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|Points of interest related to Italy on Wikipedia:
Outline – History – Portal – Category – WikiProject – Deletions – Cleanup – Stubs – Assessment – To-do
1. Italy – Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with Vatican City. With million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state. Rome ultimately emerged as the dominant power, becoming the leading cultural, political, religious centre of Western civilisation. The legacy of the Roman Empire can be observed in the global distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity and the Latin script. Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars, polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo, Machiavelli. However, the southern areas of the country remained largely excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Italy has eighth largest economy in the world. It enjoys the highest life expectancy in the EU. The corpus of the solutions proposed by historians and linguists is very wide. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. But by his time the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. Excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible non-Indo-European origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni, known for their rock carvings. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily.Italy – The Colosseum in Rome, built c. 70 – 80 AD, is considered one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering of ancient history.
3. History of Italy – The history of Italy begins with the arrival of the first hominins 850,000 years ago at Monte Poggiolo. Italy shows evidence of habitation by modern humans beginning about 43,000 years ago. It is reached by the Neolithic early as 6000-5500 BC Cardium Pottery and Impressed ware. The collapse of the Western Empire by the end of the 5th century is taken to mark the end of Late Antiquity. A Lombard Kingdom of Italy was established, although parts of the peninsula remained until the 11th century. With the idea of the nation state in the 19th century, the peninsula was unified in the late 19th century. The new Kingdom of Italy, established in 1861, quickly modernized and built a large colonial empire, colonizing parts of Africa, countries along the Mediterranean. However, many regions of the young nation remained poor, originating the Italian diaspora. Part of the victorious allied powers of World War I, Italy defeated the Austrian Empire. Soon however, the liberal state collapsed to social unrest: the Fascists, led by Benito Mussolini, took over and set up an authoritarian dictatorship. As a result of a Constitutional Referendum, the monarchy was abolished. The new republic was proclaimed on 2 June 1946. In the 1960s, Italy saw a period of rapid modernization and sustained economic growth, the so-called Italian economic miracle. Italy plays a prominent role in regional and global military, diplomatic affairs. In prehistoric times, the Italian peninsula was rather different from its current shape.History of Italy – Matera, which dates from Palaeolithic 10th millennium BC, (region of Basilicata).
5. List of basic France topics – The following outline is provided as an overview and topical guide of France: France – country in Western Europe with several overseas regions and territories. Metropolitan France extends to the Atlantic Ocean. From its shape, it is often referred to as l'Hexagone. The 5 overseas regions are untouched: French departments are roughly analogous to English counties. French culture Contemporary French Civilization, journal, University of Illinois. Radio France Internationale in English culture pages Radio France Internationale in English Visiting France pageList of basic France topics – An enlargeable satellite image of Metropolitan France
6. List of basic Thailand topics – Formerly known as Siam. Thailand is a monarchy and governed by a military junta that took power in May 2014. Although a constitutional system was established in 1932, the military have continued to intervene periodically in politics. Thailand experienced economic growth between 1985 and 1996, becoming a newly industrialized country and a major exporter. Manufacturing, tourism are leading sectors of the economy. Among the ten ASEAN countries, the country's HDI had been rated as "high". Altogether Thailand has 877 districts, not including the 50 districts of Bangkok which are called khet since the Bangkok reform in 1972.List of basic Thailand topics – The Asian Elephant, Elephas maximus is the national animal of Thailand
7. List of basic Japan topics – The characters that make up Japan's name mean "sun-origin", why Japan is sometimes referred as the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is an archipelago of 6,852 islands. Islands are Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, Shikoku, which together comprise about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area. The entire island is now governed by Russia. Ministry of Foreign Affairs—Detailed papers on Japan's foreign policy, education programs, culture and life.List of basic Japan topics – Tokyo
8. List of basic Taiwan topics – Taipei is the seat of the central government. Following the civil war, the Communist Party of China took full control of mainland China and founded the People's Republic of China in 1949. Its jurisdiction became limited to Taiwan and its surrounding islands. In 1971, the PRC assumed China's seat at the United Nations, which the ROC originally occupied. During the latter half of the 20th century, Taiwan is now an advanced industrial economy. In early 1990s, Taiwan evolved into a multi-party democracy with universal suffrage. Taiwan is a member of the WTO and APEC. The 19th-largest economy in its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy. Three provincial cities: Chiayi, Keelung, Hsinchu. 13 counties: Changhua, Chiayi, Hsinchu, Hualien, Kinmen, Lienchiang, Miaoli, Nantou, Penghu, Pingtung, Taitung, Yilan and Yunlin. Taiwan e-GovernmentList of basic Taiwan topics – Satellite photograph of Taiwan taken by MODIS aboard NASA's Terra satellite).
9. List of basic Iceland topics – It is considered part of Northern Europe. It is the least populous of the Nordic countries, having a population of about 329,000. Iceland is geologically active on a large scale; this defines the landscape in various ways. The interior mainly consists of a plateau characterized by sand fields, glaciers, while many big glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Warmed by the Gulf Stream, Iceland provides a habitable environment and nature.List of basic Iceland topics – The location of Iceland
11. Cesare Laurenti (engineer) – Cesare Laurenti was an Italian naval engineer. Laurenti was a naval officer who designed submarines and founded a company to build them. He devoted himself in underwater navigation. Laurenti transformed it by adding a engine, thus allowing a large surfaced cruising range while recharging the batteries underway. In 1909-10 he designed the USS G-4 for the US Navy. Laurenti is also credited with assisting with the Provana-class, Glauco-class, Medusa-class, Argonauta, F-class, the British S-class. Laurenti, Cesare Gardiner, Robert, Conway's all the world's fighting ships 1906-1921 Conway Maritime Press, 1985. ISBN 0-85177-245-5.Cesare Laurenti (engineer) – v
12. Cesare Laurenti (painter) – Cesare Laurenti was an Italian painter. Laurenti moved at the age of 18 to work as an engraver, under the guidance of the sculptor Luigi Ceccon. He was supported by the Count Leopoldo Ferri in this regard, was able to meet the critic Pietro Selvatica. In 1875, he married Annina Levi. In 1876, he moved to continue his training in Florence. He trained under Giuseppe Ciaranfi. He worked under Domenico Morelli. Having returned in 1881, he finally settled in Venice. After early works of genre painting, he developed a personal approach aimed at expressing the range of human feelings through female figures. He painted in oil, watercolors. At a Rome exhibition, he displayed After the Journey; Trai fiori; and A priest. At the National Expostion of Venice, he displayed a painting titled Frons Animi Interpres. The various awards Laurenti won, include the Prince Umberto Prize at the first Milan Triennale in 1891. He took part in the Venice Biennale with a solo show of his work in 1907. Architect, he designed the new fish market at the Rialto, inaugurated in 1908, produced some of the sculptural elements himself.Cesare Laurenti (painter) – La meraviglia in attesa, 1891-1897 (Fondazione Cariplo)
13. Arabs in ItalyArabs in Italy – Africa
15. List of national quality awards – This article is a list of national quality awards. A national award is typically part of a larger effort by a government to make its country's businesses more competitive in the world economy. The awarding institutions are generally not-for-profit organizations with government ties. In many countries, however, the awarding institutions are consortia of businesses. Candidate companies compete in award-specific assessments of business excellence criteria. Competitors are evaluated by teams of examiners who are volunteers in Germany, the United Kingdom, possibly elsewhere. Several examiners separately evaluate company submissions against award criteria after which they meet to agree on a consensus score. The most widely-recognized quality awards are the EFQM Excellence and Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Awards. The national quality phenomenon grew out of the Total Quality Management movement of the 1980s.List of national quality awards – An EFQM Excellence Award from 2012
16. Six Sigma – Six Sigma is a set of techniques and tools for process improvement. It was introduced while working at Motorola in 1986. Jack Welch made it central at General Electric in 1995. It is used in many industrial sectors. Six Sigma originated from terminology associated with statistical modeling of manufacturing processes. The maturity of a manufacturing process can be described by the percentage of defect-free products it creates. Six Sigma doctrine asserts: Continuous efforts to achieve predictable process results are of vital importance to business success. Manufacturing and business processes have characteristics that can be defined, controlled. Achieving sustained improvement requires commitment from the entire organization, particularly from top-level management. Features that set Six Sigma apart from quality-improvement initiatives include: A clear focus on achieving measurable and quantifiable financial returns from any Six Sigma project. An increased emphasis on strong and passionate management leadership and support. A clear commitment to making decisions on the basis of verifiable data and statistical methods, rather than assumptions and guesswork. The term "six sigma" is used in statistical quality control, which evaluates process capability. Originally, it referred to the ability of manufacturing processes to produce a very high proportion of output within specification. Processes that operate with "six quality" over the short term are assumed to produce long-term defect levels below 3.4 defects per million opportunities.Six Sigma – The common Six Sigma symbol
17. OCLC – The Online Computer Library Center is a nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded as the Ohio College Library Center. Its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. The group first met on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system. Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 1971. This was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of data. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. By 2008, there were 15 United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council. In early 2009, OCLC opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic, full-text information to anyone. Its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat -- the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.OCLC – Fred Kilgour (1st director of OCLC)
18. 1994 San Marino Grand Prix – It was the third race of the 1994 Formula One season. The weekend was marked by the deaths of Austrian driver Roland Ratzenberger and of three-time world champion Ayrton Senna in separate accidents. Other incidents saw several mechanics and spectators injured. In terms of driver fatalities, this was Formula One's darkest weekend since two drivers were killed at the 1960 Belgian Grand Prix. Michael Schumacher, driving for Benetton, won the race with Damon Hill. Nicola Larini, driving for Ferrari, scored the first points of his career when he achieved a finish in second position. Mika Häkkinen finished third in a McLaren. Senna was given a funeral in his home town of São Paulo, Brazil, where around 500,000 people lined the streets to watch the coffin pass. Italian prosecutors charged six people with Senna's death, all of whom were later acquitted. The case took more than 11 years to conclude due to a retrial following the original verdict of not guilty. Behind Schumacher and Barrichello was Damon Hill in third place on six points, tied on points with Ferrari driver Gerhard Berger. Berger's team-mate Jean Alesi was fifth on four points. In the World Constructors' Championship, Ferrari were second on ten points, with Jordan third on seven points. There were two driver changes heading into the race. Aguri Suzuki was replaced with Andrea de Cesaris at Jordan.1994 San Marino Grand Prix – Roland Ratzenberger was fatally injured in qualifying after crashing due to a front-wing failure.
19. SS Andrea Doria – For a country attempting to rebuild its reputation after World War II, Andrea Doria was an icon of Italian national pride. Of all Italy's ships at the time, Andrea Doria was the largest, supposedly safest. Launched on June 1951, the ship undertook its maiden voyage on January 14, 1953. Struck in the side, the top-heavy Andrea Doria immediately started to list severely to starboard, which left half of its lifeboats unusable. While crew were rescued and survived, 46 people died with the ship as a consequence of the collision. The evacuated liner capsized and sank the following morning. This accident remains the worst disaster to occur in United States waters since the sinking of the SS Eastland in 1915. Its aftermath were heavily covered by the news media. Andrea Doria had a length of 212 m, a gross register tonnage of 29,100. Instead, Minoletti, designed Andrea Doria for luxury. Because it sailed the southern Atlantic routes, Andrea Doria was the first ship to feature one for each class. As was the rule aboard Trans-Atlantic passenger liners, each class was strictly segregated to specific parts of the ship. In addition, 563 crew members were charged with maintaining the ship. The ship was also considered one of the safest ships ever built. Equipped with a double hull, Andrea Doria was divided into 11 watertight compartments.SS Andrea Doria – The SS Andrea Doria at home in port
20. Battle of Cannae – The Battle of Cannae was a major battle of the Second Punic War that took place on 2 August 216 BC in Apulia, in southeast Italy. It is regarded both as one of the worst defeats in Roman history. Having recovered at Trebia and Lake Trasimene, the Romans decided to engage Hannibal at Cannae, with roughly 86,000 Roman and allied troops. The Romans massed their heavy infantry than usual while Hannibal utilized the double-envelopment tactic. This was so successful that the Roman army was effectively destroyed as a force. Following the defeat, several other Italian city-states defected from the Roman Republic to Carthage. He quickly won major victories at Trebia and at Lake Trasimene. After these losses, the Romans appointed Fabius Maximus as dictator to deal with the threat. Fabius used warfare against Hannibal, cutting off his supply lines and avoiding pitched battles. The majority of Romans were eager to see a quick conclusion to the war. It was feared that, if Hannibal continued plundering Italy unopposed, Rome's allies might defect to the Carthaginian side for self-preservation. Rome typically employed four legions each year, two hundred cavalry. Some 40,000 Roman soldiers and an estimated 2,400 cavalry, formed the nucleus of this massive new army. However, some have suggested that the destruction of an army of 90,000 troops would be impossible. They argue that Rome probably had 6,000 cavalry against Hannibal's 35,000 troops and 10,000 cavalry.Battle of Cannae – A modern monument near the site of the Battle of Cannae.
21. Italian Renaissance – Italy became the recognized European leader in all these areas to varying degrees retained this lead until about 1600. The European Renaissance centred in the city of Florence. It later spread to Venice, where the remains of Greek culture were brought together, providing humanist scholars with new texts. The Italian Renaissance peaked in the mid-16th century as foreign invasions plunged the region into the turmoil of the Italian Wars. However, the ideals of the Renaissance endured and spread into the rest of Europe, setting off the Northern Renaissance, the English Renaissance. The Italian Renaissance is best known for its cultural achievements. Accounts of Renaissance literature usually begin with his friend and contemporary Boccaccio. Famous vernacular poets of the 15th century include Luigi Pulci, Matteo Maria Boiardo, Ludovico Ariosto. 15th century writers such as the Platonist philosopher Marsilio Ficino made extensive translations from both Latin and Greek. The same is true for architecture, as practiced by Brunelleschi, Leon Battista Alberti, Bramante. Their works include Florence Cathedral, the Tempio Malatestiano in Rimini. Yet cultural contributions notwithstanding, some present-day historians also see the era as one of the beginning of economic regression for Italy. By the Late Middle Ages, southern Italy were generally poorer than the North. The Papacy was affronted when the Avignon Papacy was created as a consequence of pressure from King Philip the Fair of France. In the south, Sicily had for some time been by the Arabs and then the Normans.Italian Renaissance – Renaissance
22. Battle of Bicocca – The Battle of Bicocca or La Bicocca was fought on 27 April 1522, during the Italian War of 1521–26. Lautrec then withdrew from Lombardy, leaving the Duchy of Milan in Imperial hands. Having been driven by an Imperial advance in late 1521, Lautrec had regrouped, attempting to strike at Colonna's lines of communication. The Swiss pikemen were halted at a sunken road backed by earthworks. Having suffered massive casualties from the fire of Spanish arquebusiers, the Swiss retreated. Meanwhile, an attempt by French cavalry to flank Colonna's position proved equally ineffective. It was also one of the first engagements in which firearms played a decisive role on the battlefield. A large Papal force under Duke of Mantua, together with Spanish troops from Naples and some smaller Italian contingents, concentrated near Mantua. Colonna had no intention of stopping his advance, however. On the night of November 23, he launched a attack on the city, overwhelming the Venetian troops defending one of the walls. Following some abortive street-fighting, Lautrec withdrew with about 12,000 men. The French proceeded hoping to draw Colonna into a decisive battle. Colonna, leaving Milan, fortified himself of the city. Lautrec was suddenly confronted, however, with the intransigence of the Swiss, who formed the largest contingent of the French army. They complained that they had not received any of the pay promised them in Lombardy.Battle of Bicocca – Anne de Montmorency, painted by Jean Clouet (c. 1530). Montmorency commanded the Swiss assault, and was the only survivor among the French nobles who accompanied it.
23. Battle of Ceresole – Despite having inflicted substantial casualties on the Imperial troops, the French subsequently failed to exploit their victory by taking Milan. The battle opened with several hours of skirmishing between opposing bands of an ineffectual artillery exchange, after which d'Avalos ordered a general advance. In the center, Imperial landsknechts clashed with both sides suffering terrific casualties. Ceresole was one of the pitched battles during the latter half of the Italian Wars. By the winter of 1543 -- 44, a stalemate had developed in the Piedmont between the French, under the Imperial army, under d'Avalos. The two armies occupied themselves primarily with attacking each other's outlying strongholds. In January 1544, Enghien laid siege to Carignano, defended under the command of Pirro Colonna. Montluc, returning to Italy, brought with him nearly a hundred volunteers including the young Gaspard de Coligny. D'Avalos, having waited for the arrival a large body of landsknechts dispatched by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, set off towards Carignano. Enghien and Montluc felt that the open ground would give a significant tactical advantage. The French army was divided into right and left wings of the French line. To their left was Enghien himself with three companies of heavy cavalry, a company of light horse, the volunteers from Paris—in total, around 450 troopers. The Imperial line formed up on a similar ridge facing the French position. In the center were the 7,000 landsknechts under the command of Eriprando Madruzzo. To their right was d'Avalos himself, together with the small force of about 200 heavy cavalry under Carlo Gonzaga.Battle of Ceresole – Portrait of Alfonso d'Avalos, Marchese del Vasto, in Armor with a Page (oil on canvas by Titian, c. 1533)
24. Italian War of 1521 – The Italian War of 1521–26, sometimes known as the Four Years' War, was a part of the Italian Wars. The war broke out across Western Europe late in 1521, when a French–Navarrese expedition attempted to reconquer Navarre while a French army invaded the Low Countries. Other Imperial forces attacked northern France, where they were stopped in turn. At the Battle of Bicocca on 27 April 1522, Imperial and Papal forces defeated the French, driving them from Lombardy. Following the battle, fighting again spilled onto French soil, while Venice made a separate peace. The English invaded France in 1523, while Charles de Bourbon, alienated by Francis's attempts to seize his inheritance, allied himself with the Emperor. A French attempt to regain Lombardy in 1524 provided Bourbon with an opportunity to invade Provence at the head of a Spanish army. Only a few weeks after his release, however, he repudiated the terms of the treaty, starting the War of the League of Cognac. Although the Italian Wars would continue for another three decades, they would end with France having failed to regain any substantial territories in Italy. By 1518, the peace that had prevailed after the Battle of Marignano was beginning to crumble. They were divided, however, on the question of the Imperial succession. Maximilian's death in 1519 brought the Imperial election to the forefront of European politics. Pope Leo X, threatened by the presence of Spanish troops a forty miles from the Vatican, supported the French candidacy. The prince-electors themselves, with the exception of Frederick of Saxony, who refused to countenance the campaigning, promised their support at once. The final outcome, however, was not determined by the exorbitant bribes, which included Leo promising to make the Archbishop of Mainz his permanent legate.Italian War of 1521 – The Battle of Pavia by an unknown Flemish artist (oil on panel, 16th century)
25. War of the League of Cambrai – Although the League was initially successful, friction between Julius and Louis caused it to collapse by 1510; Julius then allied himself against France. Julius, humiliated by the failure of the Imperial invasion, turned with an offer of alliance. On 10 representatives of the Papacy, France, the Holy Roman Empire and Ferdinand I of Spain concluded the League of Cambrai against the Republic. On 15 Louis left Milan at the head of a French army and moved rapidly into Venetian territory. Alviano, disregarding the new orders, continued the engagement; his army was eventually destroyed. The Venetian collapse was complete. D'Este, having been appointed Gonfalonier on 19 April, seized the Polesine for himself. The newly arrived Imperial governors, however, quickly proved to be unpopular. In mid-July, the citizens of Padua, aided cavalry under the command of the proveditor Andrea Gritti, revolted. Padua was restored to Venetian control on 17 July 1509. The success of the revolt finally pushed Maximilian into action. In early August, a massive Imperial army, accompanied by bodies of Spanish troops, set out from Trento into the Veneto. In mid-November, Pitigliano returned to the offensive; Venetian troops easily defeated the remaining Imperial forces, capturing Vicenza, Este, Feltre and Belluno. Although a subsequent attack on Verona failed, Pitigliano destroyed a Papal army in the process. Francesco Guicciardini credited the decisive victory to Alfonso himself.War of the League of Cambrai – Pope Julius II, painted by Raphael (oil on wood, c. 1511). Julius attempted to secure Papal authority in Italy by creating the League of Cambrai, an alliance aimed at curbing Venetian power.
26. Sicilian Baroque – The Sicilian Baroque style came during a major surge of rebuilding following the massive earthquake in 1693. Around 1730, Sicilian architects had developed a confidence in their use of the Baroque style. Their particular interpretation led to a personalised and highly localised art form on the island. From the 1780s onwards, the style was gradually replaced by the newly fashionable neoclassicism. Its Baroque architecture gives an architectural character that has lasted into the 21st century. Palazzi built as private residences for the Sicilian aristocracy. The earliest examples of this style in Sicily were typically heavy-handed pastiches of buildings seen by Sicilian visitors to Rome, Florence, Naples. However, even at this early stage, provincial architects had begun to incorporate certain vernacular features of Sicily's older architecture. Balconies, often complemented by intricate wrought iron balustrades before that date. External staircases. Most palazzi were designed for formal entrance by a carriage through an archway in the street façade, leading to a courtyard within. An double staircase would lead from the courtyard to the piano nobile. Canted, concave, or convex façades. Occasionally in a palazzo, an external staircase would be fitted into the recess created by the curve. The Sicilian belfry.Sicilian Baroque – Illustration 1: Sicilian Baroque. Basilica della Collegiata in Catania, designed by Stefano Ittar, circa 1768.
27. Galileo Galilei – Galileo Galilei was an Italian polymath: astronomer, physicist, engineer, philosopher, mathematician, he played a major role in the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century. Galileo has been called the "father of the "father of science". Galileo also worked in applied science and technology, inventing an improved military compass and other instruments. Galileo's championing of heliocentrism and Copernicanism was controversial during his lifetime, when most subscribed to either geocentrism or the Tychonic system. He met with opposition from astronomers, who doubted heliocentrism because of the absence of an observed stellar parallax. He was tried by the Inquisition, found "vehemently suspect of heresy", forced to recant. He spent the rest of his life under house arrest. Three of Galileo's five siblings survived infancy. Michelangelo, also became a noted composer although he contributed during Galileo's young adulthood. Michelangelo would occasionally have to support his musical excursions. These financial burdens may have contributed to Galileo's early fire to develop inventions that would bring him additional income. When Galileo Galilei was eight, his family moved to Florence, but he was left with Jacopo Borghini for two years. Galileo then was educated at 35 southeast of Florence. The Italian male given name "Galileo" derives from the Latin "Galilaeus", meaning "of Galilee", a biblically significant region in Northern Israel. The biblical roots of Galileo's name and surname were to become the subject of a famous pun.Galileo Galilei – Portrait of Galileo Galilei by Giusto Sustermans
28. Pope Pius XII – Pope Pius XII, born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli, reigned as Pope from 2 March 1939 to his death in 1958. After the war Pius XII advocated reconciliation, including lenient policies towards Axis and Axis-satellite nations. The Church experienced severe mass deportations of Catholic clergy in the Eastern Bloc. Pius XII was a staunch opponent of Communism and of the Italian Communist Party. Pius XII explicitly invoked ex cathedra papal in his 1950 Apostolic constitution Munificentissimus Deus. His magisterium includes radio broadcasts. He eliminated the Italian majority in 1946. In 1954, Pius XII began to suffer from ill health, which would continue until his death in 1958. The embalming of his body was mishandled, with effects that were evident during the funeral. He was succeeded by Pope John XXIII. Pope Benedict XVI declared Pius XII Venerable on 19 December 2009. His parents were Virginia Pacelli. Together with his two sisters, Giuseppina and Elisabetta, he grew up in the Parione district in the centre of Rome. The family worshipped at Chiesa Nuova. Eugenio served there as an altar boy from 1886.Pope Pius XII – Eugenio Pacelli at the age of six in 1882
29. Domenico Selvo – Domenico Selvo was the 31st Doge of Venice, serving from 1071 to 1084. At the same time, he forged new agreements with the major nations that would set up a long period of prosperity for the Republic of Venice. Within the city itself, he supervised a longer period of the construction of the modern St Mark's Basilica than any other Doge. The basilica's complex architecture and expensive decorations stand during this period. The essentially democratic way in which he not only also removed from power was part of an important transition of Venetian political philosophy. As the reputation of Pietro II grew, the Venetian people began to wonder if he was secretly planning to establish a hereditary monarchy. Scandal marked much of Otto's reign as he showed a clear inclination by elevating several relatives to positions of power. Domenico Flabanico, a successful merchant, was called by the people to the position of Doge. This reality, coupled with the fresh memories of power-hungry Doges, set the stage for Domenico Selvo. What little is known of Selvo's past is based mostly on accounts of his reputation when he entered his Dogeship. Being connected to the relatively popular Doge might have been one of the causes for his own initial popularity. The account gives a valuable glimpse of the power of the popular will of the Venetian people. Over the previous two centuries, the rule of quasi-tyrannies had plagued the popular belief that Venetians held democratic control over their leaders. The location also proved ideal for the very same reasons. After the funeral, a large crowd assembled in armed galleys.Domenico Selvo – Robert Guiscard as depicted on a coin
30. Christopher Columbus – Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer, navigator, colonizer, citizen of the Republic of Genoa. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean. Those voyages and his efforts to establish permanent settlements on the island of Hispaniola initiated the European colonization of the New World. Western imperialism and economic competition were emerging among European kingdoms through the establishment of trade routes and colonies. These voyages had, therefore, an enormous impact in the historical development of the modern Western world. He spearheaded the transatlantic slave trade and has been accused by several historians of initiating the genocide of the Hispaniola natives. Columbus himself saw his accomplishments primarily in the light of spreading the Christian religion. Columbus never admitted that he had reached a continent previously unknown to Europeans, rather than the East Indies for which he had set course. He called the inhabitants of the lands that he visited indios. The name Christopher Columbus is the Anglicisation of the Latin Christophorus Columbus. His name in Italian is Cristoforo Colombo and, in Spanish, it is Cristóbal Colón. He was born before 31 October 1451 in the territory of the Republic of Genoa, though the exact location remains disputed. His mother was Susanna Fontanarossa. Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino, Giacomo were his brothers. Bartolomeo worked in a cartography workshop in Lisbon for at least part of his adulthood.Christopher Columbus – Posthumous portrait of Christopher Columbus by Sebastiano del Piombo, 1519. There are no known authentic portraits of Columbus.
31. Teresa Cristina of the Two Sicilies – Dona Teresa Cristina, nicknamed "the Mother of the Brazilians", was the Empress consort of Emperor Dom Pedro II of Brazil, who reigned from 1831 to 1889. The Princess was married by proxy to Pedro II in 1843. Despite a cold beginning, the couple's relationship improved as time passed, due primarily to kindness, simplicity. These traits also helped her win the hearts of the Brazilian people, her distance from political controversies shielded her from criticism. She also sponsored archaeological studies in Italy and Italian immigration to Brazil. The marriage between Pedro II never became romantic, although a bond based upon family, mutual respect and fondness did develop. The Empress was a dutiful unfailingly never interposed with her own views in public. She remained silent on the topic of his suspected extra-marital relationships—including a liaison with her daughters' governess. In turn, she was treated with unfailing respect and her position at Court and home was always secure. Of the four children Teresa Cristina bore him, two boys died in infancy and a daughter of typhoid fever at the early age of 24. Being cast from her adopted land had a devastating effect on Teresa Cristina's health. Ill, she died of respiratory failure leading after the monarchy's collapse. She was greatly loved both during her afterwards. She was even respected by the Republicans who overthrew the Empire. Teresa Cristina was the daughter of the then-Duke of Calabria, who later became King Don Francesco I of the Two Sicilies.Teresa Cristina of the Two Sicilies – Teresa Cristina at age 66, 1888
32. Flag of Italy – The flag of Italy is a tricolour featuring three equally sized vertical pales of green, white and red, with the green at the hoist side. Its current form was formally adopted on 1 January 1948. The first entity to use the Italian tricolour was the Cisalpine Republic in 1797, which supplanted Milan after Napoleon's victorious army crossed Italy in 1796. A more religious interpretation is that the green represents hope, the white represents faith, the red represents charity; the three theological virtues. The tricolour was reportedly used for the first time on November 13–14. On May 18. In 1799, the independent Republic of Lucca adopted as its flag a horizontal tricolour with green uppermost; this lasted until 1801. In 1805 Napoleon installed Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi, as Princess of Lucca and Piombino. This affair is commemorated in the opening of Leo Tolstoy's Peace. The flag of the Kingdom of Italy was that in rectangular form charged with the golden Napoleonic eagle. This remained in use in 1814. During this period, the tricolore became the symbol which united all the efforts of the Italian people towards independence. The Italian tricolour, defaced with the Savoyan coat of arms, was first adopted by the Kingdom of Sardinia -- Piedmont army on 1848. The civil state variants were adopted in 1851. It is worthy of note, however, that the arms bear the red-white-red flag of the opponent of Italian unification.Flag of Italy – Italian soldiers with the RSI flag in Rome, March 1944
33. Milan – Milan is the capital of the Lombardy region, the most populous metropolitan area and the second most populous comune in Italy. That of the Metropolitan City of Milan is 3,209,000. Milan is one of global significance. In terms of GDP, it has the largest among European non-capital cities. Milan lies at the heart of one of the Four Motors for Europe. Milan is an Alpha leading global city, with strengths in tourism. Its district hosts Italy's Stock Exchange and the headquarters of the largest national and international banks and companies. The city hosts academies and universities, with 11 % of the national total enrolled students. Milan's museums, landmarks attract over 9 million visitors annually. Milan -- after Naples -- is the Italian city with the highest number of accredited stars from the Michelin Guide. The city hosted the Universal Exposition in 2015. Milan is home to two of Europe's major football teams, FC Internazionale. The etymology of Milan is uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin Mediolanum comes from the Latin words medio and planus. However, some scholars believe lanum comes from the Celtic lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines.Milan – Milan Cathedral, La Scala opera house and Porta Nuova business district
34. Camillo Benso, conte di Cavour – Cavour put forth several economic reforms in his native region of Piedmont in his earlier years, founded the political newspaper Il Risorgimento. After a large rail program, he became prime minister in 1852. English historian Denis Mack Smith says Cavour was the most successful parliamentarian in Italian history but he was not especially liberal. He interfered in parliamentary elections. Cavour also practiced undesirable policies which were carried over into post-Risorgimento Italy. Camillo Benso was born into a family that had gained a fair amount of land during the French occupation. His godparents were Prince Camille Borghese, after whom Camillo was named. His older Gustavo were initially educated at home. He was sent to the Turin Military Academy when he was only ten years old. In July 1824 he was named a page to Charles Albert, the king of Piedmont. Cavour frequently ran afoul of the authorities in the academy, as he was too headstrong to deal with the rigid military discipline. He was once forced to live three days on bread and water because he had been caught with books that the academy had banned. He was found to be apt at the mathematical disciplines, was therefore enlisted in the Engineer Corps in the Piedmontese-Sardinian army in 1827. Cavour administered the estate outside the capital serving as mayor there from 1832 to the revolutionary upheaval of 1848. Cavour then lived time in Switzerland, with his Protestant relatives in Geneva.Camillo Benso, conte di Cavour – Camillo Benso, count of Cavour
35. Tommaso Francini – Tommaso Francini and his younger brother Alessandro Francini were Florentine hydraulics engineers and garden designers. Their first project, begun in 1598, was to provide fountains, grottoes, above all, water-driven automata for the series of garden terraces at Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Not all of Tommaso Francini's mechanisms for courtly entertainments were garden features. In the reign of Louis XIII, Francini remained in the employ of the Queen Mother. Alessandro Francini brought out a Livre d'architecture in 1631 that featured many fantastically rusticated doorways and gates. Members of the Francini clan were still at work in the eighteenth century. Villa Medicea di Pratolino. The water organ. Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Grottos and fountains, engraved in 1614 by Alexandre Francini. Château de Fontainebleau. Palais du Luxembourg, Paris. Aqueduct, grotto and Medici Fountain. Château de Rueil. It has been suggested that gardens were inspired by those of the Villa Aldobrandini at Frascati.Tommaso Francini – Abraham Bosse after Francini, one of the (unbuilt?) fountains of St-Germain-en-Laye, 1624.
36. Italian conquest of British Somaliland – The Italian expedition was part of the East African Campaign. During the Second Italo-Abyssinian War in October 1935, the Italians again invaded this time from Italian Somaliland and Eritrea. At this time, the Kingdom of Egypt included the Sudan as the United Kingdom known as the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. While the Suez Canal were obvious targets, an Italian invasion of either French Somaliland or British Somaliland were reasonable choices too. Mussolini initially instead looked forward to propaganda triumphs in the Sudan and British East Africa. The Italian General Staff was planning starting after 1942. In the summer of 1940, they were not prepared for a long war or to occupy large areas of Africa. These were greatly reduced by the terms of the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936. The small British and Commonwealth force garrisoned the Red Sea route. The canal was vital to British communications with its Far Eastern and Indian Ocean territories. In mid-1939, Lieutenant-General Archibald Wavell was appointed General Officer Commanding-in-Chief of the new Middle East Command, over the Mediterranean and Middle East theatres. Until the Franco-Axis armistice, the French divisions in Tunisia faced the 5th Army on the western Libyan border. In Libya, in Egypt, the British had about 36,000 troops, with another 27,500 men training in Palestine. Wavell had about 86,000 troops at his disposal for Libya, Iraq, Syria, Iran and East Africa. The Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden convened a conference at the end of October 1940.Italian conquest of British Somaliland – The Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera covering the start of the Somaliland offensive
37. Italian Mare Nostrum – Mare Nostrum was a Roman name for the Mediterranean Sea. The rise of Italian nationalism of the 1880s led to calls for the establishment of an Italian colonial empire. The phrase was first revived by the Italian poet d'Annunzio. The term was again used by Benito Mussolini for use in a similar manner to Adolf Hitler's lebensraum. Mussolini believed that Italy was the most powerful of the Mediterranean countries after World War I. When World War II started Italy was already a major Mediterranean power that controlled the south shores of the central basin. The Siege of Malta sought to extend Axis control over the Sea. He referred to making the Mediterranean Sea "an Italian lake". This aim, however, was challenged by the Allied navies at sea and the Allied armies and resistance movements on land. Despite periods of Axis ascendancy during the Battle of the Mediterranean it ended altogether with the final Italian defeat of September 1943. Nine-dotted line Lowe, C.J.. Italian Foreign Policy 1870–1940. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-27372-2. Tellegen-Couperus, Olga.Italian Mare Nostrum – The Roman Empire at its farthest extent in AD 117
38. Dillinger Is Dead – Dillinger Is Dead is a 1969 Italian drama directed by Marco Ferreri. It stars Annie Girardot. The story is a satiric blend of reality. It follows a bored, alienated man over the course of one night in his home. The title comes from a newspaper headline featured in the film which proclaims the death of the real life American gangster John Dillinger. The film proved controversial on its initial release for its subject matter and violence but is now generally regarded as Ferreri's masterpiece. Afterwards Ferreri lived in Paris for many years. Since the mid-1980s the film has been screened only very rarely. A industrial designer of gas masks, is growing tired of his occupation. Having discussed alienation with a colleague at the factory, he returns home. His wife has left dinner, which has become cold. He begins preparing a gourmet meal. Glauco restores the while continuing to cook his dinner, then paints it red with white polka dots. He also eats his meal, seduces their maid. With the gun he enacts suicide a number of times.Dillinger Is Dead – Theatrical release poster