# Yojana

Yojana
Unit system Arthashastra
Unit of length
Symbol Yojan
Unit conversions
1 Yojan in ... ... is equal to ...
SI units    12300 m <-- based on standard used for the Kos (unit) wiki article -->
imperial/US units    7.64 mi
403408 ft

A Yojana (Sanskrit: योजन) is a Vedic measure of distance that was used in ancient India. A Yojana is about 12–15 km. (i.e. 4 Kosh = 1 Yojana and 1 kosh is 2 - 3.5 km)

In modern Hindi the word yojanaa (Hindi: योजना) means "plan", "scheme", or "blueprint", and is etymologically connected with the Cartesian notion of distance in the word yojana. However, note that the words "yojana'" and "yojanaa" are different, and pronounced differently, the last sound of the second word is pronounced "aaa" as in arm [ārm].[1]

## Yojana as per "Vishnu Purana"

Yojana is defined in Chapter 6 of Book 1 of the ancient vedic text “Vishnu Purana” as follows:[2]

### Clearly defined

Measurement Equals to... (in Hindu measurement) Notes
10 Paramanus 1 Parasúkshma Paramanu refers to atom.
10 Parasúkshmas 1 Trasarenu
10 Trasarenus 1 Mahírajas (particle of dust)
10 Mahírajas 1 Bálágra (hair’s point)
10 Bálágra 1 Likhsha
10 Likhsha 1 Yuka
10 Yukas 1 Yavodara (heart of barley)
10 Yavodaras 1 Yava (barley grain of middle size)
10 Yava 1 Angula 1.89 cm or approx 3/4 inch – here angula doesn't mean 1 inch rather 3/4 inch
2 Vitasti 1 Hasta (cubit)
4 Hastas [1] Dhanu
1 Danda 2 Nárikás equals 6 feet (1.8 m) [1] Paurusa (a man’s height)
2000 Dhanus 1 Gavyuti (distance to which a cow’s call or lowing can be heard) 12,000 feet (3.7 km)
4 Gavyutis 1 Yojana
1 Yojana 9.09 miles or 14.63 kilometers

## Variations on length

The length of the yojana varies depending on the different standards adopted by different Indian astronomers; in the Surya Siddhanta of the 5th century, for example, a yojana was equivalent to 8.0 km (5 mi),[3] and the same was true for Aryabhata's Aryabhatteeya (499).[4] However, 14th century scholar Paramesvara defined the yojana to be about 1.5 times larger, equivalent to about 13 km (8 mi).[3] A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada gives the equivalent length of a yojana as about 13 km (8 mi)[5] throughout his translations of the Bhagavata Purana. Some other traditional Indian scholars give measurements between 6.4 km and 8 km (4–5 miles) or thereabouts.[citation needed] In The Ancient Geography of India, Alexander Cunningham says that a yojana is traditionally held to be between 8 and 9 miles and calculates by comparison with Chinese units of length that it could have been between 6.7 mi (10.8 km) and 8.2 mi (13.2 km).[6]