Darmstadt is a city in the state of Hesse in Germany, located in the southern part of the Rhine-Main-Area. Darmstadt has a population around 150,000, the Darmstadt Larger Urban Zone has 430,993 inhabitants. Darmstadt holds the official title City of Science as it is a centre of scientific institutions, universities. The existence of the elements were also confirmed at GSI Centre for Heavy Ion Research, nihonium, flerovium, moscovium, livermorium. Darmstadt is also the seat of the worlds oldest pharmaceutical company, Merck, Darmstadt was formerly the capital of a sovereign country, the Grand Duchy of Hesse and its successor, the Peoples State of Hesse, a federal state of Germany. As the capital of an increasingly prosperous duchy, the city gained some international prominence, in the 20th century, industry, as well as large science and electronics sectors became increasingly important, and are still a major part of the citys economy. It is also home to the football club SV Darmstadt 98, Darmstadt, Indiana was named after Darmstadt and for the former Royal Family. The name Darmstadt first appears towards the end of the 11th century, the origins of the name are unknown. Dar-mund in Middle Low German is translated as Boggy Headlands, even locals often believe, incorrectly, that the name derives from the Darmbach. In fact, the received its current name much later, after the city. Darmstadt was chartered as a city by the Holy Roman Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian in 1330, the city, then called Darmstait, became a secondary residence for the counts, with a small castle established at the site of the current, much larger edifice. When the house of Katzenelnbogen became extinct in 1479, the city was passed to the Landgraviate of Hesse, the city grew in population during the 19th century from little over 10,000 to 72,000 inhabitants. A polytechnical school, which became a Technical University now known as TU Darmstadt, was established in 1877. In the beginning of the 20th century, Darmstadt was an important centre for the art movement of Jugendstil, annual architectural competitions led to the building of many architectural treasures of this period. Also during this period, in 1912 the chemist Anton Kollisch, working for the pharmaceutical company Merck, Darmstadts municipal area was extended in 1937 to include the neighbouring localities of Arheilgen and Eberstadt, and in 1938 the city was separated administratively from the surrounding district. Darmstadt was the first city in Germany to force Jewish shops to close in early 1933, the shops were only closed for one day, for endangering communal order and tranquility. In 1942, over 3,000 Jews from Darmstadt were first forced into a camp located in the Liebigschule. Darmstadt was first bombed on 30 July 1940, and 34 other air raids would follow before the wars end, the old city centre was largely destroyed in a British bombing raid on 11 September 1944
Landmark of Darmstadt: "Hochzeitsturm" ("Wedding Tower"), built 1908 in Jugendstil architecture.
Darmstadt in 1626.
The 'Schlossplatz', a market square in front of the Ducal Palace around 1900: One of the few areas to survive in similar style after World War II