Kategorie:Bibliothek in England
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1. Armitt Library – Armitt Museum is an independent museum and library, founded in Ambleside in Cumbria by Mary Louisa Armitt in 1909. It is a charity under English law. The library was founded by a bequest of Mary Louisa Armitt in order that the activity of Ambleside could be celebrated. The roots of the organisation go back to the Ambleside Book Society which was founded in 1828, on 8 November 1912 the library opened and Hardwicke Rawnsley who was to co-found the National Trust wrote a poem in celebration. The poem starts, The two happy sister spirits were Mary Louisa Armitt who died the year before and her sister Sophia Armitt. Beatrix Potter donated books and paintings in her lifetime, and on her death bequeathed her portfolios of natural history watercolours and these are on permanent display in an exhibition Beatrix Potter, Image and Reality. The current building was constructed in 1997 from slate and stone on the land belonging to St Martins College, the Armitt also houses a collection of works by Kurt Schwitters, a German refugee artist who lived and died in Ambleside. The library of over 11,000 books covers the local and natural history of the Ambleside area, list of museums in Cumbria Armitt website
2. Bodleian Library – The Bodleian Library, the main research library of the University of Oxford, is one of the oldest libraries in Europe. With over 12 million items, it is the second largest library in Britain after the British Library, known to Oxford scholars as Bodley or the Bod, it operates principally as a reference library and, in general, documents may not be removed from the reading rooms. They do, however, participate in OLIS, the Bodleian Libraries online union catalogue, much of the librarys archives were digitized and put online for public access in 2015. Since the 19th century a number of stores have been built. Before being granted access to the library, new readers are required to agree to a formal declaration and this declaration was traditionally an oral oath, but is now usually made by signing a letter to a similar effect. Ceremonies in which readers recite the declaration are still performed for those who wish to take them, external readers are still required to recite the declaration orally prior to admission. The Bodleian Admissions Office has amassed a collection of translations of the declaration allowing those who are not native English speakers to recite it in their first language. Whilst the Bodleian Library, in its current incarnation, has a history dating back to 1602. The first purpose-built library known to have existed in Oxford was founded in the century under the will of Thomas Cobham. This small collection of chained books was situated above the side of the University Church of St Mary the Virgin on the High Street. A suitable room was built above the Divinity School. This room continues to be known as Duke Humfreys Library, after 1488, the university stopped spending money on the librarys upkeep and acquisitions, and manuscripts began to go unreturned to the library. The late sixteenth century saw the library go through a period of decline, the furniture was sold. During the reign of Edward VI, there was a purge of superstitious manuscripts, six of the Oxford University dons were tasked with helping Bodley in refitting the library in March 1658. Duke Humfrey’s Library was refitted, and Bodley donated a number of his own books to furnish it, the library was formally re-opened on 8 November 1602 under the name “Bodleian Library”. There were around two thousand books in the library at this time, with an ornate Benefactors Register displayed prominently, in 1605, Francis Bacon gave the library a copy of The Advancement of Learning and described the Bodleian as an Ark to save learning from deluge. At this time, there were few books written in English held in the library, Thomas James suggested that Bodley should ask the Stationers Company to provide a copy of all books printed to the Bodleian. In 1610, Bodley made an agreement with the Stationers Company in London to put a copy of every book registered with them in the library, the Bodleian collection grew so fast that the building was expanded between 1610–1612, and again in 1634–1637
3. British Library – The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the second largest library in the world by number of items catalogued. It holds well over 150 million items from many countries, as a legal deposit library, the British Library receives copies of all books produced in the United Kingdom and Ireland, including a significant proportion of overseas titles distributed in the UK. The Library is a public body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media. The Librarys collections include around 14 million books, along with holdings of manuscripts. In addition to receiving a copy of every publication produced in the UK and Ireland, the Library adds some three million items every year occupying 9.6 kilometres of new shelf space. Prior to 1973, the Library was part of the British Museum, the Euston Road building is classified as a Grade I listed building, of exceptional interest for its architecture and history. The British Library was created on 1 July 1973 as a result of the British Library Act 1972. Prior to this, the library was part of the British Museum. In 1983, the Library absorbed the National Sound Archive, which holds many sound and video recordings, with over a million discs, the core of the Librarys historical collections is based on a series of donations and acquisitions from the 18th century, known as the foundation collections. From 1997 to 2009 the main collection was housed in this new building. Construction work on the Newspaper Storage Building was completed in 2013, the collection has now been split between the St Pancras and Boston Spa sites. The British Library Document Supply Service and the Librarys Document Supply Collection is based on the site in Boston Spa. Collections housed in Yorkshire, comprising low-use material and the newspaper and Document Supply collections, the Library previously had a book storage depot in Woolwich, south-east London, which is no longer in use. The new library was designed specially for the purpose by the architect Colin St John Wilson, facing Euston Road is a large piazza that includes pieces of public art, such as large sculptures by Eduardo Paolozzi and Antony Gormley. It is the largest public building constructed in the United Kingdom in the 20th century, in December 2009 a new storage building at Boston Spa was opened by Rosie Winterton. The building was Grade I listed on 1 August 2015, in England, Legal Deposit can be traced back to at least 1610. The other five libraries are, the Bodleian Library at Oxford, the University Library at Cambridge, the Trinity College Library at Dublin, in 2003 the Ipswich MP Chris Mole introduced a Private Members Bill which became the Legal Deposit Libraries Act 2003. The Act extends United Kingdom legal deposit requirements to electronic documents, such as CD-ROMs, the Library also holds the Asia, Pacific and Africa Collections which include the India Office Records and materials in the languages of Asia and of north and north-east Africa
4. British Library of Political and Economic Science – The British Library of Political and Economic Science is the main library of the London School of Economics and Political Science. It is one of the largest libraries in the United Kingdom, the Library was established in 1896 and has been designated as a United Nations depository library, providing a comprehensive collection of UN publications and documents. Many other organisations are also represented, including OECD, ILO, OAS. The library is located on the London School of Economics Campus. The current building is the headquarters and warehouse facilities of WH Smith, opened in 1916 and taken over by LSE in 1976. The Library responds to around 6,500 visits from students, in addition, it provides a specialist international research collection, serving over 12,000 registered external users each year. The Library collects material on a basis, in all major European languages. The extensive collections range from a European Documentation Centre to 90,000 historical pamphlets, over 50 km of shelving, enough to stretch the length of the Channel Tunnel, houses over four and a half million items including 31,000 past and present journal titles. The Library subscribes to approximately 15,000 e-journals as part of its electronic information provision, all materials are housed in a single site, the Lionel Robbins Building, named after the economist who studied, taught and later served as Chairman of the Court of Governors of LSE. The library underwent a £35 million building redevelopment in 2000, overseen by Foster, a further redevelopment in summer 2007, saw the expansion of the Course Collection by 60%, a new help desk, more study spaces and an increase in self-service facilities. The Lionel Robbins Building covers 20,000 square metres, and offers 1,700 study places, a reflecting panel on the roof also helps to direct sunlight to the floors below. The dome and other windows respond automatically according to the temperature in the building, ventilating it naturally, the Library is also home to a number of national and regional initiatives. Since 1946, the Library has been a United Nations depository library, providing a collection of UN publications. Many other organisations are also represented, including OECD, ILO, OAS. As a European Documentation Centre, the Library has received publications from the European Community since 1964, British Library of Political and Economic Science The LSE Digital Library Charles Booth Online Archive LSE Library Catalogue
5. Cambridge University Library – Cambridge University Library is the main research library of the University of Cambridge in England. It is also the biggest of 114 libraries within the University. The Library is a scholarly resource for both the members of the University of Cambridge and for external researchers. Cambridge University Library comprises the main University Library and its affiliated libraries, as at August 2015, twenty-one affiliated libraries were associated with the main University Library, which is often referred to within the University as the University Library or just the UL. Through legal deposit, purchase and donation it receives around 100,000 items every year, the main University Library holds approximately 8 million items. Its original location was the Universitys Old Schools near Senate House until it outgrew the space there, the current acting librarian is Professor Christopher Young. As early as the century, Cambridge University owned a collection of manuscripts. These would have kept in chests along with other valuables. A common library can be traced to the beginning of the 15th century, the earliest catalogue is dated ca. 1424, at which there were 122 volumes in the library. The second earliest surviving catalogue was drawn up in 1473, from the 16th century onwards it received generous donations or bequests of books and growth was considerably increased once the privilege of legal deposit had been granted. The current main University Library building was constructed between 1931 and 1934 under architect Giles Gilbert Scott, who designed the neighbouring Clare Memorial Court. The site had been used by the First Eastern General Hospital, built at the outbreak of the First World War on the 8 acres joint cricket field of Kings and Clare Colleges. The hospital had 1,700 beds at its height and treated some 70,000 casualties between 1914 and 1919, the library is a Grade II listed building. Inside are a number of 17th- and 18th century bookcases including the ones designed for the old University Library by James Essex in 1731-4, the building bears a marked resemblance to Scotts industrial architecture, including Bankside Power Station. The library tower stands 157 feet tall,6 feet shorter than the top of St Johns College Chapel and 10 feet taller than the peak of Kings College Chapel. Supposedly, in opening the building, Neville Chamberlain referred to it as this magnificent erection, contrary to popular belief, pornographic material is not stored in the tower. The library has been extended several times, the main building houses the Japanese and Chinese collections in the Aoi Pavilion, an extension donated by Tadao Aoi and opened in 1998. The library is building a new facility in Ely
6. Marshall Library – The Marshall Library of Economics is a library of the University of Cambridge, England. Since 2012 the library had also helped books of the Centre of Development Studies, upon his death in 1924, Professor Marshall bequeathed much of his personal library to Cambridge. In his honour, the collection was named The Marshall Library of Economics. In 1935, it took over the former Squire Law Library, the Marshall Library is housed within the Austin Robinson Building, designed by Hugh Casson. The library covers Economics, Applied Economics, and Development Studies, the collection consists of approximately 75,000 monographs,25,000 volumes of periodicals and serials,30 current periodical titles. The historic collection includes about 4,000 rare books, Marshall Library of Economics Library Guide
7. John Rylands Library – The John Rylands Library is a late-Victorian neo-Gothic building on Deansgate in Manchester, England. The library, which opened to the public in 1900, was founded by Enriqueta Augustina Rylands in memory of her husband, Special collections built up by both libraries were progressively concentrated in the Deansgate building. The Rylands Library Papyrus P52 has a claim to be the earliest extant New Testament text, the library holds personal papers and letters of notable figures, among them Elizabeth Gaskell and John Dalton. The architectural style is primarily neo-Gothic with elements of Arts and Crafts Movement in the ornate, the library, granted Grade I listed status in 1994, is maintained by the University of Manchester and open for library readers and visitors. Enriqueta Rylands purchased a site on Deansgate for her library in 1889. Rylands commissioned the Manchester academic Alice Cooke to index the vast library of the 2nd Earl Spencer which she had purchased, Champneys presented plans to Mrs Rylands within a week of gaining the commission. Thereafter frequent disagreements arose and Mrs Rylands selected decorative elements, window glass, Champneys was given the honour of speaking about the library at a general meeting of the Royal Institute of British Architects and was awarded a Royal Gold Medal in 1912. The library was granted listed building status on 25 January 1952, the core of the librarys collection was formed around 40,000 books, including many rarities, assembled by George Spencer, 2nd Earl Spencer, which Mrs Rylands purchased from Lord Spencer in 1892. She had begun acquiring books in 1889 and continued to do so throughout her lifetime, after its inauguration on 6 October 1899 the library opened to readers and visitors on 1 January 1900. The John Rylands Library and the library of the University of Manchester merged in July 1972 and was named the John Rylands University Library of Manchester, Special collections built up by both libraries were progressively concentrated in the Deansgate building. The building has been extended four times, the first time to designs by Champneys in 1920 after the project was delayed by World War I, the Lady Wolfson Building opened in 1962 on the west side and a third extension, south of the first was built in 1969. In January 2003, an appeal to renovate the building was launched, funds were generated from grants from the University of Manchester and Heritage Lottery Fund and donations from members of the public and companies in Manchester. The project, Unlocking the Rylands, demolished the third extension, refurbished parts of the old building, Champneys designed a pitched roof but Mrs Rylands was advised that an internal stone vault would reduce the fire risk and it was not built. The £17 million project was completed by summer 2007 and the library reopened on 20 September 2007, by the nineteenth century Manchester was a prosperous industrial town and the demands of cotton manufacturing stimulated the growth of engineering and chemical industries. The town became abominably filthy and was covered, especially during the winter. There is at all times a copious descent of soots and other impurities and this, and the overcrowded site, created many design problems for the architect. The site chosen by Mrs Rylands was in a central and fashionable part of the city, the position was criticised for its lack of surrounding space and the fact that the valuable manuscript collections were to be housed in that dirty, uncomfortable city. Not enough light to read by, and the books already have are wretchedly kept Mrs Rylands negotiated Deeds of Agreement with her neighbours to fix the heights of future adjacent buildings
8. Kate Sharpley Library – The Kate Sharpley Library is a library dedicated to anarchist texts and history. Started in 1979 and reorganized in 1991, it holds around ten thousand English language volumes, pamphlets. The library has texts in English and other languages, near complete collections of several anarchist newspapers, the library is maintained by donations and money made from sales of pamphlets and other publications. The Kate Sharpley Library was named after a Deptford-born World War I anarchist and she worked in a munitions factory and was active in the shop stewards movement. Her father and brother were killed in action and her boyfriend was listed as missing believed killed. At the age of 22, when called to receive her familys medals from Queen Mary she threw the medals back at the Queen, saying if you like them so much you can have them. The Queens face was scratched, Kate Sharpley was beaten by police and she married in 1922 and dropped out of anarchist activities until a chance encounter with Albert Meltzer at a train station during an anti-fascist action. This led to her many younger activists and so, when Brixton anarchists came to name the archives they had collected from the movement. Its activities are recounted in its regular Bulletin, available online, authors it has published or re-published include Miguel Garcia, Albert Meltzer, David Nicholl, Abel Paz, Antonio Téllez, and Bartolomeo Vanzetti. List of anarchist organizations Meltzer, Albert, the Kate Sharpley Library homepage The Kate Sharpley Library Wiki Video interview with Barry Pateman, of the Kate Sharpley Library. Interview with Barry Pateman, Jonathan, YouTube, May 12,2009
9. Library of Birmingham – The Library of Birmingham is a public library in Birmingham, England. It is situated on the west side of the city centre at Centenary Square, beside the Birmingham Rep, upon opening on 3 September 2013, it replaced Birmingham Central Library. The library, which is estimated to have cost £188.8 million, is viewed by the Birmingham City Council as a project for the citys redevelopment. It has been described as the largest public library in the United Kingdom, the largest public space in Europe. 2,414,860 million visitors came to the library in 2014 making it the 10th most popular attraction in the UK. Birmingham City Council looked into relocating the library for many years, the original plan was to build a new library in the emerging Eastside district, which had been opened up to the city centre following the demolition of Masshouse Circus. A library was designed by Richard Rogers on a site in the area, however, for financial reasons and reservations about the location this plan was shelved. In August 2006, the Council confirmed the area between the Rep Theatre and Baskerville House as the site for the library. Capita Symonds had been appointed as Project Managers for the Library of Birmingham, the councils intention was to create a world class landmark civic building in Centenary Square. Not long after this, the idea was scrapped and the archives. After an international competition, run by the Royal Institute of British Architects. They were chosen from a list of over 100 architects, the architects chosen were, Foreign Office Architects, Foster and Partners, Hopkins Architects, Mecanoo, OMA, Schmidt hammer lassen and Wilkinson Eyre. In early August 2008, Mecanoo and multi-discipline engineers, Buro Happold, were announced as the winner of the design competition, more detailed plans for the library were revealed by the council in conjunction with the architects at a launch event held on 2 April 2009. The previous Central Library failed for the time to gain status as a listed building. Work was scheduled to begin on demolishing the old library early in 2015 to make way for the redevelopment of Paradise Circus, reaction to the planned library was generally positive. Philip Pullman said The new Library of Birmingham sounds as if it will be lovely, writers will love it, and so will readers. Architect of the Birmingham Central Library, John Madin, criticised the building as not fit for purpose in 2011, Madin said They are spending all this money on a new library which is no better than the existing one. Eighty per cent of it not have natural light and does not meet the standards of the existing building
10. London Library – The London Library is one of the worlds largest independent lending libraries, and one of the UKs leading literary institutions. It was founded in 1841 on the initiative of Thomas Carlyle and it is located at 14 St. Jamess Square, in the St Jamess area of the City of Westminster, London, which has been its home since 1845. Membership is open to all, on payment of an annual subscription, as of March 2015 the Library had 6,708 members. The London Library is a self-supporting, independent institution and it is a registered charity whose sole aim is the advancement of education, learning, and knowledge. It was originally incorporated by Royal Charter on 13 June 1933, on 6 July 2004, the Queen granted the Library a new Royal Charter, which revoked both the 1933 and 1968 charters. It has its own byelaws and the power to make or amend its rules and it has a royal patron, an elected president and vice presidents, and is administered by an elected board of a maximum of 15 trustees, including the Chairman and the Treasurer. The chief instigator in the Librarys foundation was Thomas Carlyle, carlyles eventual solution, with the support of a number of influential friends, was to call for the establishment of a private subscription library from which books could be borrowed. The Earl of Clarendon was the Librarys first President, Thackeray was its first auditor and Gladstone, the Belgian freedom fighter and former Louvain librarian Sylvain van de Weyer was a vice-president from 1848-1874. A vigorous and long-serving presence in later Victorian times was Richard Monckton-Milnes, later Lord Houghton, dickens was among the founder members. In more recent times, Lord Clark and T. S. Eliot have been among the Librarys presidents, and Sir Harold Nicolson, Sir Rupert Hart-Davis and the Hon Michael Astor have been Chairmen. Charles Hagberg Wright, who served as Secretary and Librarian of the Library from 1893 to 1940, is remembered as the architect of the London Library as it is today. In 1957 the Library suddenly received a demand from the Westminster City Council for rates, at that time, most publishers donated free copies of their books to the library. The final appeal was turned down by the Court of Appeal in 1959, an auction of manuscripts from many authors on 22 June 1960 raised £17,000 and £25,000 respectively, enough to clear debts and legal expenses of £20,000. The Queen and Queen Mother both gave some rare and valuable old books, in the 1990s, the Library was one of a number of academic and specialist libraries targeted by serial book thief William Jacques. The identification of rare books put up for auction as having been stolen from the Library led the police to investigate Jacques. Security measures at the Library have since been improved, the social sciences are more lightly covered. Pure and natural sciences, technology, medicine and law are not within the purview, although it has some books in all of those fields. Periodicals and annuals on a range of subjects are also held in the collections