Zaha Hadid

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Zaha Hadid
DBE
Zaha Hadid Portrait by Simone Cecchetti.jpg
Hadid in 2010
Born Zaha Mohammad Hadid
(1950-10-31)31 October 1950
Baghdad, Iraq
Died 31 March 2016(2016-03-31) (aged 65)
Miami, Florida, US
Nationality British, Iraqi
Alma mater American University of Beirut
Architectural Association School of Architecture, London
Occupation Architect
Website www.zaha-hadid.com
Practice Zaha Hadid Architects
Buildings MAXXI, Bridge Pavilion, Maggie's Centre, Contemporary Arts Center

Dame Zaha Mohammad Hadid, DBE, RA (Arabic: زها حديد‎‎ Zahā Ḥadīd; 31 October 1950 – 31 March 2016) was an Iraqi-born British architect. She was the first woman to receive the Pritzker Architecture Prize, in 2004.[1] She received the UK's most prestigious architectural award, the Stirling Prize, in 2010 and 2011. In 2012, she was made a Dame by Elizabeth II for services to architecture, and in 2015 she became the first woman to be awarded the Royal Gold Medal from the Royal Institute of British Architects.[2]

She was described by the The Guardian of London as the 'Queen of the curve',[3] who "liberated architectural geometry, giving it a whole new expressive identity."[4] Her major works include the aquatic centre for the London 2012 Olympics, Michigan State University's Broad Art Museum in the US, and the Guangzhou Opera House in China.[5] Some of her designs have been presented posthumously, including the statuette for the 2017 Brit Awards, and many of her buildings are still under construction, including the Al Wakrah Stadium in Doha, a venue for the 2022 FIFA World Cup.[6][7]

Contents

Early life and academic career[edit]

Hadid was born on 31 October 1950 in Baghdad, Iraq, to an upper-class Iraqi family.[8] Her father, Muhammad al-Hajj Husayn Hadid, was a wealthy industrialist from Mosul. He co-founded the left-liberal al-Ahali group in 1932, a significant political organisation in the 1930s and 1940s.[8] He was the co-founder of the National Democratic Party in Iraq.[8] Her mother, Wajiha al-Sabunji, was an artist from Mosul.[9] In the 1960s Hadid attended boarding schools in England and Switzerland.[10][11]

Hadid studied mathematics at the American University of Beirut before moving, in 1972, to London to study at the Architectural Association School of Architecture.[9] There she studied with Rem Koolhaas, Elia Zenghelis and Bernard Tschumi.[8] Her former professor, Koolhaas, described her at graduation as "a planet in her own orbit."[8] Zenghelis described her as the most outstanding pupil he ever taught. ‘We called her the inventor of the 89 degrees. Nothing was ever at 90 degrees. She had spectacular vision. All the buildings were exploding into tiny little pieces." He recalled that she was less interested in details, such as staircases. "The way she drew a staircase you would smash your head against the ceiling, and the space was reducing and reducing, and you would end up in the upper corner of the ceiling. She couldn’t care about tiny details. Her mind was on the broader pictures – when it came to the joinery she knew we could fix that later. She was right.’ [8] Her fourth-year student project was a painting of a hotel in the form of a bridge, inspired by the works of the Russian suprematist artist Kazimir Malevich.[12]

After graduation in 1977, she went to work for her former professors, Koolhaas and Zenghelis, at the Office for Metropolitan Architecture, in Rotterdam, the Netherlands,[13] Through her association with Koolhaas, she met the architectural engineer Peter Rice, who gave her support and encouragement.[8] Hadid became a naturalised citizen of the United Kingdom.[14][15] She opened her own architectural firm in 1980 [16]

She began her career teaching architecture, first at the Architectural Association, then, over the years, at Harvard Graduate School of Design, Cambridge University, the University of Chicago, the Hochschule fur Bildende Kunste in Hamburg, the University of Illinois at Chicago, and Columbia University. She earned her early reputation with her lecturing and colorful and radical early designs and projects, which were widely published in architectural journals but remained largely unbuilt. her ambitious but unbuilt projects included a plan for Peak in Hong Kong (1983), and a plan for the Opera in Cardiff, Wales, (1994). The Cardiff experienced was particularly discouraging; her design was chosen as the best by the competition jury, but the Welsh government refused to pay for it, and the commission was given to a different and less ambitious architect.[17] Her reputation in this period rested largely upon her teaching and the imaginative and colorful paintings she made of her proposed buildings. Her international reputation was greatly enhanced in 1988 when she was chosen to show her drawings and paintings as one of six architects chosen to participate in the exhibition "Deconstructivism in Architecture" curated by Philip Johnson and Mark Wigley at New York's Museum of Modern Art.[5] [18]

Early buildings (1991-2005)[edit]

Vitra Fire Station (1991-93)[edit]

One of her first clients was Rolf Fehlbaum, the president-director general of the German furniture firm Vitra, and later, from 2004 to 2010, a member of the jury for the prestigious Pritzker Architecture Prize. In 1989 Fehlbaum had invited Frank Gehry, then little-known, to build a design museum at the Vitra factory in Weil-am-Rhein. In 1993, he invited Hadid to design a small fire station for the factory. Her designs for the radically fire station, made of raw concrete and glass, was a sculptural work composed of sharp diagonal forms colliding together in the center. Pictures of it appeared in architecture magazines before it was ever constructed. When completed, it never served as a fire station; as the government requirements for industrial firefighting were changed, and it became an exhibit space instead, and is now on display with the works of Gehry and other well-known architects. It became the launching pad of her architectural career.[18]

Bergisel Ski Jump (1999-2002[edit]

She built a complex of public housing in Berlin (1986-1993) and organized an exhibition, "The Great Utopia"(1992), at the Guggenheim Museum in New York. Her next major project was a ski jump at Bergisel, in Innsbruck Austria. The old ski jump, built in 1926, had been used in the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics. The new structure was to contain not only a ski jump, but also a cafe with 150 seats for a 360 degree view of the mountains. Hadid had to fight against traditionalists and against time; the project had to be completed in one year, before the next international competition. Her design is 48 meters high and rests on a base seven meters by seven meters. She described it as "an organic hybrid", a cross between a bridge and a tower, which by its form gives a sense of movement and speed.[19]

Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati (1997-2000)[edit]

At the end of the 1990s, her career began to gather speed, as she won commissions for two museums and a large industrial building. She competed against Rem Koolhaas and other well-known architects for the design of the Contemporary Arts Center in Cincinnati, Ohio (1997-2000). She won, and became the first woman to design an art museum in the United States. It was not an enormous museum (8,500 square meters) and her design did not have the flamboyance of the Guggenheim Bilbao of Frank Gehry, built at the same time, but it showed her ability to use architectural forms to create interior drama, including its central element, a thirty-meter long black stairway that passes between massive curving and angular concrete walls.[20]

Phaeno Science Center (2000-2005)[edit]

In 2000 she won an international competition for the Phaeno Science Center, in Wolfsburg, Germany (2000-2005). The new museum was only a little larger than the Cincinnati Museum, with 9000 square meters of space, but the plan was much more ambitious. It was similar in concept to the buildings of Le Corbusier, raised up seven meters on concrete pylons, but, unlike Corbusier's buildings, she planned for the space under the building to be filled with activity, and each of the ten massive inverted cone-shaped columns that hold up the building contains a cafe, a shop, or a museum entrance. The tilting columns reach up through the building and also support the roof. The museum structure resembles an enormous ship, with sloping walls and asymmetric scatterings of windows, and the interior, with it angular columns and exposed steel roof framework, gives the illusion of being inside a working vessel or laboratory. [21]

Ordrupgaard Museum extension (2001-2005)[edit]

In 2001 she began another museum project, an extension of the Ordrupgaard Museum in Copenhagen, Denmark, a museum featuring a collection of 19th century French and Danish art in the 19th century mansion of its collector. The new building is 87 meters long and 20 meters wide, and connects by a passage five meters wide with the old museum. There are no right angles, only diagonals, in the concrete shell of the museum. and the floor-to-ceiling glass walls of the gallery made the garden the backdrop of the exhibits. [21]

BMW Administration Building (2001-2005)[edit]

In 2002 she won the competition to design a new administrative building for the factory of the auto manufacturer BMW in Leipzig, Germany. The three assembly buildings adjoining it were designed by other architects; her building served as the entrance and what she called the "nerve center" of the complex. As with the Phaeno Science Center, the building is hoisted above street level on leaning concrete pylons. The interior contains a series of levels and floors which seem to cascade, sheltered by tilting concrete beams and a roof supported by steel beams in the shape of an 'H'. The open interior inside was intended, she wrote, to avoid "the traditional segregation of working groups" and to show the "global transparence of the internal organization" of the enterprise, and wrote that she had given particular attention to the parking lot in front of the building, with the intent, she wrote, of "transforming it into a dynamic spectacle of its own." [22]

In 2004 she was awarded the Pritzker Architecture Prize, the most prestigious award in architecture, though she had only completed four buildings, including the VItra Fire Station, the Ski Lift in Insbruck Austria, and the Contemporary Art Center in Cincinnati. In making the announcement, Thomas Pritzker, the head of the jury, announced: "Although her body of work is relatively small, she has achieved great acclaim and her energy and ideas show even greater promise for the future." [23]

Major Projects (2006-2010)[edit]

Saragossa Bridge Pavilion (2005-2008)[edit]

Between 1997 and 2010 Hadid ventured into the engineers' domain of bridge construction, a field which also occupied other top architects, including Norman Foster and Santiago Calatrava. Between 2005 and 2008 she designed and built the Bridge-Pavilion of Saragossa, which was both an exhibit hall and a bridge, created for Expo 2008, an event on the themes of water and durable development. The concrete bridge span on which the pavilion rested is 85 meters long, from the Exposition site to an island in the Ebro River. The bridge carries or is attached to four tunnel-like exhibition spaces she termed "pods", which spread onto the island, for a total length of 275 meters. The pods are covered with a skin of twenty-six thousand triangular shingles, many of which opened to let in air and light. Like her other structures, the bridge-pavilion is composed entirely of diagonal slopes and curves, with no right angles of orthogonal forms. By its curving shape and low profile, the bridge-pavilion fits smoothly into the grassy landscape along the river.[24]

Sheik Zayed Bridge (1997-2010)[edit]

Between 1997 and 2010 she constructed a much more ambitious bridge, the Sheikh Zayed Bridge, between the island of Abu-Dhabi and the mainland of Dubai, as well as to the international airport. Both the design of the bridge and the lighting, consisting of gradually changing colors, were designed to give the impression of movement. The silhouette of the bridge is a wave, with a principal arch 235 meters long sixty meters above the water. The span of four lanes is 842 meters long, and also includes pedestrian walkways.[25]

National Museum of Arts of the 21st Century (MAXXI), Rome, Italy (1998-2010)[edit]

The National Museum of Arts of the 21st Century (MAXXI for short), in Rome Italy, was designed and built between 1998 and 2010. The main theme of its architecture is the sense of movement; Everything in the structure seems to be moving and flowing. The facade belongs to her earlier period,with smooth curving white walls and an austere black and white color scheme. The building is perched on groups of five very thin pylons, and one gallery with a glass face precariously overhangs the plaza in front of the museum, creating shade.[26] Rowan Moore of the Guardian of London described its form as "bending oblong tubes, overlapping, intersecting and piling over each other. The imagery is of flow and movement and it resembles a demented piece of transport architecture. Inside, black steel stairs and bridges, their undersides glowing with white light, fly across a void. They take you off to the galleries, which are themselves works of frozen motion. The design is intended to generate what Hadid called "confluence, interference and turbulence",[27]

Guangzhou Opera House (2003-2010)[edit]

In 2002 Hadid won an international competition for her first project in China. The Guangzhou Opera House is located in a new business district of the city, with a 103 story new glass tower behind it. It covers 70,000 square meters and was built at cost of 300 million dollars. The complex is composed of an 1800-seat theater, a multipurpose theater, entry hall and salon. A covered pathway with restaurants and shops separates the two main structures. This building, like several of her later buildings, was inspired by natural earth forms; the architect herself referred to it as the "Two pebbles," two giant smooth-edged boulders covered with 75,000 plaques of granite and glass windows.[28] Edwin Heathcote, architect who wrote for the "Financial Times", noticed Hadid's concentration on how her design could transform the landscape of the Guangzhou city of the future, as the building rose as the center of the new business area. He wrote in 2011 that Hadid "produced a building that seems to suck the surrounding landscape into a vortex of movement and swirling space... appears both as alien object in a landscape of incomprehensible vastness (and often overwhelming banality), and as an extrusion of the peculiar nature of this landscape." [29] Nicolai Ourousoff, architecture critic of the New York Times, wrote that "stepping into the main hall is like entering the soft insides of an oyster...The concave ceiling is pierced by thousands of little lights- it looks like you're sitting under the dome of a clear night sky." Ourousoff noted that the finished building had construction problems; many of the granite tiles on the exterior had to be replaced, and the plaster and other interior work was poorly done by the inexperienced workers, but he praised Hadid's ability "to convey a sense of bodies in motion" and called the building "a Chinese gem that elevates its setting." [30]

Major Projects (2011-2012)[edit]

Riverside Museum, Glasgow, Scotland (2004-2011)[edit]

Riverside Museum roof swirl 02.png

The Riverside Museum (2004-2011), on the banks of the River Clyde Glasgow, Scotland, houses the Glasgow Museum of Transport. Hadid described the 10,000 square meter building, with 7,000 square meters of gallery space, as "a wave", "folds in movement", and "a shed in the form of a tunnel, open at the extreme ends, one end toward the city and the other toward the Clyde."[31] Like many of her buildings, the whole form is only perceived when viewed from above. The facades are covered with zinc plates, and the roofline has a series of peaks and angles. The interior galleries caused some controversy; visitors who came to see the collection of historic automobiles found that they are mounted on the walls, high overhead, so it is impossible to look into them. Rowan Moore of the Guardian of London wrote: "Obviously the space is about movement...Outside it is, typologically, a supermarket, being a big thing in a parking lot that is seeking to attract you in...It has enigma and majesty, but not friendliness."[32]

London Olympics Aquatics Center (2005-2011)[edit]

Hadid described her Aquatics Center for the 2012 Summer Olympics in London as "inspired by the fluid geometry of water in movement." .[33] The building covers three swimming pools, and seats 17,500 spectators at the two main pools. The roof made of steel and aluminum and covered with wood on the inside, rests on just three supports; it is in the form of a parabolic arch which dips in the center, with the two pools at either end. The seats are placed in bays beside the curving and outward-leaning walls of glass. The cost of the building, 269 million pounds, three times the original estimate, due to the complexity of the roof, was the subject of much comment when it was constructed; it was the first Olympic building begun but the last to be finished. It was praised by architecture critics; Rowan Moore of the Guardian said that the roof "floats and undulates" and called the Center "The Olympics' most majestic space." [34]

Broad Art Museum, East Lansing, Michigan (2007-2012)[edit]

The Broad Art Museum in East Lansing, Michigan, the second project of Hadid in the United States, has a space of 4,274 square meters, dedicated to contemporary art and modern art and an historical collection. The parallelogram-shaped building leans sharply and seems about to tip over. Hadid wrote that she designed the building so that its sloping pleated stainless steel facades would reflect the surrounding neighborhood from different angles; the building continually changes color depending upon the weather, the time of day and the angle of the sun. As Hadid commented, the building "awakens curiosity without ever truly revealing its contents."[35] Elaine Glusac of the New York Times wrote that the architecture of the new museum "radicalizes the streestcape." [36]

Galaxy SOHO, Beijing, China (2008-2012)[edit]

Many of Hadid's later major works are found in Asia. The Galaxy SOHO in Beijing, China (2008-2012) is a combination of offices and a commercial center in the heart of Beijing with a total of 332,857 square meters, composed of four different ovoid glass-capped buildings joined together by multiple curving passageways on different levels. Hadid explained, "the interior spaces follow the same coherent formal logic of continual curvilinearity." The complex, like most of her buildings, gives the impression that every part of them is in motion.[37]

Last Completed Major Projects (2013-2016)[edit]

Heydar Aliyev Center, Baku Azerbaijan (2007-2013)[edit]

The Heydar Aliyev Center in Baku, Azerbaijan (2007-2013) is a gigantic cultural and conference center containing three auditoriums, a library and museum, with a total space of 10,801 square meters on a surface of 15,514 square meters, and a height of 74 meters. Hadid wrote that "its fluid form emerges from the folds of the natural topography of the landscape and envelops the different functions of the Center," though the building when completed was largely surrounded by Soviet-era apartment blocks.[38] Peter Cook in Architectural Review called it "a white vision, outrageously total, arrogantly complete'... a unique object that confounds and contradicts the reasonable...a wave form sweeping up, almost lunging, into the sky...here is architecture as the ultimate statement of theater...It is the most complete realization yet of the Iraqi-born architect's vision of sweeping curves and flowing space." [39]

Dongdaemun Design Plaza, Seoul, Korea (2007-2013)[edit]

The Dongdaemun Design Plaza (2007-2013) is among the largest buildings in Seoul, South Korea. Its name means "Great Gate of the East", in reference to the old walls of the city. The complex of 86,574 square meters contains exhibition space, a museum of design, conference rooms and other common facilities, as well the bureaux and a marketplace for designers which is open twenty-four hours a day. The main building is 280 meters long with seven levels, including three levels underground. The smooth-skinned, giant mushroom-like structure floating atop sloping pylons is made of concrete, aluminum, steel and stone on the exterior, and finished inside with plaster reinforced with synthetic fiber, acoustic tiles, acrylic resin, and stainless steel and polished stone on the interior. Hadid wrote that the principal characteristics of her design were "transparency, porousness, and durability." It also features many ecological features, including a double skin, solar panels, and a system for recycling water.[40]

Library and Learning Center, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria (2008-2013)[edit]

The Library and Learning Center was designed as the centerpiece of the new University of Economics in Vienna. Containing 28,000 square meters of space, its distinctive Hadid features include walls sloping at 35 degrees and massive black volume cantilevered at an angle over the plaza in front of the building. She described the interior as follows: "The straight lines of the building's exterior separate as they move inward, becoming curvilinear and fluid to generate a free-formed interior canyon that serves as the principal public plaza of the Center, as well as generating corridors and bridges ensuring smooth transitions between different levels." [41]

Innovation Tower, Hong Kong Polytechnic University (2007-2014)[edit]

The Innovation Tower in Hong Kong (2007-2014) is part of Hong Kong Polytechnic University. The building of fifteen floors has 15,000 square meters of space, with laboratories, classrooms, studios and other facilties for 1800 students and faculty. The building is placed atop a highway tunnel in the center of the city. The extremely complex forms of the building required computer modeling. Early designs experimented with a facade made of reinforced plastic, textiles or aluminum, but Hadid finally settled upon metal panels with multiple layers. The building seems to lean toward city; the layers floors inside are visible on the exterior like geological strata. [42]

Wangjing SOHO Tower, Beijing (2009-2014)[edit]

Wangjing SOHO tower in Beijing is the second building Hadid designed for the major Chinese furniture manufacturer, located midway between the center of Beijing and the airport. The towers sope and curve; Hadid compared them to Chinese fans, "whose volumes turn one around the other in a complex ballet." The tallest building is 200 meters high, with two levels of shops and 37 levels of offices. A single atrium level three stories high joins the three buildings at the base. brings the buildings together at the base.[43]

Port Authority, Antwerp, Belgium (2016)[edit]

Of all her works, Hadid designed only one government building, offices for the port authority, or Havenhuis, in Antwerp, Belgium, completed in 2016. Most new government buildings attempt to express solidity and seriousness; but Port Authority is a ship-like structure of glass and steel on a white concrete perch seems to have landed atop the old port building constructed in 1922. The faceted glass structure also resembles a diamond, a symbol of Antwerp's role as the major market of diamonds in Europe. It was one of the last works of Hadid, who died in 2016, the year it opened.

Death[edit]

On 31 March 2016, Hadid died of a heart attack in a Miami hospital, where she was being treated for bronchitis.[44][45]

Posthumous Major Projects (2016-present)[edit]

Salerno Maritime Terminal in Salerno, Italy (2000-2016)[edit]

The first of her major projects to be completed shortly after her death was the Salerno Maritime Terminal in Salerno, Italy, her first major transportation building. She won the competition for the building in 2000, but then the project was delayed by funding and technical issues. Hadid scouted the site from a police boat in the harbor to visualize how it would appear from the water. The final building covers 50,000 square feet and cost 15 million Euros. Paolo Cattrarin, the project architect who completed the building after Hadid's death, said, "We thought of the building as an oyster, with a hard shell top and bottom, and a softer, liquid, more organic interior." At the opening of the new building, posters of Hadid were placed around the city, saying, "Goodbye Zaha Hadid; Genius and Modernity, Inspiration and Transformation, Light That Takes Shape." [46]

Teaching[edit]

In the 1990s, she held the Sullivan Chair professorship at the University of Illinois at Chicago's School of Architecture. At various times, she served as guest professor at the Hochschule für bildende Künste Hamburg (HFBK Hamburg), the Knowlton School of Architecture at Ohio State University, the Masters Studio at Columbia University, and was the Eero Saarinen Visiting Professor of Architectural Design at the Yale School of Architecture. From 2000, Hadid was a guest professor at the Institute of Architecture at the University of Applied Arts Vienna, in the Zaha Hadid Master Class Vertical-Studio.[47]

Interior architecture and product design[edit]

Hadid's fluid interior of the Silken Puerta America in Madrid

Hadid also undertook some high-profile interior work, including the Mind Zone at the Millennium Dome in London as well as creating fluid furniture installations within the Georgian surroundings of Home House private members club in Marylebone, and the Z.CAR hydrogen-powered, three-wheeled automobile. In 2009 she worked with the clothing brand Lacoste, to create a new, high fashion, and advanced boot.[48][49] In the same year, she also collaborated with the brassware manufacturer Triflow Concepts to produce two new designs in her signature parametric architectural style.[50]

In 2007, Hadid designed Dune Formations for David Gill Gallery and the Moon System Sofa for leading Italian furniture manufacturer B&B Italia.[51][52]

In 2013, Hadid designed Liquid Glacial for David Gill Gallery which comprises a series of tables resembling ice-formations made from clear and coloured acrylic. Their design embeds surface complexity and refraction within a powerful fluid dynamic.[53] The collection was further extended in 2015–2016. In 2016 the gallery launched Zaha's final collection of furniture entitled UltraStellar[54]

Reputation[edit]

Following her death in March 2016, Michael Kimmelman of the New York Times wrote: "...her soaring structures left a mark on skylines and imaginations and in the process reshaped architecture for the modern age...Her buildings elevated uncertainty to an art, conveyed in the odd way of one entered and moved through these buildings and in the questions that her structures raised about how they were supported...Hadid embodied, in its profligacy and promise, the era of so-called starchitects who roamed the planet in pursuit of their own creative genius, offering miracles, occasionally delivering." [55]

Deyan Sudjic of the Guardian described Hadid as "an architect who first imagined, then proved, that space could work in radical new ways...Throughout her career, she was a dedicated teacher, enthused by the energy of the young. She was not keen to be characterised as a woman architect, or an Arab architect. She was simply an architect."[56]

Sometimes called the 'Queen of the curve', Hadid frequently described in the press as the world's top female architect.[3][57][58][59][60] although her work also attracted criticism. The Metropolitan Museum in New York cited her "unconventional buildings that seem to defy the logic of construction "[61][62]

Her work also sometimes attracted criticism. Her architectural language was described as "famously extravagant" and she was accused of building "dictator states".[63] Architect Sean Griffiths characterised Hadid's work as "an empty vessel that sucks in whatever ideology might be in proximity to it".[64]

Qatar controversy[edit]

As the architect of a stadium to be used for the 2022 FIFA World Cup, in Qatar, Hadid was accused in the New York Review of Books of giving an interview in which she alleged showed no concern for the deaths of migrant workers in Qatar involved in the project. In August 2014, Hadid sued The New York Review of Books for defamation and won.[65] Immediately thereafter, the reviewer and author of the piece in which she was accused of showing no concern issued a retraction in which he said "...work did not begin on the site for the Al Wakrah stadium, until two months after Ms Hadid made those comments; and construction is not scheduled to begin until 2015.... There have been no worker deaths on the Al Wakrah project and Ms Hadid's comments about Qatar that I quoted in the review had nothing to do with the Al Wakrah site or any of her projects. I regret the error."[7]

Style[edit]

The architectural style of Hadid is not easily categorized, and she did not describe herself as a follower of any one style or school. Nonetheless, before she had built a single major building, she was categorized by the Metropolitan Museum of Art as a major figure in architectural Deconstructivism.[66] Her work was also described as an example of parametricism.

When she was awarded the Pritzker Prize in 2004, the jury chairman, Lord Rothschild, commented: “At the same time as her theoretical and academic work, as a practicing architect, Zaha Hadid has been unswerving in her commitment to modernism. Always inventive, she’s moved away from existing typology, from high tech, and has shifted the geometry of buildings.[67]

Her work was described in 2016 by Designmuseum as having "the highly expressive, sweeping fluid forms of multiple perspective points and fragmented geometry that evoke the chaos and flux of modern life."[13]

Hadid herself, who often used dense architectural jargon, could also describe the essence of her style very simply: "The idea is not to have any 90 degree angles. In the beginning, there was the diagonal. The diagonal comes from the idea of the explosion which "re-forms" the space. This was an important discovery."[68]

Awards and Honors[edit]

Hadid was named an honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters and an honorary fellow of the American Institute of Architects. She was on the board of trustees of The Architecture Foundation.[69]

In 2002, Hadid won the international design competition to design Singapore's one-north master plan. In 2004, Hadid became the first female and first Iraqi recipient of the Pritzker Architecture Prize.[70] In 2005, her design won the competition for the new city casino of Basel, Switzerland [71] and she was elected as a Royal Academician.[72] In 2006, she was honoured with a retrospective spanning her entire work at the Guggenheim Museum in New York; that year she also received an Honorary Degree from the American University of Beirut.

In 2008, she ranked 69th on the Forbes list of "The World's 100 Most Powerful Women".[73] In 2010, she was named by Time as an influential thinker in the 2010 TIME 100 issue.[74]

In September 2010, New Statesman listed Zaha Hadid at number 42 in their annual survey of "The World's 50 Most Influential Figures 2010".[75] Hadid was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in 2002 and Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire (DBE) in the 2012 Birthday Honours for services to architecture.[76][77]

She was listed as one of the "50 Best-Dressed over 50" by the Guardian in March 2013.[78] Three years later, she was assessed as one of the 100 most powerful women in the UK by Woman's Hour on BBC Radio 4.[79]

She won the Stirling Prize two years running: in 2010, for one of her most celebrated works, the MAXXI in Rome,[80] and in 2011 for the Evelyn Grace Academy, a Z‑shaped school in Brixton, London.[81] She also designed the Dongdaemun Design Plaza & Park in Seoul, South Korea, which was the centrepiece of the festivities for the city's designation as World Design Capital 2010. In 2014, the Heydar Aliyev Cultural Centre, designed by her, won the Design Museum Design of the Year Award, making her the first woman to win the top prize in that competition.[2]

In January 2015, she was nominated for the Services to Science and Engineering award at the British Muslim Awards.[82]

In 2016 in Antwerp, Belgium a square was named after her, Zaha Hadidplein, in front of the extension of the Antwerp Harbour House designed by Zaha Hadid.

List of architectural works[edit]

CMA CGM Tower in Marseille, France

Her architectural design firm, Zaha Hadid Architects, employs 400 people, and is headquartered in a Victorian former school building in Clerkenwell, London.[93]

Conceptual projects[edit]

Completed projects (selection)[edit]

Uncompleted projects[edit]

In 2010, Hadid was commissioned by the Iraqi government to design the new building for the Central Bank of Iraq. An agreement to complete the design stages of the new CBI building was finalised on 2 February 2012, at a ceremony in London.[110] This was her first project in her native Iraq.[111]

Hadid's project was named as the best for the Vilnius Guggenheim Hermitage Museum in 2008.

In 2012, Hadid won an international competition to design a new National Olympic Stadium as part of the successful bid by Tokyo to host the 2020 Summer Olympics.[112] As the estimated cost of the construction mounted, however, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe announced in July 2015 that Hadid's design would be scrapped in favour of a new bidding process to seek a less expensive alternative.[113] Hadid had planned to enter the new competition, but her firm was unable to meet the new requirement of finding a construction company with which to partner.[114]

Non-architectural work[edit]

Museum exhibitions[edit]

Other work[edit]

  • Nightlife (1999). Zaha Hadid designed the stage set for the Pet Shop Boys' world tour.
  • A Day with Zaha Hadid (2004). A 52-minute documentary where Zaha Hadid discusses her current work while taking the camera through her retrospective exhibition "Zaha Hadid has Arrived". Directed by Michael Blackwood.[118]
  • On 2 January 2009, she was the guest editor of the BBC's flagship morning radio news programme, Today.[119]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nonie Niesewand (March 2015). "Through the Glass Ceiling". Architectural Digest. 
  2. ^ a b "Dame Zaha Hadid awarded the Riba Gold Medal for architecture". BBC News. Retrieved 24 September 2015. 
  3. ^ a b "Queen of the curve' Zaha Hadid dies aged 65 from heart attack". The Guardian. 29 November 2016. 
  4. ^ Kimmelman, Michael (31 March 2016). "Zaha Hadid, Groundbreaking Architect, Dies at 65". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2 April 2016. 
  5. ^ a b Kamin, Blair (1 April 2016). "Visionary architect 1st woman to win Pritzker". Chicago Tribune. 2. p. 7. 
  6. ^ "Dame Zaha Hadid's Brit Awards statuette design unveiled". BBC. 1 December 2016. 
  7. ^ a b Joanna Walters. "New York Review of Books critic 'regrets error' in Zaha Hadid article". The Guardian. 
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Bibliography[edit]

  • Taschen, Aurelia and Balthazar (2016). L'Architecture Moderne de A à Z (in French). Bibliotheca Universalis. ISBN 978-3-8365-5630-9. 
  • Fontana-Giusti, Gordana and Schumacher, Patrik. (2004). Complete Works of Zaha Hadid, 4 volumes, Thames and Hudson, Rizzoli, published in English, translated into German and Spanish. ISBN 0500342008
  • Jodidio, Philip (2016). Zaha Hadid (in French). Taschen. ISBN 978-3-8365-3626-4. 

External links[edit]