined the Williams team, prompting reigning drivers' champion Mansell to leave for CART. With a competitive car, he retired from Formula One driving at the end of the year. In 1997, he took over the French Ligier team, running it as Prost Grand Prix until it went bankrupt in 2002. From 2003 to 2012 Prost competed in the Andros Trophy, an ice racing championship, winning the championship 3 times. Prost employed a relaxed style behind the wheel, deliberately modeling himself on personal heroes like Jackie Stewart and Jim Clark. Prost was nicknamed "The Professor" for his intellectual approach to competition.Alain Prost – Prost in 2012
71. Blaise Pascal – Blaise Pascal was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Christian philosopher. He was a prodigy, educated by his father, a tax collector in Rouen. Pascal also wrote in defence of the scientific method. In 1642, while still a teenager, he started some pioneering work on calculating machines. Following Galileo Galilei and Torricelli, in 1646, he rebutted Aristotle's followers who insisted that nature abhors a vacuum. Pascal's results caused many disputes before being accepted. In 1646, his sister Jacqueline identified with the religious movement within Catholicism known by its detractors as Jansenism. His father died in 1651. Following a religious experience in late 1654, he began writing influential works on theology. His two most famous works date from this period: the Lettres provinciales and the Pensées, the former set in the conflict between Jansenists and Jesuits. In that year, he also wrote an important treatise on the arithmetical triangle. Between 1659 he wrote on the cycloid and its use in calculating the volume of solids. He died just two months after his 39th birthday. Pascal was born in Clermont-Ferrand, in France's Auvergne region. He lost Antoinette Begon, at the age of three.Blaise Pascal – Painting of Blaise Pascal made by François II Quesnel for Gérard Edelinck in 1691.
72. James Joyce – James Augustine Aloysius Joyce was an Irish novelist and poet. Joyce is regarded as one of the most influential and important authors of the 20th century. The novels A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and Finnegans Wake. His other writings include three books of poetry, a play, his published letters. He was born in 41 Brighton Square, Rathgar, Dublin -- about half a mile from his mother's birthplace in Terenure -- on the way down. He excelled at the Jesuit schools Clongowes and Belvedere, despite the chaotic family life imposed by his father's alcoholism and unpredictable finances. Joyce went on to attend University College Dublin. In his early twenties, he emigrated permanently to continental Europe with his partner Nora Barnacle. They lived in Trieste, Paris and Zurich. Ulysses in particular is set in the streets and alleyways of the city. In the particular is contained the universal." James Augustine Aloysius Joyce was born on 2 February 1882 in the Dublin suburb of Rathgar. Joyce was baptised according to the Rites of the Catholic Church by Rev. John O'Mulloy. His godparents were Ellen McCann. He was the eldest of ten surviving children; two of his siblings died of typhoid.James Joyce – Joyce in Zurich, c. 1918
73. Joan of Arc – Joan of Arc was born at Domrémy in north-east France. The uncrowned King Charles VII sent Joan as part of a relief mission. She gained prominence after the siege was lifted only nine days later. Several swift victories led to Charles VII's coronation at Reims. This long-awaited event paved the way for the final French victory. On 23 she was captured at Compiègne by the Burgundian faction, allied with the English. She was later put on trial by the pro-English Bishop of Beauvais Pierre Cauchon on a variety of charges. After Cauchon declared her guilty she was burned at the stake on 30 May 1431, dying at about nineteen years of age. In 1456, an inquisitorial court authorized by Pope Callixtus III examined the trial, debunked the charges against her, declared her a martyr. She was canonized in 1920. Thérèse of Lisieux. Cultural depictions of her have continued to this day. The Hundred Years' War had begun as an inheritance dispute over the French throne, interspersed with occasional periods of relative peace. The English army's use of chevauchée tactics had devastated the economy. Its merchants were isolated from foreign markets.Joan of Arc – Painting, c. 1485. An artist's interpretation, since the only known direct portrait has not survived. (Centre Historique des Archives Nationales, Paris, AE II 2490)
74. Michel Foucault – Michel Foucault was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, philologist and literary critic. His theories addressed the relationship between knowledge, how they are used through societal institutions. Though often cited as a post-structuralist and postmodernist, Foucault rejected these labels, preferring to present his thought as a critical history of modernity. His thought has been highly influential within contemporary sociology, critical theory. After several years as a cultural diplomat abroad, he published The History of Madness. These first three histories exemplified a historiographical technique Foucault was developing called "archaeology". In 1970 he was admitted to the Collège de France, membership of which he retained until his death. He also became active in a number of left-wing groups involved in anti-racist campaigns, anti-human rights abuses movements, the struggle for penal reform. He went on to publish The Archaeology of Knowledge, Discipline and Punish, The History of Sexuality. In these books he developed archaeological and genealogical methods which emphasized the role which power plays in the evolution of discourse in society. She was the daughter of prosperous surgeon Dr. Prosper Malapert, who owned a private practice and taught anatomy at the University of Poitiers' School of Medicine. Paul Foucault eventually took over his father-in-law's medical practice, while his wife took charge of their large mid-19th-century house, Le Piroir, in the village of Vendeuvre-du-Poitou. In later life, Foucault would reveal very little about his childhood. Describing himself as a "juvenile delinquent", he claimed his father was a "bully" who would sternly punish him. In 1930, Foucault began his schooling two years early at the local Lycée Henry-IV.Michel Foucault – Michel Foucault
75. Natalie Clifford Barney – Natalie Clifford Barney was an American playwright, poet and novelist who lived as an expatriate in Paris. In her writings she supported pacifism. Barney was born in Dayton, Ohio, to Albert Clifford Barney and Alice Pike Barney. Her mother was of French, Dutch and German ancestry. Her maternal grandfather's father was Jewish. She later studied under James McNeill Whistler. Many of Alice Pike Barney's paintings are now in the Smithsonian American Art Museum. Like many girls of her time, Barney had a haphazard education. As an adult she made her home in Paris. Nearly all her published works were written in French. When she was ten her family moved to Washington, D.C. spending summers in Bar Harbor, Maine. As the rebellious and unconventional daughter of the wealthiest families in town, she was often mentioned in Washington newspapers. Barney later was determined to "live openly, without hiding anything." Although de Pougy was one of the most famous women in France, constantly sought by wealthy and titled men, Barney's audacity charmed her. Their brief affair became the subject of Idylle Saphique.Natalie Clifford Barney – Natalie Clifford Barney, painted in 1896 by her mother Alice Pike Barney
76. Nostradamus – Michel de Nostredame, usually Latinised as Nostradamus, was a French physician and reputed seer who published collections of prophecies that have since become widely famous. He is best known for his book Les Propheties, the first edition of which appeared in 1555. The earliest ancestor who can be identified on the paternal side is Astruge of Carcassonne, who died about 1420. Michel's known siblings included Delphine, Jean, Pierre, Hector, Louis, Bertrand, Jean II and Antoine. At the age of 15 Nostredame entered the University of Avignon to study for his baccalaureate. After little more than a year, he was forced to leave Avignon when the university closed its doors during an outbreak of the plague. After leaving Avignon, Nostredame, by his own account, traveled the countryside for eight years from 1521 researching herbal remedies. In 1529, after some years as an apothecary, he entered the University of Montpellier to study for a doctorate in medicine. The expulsion document, BIU Montpellier, Register S 2 folio 87, still exists in the faculty library. However, some of his publishers and correspondents would later call him "Doctor". After his expulsion, Nostredame continued working, presumably still as an apothecary, became famous for creating a "rose pill" that purportedly protected against the plague. In 1531 Nostredame was invited by Jules-César Scaliger, a leading Renaissance scholar, to come to Agen. There he married a woman of uncertain name, who bore him two children. In 1534 his wife and children died, presumably from the plague. After their deaths, he continued to travel, passing through France and possibly Italy.Nostradamus – Nostradamus: original portrait by his son Cesar
77. Olivier Messiaen – Olivier-Eugène-Prosper-Charles Messiaen was a French composer, organist, ornithologist, one of the major composers of the 20th century. His music is rhythmically complex; melodically it often uses modes of limited transposition, which he abstracted from his early compositions and improvisations. He also drew for his pieces. He said he perceived colours when he heard musical chords; combinations of these colours, he said, were important in his compositional process. For a short period he experimented with the parametrisation associated with "total serialism", in which field he is often cited as an innovator. His style absorbed many musical influences such as Indonesian gamelan. He was taught by Paul Dukas, Maurice Emmanuel, Charles-Marie Widor and Marcel Dupré, among others. He was appointed organist at the Église la Sainte-Trinité in Paris in 1931, a post held until his death. Messiaen taught during the 1930s. The piece was first performed for an audience of inmates and prison guards. His distinguished pupils included Quincy Jones, Pierre Boulez, Karlheinz Stockhausen and Yvonne Loriod, who became his second wife. Messiaen found birdsong fascinating, incorporating birdsong transcriptions into his music. Olivier-Eugène-Prosper-Charles Messiaen was born December 10, 1908 into a literary family. Messiaen's mother published a sequence of poems, the last chapter of Tandis que la terre tourne, which address her unborn son. He later said he cited it as prophetic of his future artistic career.Olivier Messiaen – Olivier Messiaen in 1946
78. Samuel Beckett – He is widely regarded as among the most influential writers of the 20th century. Beckett's work offers a bleak, tragicomic outlook on human existence, often coupled with black comedy and gallows humour, became increasingly minimalist in his later career. He is considered one of the last modernist writers, one of the key figures in what Martin Esslin called the "Theatre of the Absurd". He was elected Saoi of Aosdána in 1984. The Becketts were members of the Anglican Church of Ireland. They had married in 1901. Beckett had one older brother, Frank Edward Beckett. In 1919, Beckett went in County Fermanagh. A natural athlete, Beckett excelled at cricket as a left-handed batsman and a left-arm medium-pace bowler. Later, he was to play for Dublin University and played two first-class games against Northamptonshire. As a result, he became the only Nobel laureate to have played first cricket. Beckett studied French, Italian, English at Trinity College, Dublin from 1923 to 1927. He was elected a Scholar in Modern Languages in 1926. While there, he was introduced by a poet and close confidant of Beckett who also worked there. This meeting had a profound effect on the young man.Samuel Beckett – Beckett in 1977
79. Sophie Blanchard – Sophie Blanchard was a French aeronaut and the wife of ballooning pioneer Jean-Pierre Blanchard. After her husband's death she continued ballooning, making more than 60 ascents. Known throughout Europe for her ballooning exploits, Blanchard entertained Napoleon Bonaparte, who promoted her to the role of "Aeronaut of the Official Festivals", replacing André-Jacques Garnerin. On the restoration of the monarchy in 1814 she performed for Louis XVIII, who named her "Official Aeronaut of the Restoration". Ballooning was a risky business for the pioneers. Blanchard lost consciousness on a few occasions, almost drowned when her balloon crashed in a marsh. She fell to her death. Sophie Blanchard was born Marie Madeleine-Sophie Armant to Protestant parents near La Rochelle. Little is known of her life to Jean-Pierre Blanchard, the world's first professional balloonist. The date of her marriage is unclear; sources most state 1804, the year of her first ascent. She later died in poverty. She was fearless in the air. Her husband were in an accident on a joint flight in 1807, in which they crashed and he sustained a head injury. The shock apparently left her mute for a while. Sophie made her first ascent in Marseilles on 27 December 1804.Sophie Blanchard – Blanchard shown in an 1859 engraving by Jules Porreau
80. Thierry Henry – Thierry Daniel Henry is a French retired professional footballer who played as a forward, the current second assistant manager of the Belgium national team. He played for Monaco, Juventus, Barcelona, New York Red Bulls and spent eight years at Arsenal where he is the club's all-time record goalscorer. At international level he represented France and is his country's record goalscorer. Henry made his professional debut with Monaco in 1994. Good form led to an international call-up in 1998, after which he signed for the Serie A defending champions Juventus. A year later he signed for Premier League club Arsenal for £11 million. It was at Arsenal that Henry made his name as a world-class player. Under long-time mentor and coach Arsène Wenger, Henry became a prolific striker and Arsenal's all-time leading scorer with 228 goals in all competitions. He won two league titles and three FA Cups at the club. In 2003 and 2004 Henry was runner-up for the FIFA World Player of the Year. He was named the PFA Players' Player of the Year twice, the FWA Footballer of the Year three times. Henry spent his final two seasons with Arsenal as club captain, leading them to the 2006 UEFA Champions League Final. In June 2007, after eight years with Arsenal, he transferred to Barcelona for a fee of €24 million. In 2009, he was an integral part of the club's historic treble when they won La Liga, the Copa del Rey and the UEFA Champions League. He went on to achieve an unprecedented sextuple by also winning the Supercopa de España, the UEFA Super Cup and the FIFA Club World Cup.Thierry Henry – Thierry Henry playing for the MLS All-Stars in 2013.
81. France national rugby union team – The France national rugby union team represents France in rugby union. They compete annually in the Six Nations Championship. They have completed nine grand slams. Eight French players have been inducted into the World Rugby Hall of Fame. France played sporadically against the Home Nations until they joined them to form a Five Nations tournament in 1910. France also competed at early Summer Olympics winning the gold medal in 1900 and two silver medals in the 1920s. The national team came during the 1950s and 1960s winning their first Five Nations title outright in 1959. They won their first Grand Slam in 1968. Since the inaugural World Cup in 1987, France have qualified for the knock-out stage of every tournament. They have reached the final three times, losing to Australia in 1999. France hosted the 2007 Rugby World Cup, where, as in 2003, they were beaten by England. France traditionally are commonly referred to as les tricolores or les bleus. The French emblem is a golden rooster imposed upon a red shield. Their alternative strip is composed of navy blue shorts and socks. Rugby was introduced by English merchants and students.France national rugby union team – France playing Wales during the Six Nations Championship.
82. Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu – Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal-Duke of Richelieu and of Fronsac, commonly referred to as Cardinal Richelieu, was a French clergyman, nobleman, statesman. He was consecrated as a bishop in 1607 and was appointed Foreign Secretary in 1616. Richelieu soon rose in both the Catholic Church and the French government, becoming a cardinal in 1622, King Louis XIII's chief minister in 1624. He remained in office until his death in 1642; he was succeeded by Cardinal Mazarin, whose career he had fostered. Cardinal de Richelieu was often known by the title of the king's "Chief Minister" or "First Minister". He sought to consolidate royal power and crush domestic factions. By restraining the power of the nobility, he transformed France into a strong, centralized state. Although he was a cardinal, he did not hesitate to make alliances with Protestant rulers in attempting to achieve his goals. As alumnus of the University of Paris and headmaster of the Collège de Sorbonne, he renovated and extended the institution. Richelieu is also known by the sobriquet l'Éminence rouge, from the red shade of a cardinal's clerical dress and the style "eminence" as a cardinal. This in part allowed the colony to eventually develop into the heartland of Francophone culture in North America. He is also a leading character in The Three Musketeers by Alexandre Dumas and its numerous film adaptations. At the age of nine, young Richelieu was sent to the College of Navarre in Paris to study philosophy. Thereafter, he began to train for a military career. King Henry III had rewarded Richelieu's father for his participation in the Wars of Religion by granting his family the bishopric of Luçon.Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu – Portrait of Cardinal Richelieu, 1633–40, Philippe de Champaigne, National Gallery, London
83. Battle of Alesia – It was fought by the army of Julius Caesar against a confederation of Gallic tribes united under the leadership of Vercingetorix of the Arverni. The battle of Alesia marked the end of Gallic independence in France and Belgium. A number of alternatives have been proposed over time, among which only Chaux-des-Crotenay remains a challenger today. At one point in the battle the Romans were outnumbered by the Gauls by four to one. The event is described by several contemporary authors, including Caesar himself in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico. After the Roman victory, Gaul was subdued and became a Roman province. The Roman senate granted a thanksgiving of 20 days for his victory in the Gallic War. In 58 BC, following his first consulship in 59 BC, Julius Caesar engineered his own appointment as proconsul of three Roman provinces by the First Triumvirate. These were Gallia Narbonensis. Although the term of office was meant to be year, Caesar's governorship was for an unprecedented five years. He also had the command of four legions. Caesar engaged in the Gallic Wars, which led to his conquest of Gaul beyond Gallia Narbonensis. Caesar and his Gallic allies defeated the Helvetii. The Gallic tribes then asked for Caesar to intervene by a Germanic tribe. Caesar defeated the Suebi.Battle of Alesia – A reconstructed section of the Alesia investment fortifications
84. Battle of the Somme – It took November 1916 in France. The battle was intended to hasten a victory for the Allies and was the largest battle of the First World War on the Western Front. More than million men were killed, making it one of the bloodiest battles in human history. The British had committed themselves to an offensive on the Somme in December 1915. The first day on the Somme was, in terms of casualties, also the worst day in the history of the British army, which suffered 57,470 casualties. British troops reached the German front line. The battle is notable for the importance of air power and the first use of the tank. The Anglo-French armies failed to capture Péronne and halted 5 km from Bapaume, where the German armies maintained their positions over the winter. Debate continues over the effect of the battle. David Frum opined that a century later, "'the Somme' remains the most harrowing place-name" in the history of the British Commonwealth. Allied strategy for 1916 was decided from 6 -- 8 December 1915. In December 1915, General Sir Douglas Haig replaced Field Marshal Sir John French as Commander-in-Chief of the BEF. The British complied with French strategy. The Germans began an offensive at Verdun. Falkenhayn chose to attack towards Verdun to take the Meuse heights and make Verdun untenable.Battle of the Somme – The Western Front 1915–1916.
85. Franks – Some Franks raided Roman territory, while other Frankish tribes joined the Roman troops of Gaul. In later times, Franks became the military rulers of the northern part of Roman Gaul. The Salian Franks lived in what is now Northern France, Belgium and the southern Netherlands. The kingdom was acknowledged after 357 AD. Descendants of the Salians, founded one of the Germanic monarchies that would absorb large parts of the Western Roman Empire. The Frankish state consolidated its hold by the end of the 8th century developing into the Carolingian Empire. This empire would gradually evolve into the state of the Holy Roman Empire. The Franks in the east became part of the Germans, Dutch, Flemings and Luxembourgers. The Franconian languages, which are called Frankisch in Dutch or Fränkisch in German, originated at least partly in the Old Frankish language of the Franks. Nowadays, the Dutch names for France are Frankreich and Frankrijk, respectively, both meaning "Realm of the Franks". The name Franci was originally socio-political. Following the precedents of Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English. It has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation. It is traditionally assumed that Frank comes from the Germanic word for "javelin". There is also another theory that suggests that Frank comes from the Latin word meaning.Franks – Aristocratic Frankish grave goods from the Merovingian period
86. Louis XIV of France – His reign of 110 days is the longest of any monarch of a major country in European history. In this age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralization of power. Louis began his personal rule of France after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin. There were also the War of the Reunions. Under his rule, the Edict of Nantes, which granted rights to Huguenots, was abolished. The revocation effectively forced Huguenots to convert in a wave of dragonnades, which managed to virtually destroy the French Protestant minority. His personality shaped his approach. Impelled "by a mix of commerce, pique," Louis sensed that warfare was the ideal way to enhance his glory. In peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. He taught his diplomats their job was to create strategic advantages for the French military. Louis XIV was born to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. He was named Louis Dieudonné and bore the traditional title of French heirs apparent: Dauphin. At the time of his birth, his parents had been married for 23 years. His mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1631. Leading contemporaries thus regarded him as his birth a miracle of God.Louis XIV of France – Louis XIV by Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701)
87. Montparnasse – Montparnasse was absorbed into the capital's 14th arrondissement in 1669. Beneath the ground are tunnels of the Catacombs of Paris. The hill was levelled to construct the Boulevard Montparnasse in the 18th century. During the French Revolution many dance cabarets opened their doors. The area is also known for bars, such as the Breton restaurants specialising in crêpes located a few blocks from the Gare Montparnasse. Montparnasse became famous in the 1920s, referred to as les Années Folles, the 1930s as the heart of intellectual and artistic life in Paris. Living without running water, in unheated "studios", seldom free of rats, many sold their works for a few francs just to buy food. Jean Cocteau once said that poverty was a luxury in Montparnasse. First promoted by those artists sell for millions of euros. In post-World War I Paris, Montparnasse was a euphoric ground for the artistic world. Fernand Léger wrote of that period: "man... recaptures his taste for life, his frenzy to dance, to spend money... an explosion of life-force fills the world." Montparnasse was a community where creativity was embraced with all its oddities, each new arrival welcomed unreservedly by its existing members. Between 1924, the number of Americans in Paris swelled from 6,000 to 30,000. Maria and Eugene Jolas came to Paris and published their literary magazine Transition. Well, Bill Bird published through his Three Mountains Press until British heiress Nancy Cunard took it over.Montparnasse – Le Dôme at night 2002
88. Suzanne Lenglen – Suzanne Rachel Flore Lenglen was a French tennis player who won 31 Championship titles between 1914 and 1926. Lenglen dominated women's tennis until 1926 when she turned professional. Lenglen's 241 titles, 341-7 match record are hard to imagine happening in today's tennis atmosphere. A daughter of Charles and Anaïs Lenglen, Suzanne Lenglen was born in Paris. During her youth, Lenglen suffered including chronic asthma, which also plagued her at a later age. Her first try at the game was in 1910, when she played at the family property in Marest-sur-Matz. Her father decided to train her further in the sport. Only four years after her first tennis strokes, she played in the final of the 1914 French Championships, aged only 14. Lenglen lost in the final 5 -- 7, 6 -- 4, 6 -- 3. She won the World Hard Court Championships held at Saint-Cloud, turning 15 during the tournament. This made her in tennis history a record she still holds. The match, which became one of the hallmarks of history, was played before 8,000 spectators, including King George V and Queen Mary. After splitting the first two sets, she took a 4 -- 1 lead in the final set before Chambers rallied to take a 6 -- 5 lead. She saved the first point when her service return trickled off the wood of her racket and dropped over the net. She survived the second point when Chambers hit a drop shot into the net.Suzanne Lenglen – Suzanne Lenglen
89. Notre Dame de Paris – The naturalism of its sculptures and stained glass are in contrast with earlier Romanesque architecture. As the cathedral of the Archdiocese of Paris, Notre-Dame contains the cathedra of the Archbishop of Paris, currently Cardinal André Vingt-Trois. In the 1790s, Notre-Dame suffered desecration in the radical phase of the French Revolution when much of its religious imagery was destroyed. An extensive restoration supervised by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc began in 1845. A project of further maintenance began in 1991. The Notre-Dame de Paris was in the world to use the flying buttress. In response, later additions continued the pattern. The total area is 5,500 m ². Small individually crafted statues were placed around the outside to serve as column supports and water spouts. Among these are the famous gargoyles, designed for water run-off, chimeras. The statues were originally colored as was most of the exterior. The paint has worn off. The cathedral was essentially complete by 1345. It is possible therefore that the faults with the previous structure were exaggerated by the Bishop to help justify the rebuilding in a newer style. According to legend, Sully sketched it on the ground outside the original church.Notre Dame de Paris – The southern facade of Notre-Dame de Paris
90. Arc de Triomphe – The Arc de Triomphe should not be confused with a smaller arch, the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, which stands west of the Louvre. Beneath its vault lies the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier from World War I. It set the tone with patriotic messages. The smaller transverse vaults are 18.68 m high and 8.44 m wide. Three weeks after the Paris parade in 1919, Charles Godefroy flew his Nieuport biplane with the event captured on newsreel. The Arch of Triumph in Pyongyang, completed in 1982, is modelled on the Arc de Triomphe and is slightly taller at 60 m. The Arc is located on the right bank of the Seine at the centre of a dodecagonal configuration of twelve radiating avenues. It was commissioned by Emperor Napoleon at the peak of his fortunes. The architect, Jean Chalgrin, died in 1811 and the work was taken over by Jean-Nicolas Huyot. Prior to burial in the Panthéon, the body of Victor Hugo was displayed under the Arc during the night of 22 May 1885. The sword carried by the Republic in the Marseillaise relief broke off on the day, it is said, that the Battle of Verdun began in 1916. The relief was immediately hidden by tarpaulins to avoid any ominous interpretations. On 7 August 1919, Charles Godefroy successfully flew his biplane under the Arc. After the interment of the Unknown Soldier, however, all military parades have avoided marching through the actual arch. The route taken is up to the arch and then around its side, out of respect for the tomb and its symbolism.Arc de Triomphe – The Arc de Triomphe from the Champs-Élysées
91. Louvre – The Louvre or the Louvre Museum is the world's largest museum and a historic monument in Paris, France. A central landmark of the city, it is located in the city's 1st arrondissement. Nearly 35,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 72,735 square metres. The Louvre is the world's second most visited museum after the Palace Museum in China, receiving more than million visitors in 2014. The museum is housed in the Louvre Palace, originally built under Philip II. Remnants of the fortress are visible in the basement of the museum. The building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace. The Académie remained for 100 years. During the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum to display the nation's masterpieces. The museum confiscated church property. Because of structural problems with the building, the museum was closed until 1801. During the Second French Empire the museum gained 20,000 pieces. Holdings have grown steadily since the Third Republic. Whether this was the first building on that spot is not known; it is possible that Philip modified an existing tower. According to the authoritative Grand Larousse encyclopédique, the name derives from an association with wolf den.Louvre – the Richelieu wing (2005)
92. Jules Massenet – Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet was a French composer of the Romantic era best known for his operas, of which he wrote more than thirty. The two most frequently staged are Manon and Werther. Massenet also composed oratorios, ballets, orchestral works, incidental music, piano pieces, other music. While still a schoolboy, he was admitted to the Paris Conservatoire. There Massenet studied under Ambroise Thomas, whom he greatly admired. He had a good sense of what would succeed with the Parisian public. Like many French composers of the period, he became a professor at the Conservatoire. Massenet taught composition until 1896 when he resigned after the death of the director, Ambroise Thomas. Among his students were Gustave Charpentier, Ernest Chausson, Reynaldo Hahn and Gabriel Pierné. He was born in the Loire. Massenet senior was a prosperous ironmonger; his wife was a amateur musician who gave Jules his first piano lessons. By early 1848 the family had moved to Paris, where they settled in Saint-Germain-des-Prés. He was educated at the Lycée Saint-Louis and, from either 1853, the Paris Conservatoire. His biographer Demar Irvine dates the admission as January 1853. Both sources agree that Massenet continued his general education with his musical studies.Jules Massenet – Massenet photographed by Pierre Petit, 1880
93. Le Cid (opera) – Le Cid is an opera in four acts and ten tableaux by Jules Massenet to a French libretto by Louis Gallet, Édouard Blau and Adolphe d'Ennery. It is based on the play of the same name by Pierre Corneille. After the premiere, the Paris Opera continued reaching by that date. A new production was mounted in the 2014-15 season, conducted among the principals. Local premieres took place followed by Rome, New Orleans Geneva and Milan in the years following. In Saint-Etienne it was produced under Patrick Fournillier with Michele Command and Chris Merritt. In September 2015, Odyssey Opera performed Le Cid for the first time in Boston. In Burgos, a hall in the Gormas palace. Gormas desires to be named the governor of the Infant by the King. Gormas however approves the romantic attachment which his daughter Chimène has for Rodrigue. A gallery in the royal palace leading to an entrance to Burgos cathedral With bells sounding, the people give thanks for victory over the moors. The King now rewards Rodrigue by knighting him, Rodrigue swears his faith to Saint Jacques de Compostelle. This is seen by the Comte de Gormas and his friends. The count insults, disarms him. Cursing his loss of strength and old age, Don Diègue demands that his son revenges his honour.Le Cid (opera) – Jules Massenet
94. L'Illustration – L'Illustration was a weekly French newspaper published in Paris from 1843 to 1944. The first issue was published on March 4, 1843. In 1891, L'Illustration became the French newspaper to publish a photograph. The publication also employed its own photographers such as Léon Gimpel and others. In 1907, L'Illustration was the first to publish a color photograph. It also published Gaston Leroux' Le mystère de la chambre jaune as a serial a year before its 1908 release. Its editor-in-chief was Gaston Sorbets from 1923 onwards. During the Second World War, while it was owned by the Baschet family, L'Illustration supported Marshal Philippe Pétain's Révolution nationale. However, it turned down pro-German articles by Jacques Bouly de Lesdain. However, Lesdain later became its political editor. The magazine was shut down in 1944 following the Liberation of Paris. Another version went bankrupt in 1957. Marchandiau Jean-Noël. . L'Illustration: vie et mort d'un journal, 1843-1944.L'Illustration – Exposition Universelle - In the Chinese section (1900). Illustration by Louis Rémy Sabattier
95. Marguerite of Navarre – She was married to Henry II of Navarre. As a patron of humanists and reformers, she was an outstanding figure of the French Renaissance. Samuel Putnam called her "The First Modern Woman". Marguerite was born in Angoulême on 11 April 1492, Charles, Count of Angoulême. She named their first-born, "Marguerite", after her own mother. Francis, later to be King Francis I of France, was born there on 12 September 1494. She had several half-siblings, from illegitimate relationships of her father, who were raised alongside her brother. Souveraine, was born to Jeanne le Conte, also one of her father's mistresses. Her father died when she was nearly four; her one-year-old brother became presumptive to the throne of France. Thanks to her mother, only nineteen when widowed, Marguerite was carefully given a classical education that included Latin. The young princess was to be called "Maecenas to the learned ones of her brother's kingdom". "Never", she wrote, "shall a man attain to the perfect love of God who has not loved to perfection some creature in this world." Perhaps the one real love in her life was nephew of King Louis XII. Gaston died a hero at Ravenna, when the French defeated Spanish and Papal forces. At the age of seventeen Marguerite was married to Charles IV of Alençon, aged twenty, by the decree of King Louis XII.Marguerite of Navarre – Marguerite de Navarre
96. Georges Bizet – Georges Bizet, registered at birth as Alexandre César Léopold Bizet, was a French composer of the romantic era. During a brilliant career at the Conservatoire de Paris, Bizet won many prizes, including the prestigious Prix de Rome in 1857. He was recognised as an outstanding pianist, though he chose not to capitalise on this skill and rarely performed in public. Restless for success, he began theatrical projects during the 1860s, most of which were abandoned. Neither of his two operas that reached the stage in this time -- Les pêcheurs La jolie fille de Perth -- were immediately successful. Carmen, was delayed because of fears that its themes of betrayal and murder would offend audiences. Bizet's marriage to Geneviève Halévy produced one son. After his death, his work, apart from Carmen, was generally neglected. Published versions of his works were frequently revised and adapted by other hands. He had no obvious disciples or successors. After years of neglect, his works began to be performed more frequently in the 20th century. Later commentators have acclaimed him as a composer of originality whose premature death was a significant loss to French musical theatre. Georges Bizet was born in Paris on 25 October 1838. Adolphe Bizet, had been a hairdresser and wigmaker before becoming a singing teacher despite his lack of formal training. He also composed a few works, including at least one published song.Georges Bizet – Georges Bizet in 1875
97. Carmen – Carmen is an opera in four acts by French composer Georges Bizet. The libretto was written based on a novella of the same title by Prosper Mérimée. The opera was first performed on 3 March 1875, where its breaking of conventions shocked and scandalized its first audiences. Bizet died suddenly after the 33rd performance, unaware that the work would achieve international acclaim within the following ten years. The opera is written with musical numbers separated by dialogue. After the premiere, the French public was generally indifferent. Later commentators have asserted that Carmen forms the bridge between the realism or verismo that characterised late 19th-century Italian opera. Despite being a Prix de Rome laureate, Bizet struggled to get his stage works performed. The capital's two state-funded opera houses -- the Opéra and the Opéra-Comique -- followed conservative repertoires that restricted opportunities for young native talent. Bizet expressed to his friend Edmund Galabert his satisfaction in "the absolute certainty of having found my path". It was Bizet who first proposed an adaptation of Prosper Mérimée's novella Carmen. Cast details are as provided by Mina Curtiss from vocal score. The stage designs are credited to Charles Ponchard. Place: Seville, Spain, surrounding hills Time: Around 1820 Act 1 A square, in Seville. On the right, a door to the tobacco factory.Carmen – Cartoon from Journal amusant, 1911
98. Don Quixote – Don Quixote, fully titled The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha, is a Spanish novel by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. Throughout the novel, Cervantes uses literary techniques as intertextuality. Arthur Schopenhauer cited Don Quixote as one of the four greatest novels ever written, along with Tristram Shandy, La Nouvelle Héloïse and Wilhelm Meister. As a result, he is easily given to anger and believes every word of these fictional books of chivalry to be true. Imitating the protagonists of these books, he decides to become a knight-errant in search of adventure. In a pretended ceremony, the innkeeper dubs him a knight to be rid of him, sends him on his way. Don Quixote then encounters traders from Toledo, who "insult" the imaginary Dulcinea. He attacks them, only to be returned by a neighboring peasant. A large part of this section consists of the priest deciding which books deserve to be burned and which to be saved. This gives occasion for many comments on books Cervantes liked and disliked. For example, Cervantes' own pastoral novel La Galatea is saved, while the rather unbelievable romance Felixmarte de Hyrcania is burned. After a short period of feigning health, Don Quixote requests his neighbor, Sancho Panza, to be his squire, promising him a petty governorship. Sancho, both greedy and unintelligent, agrees to the offer and sneaks away with Don Quixote in the early dawn. It is here that their famous adventures begin, starting with Don Quixote's attack on windmills that he believes to be ferocious giants. The two next encounter a group of friars accompanying a lady in a carriage.Don Quixote – Title page of first edition (1605)
99. European Parliament – The European Parliament is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union. Together with the Council of the European Commission, it exercises the legislative function of the EU. The Parliament is composed of 751 members, who represent the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world. It has been directly elected every five years by universal suffrage since 1979. However, turnout at European Parliament elections has fallen consecutively at each election since that date, has been under 50 % since 1999. Voter turnout in 2014 stood at 42.54% of all European voters. Shares equal legislative and budgetary powers with the Council. It likewise has equal control over the EU budget. Finally, the executive body of the EU, is accountable to Parliament. In particular, Parliament approves the appointment of the Commission as a whole. It can subsequently force the Commission as a body to resign by adopting a motion of censure. The President of the European Parliament is Martin Schulz, elected in January 2012. He presides over the two largest groups being the Group of the European People's Party and the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats. The union-wide elections were the 2014 elections. The European Parliament has three places of work -- the city of Luxembourg and Strasbourg.European Parliament
100. Strasbourg – Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located close to the border with Germany in the historic region of Alsace, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin département. The transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014. The city is also the seat of the Central Commission for the International Institute of Human Rights. The Strasbourg Grand Mosque, was inaugurated by French Interior Minister Manuel Valls on 27 September 2012. Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of engineering, as well as a hub of road, rail, river transportation. The port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Duisburg, Germany. The city's Gallicized name means "Town of roads". Strasbourg is situated with Germany. The natural courses of the two rivers eventually join some downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city. The city is some 400 kilometres east of Paris. In spite of its position inland, Strasbourg's climate is classified as Oceanic, with warm, relatively sunny summers and cold, overcast winters. Precipitation is elevated to the end of summer, but remains largely constant throughout the year, totaling 631.4 mm annually. On average, snow falls 30 days per year. The highest temperature ever recorded was 38.5 ° C in August 2003, during the 2003 European wave.Strasbourg
101. Eiffel Tower – The Eiffel Tower is a wrought iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France. It is named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel, whose company designed and built the tower. The Eiffel Tower is the most-visited paid monument in the world; 6.91 million people ascended it in 2015. The tower is 324 metres tall, about the same height as an 81-storey building, the tallest structure in Paris. Its base is square, measuring 125 metres on each side. Excluding transmitters, the Eiffel Tower is the second-tallest structure in France after the Millau Viaduct. The tower has three levels for visitors, with restaurants on the first and second levels. The top level's upper platform is 276 m above the ground – the highest observation deck accessible to the public in the European Union. Tickets can be purchased to ascend by stairs or lift to the first and second levels. The climb from ground level to the first level is over 300 steps, as is the climb from the first level to the second. Although there is a staircase to the top level, it is usually only accessible by lift. Eiffel openly acknowledged that inspiration for a tower came from the Latting Observatory built in New York City in 1853. Sauvestre added decorative arches to the base of the tower, a glass pavilion to the first level, other embellishments. Little progress was made until 1886, when Jules Grévy was re-elected as president of France and Édouard Lockroy was appointed as minister for trade. After some debate about the exact location of the tower, a contract was signed on 8 January 1887.Eiffel Tower – The Eiffel Tower as seen from the Champ de Mars
102. Photograph – The process and practice of creating photographs is called photography. The first permanent photograph, a contact-exposed copy of an engraving, was made in 1822 using the bitumen-based "heliography" process developed by Nicéphore Niépce. The two collaborated to work out a otherwise improved process. After Niépce's death in 1833, Daguerre concentrated on silver halide-based alternatives. He named this first practical process for making photographs with a camera the daguerreotype, after himself. Its existence was announced to the world on 7 January 1839 but working details were not made public until 19 August. The daguerreotype had the particular viewing conditions required to see the image properly. Each was a unique opaque positive that could only be duplicated by copying it with a camera. Inventors set about working out improved processes that would be more practical. The mid-1930s saw the introduction of the easy-to-use color films of the modern multi-layer chromogenic type. The needs of the industry generated a number of special processes and systems, perhaps the best-known being the now-obsolete three-strip Technicolor process. Non-digital photographs are produced with a two-step chemical process. In the two-step process the light-sensitive film captures a negative image. To produce a positive image, the negative is most commonly transferred onto photographic paper. Printing the negative onto transparent stock is used to manufacture picture films.Photograph – The earliest known surviving product of Nicéphore Niépce 's heliography process, 1825. It is an ink-on-paper print and reproduces a 17th-century Flemish engraving showing a man leading a horse.
103. 1826 – As of the start of 1826, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. January 15 – The French newspaper Le Figaro begins publication in Paris, initially as a weekly. January 30 – The Menai Suspension Bridge, built by engineer Thomas Telford, is opened between the island of Anglesey and the mainland of Wales. February 8 – Unitarian Bernardino Rivadavia becomes the first President of Argentina. February 11 University College London is founded, under the University of London. Swaminarayan writes an important text within Swaminarayan Hinduism. February 13 – The American Temperance Society is founded. February 24 – Treaty of Yandabo ends First Anglo-Burmese War, Britain gains Assam, Manipur, Rakhine and Tanintharyi. April 1 – Samuel Morey patents an internal combustion engine. April 10 – Third Siege of Missolonghi ends with the massacre of thousands of the Greek defenders by the Ottoman besiegers. May 28 – Pedro I of Brazil abdicates as King of Portugal. June – Photography: Nicéphore Niépce makes a true photograph. June 14 -- 15 -- The Auspicious Incident: sultan of Ottoman Empire, crushes the last mutiny of janissaries in Istanbul. June 21 – Greek War of Independence: Attempted Ottoman–Egyptian invasion of Mani begins. June 22 – The Pan-American Congress of Panama tries to unify the republics of the Americas.1826 – The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826
104. The Louvre – The Louvre or the Louvre Museum is the world's largest museum and a historic monument in Paris, France. A central landmark of the city, it is located in the city's 1st arrondissement. Nearly 35,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 72,735 square metres. The Louvre is the world's second most visited museum after the Palace Museum in China, receiving more than million visitors in 2014. The museum is housed in the Louvre Palace, originally built under Philip II. Remnants of the fortress are visible in the basement of the museum. The building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace. The Académie remained for 100 years. During the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum to display the nation's masterpieces. The museum confiscated church property. Because of structural problems with the building, the museum was closed until 1801. During the Second French Empire the museum gained 20,000 pieces. Holdings have grown steadily since the Third Republic. Whether this was the first building on that spot is not known; it is possible that Philip modified an existing tower. According to the authoritative Grand Larousse encyclopédique, the name derives from an association with wolf den.The Louvre – the Richelieu wing (2005)
105. Panorama – A panorama is any wide-angle view or representation of a physical space, whether in painting, drawing, photography, film, seismic images or a three-dimensional model. The word was originally coined by the English painter Robert Barker to describe his panoramic paintings of Edinburgh and London. The motion-picture term panning is derived from panorama. A panoramic view is also purposed for multi-media, cross-scale applications along and across repositories. A combination of, cognitive spaces used to capture the larger scale. Cartographic experiments during the Enlightenment era contributed to a formative impulse toward panoramic vision and depiction. In the mid-19th century, panoramic models became a very popular way to represent landscapes, topographic views and historical events. The panorama was a visual medium patented under the title Apparatus for Exhibiting Pictures by the artist Robert Barker in 1787. The earliest that the word "panorama" appeared in print was on June 1791 in the British newspaper The Morning Chronicle, referring to this visual spectacle. A "View of Edinburgh", was first shown in that city in 1788, then transported to London in 1789. By 1793, Barker had built "The Panorama" rotunda at the center of London's district in Leicester Square, where it remained until closed in 1863. Large scale installations enhance the illusion for an audience of being surrounded with a real landscape. The Bourbaki Panorama in Lucerne, Switzerland was created by Edouard Castres in 1881. The painting measures about 10 metres in height with a circumference of 112 meters. In the United States of America is the Atlanta Cyclorama, depicting the Civil War Battle of Atlanta.Panorama – Panorama of the inner courtyard of the Great Mosque of Kairouan, in Tunisia
106. Provence – The largest city of the region is Marseille. The Romans made the region into the first Roman province beyond the Alps and called it Provincia Romana, which evolved into the present name. It was ruled until 1481 when it became a province of the Kings of France. The coast of Provence has some of the earliest known sites of human habitation in Europe. Primitive stone tools dated to 1 to million years BC were found in the Grotte du Vallonnet between Monaco and Menton. Tools dating to the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic were discovered in the Observatory Cave, in the Jardin Exotique of Monaco. At the beginning of the Paleolithic period, the sea level in western Provence was 150 meters higher than it is today. By the end of the Paleolithic, it had dropped 100 to 150 metres lower than today's sea level. The changes in the level led in Provence. In 1985, a diver named Henri Cosquer discovered the mouth of a submarine cave 37 metres below the surface of the Calanque de Morgiou near Marseille. The entrance led above level. Since they were settled in one place they were able to develop new industries. Inspired by the imported pottery from the eastern Mediterranean, in about 6000 BC they created the first pottery to be made in France. Around 6000 BC, a wave of new settlers from the east, the Chasseens, arrived in Provence. They were farmers and warriors, gradually displaced the earlier pastoral people from their lands.Provence – The historical province of Provence (orange) within the modern region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur in southeast France
107. Verdon (river) – The Verdon is a 166-kilometre long river] in south-eastern France, left tributary of the Durance. Its source is at an elevation of the Trois Eveches mountain, south of Barcelonnette. The Verdon is best known for its impressive canyon: the Verdon Gorge. This limestone canyon, also called the "Grand Canyon of Verdon", more than 300 metres deep, is a popular climbing and sight-seeing area. The name comes in the canyon. Lac de Sainte-Croix http://www.geoportail.fr The Verdon at the Sandre databaseVerdon (river) – A view from the Verdon Gorge
108. Paris – Paris is the capital and the most populous city of France. It has a population in 2013 of 2,229,621 within the administrative limits. The agglomeration has grown well beyond the city's administrative limits. The Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris has a population of 6.945 million persons. Paris was founded by a Celtic people called the Parisii, who gave the city its name. It retains that position still today. The city is also a major rail, highway, air-transport hub, served by the two international airports Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily. It is the second busiest system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Paris is surrounded by three orbital roads: the Périphérique, the A86 motorway, the Francilienne motorway. Most of France's major universities and écoles are located in Paris, as are France's major newspapers, including Le Monde, Le Figaro, Libération. The rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris. The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros.Paris – In the 1860s Paris streets and monuments were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, making it literally "The City of Light."
109. Lightning – Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs during an electrical storm. This discharge occurs between electrically charged regions of a cloud, between a cloud and the ground. Lightning sound in the form of thunder. This article incorporates public material from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration document "Understanding Lightning: Thunderstorm Electrification". There is general agreement on some of the basic concepts of thunderstorm electrification. At that place, the combination of rapid upward air movement produces a mixture of super-cooled cloud droplets, small ice crystals, soft hail. The updraft carries very small ice crystals upward. At the same time, the graupel, denser, tends to fall or be suspended in the rising air. The differences in the movement of the cause collisions to occur. The graupel becomes negatively charged. See figure to the left. The updraft carries the positively charged ice crystals upward toward the top of the cloud. The denser graupel is either suspended in the middle of the thunderstorm cloud or falls toward the lower part of the storm. This part of the cloud is called the anvil. While this is the main process for the thunderstorm cloud, some of these charges can be redistributed by air movements within the storm.Lightning – A lightning flash during a thunderstorm
110. 1999 – 1999 was designated as the International Year of Older Persons. January 1 – The euro is established. January 4 – Gunmen open fire on Shia Muslims worshiping in a mosque in Islamabad, Pakistan, killing 16 and injuring 25. The Sopranos debuts on HBO. January 20 – The China News Service announces new government restrictions on Internet use aimed especially at Internet cafés. January 25 – The 6.2 Mw Armenia, Colombia earthquake hits western Colombia, killing at least 1,000. January 31 – Family Guy debuts on Fox. February 7 – King Hussein of Jordan dies from cancer, his son Abdullah II inherits the throne. February 11 – Pluto moves along its eccentric orbit further from the Sun than Neptune. It will become again in 2231. February 12 – U.S. President Bill Clinton is acquitted in impeachment proceedings in the United States Senate. February 16 In Uzbekistan, an apparent attempt against President Islam Karimov takes place at government headquarters. Across Europe, Kurdish rebels take after Turkey arrests one of their rebel leaders. February 21 – Sanna Sillanpää shoots 4 men, killing 3 at a shooting range in Finland. February 22 – Moderate Iraqi Shiite cleric Mohammad Mohammad Sadeq al-Sadr is assassinated.1999 – The iBook G3
111. Train wreck – A train wreck or train crash is a type of disaster involving one or more trains. Train wrecks have often been widely covered in folklore. A head-on collision between two trains is colloquially called a "cornfield meet" in the US. In the U.S. state of California, the penalty for intentionally causing a non-fatal train wreck is life imprisonment with the possibility of parole. For a fatal wreck, the possible legal consequences are either life imprisonment without the possibility of parole, or even the death penalty. The willful wrecking of a train is punishable by death or imprisonment without parole by the United States federal government. The unusual harshness of California's train statute has been expressly recognized by its appellate courts. The Rails: American Railroad Accidents and Safety, 1828-1965 excerpt BBC News: World's worst rail disasters A signalman. A voice from the signal-box: or, their causes. London: Longmans, Green, & Co.Train wreck – Versailles rail accident in 1842, 55 people were killed including the French explorer Jules Dumont d'Urville.
112. 1895 – As of the start of 1895, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. January 5 – Dreyfus affair: French officer Alfred Dreyfus is stripped of his army rank and sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil's Island. January 17 – Félix Faure is elected President of French Republic after the resignation of Jean Casimir-Perier. February 9 – Mintonette, later known as volleyball, is created by William G. Morgan at Holyoke, Massachusetts. February 11 – The lowest ever UK temperature of −27.2 °C is recorded at Braemar in Aberdeenshire. This record is again in 1995. February 14 -- the comedy The Importance of Being Earnest, is first shown at St James's Theatre in London. The bill recommends Venezuela and Great Britain settle their dispute by arbitration. February 25 – The first rebellions take place marking the start of the Cuban War of Independence. March 1 – William Lyne Wilson is appointed United States Postmaster General. March 3 – In Munich, bicyclists have to pass a test and display license plates. March 4 – Japanese troops capture Liaoyang and land in Taiwan. March 18 – First worldwide gasoline bus started in Germany between Siegen and Netphen March 30 – Rudolf Diesel patents the Diesel engine in Germany. April 6 – Oscar Wilde is arrested in London for "gross indecency" after losing a criminal libel case against the Marquess of Queensberry. April 14 – A major earthquake severely damages Ljubljana, the capital of Carniola.1895 – January 5: Dreyfus affair
113. Mont Saint Michel – Le Mont-Saint-Michel is an island commune in Normandy, France. It is 100 hectares in size. As of 2009, the island has a population of 44. The Mont remained unconquered during the Hundred Years' War; a small garrison fended off a full attack in 1433. The reverse benefits of its natural defence were not lost on Louis XI, who turned the Mont into a prison. Thereafter the abbey began to be used more regularly during the Ancien Régime. Over 60 buildings within the commune are protected as monuments historiques. Now a tidal island, the Mont occupied dry land in prehistoric times. These included Lillemer, the Mont-Dol, Mont Tombe, later called Mont Saint-Michel.. . Its highest point is 92 metres above sea level. The tides can vary greatly, at roughly 14 metres between low water marks. Occasional flooding have created salt marsh meadows that were found to be ideally suited to grazing sheep. The connection between the mainland has changed over the centuries. Previously connected by a tidal causeway, this was converted into a raised causeway in 1879, preventing the tide from scouring the silt around the mount.Mont Saint Michel – Le Mont Saint-Michel
114. Franco-Prussian War – On 16 July 1870, hostilities began three days later. The German coalition rapidly invaded northeastern France. The German forces were superior in numbers, made more effective use of modern technology, particularly railroads and artillery. The German states proclaimed their union under the Prussian king Wilhelm I, uniting Germany as a nation-state. The Treaty of Frankfurt of 10 May 1871 gave most of Alsace and some parts of Lorraine, which became the Imperial territory of Alsace-Lorraine. The causes of the Franco-Prussian War are deeply rooted in the events surrounding the unification of Germany. In the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Prussia had formed the North German Confederation. This new power destabilized the European balance of power established by the Congress of Vienna after the Napoleonic Wars. France was strongly opposed to any further alliance of German states, which would have significantly strengthened the Prussian military. Many Germans also sought to weaken France to prevent further breaches of the peace. The immediate cause of the war resided to the throne of Spain. France feared encirclement by an alliance between Prussia and Spain. They also argue that he wanted a war to resolve growing political problems. Other historians, notably French historian Pierre Milza, dispute this. According to Milza, the Emperor had no need for a war to increase his popularity.Franco-Prussian War – Clockwise from top left: Prussian infantry at the Battle of Spicheren; Jeanniot 's 1886 La ligne de feu (Battle of Mars-La-Tour); Werner 's depiction of the capitulation of Sedan; Neuville 's 1873 Les dernières cartouches (Battle of Bazeilles).
115. Pyrenees – The Pyrenees is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between France and Spain. For the most part, the main crest forms a divide between France and Spain, with the microstate of Andorra sandwiched in between. The demonym in English is Pyrenean. In Greek mythology, Pyrene is a princess who gave her name to the Pyrenees. The Greek historian Herodotus says Pyrene is the name of a town in Celtic Europe. Hercules, characteristically lustful, violates the sacred code of hospitality and rapes his host's daughter. Pyrene runs away to the woods, afraid that her father will be angry. Alone, she pours out her story to the trees, attracting the attention of wild beasts who tear her to pieces. After his victory over Geryon, Hercules passes through the kingdom of Bebryx again, finding the girl's lacerated remains. … The mountains hold on to the wept-over name through the ages." Pliny the Elder rejects it as fabulosa, highly fictional. The Spanish Pyrenees are part from east to west: Girona, Barcelona, Lleida, Huesca, Navarra and Gipuzkoa. The French Pyrenees are part of the following départements, from east to west: Pyrénées-Atlantiques. The independent principality of Andorra is sandwiched in the eastern portion of the range between the Spanish Pyrenees and French Pyrenees. Physiographically, the Pyrenees may be divided into three sections: the Atlantic, the Eastern Pyrenees.Pyrenees – Central Pyrenees
116. Mont Blanc – Mont Blanc or Monte Bianco, both meaning "White Mountain", is the highest mountain in the Alps and the highest in Europe after the Caucasus peaks. It is ranked 11th in the world in topographic prominence. The mountain lies in a range called the Graian Alps, between the regions of Aosta Valley, Savoie and Haute-Savoie, France. The Mont Blanc massif is popular for mountaineering, hiking, snowboarding. Their communes which surround Mont Blanc are Courmayeur in Aosta Valley, Italy, Saint-Gervais-les-Bains and Chamonix in Haute-Savoie, France. The latter town was the site of the first Winter Olympics. A car ascends and crosses the mountain range from Courmayeur to Chamonix, through the Col du Géant. The recorded ascent of Mont Blanc was on 8 August 1786 by Jacques Balmat and the doctor Michel Paccard. This climb, initiated by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, who gave a reward for the successful ascent, traditionally marks the start of modern mountaineering. The first dog without human technical help was "Tschingel" from Grindelwald. Nowadays the summit is ascended by an average of 20,000 mountaineer-tourists each year. It could be considered an easy, yet arduous, ascent for someone, acclimatized to the altitude. From l'Aiguille du Midi, Mont Blanc seems quite close, being 1,000 m higher. All require proper equipment. All routes are arduous, involving delicate passages and the hazard of rock-fall or avalanche.Mont Blanc – South face of Mont Blanc / Monte Bianco from Savoie
117. Napoleon III – Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte was the only President of the French Second Republic and, as Napoleon III, the Emperor of the Second French Empire. He was the heir of Napoleon I. He was the first President of France to be elected by a popular vote. He remains the French head of state since the French Revolution. During the first years of the Empire, Napoleon's government imposed censorship and harsh repressive measures against his opponents. Some thousand were imprisoned or sent to penal colonies until 1859. Thousands more went into voluntary exile abroad, including Victor Hugo. His regime came to be known as the "Liberal Empire." Many of his opponents became members of the National Assembly. Napoleon III is best carried out by his prefect of the Seine, Baron Haussmann. He launched public works projects in Marseille, Lyon, other French cities. He established modern agriculture, which ended famines in France and made France an agricultural exporter. Napoleon III negotiated similar agreements with France's other European trading partners. Social reforms included giving the right to strike and the right to organize. Women's education greatly expanded, as did the list of required subjects in public schools.Napoleon III – Napoleon III
118. Luxembourg Palace – The Luxembourg Palace is located at 15 rue de Vaugirard in the 6th arrondissement of Paris. After the Revolution it was refashioned into a legislative building and subsequently greatly enlarged and remodeled by Alphonse de Gisors. Since 1958 it has been the seat of the French Senate of the Fifth Republic. After the death of Henry IV in 1610, Marie de Médicis, became regent to her son, Louis XIII. The suites of paintings she commissioned, in the subjects of which she expressed her requirements through her advisors, are scattered among museums. Marie de Médicis installed her household in 1625, while work on interiors continued. A series of paintings executed for her Cabinet doré was identified by Anthony Blunt in 1967. Louis XIII commissioned further decorations from Nicolas Poussin and Philippe de Champaigne. In 1715, the palace became the residence of Duchess of Berry. The widowed Duchess was notoriously promiscuous, having the reputation of a French Messalina, relentlessly driven by her unquenchable thirst for all pleasures of the flesh. Its gardens thus became stages where the radiantly beautiful princess acted out her ambitions, enthroned like a queen surrounded by her court. Her taste for her sheer gluttony also scandalised the court. On 21 Madame de Berry received Peter the Great at the Luxembourg. On 28 the Duchess of Berry threw a magnificent party for her visiting aunt, the Duchess of Lorraine. Its gardens were elaborately illuminated.Luxembourg Palace – Luxembourg Palace garden façade
119. Luxembourg Gardens – The garden today is owned by the French Senate, which meets in the Palace. She purchased the hotel du Luxembourg and began construction of the new palace. She commissioned Salomon de Brosse to build the palace and a fountain, which still exists. Francini planned two terraces with balustrades and parterres laid out along the axis of the chateau, aligned around a circular basin. He also built the Medici Fountain without its present pond and statuary. The original garden was just eight hectares in size. In the center he placed an octagonal basin with a fountain, with a perspective toward what is now the Paris observatory. Later monarchs largely neglected the garden. In 1780, the future Louis XVIII, sold the eastern part of the garden for real development. The architect Jean Chalgrin, the architect of the Arc de Triomphe, took on the task of restoring the garden. He laid out a long perspective to the observatory. He kept the garden in a French style. The building of new streets next to the park also required moving and rebuilding the Medici Fountain to its present location. The long basin of the fountain was added at this time, along with the statues at the foot of the fountain. The garden is famed for its calm atmosphere.Luxembourg Gardens – Luxembourg Palace and Gardens
120. Aiguille du Midi – The Aiguille du Midi is a mountain in the Mont Blanc massif within the French Alps. It can be directly accessed by cable car from Chamonix. It puts visitors as close to Mont Blanc as they can without having any mountaineering experience. It still holds the record as the highest vertical ascent cable car in the world, to 3842 m. The span of the second section is 2,867 m measured directly, but only 2,500 m measured horizontally. Thus it remains the second longest width, measured directly. The Aiguille summit contains a panoramic viewing platform, a gift shop. Even in summer, visitors require both warm clothing and protection from very bright sunlight. Because of the danger, tourists are unable to leave the visitor facilities on the Midi's summit. However, skiers are able to pass through a tunnel to reach the steep and extremely exposed ice ridge to descend to the glacier below. In December 2013, a skywalk called "Step into the Void" opened at the top of the Aiguille du Midi peak. One can see Mont Blanc to the south. A further development currently under construction is ` Le Pipe' -- a tubular walkway that will completely circle the summit. It is often used as an alpine training climb as it requires all-round mountaineering skills. Graded at PD + to AD, the round-trip can easily be completed in one day.Aiguille du Midi – The Aiguille du Midi in summer
121. Versailles Palace – The Palace of Versailles, Château de Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles in the Île-de-France region of France. Versailles is therefore famous not only as a symbol of the system of absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime. First built as a hunting lodge of brick and stone, the edifice was enlarged into a royal palace by Louis XIV. The first phase of the expansion was supervised by the architect Louis Le Vau. It culminated in the addition of three new wings of west. After Le Vau's death in 1670, the work was completed by his assistant, François d'Orbay. André Le Nôtre landscaped the extensive Gardens of Versailles. Le Brun supervised the design and installation of countless statues. During the second phase of expansion, two enormous wings south of the wings flanking the Cour Royale were added by the architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart. One of the most baffling aspects to the study of Versailles is the cost -- how much his successors spent on Versailles. Owing to the nature of the evolution of the role of the palace, construction costs were essentially a private matter. Initially, Versailles was referred to as the "king's house". To counter the costs of Versailles during the early years of Louis XIV's personal reign, Colbert decided that Versailles should be the "showcase" of France. Accordingly, all materials that went into the decoration of Versailles were manufactured in France. Even the mirrors used in the decoration of the Hall of Mirrors were made in France.Versailles Palace – Aerial view of the Palace from above the Gardens of Versailles
122. Trobairitz – The trobairises were Occitan female troubadours of the 12th and 13th centuries, active from around 1170 to approximately 1260. The trobairitz was first used in the 13th-century romance Flamenca. It comes from the literal meaning of, "to find", the technical meaning of, "to compose". Trobairitz composed, performed for the Occitan noble courts. They are exceptional as the first known female composers of Western secular music; all earlier known female composers wrote sacred music. The trobairitz were part of courtly society, as opposed to their lower class counterparts the joglaressas. Although troubadours sometimes came from humble origins—Bernart de Ventadorn may have been the son of a castle's baker—the trobairitz were nobly born. There are very few extant sources of information on the individual trobairitz. Almost all information which exists about them come from the brief descriptions that were assembled in song collections called chansonniers. The vidas are notoriously unreliable, since they frequently consisted from the poems of the trobairitz themselves. The names of about twenty female poets from the 13th centuries survive, with an estimated thirty-two works attributed to the trobairitz. The earliest surviving lyric written by a trobairitz is that of Bels dous amics, written around 1150. Only one survives by Comtessa de Diá. For comparison, of the 460 male troubadours, about 2600 of their poems survive. Of these, about one in 10 survive with musical notation intact.Trobairitz – A medieval depiction of Comtessa de Diá
123. 1860 – As of the start of 1860, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 10 – The Pemberton Mill in Lawrence, Massachusetts, USA, collapses, killing 146 workers. January 13 – Spanish victory at the Battle of Tétouan, Morocco. January 20 -- Count of Cavour is recalled as Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia. February 22 – Shoe-making workers of Lynn, Massachusetts, strike successfully for higher wages. The strike eventually involves 20,000 workers. February 26 – White settlers massacre a band of Wiyot Indians on Indian Island near Eureka, California. At least 60 women, elders are killed. Newspaper reporter in Arcata, reports the news to newspapers in San Francisco. February 28 – The Artists Rifles is established, as the 38th Middlesex Rifle Volunteer Corps, with headquarters at Burlington House in London. March 6 – While campaigning for the presidency, Abraham Lincoln makes a speech defending the right to strike. March 9 – The first Japanese embassy to the United States arrive in San Francisco. March 17 – The First Taranaki War begins at Waitara, New Zealand when Māori refuse to sell land to British settlers. March 22 – The Grand Duchy of Tuscany is annexed to the newly formed Kingdom of Italy. March–August – The second rout of the Jiangnan Daying destroys the Qing dynasty's army of 180,000.1860 – July 20: Garibaldi.
124. Phonautogram – The phonautograph is the earliest known device for recording sound. Invented by Frenchman Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville, it was patented on March 1857. It transcribed sound waves in a line traced on smoke-blackened paper or glass. Because the phonautogram tracing was an insubstantial two-dimensional line, physical playback was impossible in any case. His phonautograph was constructed as an analog of the ear eardrum and ossicles. Scott created several variations of the device. The cylinder was carried on a coarsely threaded rod so that it progressed along its axis as it rotated, producing a helical tracing. Some phonautographs included other means of simultaneously recording a known reference frequency. In at least one instance, a complete return to the device's conceptual origins was made by employing the preserved parts of an human ear. It traced a clear sound-modulated spiral line on a glass disc. The photoengraving method first proposed by Cros was then used to produce a disc with a playable groove. Arguably, these circa 1887 experiments by Berliner were the first known reproductions of sound from phonautograph recordings. However, as as is known, no attempt was ever made to use this method to play any of the surviving early phonautograms made by Scott. High-quality images of them were obtained. In 2008, the team played back the recordings for the first time.Phonautogram – An early phonautograph (1859). The barrel is made of plaster of paris.
125. Army of Sambre-et-Meuse – The Army of Sambre-et-Meuse is the best known of the armies of the French Revolution. It had a celebrated existence. On 29 September 1797, the Army of Sambre-et-Meuse merged with the Army of the Rhine and Moselle to become the Army of Germany. The various elements of the army won a key victory on 16 June 1794. The merging of the forces into the Army of Sambre-et-Meuse was made official soon afterwards. After the storming of Tournai and Ostend, the Convention declared that the army had merited honors. The Sambre-et-Meuse won more honors after the storming of Brussels, Maastricht, Aix-la-Chapelle. The army participated in the Siege of Luxembourg. In 1795, the Sambre-et-Meuse fought on the middle Rhine. The army met defeat at the battles of Amberg and Würzburg during the summer. The army won a final victory over the Austrians on 18 April 1797.Army of Sambre-et-Meuse – This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (February 2013)
126. Robert Planquette – Jean Robert Planquette was a French composer of songs and operettas. The son of Planquette was born in Paris and educated at the Paris Conservatoire. He worked as a café pianist and composer and singing. In 1876, the director of the Théâtre des Folies-Dramatiques gave a commission to compose his first operetta, Les cloches de Corneville. Planquette's music has been praised for romantic feeling. Le Chevalier Gaston was produced in 1879 with little success. In 1882 Rip Van Winkle was produced in London and subsequently given in Paris in both cases with great success. The libretto is an adaptation by H. B. Farnie of Washington Irving's famous tale. It was followed by La Crémaillere, Surcouf, Captain Thérése, La Cocarde tricolore, Le Talisman, Mam ` zelle Quat ` sous. "The Song of the Cabin Boy," a barcarolle from Planquette's Les cloches de Corneville was played on the violin by W.K.L. Dickson in the first experiment in history in synchronizing sound and motion pictures. It is viewable online as Dickson Experimental Sound Film. All all premieres in Paris, unless otherwise noted. "Planquette, Robert".Robert Planquette – Robert Planquette (album leaf with photo portrait and autograph musical quotation)
127. Wipo of Burgundy – Wipo of Burgundy was a priest and writer. He was a chaplain to the Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II, whose biography he wrote in form, Gesta Chuonradi II imperatoris. He presented his work in 1046 not long after Henry was crowned. But he does not fully grasp the general conditions of the age, especially the emperor's manifold relations to the Church. His language well-chosen. He records her death and burial at Worms, Germany in 1034. Among his other extant writings are the maxims, Proverbia, Tetralogus Heinrici in rhymed hexameters. He is believed to have written the famous sequence for Easter, Victimae paschali laudes. Breslau, Wiponis Gesta Chuonradi II ceteraque quae opera. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, ed.. "name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.Wipo of Burgundy – Wipo wrote Tetralogus Heinrici, a eulogy of Emperor Henry III (depicted)
128. Polacca – A polacca is a type of seventeenth-century sailing vessel, similar to the xebec. The name is the feminine of "Polish" in the Italian language. The polacca was frequently seen in the Mediterranean. The mainmast was square-rigged after the European style. Special polaccas were used by Murat Reis, whose ships had lateen sails in Fore-and-aft rig behind. Some polacca pictures show what appears to be a ship-rigged vessel with single-pole masts. Two-masted polaccas were referred with square sails on both masts. Three-masted polaccas were called polacca-settees.Polacca – The Graeco-Ottoman polacre San Nicolo, by Antoine Roux
129. Pierre Gaveaux – Gaveaux sang in the cathedral choir there from the age of seven. Although intending to enter the priesthood, he also took lessons in composition. He was active during the revolutionary period, composing in 1792 a hymn to the Supreme Being. On 19 his famous Jacobin song Le Réveil du peuple, to words by Jean-Marie Souriguière de Saint-Marc, was first performed. Léonore, ou L'amour conjugal, premièred in 1798, with Gaveaux himself in the role of Florestan and Julie-Angélique Scio as Léonore. It is best known today because the libretto served for Beethoven's only opera, Fidelio. In 1819 he entered the asylum on the outskirts of Paris where he died. Émilie Gavaudan, died in 1840. Fétis, François-Joseph. Biographie universelle des musiciens et bibliographie générale la musique, 2nd edition, vol. 3, pp. 428–429. Paris: Didot. View at Google Books. Letailleur, Paulette. "Gaveaux, Pierre" in Sadie 1992, vol.Pierre Gaveaux – Pierre Gaveaux Portrait by Edmé Quenedey after a physionotrace (1821).
130. Marguerite Sylva – Marguerite Sylva was a Belgian born mezzo-soprano who achieved fame not only on the opera stage but also in operetta and musical theatre. She was particularly known in the title role of Bizet's Carmen, which she sang over 300 times in the course of her career. Sylva made many recordings for the company between 1910 and 1912. Both her sister Edith were trained in music at the Belgian Royal Conservatory. Marguerite primarily also took private singing lessons. Edith went on performing as Nadia Sylva. According to Marguerite Sylva's entry in the 1935 edition of American women, it was W. S. Gilbert who gave their stage names. In early 1896 they were with Marguerite providing the piano accompaniment. Sylva recalled that after Edith finished playing, Gilbert asked her, "Don't you do anything?". She told him she "sang a little" and proceeded to sing the Habanera to him. After an audition with Augustus Harris, she was made her debut there in Carmen. However, with Harris' death in June 1896, her opera aspirations ended. Amongst the actors in the company was Gerald Du Maurier to whom she became engaged. In the end the engagement was broken off. According to Beerbohm Tree, Sylva's mother had been opposed to the marriage.Marguerite Sylva – Marguerite Sylva as Carmen, her signature role. (Paris circa 1906)
131. Edison Records – Edison Records was one of the earliest record labels which pioneered sound recording and reproduction and was an important player in the early recording industry. The first phonograph cylinders were manufactured in 1888. Until 1910 the recordings did not carry the names of the artists. Thomas A. Edison invented the phonograph, the first device for recording and playing back sound, in 1877. The earliest phonograph was something of a crude curiosity, although it was one that fascinated much of the public. "Talking dolls" and "Talking clocks" were manufactured as expensive novelties using the early phonograph. In 1887, Edison turned his attention back to improving the cylinder. The following year, the Edison company debuted the Perfected Phonograph. Edison 2 1⁄4 inches in external diameter, which became the standard. Experimental cylinder recordings of music and speech made in 1888 still exist. The cylinder made its commercial debut in 1889. At first, the only customers were entrepreneurs who installed nickel-in-the-slot phonographs in other public places. When relatively affordable spring-motor-driven phonographs designed for use appeared in the mid-1890s, the industry of producing recorded cylinders for home use began in earnest. Blank records were an important part of the business early on.Edison Records – 1903 advertisement
132. Enrico Caruso – Enrico Caruso was an Italian operatic tenor. He also made approximately 260 to 1920. All of these recordings, which span most of his career, remain available today on CDs and as downloads and digital streams. Enrico Caruso came from a poor but not destitute background. His parents originally came from Piedimonte d'Alife in the Province of Benevento, in Campania, Southern Italy. Called Errico with the Neapolitan language, Caruso would later adopt the formal Italian version of his given name, Enrico. This change came with whom he began lessons at the age of 16. He was the third of one of only three to survive infancy. There is a story of Caruso's parents having had 21 children, 18 of whom died in infancy. His brother Giovanni may have been the source of the exaggerated number. Caruso's Dorothy also included the story in a memoir that she wrote about her husband. She quotes the tenor, Anna Caruso: "She had twenty-one children. Twenty boys and one girl – too many. I am number boy." Marcellino, was a mechanic and foundry worker.Enrico Caruso – The medal that Enrico Caruso gave to Pasquale Simonelli, his New York City impresario Obverse: Caruso facing left. Lower right: Salanto, medal maker's signature.
133. Victor Talking Machine Company – The Victor Talking Machine Company was an American flagship record company headquartered in Camden, New Jersey. The company was founded by Eldridge R. Johnson, who had previously made gramophones to play Emile Berliner's disc records. Victor Talking Machine Co. was incorporated officially in 1901 shortly before agreeing to allow Columbia Records use of its disc record patent. Barraud noticed that whenever he played a cylinder recorded by his brother, the little dog would run to the horn, cock his ear and listen intently. Barraud's original depicts Nipper staring intently into the horn of an Edison-Bell while both sit on a polished wooden surface. The London branch was managed by an American, William Barry Owen. Barraud paid a visit with a photograph of the painting and asked to borrow a horn. Owen gave Barraud an entire gramophone and asked him to paint it into the picture, offering to buy the result. The original painting still shows the contours of the Edison-Bell phonograph beneath the paint of the gramophone when viewed in the correct light. Only 13 originally commissioned "His Master's Voice" paintings were commissioned by the company and the original belongs to the archives at EMI. In 1915, the "His Master's Voice" logo was rendered in immense circular leaded-glass windows in the tower of the Victrola factory building. The tower remains today with replica windows installed during Radio Corporation of America's ownership of the plant in its later years. Today, one of the original windows is located at the Smithsonian museum in Washington, D.C. There are different accounts as to how the name came about. A second account is that Johnson emerged as the'Victor' from the lengthy and costly patent litigations involving Berliner and Frank Seaman's Zonophone.Victor Talking Machine Company
134. Geraldine Farrar – Geraldine Farrar was an American soprano opera singer and film actress, noted for her beauty, acting ability, "the intimate timbre of her voice." Farrar had a large following among young women, who were nicknamed "Gerry-flappers". She was born Alice Geraldine Farrar in Melrose, Massachusetts, his wife, Henrietta Barnes. At 5 Farrar by 14 was giving recitals. Later Farrar studied voice with the American soprano Francesco Graziani in Berlin.. . Farrar appeared in the title roles of Jules Massenet's Manon, as well as Juliette in Gounod's Roméo et Juliette. Her admirers in Berlin included Crown Prince Wilhelm of Germany, with whom she is believed to have had a relationship beginning in 1903. After three years with the Monte Carlo Opera, Farrar made her debut in Romeo et Juliette on November 26, 1906. Farrar developed a popular following, especially among New York's young female opera-goers, who were known as "Gerry-flappers". Farrar was often featured prominently in that firm's advertisements. Farrar also appeared in silent movies, which were filmed between opera seasons. Farrar starred in more than a dozen films from 1915 to 1920, including Cecil B. De Mille's 1915 adaptation of Georges Bizet's opera Carmen, for which she was extensively praised. For her performance, Farrar came in fourth place in the 1916 "Screen Masterpiece" contest held by Motion Picture Magazine, ahead of any other actress.Geraldine Farrar – Farrar in Julien in 1914
135. Manon – Prior to Massenet's work, Halévy and Auber had used the subject for musical stage works. Massenet also wrote a one-act sequel to Manon, Le portrait de Manon, involving the Chevalier des Grieux as an older man. It is the quintessential example of the vitality of the music and culture of the Parisian Belle Époque. The opera was a mainstay of the Opéra-Comique in Paris, reaching its 1,000 performance there in 1919, its 1,500 th in 1931 and 2,000 th in 1952. Due to its vocal demands, the role of Manon was described by Sills as "the French Isolde". Manon has subsequently been performed there on 266 occasions. The San Francisco Opera gave the opera many stagings beginning on 29 the most recent being November 1998. Manon is frequently performed. Operabase shows 19 countries presenting a total of 425 performances of 81 productions in 61 cities. The ballet L'histoire de Manon by Kenneth MacMillan, although using music entirely written by Massenet, does not include any from Manon. While the innkeeper is serving dinner to the party, the townspeople collect to witness the arrival of the coach from Arras. Among them is Lescaut, a guardsman, who tells his comrades that he plans to meet a kinswoman. Manon is accosted by the opportunistic Guillot, who tells her that he has a waiting, in which they can leave together. His heavy-handed seduction is undermined by the return of Lescaut, who then lectures the young woman on proper behavior. She admires the three fashionably-dressed actresses, but reproaches herself, unconvincingly vowing to rid herself of all worldly visions.Manon – Jules Massenet
136. Charles Gounod – Charles-François Gounod was a French composer, best known for his Ave Maria, based on a work by Bach, as well as his opera Faust. Another opera by Gounod still performed is Roméo et Juliette. He died at Saint-Cloud after a final revision of his twelve operas. His funeral took place with Camille Saint-Saëns playing the organ and Gabriel Fauré conducting. It was later published as a posthumous Op. 60. Gounod was buried at the Cimetière d'Auteuil in Paris. He was born in Paris, an artist father. His mother was his first teacher. He first showed his musical talents under her tutelage. Gounod then entered the Paris Conservatoire, where he studied under Pierre Zimmermann. In 1839 Gounod won the Prix de Rome for his Fernand. In so doing he was following his father: François-Louis Gounod had won the second Prix de Rome in painting in 1783. He changed his mind before actually taking holy orders, went back to composition. During that period Gounod was attached to the Church of Foreign Missions in Paris. In 1854 he completed a Messe Solennelle, also known as the St. Cecilia Mass..Charles Gounod – Charles Gounod
137. Faust (opera) – The manager Léon Carvalho insisted including cutting several numbers. Faust was not initially well received. It was revived in Paris in 1862, was a hit. Notable revivals at the Opéra took place on 25 January 1908. The popularity of "Faust" has declined somewhat, beginning around 1950. A full production, with its large chorus and elaborate costumes, is an time-consuming undertaking, particularly if the act 5 ballet is included. However, it appears as number 35 on the Operabase list of the most-performed operas worldwide. It was Faust with which the Metropolitan Opera in New York City opened for the first time on 22 October 1883. It is the eighth most frequently performed opera there, with 747 performances through the 2011-2012 season. He attempts to kill himself with poison but stops each time when he hears a choir. He curses science and faith, asks for infernal guidance. At the city gates A chorus of villagers sings a drinking song. Valentin, leaving with his Wagner, entrusts the care of his sister Marguerite to his youthful friend Siébel. Méphistophélès sings a rousing, irreverent song about the Golden Calf. Méphistophélès maligns Marguerite, Valentin tries to strike him with his sword, which shatters in the air.Faust (opera) – Charles Gounod
138. Marcel Journet – Marcel Journet, was a French, bass, operatic singer. He appeared at the foremost American opera houses in New York City and Chicago. Journet was studied at the Paris Conservatory. He made his operatic debut in 1891. Journet went on to sing a wide range of roles in operas during a distinguished, 40-year career. Arturo Toscanini was just one of the celebrated conductors under whose baton he performed. His on-stage colleagues included renowned singers as Nellie Melba, Luisa Tetrazzini, Enrico Caruso, Giovanni Martinelli, Titta Ruffo, Giuseppe De Luca and Feodor Chaliapin. Journet died of kidney failure, aged 66. Numerous recordings testify to the high standard of his interpretative powers. Many of these recordings have been re-issued on the Marston and Preiser labels. Warrack, John and Rosenthal, Harold, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Opera, London, second edition, 1980. Scott, Michael, The Record of Singing, Volume II, Duckworth, London, 1979. "Marcel Journet" in" Étude", n ° 6, 1997. Jean-Pierre Mouchon, volume 47, n ° 1, March 2002. Jean-Pierre Mouchon: "Une basse française d'exception: Marcel Journet, two volumes, Édilivre, Saint-Denis, France, vol.Marcel Journet – Marcel Journet
139. Pasquale Amato – Pasquale Amato was an Italian operatic baritone. Amato was studied locally at the Conservatory of San Pietro a Majella under Beniamino Carelli and Vincenzo Lombardo. In 1900, he made his debut in La traviata. Engagements followed in Genoa and Rome. Over the few years he sang in Monte Carlo, Germany, parts of eastern Europe and Argentina. In 1904, he appeared with the Teatro di San Carlo Company; although well-received, he was not invited back. He sang there in 1907 under the baton of Arturo Toscanini. He was praised for his versatility and artistic integrity. In 1913 he was accorded the honour of taking part in the Verdi centenary commemoration at the Busseto Theatre. He appeared with Toscanini conducting. Amato repeated some of these roles at the Metropolitan Opera, where Amato made his debut in 1908. For example, he sang in Gluck's Armide, along with Olive Fremstad, Enrico Caruso, Louise Homer and Alma Gluck. In 1913, Amato created the title role by Walter Damrosch; Frances Alda and Riccardo Martin were also in the cast. In La Gioconda, Margarethe Arndt-Ober. Amato was especially admired as Escamillo in Carmen, supporting Geraldine Farrar, Caruso and Alda, when the opera was successfully revived in 1914.Pasquale Amato – Pasquale Amato
140. Carmen (opera) – Carmen is an opera in four acts by French composer Georges Bizet. The libretto was written based on a novella of the same title by Prosper Mérimée. The opera was first performed on 3 March 1875, where its breaking of conventions shocked and scandalized its first audiences. Bizet died suddenly after the 33rd performance, unaware that the work would achieve international acclaim within the following ten years. The opera is written with musical numbers separated by dialogue. After the premiere, the French public was generally indifferent. Later commentators have asserted that Carmen forms the bridge between the realism or verismo that characterised late 19th-century Italian opera. Despite being a Prix de Rome laureate, Bizet struggled to get his stage works performed. The capital's two state-funded opera houses -- the Opéra and the Opéra-Comique -- followed conservative repertoires that restricted opportunities for young native talent. Bizet expressed to his friend Edmund Galabert his satisfaction in "the absolute certainty of having found my path". It was Bizet who first proposed an adaptation of Prosper Mérimée's novella Carmen. Cast details are as provided by Mina Curtiss from vocal score. The stage designs are credited to Charles Ponchard. Place: Seville, Spain, surrounding hills Time: Around 1820 Act 1 A square, in Seville. On the right, a door to the tobacco factory.Carmen (opera) – Cartoon from Journal amusant, 1911
141. Soni Ventorum Wind Quintet – In 1972 the quintet won the silver medal in Rio de Janeiro. The group had a stable history. Through its concerts, recordings, the Soni Ventorum Wind Quintet established an international reputation. For many years Soni Ventorum was also the quintet-in-residence at the University of Washington School of Music. The quintet was founded by Felix Skowronek, William McColl, Arthur Grossman, James Caldwell, Christopher Leuba. During its years in Puerto Rico, the quintet went to the US mainland, which led to recording opportunities with the Lyrichord label. In 1968 Soni Ventorum was hired as the resident Woodwind Quintet. The group was active through June 2001. The Soni Ventorum Wind QuintetSoni Ventorum Wind Quintet – Soni Ventorum
142. Jean-Baptiste Lully – Jean-Baptiste Lully was an Italian-born French composer, instrumentalist, dancer who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France. Lully is considered a master of the baroque style. He disavowed any Italian influence in French music of the period. Lully became a French subject in 1661. He was born on November 28, 1632 to a family of millers. Lully used to say that a Franciscan friar taught him guitar. Lully also learned to play the violin. Guise took the boy to Paris, where the fourteen-year-old entered Mademoiselle's service; from 1647 to 1652 he served as her "chamber boy". Lully probably honed his musical skills by working with composers Nicolas Métru, François Roberday and Nicolas Gigault. The teenager's talents as a guitarist, dancer quickly won him the nicknames "Baptiste", "le grand baladin". The princess granted his request. By February 1653 he had attracted the attention of young Louis XIV, dancing in the Ballet royal de la nuit. By March 1653, he had been made royal composer for instrumental music. His instrumental music for court ballets gradually made him indispensable. In 1662 Lully collaborated on court performances of Francesco Cavalli's Xerse and Ercole amante.Jean-Baptiste Lully – Jean-Baptiste Lully
143. Le Bourgeois gentilhomme – Public performances were given at the theatre of the Palais-Royal beginning on 23 November 1670. Le Bourgeois gentilhomme satirizes attempts at the bourgeois personality, poking fun both at the vulgar, pretentious middle-class and the vain, snobbish aristocracy. The play is in prose. The play takes place at Mr. Jourdain's house in Paris. Jourdain is a middle-aged "bourgeois" whose father grew rich as a merchant. The foolish Jourdain now has one aim in life, to be accepted as an aristocrat. To this end, he orders is very happy when the tailor's boy mockingly addresses him as "my Lord". A cash-strapped nobleman called Dorante has attached himself to M. Jourdain. He secretly flatters his aristocratic dreams. By telling Jourdain that he mentioned his name to the King at Versailles, he can get Jourdain to pay his debts. Jourdain's dreams of being upper-class go higher. He dreams of having his daughter Lucille marry a nobleman. But Lucille is in love with the Cléonte. Of course, M. Jourdain refuses his permission for Lucille to marry Cléonte. Jourdain is very pleased to have his daughter marry foreign royalty.Le Bourgeois gentilhomme – Le Bourgeois gentilhomme
144. List of French monarchs – The Capetians ruled continuously from 987 to 1792 and again from 1814 to 1848. The branches of the dynasty which ruled after 1328, however, are generally given the specific branch names of Valois and Bourbon. With the House of Bonaparte "Emperors of the French" ruled in 19th century France, again between 1852 and 1871. It was used on coins up to the eighteenth century. They used the title "Emperor of the French". This article lists all rulers to have held "King of the Franks", "King of France", "Emperor of the French". For other Frankish monarchs, see List of Frankish kings. In addition to the monarchs listed below, the Kings of England and Great Britain from 1340–60 and 1369–1801 also claimed the title of King of France. Henry V predeceased Charles VI and so Henry V's son, Henry VI, succeeded his grandfather Charles VI as King of France. Nevertheless, then British monarchs continued to claim the title for themselves in 1801. Their territory largely corresponded to ancient Gaul well as the Roman provinces of Germania. The Carolingian dynasty was a noble family of the 7th century AD. In 751, Pepin the Younger, dethroned the Merovingians and with the consent of the aristocracy, was crowned King of the Franks. The Robertians were Frankish noblemen owing fealty to the Carolingians, ancestors of the subsequent Capetian dynasty. Odo, Count of Paris, was chosen by the western Franks to be their king following the removal of emperor Charles the Fat.List of French monarchs – Clovis I (Clovis Ier)
145. Du battant des lames au sommet des montagnes – Since then, the expression has become a common phrase, indeed a "fixed formula". On the other hand, considered in the expression substitutes for an adverb of place, being a synonym for "everywhere". It thus connotes a "wave of certain importance" like those one can easily see on a very regular basis on Réunion's shore. The island suffers from a geographical position that exposes it to strong waves with multiple origins. One of these above all affects the leeward east coast. A third reason is that this Overseas department lies in the path of the tropical cyclones that arise in the centre of the Indian Ocean. The battant as used here is not covered by any of the definitions given by the Trésor de la langue française informatisé. Thus, the battant des lames would be "the part of the coast subjected the action of the waves". Consequently, the meaning is close to what is called a foreshore in Metropolitan France. However, although Beniamino thinks that "seashore" is the best synonym, others consider that the terms are not equivalent. The montagnes to which the expression refers are the island's two mountainous massifs, that of Piton de la Fournaise. However, the sommet meant by the original version is neither of these two peaks. Rather, Grand Bénare was meant: when the expression was devised, it was far more familiar to the settlers. In fact, neither of the former two peaks had been approached. The expression itself dates to the beginnings of the island's colonisation, about a century earlier.Du battant des lames au sommet des montagnes – Trois-Bassins is a textbook example of a commune stretching du battant des lames au sommet des montagnes, in this case from Baie de Saint-Leu to the Grand Bénare.
146. Pavillon de Flore – The Pavillon de Flore, part of the Palais du Louvre in Paris, France, stands at the southwest end of the Louvre, near the Pont Royal. The pavilion was entirely rebuilt by Hector Lefuel in 1864 -- 1868 in a highly decorated Second Empire Neo-Baroque style. Currently, the Pavillon de Flore is part of the Musée du Louvre. The Pavillon de Flore is connected to the Louvre. It is directly adjacent to the Pont Royal on the Quai François Mitterrand, between the Pont du Carrousel. Its geographic coordinates are 48°51′40″N 2°19′50″E. First, the Petite Galerie, running south from the Palais du Louvre to the River Seine, was connected to the Grande Galerie. The cornerstone of the pavilion was laid in 1607. The Palais des Tuileries was extended south from the Pavillon Bullant to the Pavillon de Flore via the Petite Galerie des Tuileries. Work on the Grand Design was abandoned following the assassination of Henry IV in 1610. However, by this time, the building of the Grande Galerie, the Gros Pavillon de la Rivière had been completed. It has been suggested that this is when the name Pavillon de Flore came into use, although the earliest known written mention is in 1726. Pavillon de Flore is the name used today, although other names have been used in between. For several years, the apartments of Marie Antoinette were located within the structure. During the French Revolution, the Pavillon de Flore was renamed Pavillon de l'Égalité.Pavillon de Flore – Jacques Androuet II du Cerceau's Pavillon de Flore (1607) as it stands today. Carpeaux's sculpture Flore is inset in the middle of the south face, on the right in this picture.
147. Betelgeuse incident – The explosion was attributed during an operation to discharge its cargo of oil. The oil terminal was owned and operated by Gulf Oil. The explosion and resulting fire claimed the lives of 50 people. Only 27 bodies were recovered. A further fatality occurred with the loss of a Dutch diver. Accordingly, it was judged appropriate to build a new terminal in Europe capable of handling the largest vessels that were planned. The closure of the Suez Canal in 1967 as a result of the Six-Day War reinforced the economic viability of this scheme. Oil shipments had to come round the Cape of Good Hope, thus avoiding the size constraints previously imposed by the canal. In 1966, the Gulf Oil Corporation identified Whiddy Island in Ireland, as being the most suitable site for the new terminal. Whiddy Island offered a long, deep-water anchorage. Furthermore, it was away from any major population centres and shipping lanes. The terminal was completed in 1969. The offshore facility comprised an type berth 488 metres in length, approximately 396 metres from the shore. Access to it was only possible by boat. The operation of the terminal transformed the economy of the Bantry area.Betelgeuse incident – Betelgeuse, 8 January 1979
148. Pied-noir – The term usually were awarded French citizenship by the 1870 Crémieux Decree. The term "pied-noir" began to be commonly used shortly in 1962. Of the last census in Algeria, taken on 1 June 1960, there were 1,050,000 non-Muslim civilians in Algeria, 10 percent of the total population. The conflict contributed to the mass exodus of Algerian Europeans and Jews to France. After Algeria became independent in 1962, about 800,000 Pieds-Noirs of French nationality were evacuated to mainland France while about 200,000 chose to remain in Algeria. Of the latter, there were still about 50,000 by the end of the 1960s. In popular culture, the community is often represented as feeling removed from French culture longing for Algeria. Thus, the recent history of the Pieds-Noirs has been imprinted from both their native homeland and their adopted land. Though the term rapatriés d'Algérie implies that they once lived in France, most Pieds-Noirs were born in Algeria. The Algerian Jews, who were considered Pieds-Noirs, were as indigenous to Algeria as its Muslim population. The actual origin of the term "pied-noir" is unknown and therefore debated. This usage originated as a negative nickname. There is also a theory that the term comes compared to the barefoot Algerians. Other theories focus on new settlers dirtying their clothing by working in swampy areas, trampling grapes to make wine. The invasion was instigated when the Dey of Algiers struck the French consul with a fly-swatter in 1827, although economic reasons are also cited.Pied-noir – Notre Dame d'Afrique, a church built by the French Pieds-Noirs in Algeria
149. Battle of France – Italy attempted an invasion of France. The German plan for the invasion of France consisted of two main operations. After the withdrawal of the BEF, the German forces began June. The sixty remaining French divisions were unable to overcome the German air superiority and armoured mobility. German tanks pushed deep into France. German commanders met with French officials June with the goal of forcing the new French government to accept an armistice that amounted to surrender. This led to the end of the French Third Republic. France was not liberated until the summer of 1944. In 1939, Britain and France offered military support in the likely case of a German invasion. In the dawn of 1 September 1939, the German Invasion of Poland began. Following this, New Zealand, South Africa and Canada, declared war on Germany. France had mobilised 2,500 tanks against a German force consisting of 43 divisions and no tanks. The French advanced until they met the then undermanned Siegfried Line. Following the Saar Offensive, a period of inaction called the Phoney War set in between the belligerents. Adolf Hitler had hoped that France and Britain would quickly make peace.Battle of France – Clockwise from top left: German Panzer IV tanks passing through a town in France; German soldiers marching past the Arc de Triomphe after the surrender of Paris, 14 June 1940; column of French Renault R35 tanks at Sedan, Ardennes; British and French prisoners at Veules-les-Roses; French soldiers on review within the Maginot Line fortifications.
150. Battle of Quebec (1690) – It was the first time Quebec's defences were tested. The loss of the Acadian fort shocked Governor-General Louis de Buade de Frontenac ordered the immediate preparation of the city for siege. When the envoys delivered the terms of surrender, the Governor-General famously declared that his only reply would be by "the mouth of my cannons." Major John Walley led the invading army, which landed in the Basin of Quebec. Most of the population lived in towns protected by elaborate forts. In 1690, Sir William Phips was appointed major-general by Massachusetts to command an expedition against French Acadia. Port Royal surrendered on 21 May. No guns mounted, would have been unable to resist. This shocked the French colonists, who feared that their city would be the next target. Town Major Provost oversaw the construction of small stone redoubts in this enceinte, which would have protected against cannon. The palisade line ended near the hospital. The batteries facing the river were also improved, with eight guns mounted at the docksides. Temporary obstacles had also been put on the street leading up to the upper city. Schuyler's expedition was designed allowing the Boston fleet to sail against the capital unopposed. On September the English raiders attacked settlements south of Montreal, killing some 50 habitants in the middle of their harvests.Battle of Quebec (1690) – "I have no reply to make to your general other than from the mouth of my cannons and muskets." Frontenac famously rebuffs the English envoys. Watercolour on commercial board.
151. Battle of Tours – The location of the battle was close to the border between then-independent Aquitaine. The Franks were victorious. ` Charles subsequently extended his authority in the south. Details including its exact location and the number of combatants, can not be determined from accounts that have survived. Notably, the Frankish troops won the battle without cavalry. Ninth-century chroniclers, who interpreted the outcome of the battle as divine judgment in his favour, gave the nickname Martellus. Leopold von Ranke felt that "Poitiers was the turning point of the most important epochs in the history of the world." There is little dispute that the battle helped lay the foundations of the Carolingian Empire and domination of Europe for the next century. Most historians agree that "the establishment of Frankish power in western Europe shaped the Battle of Tours confirmed that power." These were followed into the Frankish territories of Gaul, former provinces of the Roman Empire. Military campaigns had reached northward into Aquitaine and Burgundy, including a major engagement at Bordeaux and a raid on Autun. Most historians assume that the two armies met where the rivers Clain and Vienne join between Tours and Poitiers. The number of troops in each army is not known. However, virtually all Western sources estimate the Franks at 30,000, less than half the Muslim force. Drawing on Muslim sources, Creasy describes the Umayyad forces as 80,000 strong or more.Battle of Tours – Charles de Steuben 's Bataille de Poitiers en octobre 732 depicts a triumphant Charles Martel (mounted) facing 'Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi (right) at the Battle of Tours.
152. Battle of Waterloo – The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Upon Napoleon's return to power in March 1815, many states that had opposed him began to mobilize armies. Wellington and Blücher's armies were cantoned close to the north-eastern border of France. Napoleon successfully attacked the Prussians at the Battle of Ligny, while at the same time attacking the British at the Battle of Quatre Bras. Despite holding his ground at Quatre Bras, the defeat of the Prussians forced Wellington to withdraw to Waterloo. Napoleon sent a third of his forces to pursue the Prussians, who had withdrawn parallel to Wellington. This resulted with the Prussian rear-guard. Upon learning that the Prussian army was able to support him, Wellington decided to offer battle on the Mont-Saint-Jean escarpment, across the Brussels road. Here he withstood repeated attacks throughout the afternoon, aided by the progressively arriving Prussians. In the evening Napoleon committed his last reserves to a final attack, narrowly beaten back. With the Prussians breaking through on the French right flank, the French army was routed. Waterloo was Napoleon's last. According to Wellington, the battle was "the nearest-run thing you ever saw in your life". Napoleon on 7 July coalition forces entered Paris. The battlefield is located in the municipalities of Braine-l'Alleud and Lasne, about 15 kilometres south of Brussels, about 2 kilometres from the town of Waterloo.Battle of Waterloo – The strategic situation in Western Europe in 1815: 250,000 Frenchmen faced a coalition of about 850,000 soldiers on four fronts. Napoleon was forced to leave 20,000 men in Western France to reduce a royalist insurrection.
153. Fort Senneville – Fort Senneville is one of the outlying forts of Montreal, Quebec, Canada, built by the Canadiens of New France near the Sainte-Anne rapids in 1671. The property was part of a fief ceded by the Sulpicians. A large windmill, which doubled as a watch tower, was built on a hill by late 1686 and featuring machicolation and other castle-like features. The fort was burned down by Iroquois with only the mill itself left standing. Governor-General Frontenac ordered the construction of a second, more imposing fort in 1692. It was rebuilt in 1702-1703 to protect the nearby fur post. With swiveling wall guns, it was the "most substantial castle-like fort" near Montreal. The ruins have been maintained since then. In 2003, it was classified as a historic site. An unusual feature of Montreal's defence was a string of 30 outlying forts to protect to the expansion of French settlements. Roughly four of these were substantial stone forts which served as defensive residences, sometimes considered "true castles", well as imposing structures to prevent Iroquois incursions. Initially, Fort Senneville was a stockaded fort, built in 1671 about half a mile above the Sainte-Anne rapids. In October 1687, although several settlers were killed, the attackers were repulsed. The fort was burned down. Only the mill itself was left standing.Fort Senneville – Fort Senneville in 1895
154. Morea expedition – After the fall of Messolonghi, Western Europe decided to intervene in favour of revolutionary Greece. The intervention began when a Franco-Russo-British fleet was sent to the region, winning the Battle of Navarino in October 1827. In August 1828, a French corps disembarked at Koroni in the southern Peloponnese. Although the bulk of the troops returned from the end of 1828, there was a French presence in the area until 1833. As during Napoleon's Egyptian Campaign, when a Commission of Sciences and Arts had accompanied the military campaign, a Morea scientific expedition accompanied the troops. Seventeen learned men represented different specialties made the voyage. Their work was in increasing knowledge about the country. As an example, the topographic maps they produced were excellent. Its publications offered a near-complete description of the regions visited. In 1821, the Greeks revolted against centuries-long Ottoman rule. They declared independence. In contrast to what happened elsewhere in Europe, the Holy Alliance did not intervene to stop the Greek insurgents. The liberal and national uprising displeased the Austria of Metternich, the principal political architect of the Holy Alliance. However, another reactionary gendarme of Europe, looked favorably on the insurrection due to its Orthodox religious solidarity and its geostrategic interest. For all of Europe, Greece represented the cradle since antiquity.Morea expedition – Capture of Koroni by General Sebastiani (Hippolyte Lecomte).
155. NATO – The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party. NATO's headquarters are located in Haren, Brussels, Belgium, where the Supreme Allied Commander also resides. Belgium is one of the 28 member states across North America and Europe, the newest of which, Albania and Croatia, joined in April 2009. An additional 22 countries participate with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programmes. The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global total. Members' spending is supposed to amount to 2 % of GDP. The course of the Cold War led with nations of the Warsaw Pact, which formed in 1955. Politically, the organization sought better relations with former Warsaw Pact countries, several of which joined the alliance in 2004. The Soviet Berlin Blockade led to the creation of the Western European Union's Defence Organization in September 1948. However, participation of the United States was thought necessary both to prevent the revival of nationalist militarism. He got a receptive hearing, especially considering American anxiety over Italy. Talks for a military alliance resulted in the North Atlantic Treaty, signed in Washington, D.C. on 4 April 1949. It included the five Treaty of Brussels states plus the United States, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark and Iceland. Some Icelanders participated in a pro-neutrality, anti-membership riot in March 1949. The creation of NATO can be seen as the institutional consequence of a school of thought called Atlanticism which stressed the importance of trans-Atlantic cooperation.NATO – The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in Washington, D.C., on 4 April 1949 and was ratified by the United States that August.
156. Operation Entebbe – Operation Entebbe was a successful counter-terrorist hostage-rescue mission carried out by commandos of the Israel Defense Forces at Entebbe Airport in Uganda on 4 July 1976. Dictator Idi Amin personally welcomed them. Over the following two days, non-Israeli hostages were released and flown out to Paris. Ninety-four, mainly Israeli, passengers along with the 12-member Air France crew, were threatened with death. The IDF acted provided by the Israeli intelligence agency Mossad. The hijackers threatened to kill the hostages if their release demands were not met. This threat led to the planning of the operation. These plans included preparation from Ugandan military troops. The operation took place at night. Israeli transport planes carried 100 commandos to Uganda for the rescue operation. The operation, which took a week of planning, lasted 90 minutes. 102 hostages were rescued. One, the unit commander, Lt. Col. Yonatan Netanyahu, was killed. Thirty Soviet-built MiG-17s and MiG-21s of Uganda's air force were destroyed. In the aftermath of the operation Idi Amin issued orders to retaliate and slaughter several hundred Kenyans present in Uganda.Operation Entebbe – The old terminal building of the Entebbe International Airport as it appeared in 2008
157. Charlemagne – Charlemagne, also known as Charles the Great or Charles I, was King of the Franks. Charlemagne laid the foundations for modern France, the Low Countries. He took the Frankish throne in 768 and became King of Italy in 774. From 800, he became the first Holy Roman Emperor—the first recognised emperor in Western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. Recognition from the pontiff granted divine legitimacy in the eyes of his contemporaries. The expanded Frankish state which Charlemagne founded was called the Carolingian Empire. Charlemagne was the oldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon. He became king in 768 following the death of his father, initially as co-ruler with his brother Carloman I. Carloman's sudden death in 771 in unexplained circumstances left Charlemagne as the undisputed ruler of the Frankish Kingdom. Charlemagne also campaigned to his east leading to events such as the Massacre of Verden. Charlemagne has been called the "Father of Europe", as he united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire. His rule spurred a period of energetic intellectual activity within the Western Church. These were but two of the machinations that led to the eventual split of Rome and Constantinople in the Great Schism of 1054. He died in 814, having ruled over thirteen years. Charlemagne was laid to rest in what is Germany.Charlemagne – A coin of Charlemagne with the inscription KAROLVS IMP AVG (Karolus Imperator Augustus)
158. Charles Heidsieck – Charles Camille Heidsieck was a 19th-century French Champagne merchant who founded the Champagne firm Charles Heidsieck in 1851. He was known as "Champagne Charlie" during his stay. During the American Civil War Heidsieck was imprisoned under suspicion of being a spy for the Confederacy. His imprisonment sparked an international incident between France and US over what became known as The Heidsieck Incident. Heidsieck arrived with cases of his order book, ready to celebrate with whichever side would win the upcoming battle. Charles Camille was married to Amélie Henriot. In 1852, Charles Heidsieck toured the New England area and New York State. He quickly retained an agent to facilitate his import sales. The mass import of Champagne was met with roaring record sales. With subsequent trips, he developed the persona of Champagne Charlie, a fixture of the New York high society scene. In 1861, Charles Heidsieck received news of the conflict breaking out in the United States Civil War. With more than half of his company's assets tied into unpaid accounts in the US, Heidsieck set sail for the US. With no other recourse, Charles Heidsieck set out for New Orleans seeking repayment directly from the merchants that received the Champagne. With the conflict of war, Heidsieck had to travel into the South. This meant going far out of the way as Kansas to avoid detection by the Union Army.Charles Heidsieck – Image of Charles Heidsieck used in Champagne ads in the US during the 1850s.
159. Claude Vorilhon – Raël, is the founder and current leader of the UFO religion known as Raëlism. Vorilhon soon became a sports-car journalist and driver for his own car-racing magazine, Autopop. Following what he said was an extraterrestrial encounter in December 1973, he formed the Raëlian Movement and changed his name to Raël. He later published several books, which detail his claims of an encounter with a being called Yahweh in 1973. He traveled the world to promote his books for over 30 years. Vorilhon was born in Vichy, Allier, France. He was raised in Ambert in the home of his maternal grandmother, atheist. His father was Jewish and his mother was a Catholic. He attended a Catholic boarding school with Le Puy-en-Velay and caused a scandal by taking part in communion without being baptized. His parents withdrew him from the boarding school to put him in the school of Ambert. He met with the director of a national program, scouting for young talent. Vorilhon became a rising teen star on the radio. He released six singles, including a minor song, "Le miel et la cannelle". Vorilhon tried to imitate his style. Vorilhon decided to work as a sports journalist to gain access to the world of car racing.Claude Vorilhon – Claude Vorilhon "Raël"
160. Henri Brocard – Pierre René Jean Baptiste Henri Brocard was a French meteorologist and mathematician, in particular a geometer. His best-known achievement is the discovery of the properties of the Brocard points, the Brocard circle, the Brocard triangle, all bearing his name. Contemporary mathematician Nathan Court wrote that he, along with Joseph Neuberg, was one of the three co-founders of modern triangle geometry. Pierre René Jean Baptiste Henri Brocard was born on 12 May 1845, in Vignot, Meuse to Jean Sebastien Brocard. Brocard attended the Lycée as a young child, then the Lycée in Strasbourg. He attended the École Polytechnique to 1867. As was the norm at the time, Brocard, after graduation, became a technical officer in the French military, reorganized in 1866. Brocard acted as general technician as well. He soon saw active service, as Napoleon III declared war upon Prussia. He was one of the 120,000 men under Marshal MacMahon led to Metz to free the French army of the Rhine. The French army, however, was taken prisoner along with approximately 83,000 other combatants. Brocard joined the Société Mathématique de France after its founding. In 1875 Brocard was inducted into the French Association for the Advancement of Science well as the French Meteorological Society. While in Algiers, he founded the Meteorological Institute of Algiers. He also visited Oran while in northern Africa, occupied by the French in 1831.Henri Brocard – The École Polytechnique.
161. Leonardo da Vinci – He has been variously called the father of palaeontology, ichnology, architecture, is widely considered one of the greatest painters of all time. Sometimes credited with the inventions of the parachute, helicopter and tank, he epitomised the Renaissance humanist ideal. Many historians and scholars regard Leonardo as the prime exemplar of the "Universal Genius" or "Renaissance Man", an individual of "unquenchable curiosity" and "feverishly inventive imagination". Much of his earlier working life was spent in the service of Ludovico il Moro in Milan. Leonardo was, is, renowned primarily as a painter. Among his works, the Mona Lisa is the most famous and most parodied portrait and The Last Supper the most reproduced religious painting of all time. Leonardo's drawing of the Vitruvian Man is also regarded as a cultural icon, being reproduced on items as varied as the euro coin, textbooks, T-shirts. Perhaps fifteen of his paintings have survived. Leonardo is revered for his technological ingenuity. Leonardo conceptualised the double hull. A number of Leonardo's most practical inventions are nowadays displayed as working models at the Museum of Vinci. Today, Leonardo is widely considered one of the most diversely talented individuals ever to have lived. He was the out-of-wedlock son of the wealthy Messer Piero Fruosino di Antonio da Vinci, a Florentine legal notary, Caterina, a peasant. The inclusion of the title "ser" indicated that Leonardo's father was a gentleman. Little is known about Leonardo's early life.Leonardo da Vinci – Portrait of Leonardo
162. Marcel Lefebvre – Marcel François Marie Joseph Lefebvre was a French Roman Catholic archbishop. In 1947, he was appointed the next year as the Apostolic Delegate for West Africa. He would later take the lead in opposing certain changes within the Church associated with the Council. Refusing to implement council-inspired reforms demanded by its members, he resigned in 1968. After a flare of tensions with the Holy See, Lefebvre was ordered to disband the society, but ignored the decision. Against the expressed prohibition of Pope John Paul II, he consecrated four bishops to continue his work with the SSPX. 18 years after Lefebvre's death, Pope Benedict XVI lifted the excommunication of the four surviving bishops at their request but not to Lefebvre. Therefore his excommunication remains until today. Marcel Lefebvre was born in Tourcoing, Nord. He was the second son and third child of eight children of textile factory-owner René Lefebvre and Gabrielle, born Watine, who died in 1938. His parents were devout Catholics who brought their children to daily Mass. Marcel's René had run a spy-ring for British Intelligence when Tourcoing was occupied by the Germans during World War I. He would later credit his conservative views to the rector, a Breton priest named Father Henri Le Floch. His studies were interrupted in 1927 when he did his military service. On May 1929 he was ordained deacon by Cardinal Basilio Pompilj in the Basilica of St. John Lateran in Rome.Marcel Lefebvre – Lefebvre in 1981
163. Pierre Teilhard de Chardin – He conceived the idea of the Omega Point and developed Vladimir Vernadsky's concept of noosphere. During his lifetime, many of Teilhard's writings were censored by the Catholic Church because of his views on original sin. Recently Teilhard has been praised by Pope Benedict XVI and other eminent Catholic figures. The response to his writings by evolutionary biologists has been, with some exceptions, decidedly negative. Pierre Teilhard de Chardin was born in the Château of Sarcenat at Orcines, close to Clermont-Ferrand, France, on May 1, 1881. He was the fourth of eleven children. An amateur naturalist, promoted the observation of nature in the household. Pierre Teilhard's spirituality was awakened by his mother, Berthe de Dompiere. When he was 12, he went to the Jesuit college of Mongré, in Villefranche-sur-Saône, where he completed baccalaureates of philosophy and mathematics. Then, in 1899, he entered the Jesuit novitiate at Aix-en-Provence, where he began a philosophical, theological and spiritual career. Young Jesuit students continued their studies in Jersey. In the meantime, Teilhard earned a licentiate in literature in Caen in 1902. From 1905 to 1908, he taught physics and chemistry in Cairo, Egypt, at the Jesuit College of the Holy Family. He wrote "... it is the dazzling of the East foreseen and drunk greedily... in its lights, its vegetation, its fauna and its deserts." Teilhard studied theology in Hastings, in Sussex, from 1908 to 1912.Pierre Teilhard de Chardin – Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
164. Tony Parker – William Anthony "Tony" Parker Jr. is a Belgian-born French professional basketball player for the San Antonio Spurs of the National Basketball Association. The son of Parker played for two years in the French basketball league before entering the 2001 NBA draft. Parker quickly became their starting point guard. He has won four NBA championships, all of which were with the Spurs. With high field goal percentage, he has been named to six NBA All-Star games, three All-NBA Second Teams, an All-NBA Third Team. Parker was also the 2007 NBA Finals MVP. Playing for the France national team, he was named as the EuroBasket 2013 MVP following his team's victory over Lithuania in the gold medal game. The guard finished as the tournament's top scorer with 19 points per game. In 2015 Parker became the all-time leading scorer in the EuroBasket competition. He is also a artist with his own music album, TP. Parker married July 2007. In November 2010, both parties filed for divorce. He was raised in France. Tony Parker Sr. an African American, played basketball at Loyola University Chicago as well as professionally overseas. Pamela Firestone, is a Dutch model.Tony Parker – Tony Parker
165. Champagne (wine region) – The Champagne wine region is a historic province within the administrative province of Champagne in the northeast of France. The area is best known for the production of the white wine that bears the region's name. The towns of Reims and Épernay are the commercial centers of the area. Located at the northern edges of France, the history of the Champagne region has had a significant role in the development of this unique terroir. The principal grapes grown in the region include Chardonnay, Pinot Meunier. Pinot noir grows very well in Montagne de Reims. Pinot Meunier is the dominant grape in the Vallée de la Marne region. The Côte des Blancs is dedicated exclusively to Chardonnay. The Champagne province is located near the northern limits of the world along the 49th parallel. The high altitude and annual temperature of 10 ° C creates a difficult environment for wine grapes to fully ripen. Ripening is aided by the presence of forests which helps to maintain moisture in the soil. The cool temperatures serve to produce high levels of acidity in the resulting grape, ideal for sparkling wine. During the growing season, the mean July temperature is ° C. The annual rainfall is 630 mm, with 45 mm falling during the harvest month of September. Throughout the year, growers must be mindful of the hazards of early spring frost.Champagne (wine region) – Champagne vineyards in Verzenay in the Montagne de Reims subregion
166. Eyes Without a Face – Eyes Without a Face is a 1960 French-Italian horror film adaptation of Jean Redon's novel, directed by Georges Franju, starring Pierre Brasseur and Alida Valli. During the film's production, consideration was given by setting the right tone, minimizing gore and eliminating the mad-scientist character. Although the film passed through the European censors, the film's release in Europe caused controversy nevertheless. Critical reaction ranged to disgust. The film received an American debut in an edited and dubbed form under the title of The Horror Chamber of Dr. Faustus. In the United States, Faustus was released as a double feature with The Manster. Subsequent theatrical and home video re-releases increased its reputation. Modern critics praise the today for its poetic nature as well as being a notable influence on other filmmakers. At night just outside Paris, a woman drives along dumps a corpse in the river. Dr. Génessier lives in a large mansion, adjacent to his clinic, with other large dogs. The body belonged to a young woman who died following Dr. Génessier's unsuccessful attempt to graft her face onto his daughter's. Dr. Génessier insists that she wear a mask to cover her disfigurement. Louise lures a Swiss girl named Edna Grüber to Génessier's home. Génessier takes her to his secret laboratory. Dr. Génessier performs heterograft surgery, removing Edna's face.Eyes Without a Face – French theatrical release poster
167. French cuisine – French cuisine consists of the cooking traditions and practices from France. In the 14th century a court chef known as "Taillevent", wrote Le Viandier, one of the earliest recipe collections of medieval France. During that time, French cuisine was heavily influenced by Italian cuisine. Wine are a major part of the cuisine. They play nationally, with many variations and appellation d'origine contrôlée laws. The Guide Michelin helped to acquaint people with the rich bourgeois and peasant cuisine of the French countryside starting in the 20th century. Knowledge of French cooking has contributed significantly to Western cuisines. Its criteria are used widely in culinary education. In November 2010, French gastronomy was added to its lists of the world's "intangible cultural heritage". In medieval cuisine, banquets were common among the aristocracy. Multiple courses would be served in a style called service en confusion, or all at once. Food was generally eaten by meats being sliced off in large pieces held between the thumb and two fingers. Heavily flavored mustards were used. Summer, autumn afforded abundance, while winter meals were more sparse. Livestock were slaughtered at the beginning of winter.French cuisine – A nouvelle cuisine presentation
168. Great French Wine Blight – It was caused by an aphid, carried across the Atlantic in the late 1850s. While France is considered to have been worst affected, the blight also did a great deal of damage to vineyards in European countries. While the Phylloxera was thought to have arrived around 1858, it was first recorded in France near the former province of Languedoc. While many of the French wine growers disliked this idea, many found themselves with no other option. The method proved to be an effective remedy. The aphids initially went unnoticed despite their great numbers, the pressure to successfully start a vineyard in America at the time. It became common knowledge among the settlers of the vinifera. Variety, simply would not grow in American soil, they established plantations of these native vines. Exceptions did exist; vinifera plantations were well-established in California before the aphids found their way there. Thus, digging up a diseased and dying vine will not find Phylloxera clinging to the roots of the plant. The only description of the disease, given by these wine growers was that it'reminded them distressingly of "consumption"'. It was several years before the cause of the disease was determined. Over 40 % of French grape vineyards were devastated over a 15-year period, from the late 1850s to the mid-1870s. The French economy was badly hit by the blight; wages in the wine industry were cut to less than half. There was also a noticeable trend of migration to, among other places, Algiers and America.Great French Wine Blight – Charles Valentine Riley in 1870 confirmed the theory proposed by Planchon.
169. Languedoc wine – Languedoc-Roussillon wine, including the vin de pays labeled Vin de Pays d'Oc, is produced in southern France. In 2001, the region produced more wine than the United States. Along with parts of Provence, these are the oldest planted vineyards in France. The region of Languedoc has belonged to France since the thirteenth century and the Roussillon was acquired from Spain in the mid-seventeenth century. The two regions were joined as one administrative region in the late 1980s. From the 4th century through the 18th and early 19th centuries, the Languedoc had a reputation for producing high quality wine. In Paris during the 14th century, wines from the St. Chinian area were prescribed in hospitals for their "healing powers". American rootstock, naturally resistant to phylloxera did not take well to the limestone soil on the hillside. In place of these vines, acres of the lower quality Aramon, Alicante Bouschet and Carignan were planted. During both World Wars the Languedoc was responsible for providing the daily wine rations given to French soldiers. Sales have been improved by many vineyards that concentrate on creating a good brand name rather than relying on the sometimes infamous regional designations. The Languedoc-Roussillon region shares many terrain and climate characteristics with the neighboring regions of Southern Rhone and Provence. The northern boundaries of the region sit on the Massif Central with the Cévennes mountain ranges and valleys dominating the area. Many vineyards are located along the Hérault River. The peak growing season is very dry and the majority of annual rainfall occurs during the winter.Languedoc wine – A vineyard in Villeneuve-lès-Maguelone bordering the Gulf of Lion.
170. Pascal's Wager – Pascal's Wager is an argument in apologetic philosophy devised by the seventeenth-century French philosopher, mathematician and physicist Blaise Pascal. It posits that humans all bet with their lives either that God exists or that he does not. Pascal argues that a rational person should live as though God exists and seek to believe in God. If God does actually exist, such a person will have only a finite loss, whereas they stand to receive infinite gains and avoid infinite losses. Pascal's Wager was based on the idea of the Christian God, though similar arguments have occurred in other religious traditions. The original wager was set out in section 233 of Pascal's posthumously published Pensées. These previously unpublished notes were assembled to form an incomplete treatise on Christian apologetics. The Wager uses the following logic: God is, or God is not. Reason cannot decide between the two alternatives. A Game is being played... where heads or tails will turn up. You must wager. Let us weigh the gain and the loss in wagering that God is. Let us estimate these two chances. If you gain, you gain all; if you lose, you lose nothing. Wager, then, without hesitation that He is.Pascal's Wager – Blaise Pascal
171. 2007 24 Hours of Le Mans – Four classes of cars raced together, with each class having honors for its highest finishers. GT2 classes were for modified grand tourer road cars. There was heavy attrition in the LMP2 class, in which only two competitors finished the race. In the GT1 class, Aston Martin achieved its first win over the Corvette since returning to the event in 2005. The GT2 class was a battle between Ferrari and Porsche, won by Porsche. The race was attended by over 250,000 spectators. Between the 2006 and 2007 races, the Circuit de la Sarthe was upgraded, most obviously by the reprofiling of the Tertre Rouge corner. A pedestrian tunnel -- immediately after Tertre Rouge -- was also built. The work had been planned to be carried out before the 2006 event, but it was delayed because of budgetary concerns. Nine new garages were built at the end of the pit lane, replacing the four temporary garages, built a few years earlier. The additional garages allowed the ACO to increase the number of entries it could grant from 50 to 55. The paddock behind the garages was also re-organized with more facilities added for spectators, including the Audi Tower monument. The public roads from the Indianapolis corner to the Porsche Curves were re-surfaced. This also increased safety by allowing the cars to slow themselves more efficiently using their brakes and tyres on tarmac. LMP1s with petrol engines kept their 90 litre tanks.2007 24 Hours of Le Mans – 2007 24 Hours of Le Mans
172. Monaco Grand Prix – The Monaco Grand Prix is a Formula One motor race held each year on the Circuit de Monaco. The circuit has been called "an exceptional location of prestige". In spite of the relatively low average speeds, it often involves the intervention of a safety car. It is the only Grand Prix that does not adhere to the FIA's mandated minimum race distance. The event was included in the first World Championship of Drivers in 1950. Graham Hill was known due to his five Monaco wins in the 1960s. Brazil's Ayrton Senna won more times than any other driver with six victories, winning five races consecutively between 1989 and 1993. Fernando Alonso is the only driver to have won the race in consecutive years for different constructors, winning for McLaren in 2007. Like European races, the Monaco Grand Prix predates the current World Championship. The principality's first Grand Prix was organised in 1929 by Antony Noghès, through the Automobile Club de Monaco. Antony's father, was founding president of the ACM, originally named Sport Vélocipédique Monégasque. The ACM made their first foray by holding the Rallye Automobile Monte Carlo in 1911. Their application was refused due to the lack of a major event held wholly within Monaco's boundaries. The rally could not be considered as it mostly used the roads of European countries. In order to attain national status, Noghès proposed the creation of an automobile Grand Prix in the streets of Monte Carlo.Monaco Grand Prix – William Grover-Williams at the 1929 Monaco Grand Prix
173. World War II – World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the world's nations -- including all of the great powers -- eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Axis. It directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history. In December 1941, Japan quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union invaded Germany and its allies. Thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political social structure of the world. The United Nations was established to prevent future conflicts. The great powers -- the United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, France -- became the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. The United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia and Africa began. Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to create a common identity. This article uses the conventional dating.World War II – Clockwise from top left: Chinese forces in the Battle of Wanjialing, Australian 25-pounder guns during the First Battle of El Alamein, German Stuka dive bombers on the Eastern Front in December 1943, a U.S. naval force in the Lingayen Gulf, Wilhelm Keitel signing the German Instrument of Surrender, Soviet troops in the Battle of Stalingrad
174. Peugeot 205 – The Peugeot 205 was a supermini car produced by the French manufacturer Peugeot from 1983 to 1998. It was declared'Car of the Decade' by CAR Magazine in 1990. It also won What Car?'s Car of the Year for 1984. It is often credited as the car which turned Peugeot's fortunes around. Before the 205, Peugeot was considered the most conservative of France's "big three" car manufacturers, producing large saloons such as the 505. Engines ranged from 954 cc in carburettor or fuel injected petrol and diesel versions. This is fully independent trailing arms. It was designed to minimise suspension intrusion into the boot, giving a wide flat loadspace, while providing excellent ride and handling. It was launched on 24 February 1983, with British sales beginning in August that year. The diesel models employed the XUD PSA Diesel engine, lifted from the Citroën BX, introduced in September 1982. The XUD7 Diesel Engines were so petrol-like that many buyers were won over by petrol car performance combined with diesel economy. There were also various versions intended for commercial use, such as the two-seater XA-series. There was also a tall-bodied special version on XA or XE-basis built by independent coachbuilders like Gruau and Durisotti. Gruau called the "VU", while the five-seat XE-based version was called the "VP". Durisotti began building the 205 Multi in 1986; it was called the "205 Multi New Look".Peugeot 205 – Peugeot 205
175. Angevin Empire – Its rulers were Henry II, John. The empire was established as King of England, Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy. Through marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine, he became ruler of the Duchy of Aquitaine. John lost control of all his continental possessions, apart from Gascony in southern Aquitaine. This defeat set the scene for the Hundred Years' War. The term Angevin Empire is a neologism defining the lands of the House of Plantagenet: Henry II and his sons Richard I and John. Another son, Duke of Brittany, ruled Brittany and established a separate line there. The term Angevin Empire was coined under the Angevin Kings. In France, the term Espace Plantagenêt is sometimes used to describe the fiefdoms the Plantagenets had acquired. The demonym, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, has been since 1653. Other historians argue that Henry II's empire was neither large enough to be seriously called an empire. There was no imperial title, as implied by the term Angevin Empire. Auvergne was also in their capacity as dukes of Aquitaine. This meant that rather than the empire being controlled fully by the monarch, he would delegate power to specially appointed subjects in different areas. England was divided in each enforcing the common law.Angevin Empire – Chinon Castle, the administrative centre and location of the main treasury in the Angevin Empire.
176. DADVSI – DADVSI is the abbreviation of the French Loi sur le Droit d’Auteur et les Droits Voisins dans la Société de l’Information. Most of the bill focussed on the exchange of the criminalizing of the circumvention of digital rights management protection measures. Some amendments to the bill, not present in the original version, would potentially require manufacturers to share their digital music formats with other software developers. The title of the DADVSI law refers to droit droits voisins. This concept is reflected on Copyright. Copyright is a related concept, but pertains to Anglo-American common law; one notable difference is that copyright does not generally involve moral rights. The legal clauses governing authors' related rights form the first book of the French Code of Intellectual Property. This article will thus refer from this code as CPI Lnnn. The latter is facto nearly compulsory in case of songwriters and composers, almost all of whom are members of Sacem. Publishers of audio recordings enjoy "related rights". These have a shorter duration than the rights of authors. In practice performers often have them enforced by societies. The exclusive right of the author is not absolute. This is how the US doctrine of fair use is justified to copyright treaties for instance. Exceptions to copyright in French law are defined in CPI L122-5.DADVSI – May 7, 2006, march
177. French people – The French are an ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France. This connection may be legal, cultural. France was still regional differences in the late 19th century. According to the first article of the French Constitution, is to be a citizen of France, regardless of one's origin, race, or religion. The debate concerning the integration of this view with the principles underlying the European Community remains open. A large number of foreigners have traditionally been succeeded in doing so. Indeed, the country has long valued its openness, the quality of services available. Application for French citizenship is often interpreted as a renunciation of previous allegiance unless a dual citizenship agreement exists between the two countries. European citizens enjoy formal rights to employment in the state sector. Seeing itself as an inclusive nation with universal values, France strongly advocated assimilation. However, the success of such assimilation has recently been called into question. There is increasing dissatisfaction within, growing ethno-cultural enclaves. The 2005 French riots in some impoverished suburbs were an example of such tensions. However they should not be interpreted as ethnic conflicts but as social conflicts born out of socioeconomic problems endangering proper integration. The name "France" etymologically derives from the territory of the Franks.French people – Louis XIV of France "The Sun-King"