Seiten in der Kategorie „Motivation“
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1. Motivation – Motivation is a theoretical construct used to explain behaviour. It gives the reason for actions, desires, and needs. Motivation can also be defined as ones direction to behavior, or what causes a person to want to repeat a behavior, a motive is what prompts the person to act in a certain way, or at least develop an inclination for specific behavior. According to Maehr and Meyer, Motivation is a word that is part of the culture as few other psychological concepts are. Motivation theories can be classified on a number of bases, Natural vs. Rational, content vs. Process, based on whether the focus is on the content motivates vs process motivation takes place. This type of motivation has neurobiological roots in the basal ganglia, activated seeking behavior, such as locomotor activity is influenced by dopaminergic drugs, and in micro dialysis reveals dopamine release during anticipation of a reward. The wanting behavior associated with a stimulus can be increased by microinjections of dopamine and dopaminergic drugs in the dorsorostral nucleus accumbens. Opioid injections in this area produce pleasure, however outside of these hedonic hotspots they create an increased desire, furthermore, depletion or inhibition of DA in neurons of the nucleus accumbens decreases appetitive but not consummatory behavior. Dopamine is further implicated in motivation as administration of amphetamine increased the break point in a progressive ratio self-reinforcement schedule and that is, subjects were willing to go to greater lengths to obtain a reward. Motivation can be conceived of as a cycle in which thoughts influence behaviors, behaviors drive performance, performance affects thoughts, and the cycle begins again. Each stage of the cycle is composed of many dimensions including attitudes, beliefs, intentions, effort, the idea that human beings are rational and human behavior is guided by reason is an old one. However, recent research has significantly undermined the idea of homo economicus or of perfect rationality in favour of a more bounded rationality, the field of behavioural economics is particularly concerned with the limits of rationality in economic agents. Motivation can be divided into two different theories known as intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation, Intrinsic motivation has been studied since the early 1970s. Intrinsic motivation is the self-desire to seek out new things and new challenges, to analyze ones capacity, to observe and it is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on external pressures or a desire for consideration. The phenomenon of intrinsic motivation was first acknowledged within experimental studies of animal behavior, in these studies, it was evident that the organisms would engage in playful and curiosity driven behaviors in the absence of reward. Intrinsic motivation is a natural motivational tendency and is an element in cognitive, social. Students who are motivated are more likely to engage in the task willingly as well as work to improve their skills. The employee has the motivation to gain more knowledge
2. Akrasia – Akrasia, occasionally transliterated as acrasia or Anglicised as acrasy or acracy, is described as a lack of self-control or the state of acting against ones better judgment. The problem goes back at least as far as Plato, Socrates asks precisely how this is possible—if one judges action A to be the best course of action, why would one do anything other than A. In the dialogue Protagoras, Socrates attests that akrasia does not exist, claiming No one goes willingly toward the bad. If a person examines a situation and decides to act in the way he determines to be best, he will pursue this action, as the best course is also the good course. An all-things-considered assessment of the situation will bring full knowledge of a decisions outcome, Aristotle on the other hand took a more empirical approach to the question, acknowledging that we intuitively believe in akrasia. He distances himself from the Socratic position by locating the breakdown of reasoning in an agent’s opinion, now, without recourse to appetitive desires, Aristotle reasons that akrasia occurs as a result of opinion. Opinion is formulated mentally in a way that may or may not imitate truth, thus opinion is only incidentally aligned with or opposed to the good, making an akratic action the product of opinion instead of reason. For Aristotle, the antonym of akrasia is enkrateia, which means in power, the word akrasia occurs twice in the Koine Greek New Testament. In Matthew 23,25 Jesus uses it to describe hypocritical religious leaders, the Apostle Paul also gives the threat of temptation through akrasia as a reason for a husband and wife to not deprive each other of sex. Indeed, Davidson expands akrasia to include any judgment that is reached but not fulfilled, whether it be as a result of an opinion, a real or imagined good, or a moral belief. He puzzle I shall discuss depends only on the attitude or belief of the subject concerns evaluative judgments, whether they are analyzed cognitively, prescriptively. Thus he expands akrasia to include cases in which the agent seeks to fulfill desires, for example, but ends up denying himself the pleasure he has deemed most choice-worthy. Davidson sees the problem as one of reconciling the following apparently inconsistent triad, If an agent believes A to be better than B, If an agent wants to do A more than B, then they will do A rather than B if they only do one. Sometimes an agent acts against their better judgment, another contemporary philosopher, Amélie Rorty has tackled the problem by distilling out akrasias many forms. She contends that akrasia is manifested in different stages of the reasoning process. She enumerates four types of akrasia, akrasia of direction or aim, of interpretation, of irrationality and she separates the practical reasoning process into four steps, showing the breakdown that may occur between each step and how each constitutes an akratic state. Another explanation is that there are different forms of motivation which can conflict with each other, richard Holton, argues that weakness of the will involves revising ones resolutions too easily. Under this view, it is possible to act against ones better judgment, suppose, for example, Sarah judges that taking revenge upon a murderer is not the best course of action, but makes the resolution to take the revenge anyway and sticks to that resolution
3. Altruismus – Altruism or selflessness is the principle or practice of concern for the welfare of others. Altruism or selflessness is the opposite of selfishness, the word was coined by the French philosopher Auguste Comte in French, as altruisme, for an antonym of egoism. He derived it from the Italian altrui, which in turn was derived from Latin alteri, Altruism can be distinguished from feelings of loyalty, in that whilst the latter is predicated upon social relationships, altruism does not consider relationships. Much debate exists as to whether true altruism is possible in human psychology, the validity of this argument depends on whether intrinsic rewards qualify as benefits. The actor also may not be expecting a reward, the term altruism may also refer to an ethical doctrine that claims that individuals are morally obliged to benefit others. Used in this sense, it is contrasted with egoism. The concept has a history in philosophical and ethical thought. Whilst ideas about altruism from one field can affect the other fields, in simple terms, altruism is caring about the welfare of other people and acting to help them. Marcel Mausss book The Gift contains a passage, Note on alms and this note describes the evolution of the notion of alms from the notion of sacrifice. In it, he writes, Alms are the fruits of a notion of the gift and of fortune on the one hand. Generosity is an obligation, because Nemesis avenges the poor and the gods for the superabundance of happiness and this is the ancient morality of the gift, which has become a principle of justice. The gods and the spirits accept that the share of wealth and happiness that has offered to them and had been hitherto destroyed in useless sacrifices should serve the poor. Compare Altruism – perception of altruism as self-sacrifice, compare explanation of alms in various scriptures. Theories of apparently altruistic behavior were accelerated by the need to produce theories compatible with evolutionary origins, two related strands of research on altruism have emerged from traditional evolutionary analyses and from evolutionary game theory a mathematical model and analysis of behavioural strategies. Some of the mechanisms are, Kin selection. That animals and humans are more altruistic towards close kin than to distant kin and non-kin has been confirmed in numerous studies across many different cultures, even subtle cues indicating kinship may unconsciously increase altruistic behavior. One kinship cue is facial resemblance, one study found that slightly altering photographs so that they more closely resembled the faces of study participants increased the trust the participants expressed regarding depicted persons. Another cue is having the family name, especially if rare
4. Balancetheorie – In the psychology of motivation, balance theory is a theory of attitude change, proposed by Fritz Heider. It conceptualizes the cognitive consistency motive as a drive toward psychological balance, the consistency motive is the urge to maintain ones values and beliefs over time. Heider proposed that sentiment or liking relationships are balanced if the affect valence in a system out to a positive result. In social network analysis, balance theory is the proposed by Frank Harary. It was the framework for the discussion at a Dartmouth College symposium in September 1975, for example, a Person who likes an Other person will be balanced by the same valence attitude on behalf of the other. Symbolically, P > O and P < O results in psychological balance and this can be extended to things as well, thus introducing triadic relationships. If a person P likes object X but dislikes other person O and this is symbolized as such, P > X P > O O > X Balance is achieved when there are three positive links or two negatives with one positive. Two positive links and one negative like the example above creates imbalance, multiplying the signs shows that the person will perceive imbalance in this relationship, and will be motivated to correct the imbalance somehow. The Person can either, Decide that O isnt so bad after all, Decide that X isnt as great as originally thought, any of these will result in psychological balance, thus resolving the dilemma and satisfying the drive. Balance theory is useful in examining how celebrity endorsement affects consumers attitudes toward products. If a person likes a celebrity and perceives that said celebrity likes a product, said person will tend to like the product more, in order to achieve psychological balance. However, if the person already had a dislike for the product being endorsed by the celebrity, they may begin disliking the celebrity, heiders balance theory can explain why holding the same negative attitudes of others promotes closeness. Frank Harary and Dorwin Cartwright looked at Heider’s triads as 3-cycles in a signed graph, the sign of a path in a graph is the product of the signs of its edges. They considered cycles in a graph representing a social network. A balanced signed graph has only cycles of positive sign, Harary proved that a balanced graph is polarized, that is, it decomposes into two positive subgraphs that are joined by negative edges. In the interest of realism, a property was suggested by Davis. Graphs with this property may decompose into more than two positive subgraphs called clusters, the property has been called the clusterability axiom. Then balanced graphs are recovered by assuming the Parsimony axiom, The subgraph of positive edges has at most two components, note that a triangle of three mutual enemies makes a clusterable graph but not a balanced one
5. Begierde – Desire is a sense of longing or hoping for a person, object, or outcome. The same sense is expressed by such as craving. When a person desires something or someone, their sense of longing is excited by the enjoyment or the thought of the item or person, and they want to take actions to obtain their goal. The motivational aspect of desire has long noted by philosophers. Marketing and advertising companies have used psychological research on how desire is stimulated to find effective ways to induce consumers into buying a given product or service. The theme of desire is at the core of romance novels, the theme of desire is also used in other literary genres, such as gothic novels. Poets ranging from Homer to Toni Morrison have dealt with the themes of desire in their work, in philosophy, desire has been identified as a philosophical problem since Antiquity. In The Republic, Plato argues that individual desires must be postponed in the name of the higher ideal. In De Anima, Aristotle claims that desire is implicated in animal interactions, Hobbes proposed the concept of psychological hedonism, which asserts that the fundamental motivation of all human action is the desire for pleasure. Baruch Spinoza had a view which contrasted with Hobbes, in that he saw natural desires as a form of bondage that are not chosen by a person of their own free will. David Hume claimed that desires and passions are noncognitive, automatic bodily responses, immanuel Kant called any action based on desires a hypothetical imperative, meaning by this that it is a command of reason that applies only if one desires the goal in question. Kant also established a relation between the beautiful and pleasure in Critique of Judgment, georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel claimed that self-consciousness is desire. Because desire can cause humans to become obsessed and embittered, it has called one of the causes of woe for mankind. Within the teachings of Buddhism, craving is thought to be the cause of all suffering that one experiences in human existence, the eradication of craving leads one to ultimate happiness, or Nirvana. However, desire for wholesome things is seen as liberating and enhancing, in Hinduism, the Rig Vedas creation myth Nasadiya Sukta states regarding the one spirit, In the beginning there was Desire that was first seed of mind. Poets found the bond of being in non-being in their hearts thought, according to the early Buddhist scriptures, the Buddha stated that monks should generate desire for the sake of fostering skillful qualities and abandoning unskillful ones. There is a message here between what Buddha said, that desire must be created, and what some monks propose to their followers. Dr. Oscar R. Gómez holds that teachings imparted privately by H. H. 14th Dalai Lama are meant for leaders to be able to choose a desire consciously by creating it previously from the inside
6. Carpenter-Effekt – Ideomotor phenomenon is a psychological phenomenon wherein a subject makes motions unconsciously. The ideomotor response, often abbreviated to IMR, is a concept in hypnosis and it is derived from the terms ideo and motor. As in reflexive responses to pain, the body sometimes reacts reflexively with an effect to ideas alone without the person consciously deciding to take action. The effects of writing, dowsing, facilitated communication. Mystics have often attributed these effects to paranormal or supernatural force, many subjects are unconvinced that their actions are originating solely from within themselves. The notion of an ideo-dynamic response contributed to James Braids first neuro-psychological explanation of the principle through which suggestion operated in hypnotism, with the rise of Spiritualism in 1840s, mediums devised and refined a variety of techniques for communicating with the spirit world including table-turning and planchette writing boards. These phenomena and devices quickly became the subject of scientific investigation, in the paper, Carpenter explained his theory that muscular movement can be independent of conscious desires or emotions. Carpenter was a friend and collaborator of James Braid, the founder of modern hypnotism, furthermore, these tests demonstrate that honest, intelligent people can unconsciously engage in muscular activity that is consistent with their expectations. They also show that suggestions that can guide behavior can be given by subtle clues, a simple experiment to demonstrate the ideomotor effect is to allow a hand-held pendulum to hover over a sheet of paper. The paper has keywords such as YES, NO and MAYBE printed on it, small movements in the hand, in response to questions, can cause the pendulum to move towards key words on the paper. This technique has been used for experiments in perception, lie detection. This type of experiment was used by Kreskin and has also used by illusionists such as Derren Brown. Unconscious mind Adaptive unconscious Illusions of self-motion Proprioception Subconscious Unconscious communication Body language Anderson, defensive Maneuvers In Two Incidents Involving The Chevreul Pendulum, A Clinical Note, International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Vol. XXV, No.1, pp. 4–6. Braid, J. Mysterious Table Moving, The Manchester Examiner and Times, Vol.5, No.469, p.5, Braid, J. Hypnotic Therapeutics, Illustrated by Cases, With an Appendix on Table-Moving and Spirit-Rapping. Reprinted from the Monthly Journal of Medical Science for July 1853, Murray, Braid, J. Letter to Michael Faraday on the phenomenon of Table Turning, reprinted at pp. 560-561 of James, F. A. J. L. The Correspondence of Michael Faraday, Volume 4, January 1849 - October 1855, the Physiology of Fascination, and the Critics Criticised, John Murray,1855. On the Influence of Suggestion in Modifying and directing Muscular Movement, independently of Volition, Royal Institution of Great Britain,1852, pp. 147–153. Some Applications of Hypnosis and Ideomotor Questioning Methods for Analysis and Therapy in Medicine, American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, Vol.5, No.2, michel E. De la Baguette Divinatoire et du Pendule Dit Explorateur, Maillet-Bachelier, Paris,1854
7. Durst – Thirst is the craving for fluids, resulting in the basic instinct of animals to drink. It is a mechanism involved in fluid balance. It arises from a lack of fluids or an increase in the concentration of certain osmolites, if the water volume of the body falls below a certain threshold or the osmolite concentration becomes too high, the brain signals thirst. Continuous dehydration can cause problems, but is most often associated with renal problems. Excessive thirst, known as polydipsia, along with excessive urination, known as polyuria, there are receptors and other systems in the body that detect a decreased volume or an increased osmolite concentration. They signal to the nervous system, where central processing succeeds. Nevertheless, the craving itself is something generated from central processing in the brain and it is vital for organisms to be able to maintain their fluid levels in very narrow ranges. The goal is to keep the fluid, the fluid outside the cell. This condition is called isotonic and occurs when the level of solutes are present on either side of the cell membrane so that the net water movement is zero. If the interstitial fluid has a concentration of solutes than the intracellular fluid it will pull water out of the cell. This condition is called hypertonic and if enough water leaves the cell it will not be able to perform essential chemical functions, if the interstitial fluid becomes less concentrated the cell will fill with water as it tries to equalize the concentrations. This condition is called hypotonic and can be dangerous because it can cause the cell to swell, one set of receptors responsible for thirst detects the concentration of interstitial fluid. The other set of receptors detects blood volume and this is one of two types of thirst and is defined as thirst caused by loss of blood volume without depleting the intracellular fluid. This can be caused by loss, vomiting, and diarrhea. This loss of volume is problematic if the total blood volume falls too low the heart cannot circulate blood effectively. The vascular system responds by constricting blood vessels thereby creating a volume for the blood to fill. This mechanical solution however has definite limits and usually must be supplemented with increased volume, the loss of blood volume is detected by cells in the kidneys and triggers thirst for both water and salt via the renin-angiotensin system. Hypovolemia leads to activation of the renin angiotensin system and is detected by cells in the kidney, when these cells detect decreased blood flow due to the low volume they secrete an enzyme called renin
8. Ekel – Disgust is an emotional response of revulsion to something considered offensive, distasteful, or unpleasant. In The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, Charles Darwin wrote that disgust is a sensation that refers to something revolting. Disgust is experienced primarily in relation to the sense of taste, musically sensitive people may even be disgusted by the cacophony of inharmonious sounds. Disgust is one of the emotions of Robert Plutchiks theory of emotions and has been studied extensively by Paul Rozin. It invokes a characteristic expression, one of Paul Ekmans six universal facial expressions of emotion. Unlike the emotions of fear, anger, and sadness, disgust is associated with a decrease in heart rate and it is believed that the emotion of disgust has evolved as a response to offensive foods that may cause harm to the organism. A common example of this is found in human beings who show disgust reactions to mouldy milk or contaminated meat, Disgust appears to be triggered by objects or people who possess attributes that signify disease. This behavioral immune system has found to make sweeping generalizations because it is more costly to perceive a sick person as healthy than to perceive a healthy person as sickly. This can be explained in terms of each of the types of disgust, for those especially sensitive to moral disgust, they would want to be less aggressive because they want to avoid hurting others. Based on these findings, disgust may be used as an tool to decrease aggression in individuals. Disgust may produce specific responses, such as reduced blood pressure, lowered heart-rate. Research has also found that people who are sensitive to disgust tend to find their own in-group more attractive. Taking a further look into hygiene, disgust was the strongest predictor of attitudes toward obese individuals. A disgust reaction to obese individuals was also connected with views of moral values, Disgust may have an important role in certain forms of morality. Pathogen disgust arises from a desire to survive and, ultimately and he compares it to a behavioral immune system that is the first line of defense against potentially deadly agents such as dead bodies, rotting food, and vomit. Sexual disgust arises from a desire to avoid biologically costly mates, the two primary considerations are intrinsic quality and genetic compatibility. Moral disgust pertains to social transgressions and includes such as lying, theft, murder. Unlike the other two domains, moral disgust motivates avoidance of social relationships with norm-violating individuals because those relationships threaten group cohesion, sensitivity to disgust rises during pregnancy, along with levels of the hormone progesterone
9. Enthusiasmus – Enthusiasm is intense enjoyment, interest, or approval. The word was used to refer to a person possessed by a god. Socrates taught that the inspiration of poets is a form of enthusiasm, the term was confined to a belief in religious inspiration, or to intense religious fervour or emotion. From this, a Syrian sect of the 4th century was known as the Enthusiasts. They believed that by perpetual prayer, ascetic practices and contemplation, man could become inspired by the Holy Spirit, in spite of the evil spirit. From their belief in the efficacy of prayer, they were known as Euchites. Several Protestant sects of the 16th and 17th centuries were called enthusiastic, during the years that immediately followed the Glorious Revolution, enthusiasm was a British pejorative term for advocacy of any political or religious cause in public, i. e. fanaticism. The Royal Society bylaws stipulated that any person discussing religion or politics at a Society meeting was to be ejected for being an enthusiast. Artistic inspiration Connoisseur Emotional contagion Entheogen Euphoria Fan Flow Motivation Zest Daniels, M. D. D. Price, PhD, the Essential Enneagram, New York, HarperCollins, ISBN 0-06-251676-0 Ronald Knox. Enthusiasm, a Chapter in the History of Religion, with Special Reference to the XVII and XVIII Centuries, New York, Dover Publications Susie Tucker. Enthusiasm, A Study in Semantic Change, enthusiasm, A Study in Project Management