1.
University of California, Berkeley
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The University of California, Berkeley, is a public research university located in Berkeley, California. In 1960s, UC Berkeley was particularly noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. S, Department of Energy, and is home to many world-renowned research institutes and organizations including Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and Space Sciences Laboratory. Faculty member J. R. Oppenheimer, the father of the atomic bomb, Lawrence Livermore Lab also discovered or co-discovered six chemical elements. The Academic Ranking of World Universities also ranks the University of California, Berkeley, third in the world overall, in 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus. Ten faculty members and almost 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869, billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the college be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, with the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students and held its first classes. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento, ultimately becoming the University of California, by the 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown substantially, and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard. Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958, by 1942, the American Council on Education ranked UC Berkeley second only to Harvard University in the number of distinguished departments. During World War II, following Glenn Seaborgs then-secret discovery of plutonium, UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley is now a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, originally, military training was compulsory for male undergraduates, and Berkeley housed an armory for that purpose. In 1917, Berkeleys ROTC program was established, and its School of Military Aeronautics trained future pilots, including Jimmy Doolittle, both Robert McNamara and Frederick C. Weyand graduated from UC Berkeleys ROTC program, earning B. A. degrees in 1937 and 1938, in 1926, future fleet admiral Chester W. Nimitz established the first Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps unit at Berkeley. The Board of Regents ended compulsory military training at Berkeley in 1962, during the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members objected and were dismissed, ten years passed before they were reinstated with back pay, in 1952, the University of California became an entity separate from the Berkeley campus. Each campus was given autonomy and its own Chancellor. Then-president Sproul assumed presidency of the entire University of California system, Berkeley gained a reputation for student activism in the 1960s with the Free Speech Movement of 1964 and opposition to the Vietnam War. In the highly publicized Peoples Park protest in 1969, students and the school conflicted over use of a plot of land, then governor of California Ronald Reagan called the Berkeley campus a haven for communist sympathizers, protesters, and sex deviants. Modern students at Berkeley are less active, with a greater percentage of moderates and conservatives

2.
Shiing-Shen Chern
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Shiing-Shen Chern was a Chinese-American mathematician. Shiing-Shen Chern co-founded the world-renowned Mathematical Sciences Research Institute at Berkeley in 1982, Chern was born in Xiushui County, Jiaxing, in Zhejiang province. The year after his birth, China changed its regime from the Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China and he graduated from Xiushui Middle School and subsequently moved to Tianjin in 1922 to accompany his father. In 1926, after spending four years in Tianjin, Chern graduated from Fulun High School, at age 15, Chern entered the Faculty of Sciences of the Nankai University in Tianjin, studied mathematics there, and graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in 1930. At Nankai, Cherns mentor was Li-Fu Chiang, a Harvard-trained geometer, also at Nankai, he was heavily influenced by the physicist Rao Yutai. Rao is today considered to be one of the fathers of modern Chinese informatics. Chern went to Beiping to work at the Tsinghua University Department of Mathematics as a teaching assistant, at the same time he also registered at Tsinghua Graduate School as a student. He studied projective geometry under Prof. Sun Guangyuan, a University of Chicago-trained geometer and logician who was also from Zhejiang, Sun is another mentor of Chern who is considered a founder of modern Chinese mathematics. In 1932, Chern published his first research article in the Tsinghua University Journal, in the summer of 1934, Chern graduated from Tsinghua with a masters degree, the first ever masters degree in mathematics issued in China. Chen-Ning Yangs father — Yang Ko-Chuen, another Chicago-trained professor at Tsinghua, at the same time, Chern was Chen-Ning Yangs teacher of undergraduate maths at Tsinghua. At Tsinghua, Hua Luogeng, also a mathematician, was Cherns colleague, in 1932, Wilhelm Blaschke from the University of Hamburg visited Tsinghua and was impressed by Chern and his research. In 1934, co-funded by Tsinghua and the Chinese Foundation of Culture and Education, Chern studied at the University of Hamburg and worked under Blaschkes guidance first on the geometry of webs then on the Cartan-Kähler theory. Blaschke recommended Chern to study in Paris, in August 1936, Chern watched summer Olympics in Berlin together with Hua Luogeng who paid Chern a brief visit. During that time, Hua was studying at the University of Cambridge in Britain, in September 1936, Chern went to Paris and worked with Élie Cartan. Chern spent one year at the Sorbonne in Paris, in 1937, Chern accepted Tsinghuas invitation and was promoted to professor of mathematics at Tsinghua. However, at the time the Marco Polo Bridge Incident happened. Three universities including Peking University, Tsinghua, and Nankai formed the National Southwestern Associated University, in the same year, Hua Luogeng was promoted to professor of mathematics at Tsinghua

3.
Calvin Moore
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Calvin C. Moore is an American mathematician who works in the theory of operator algebras and topological groups. Moore graduated from Harvard University with a degree in 1958. In 1961 he became assistant professor in Berkeley and professor in 1966, from 1977 to 1980, he was director of the Center for Pure and Applied mathematics. With S. S. Chern and Isadore Singer, he co-founded Mathematical Sciences Research Institute in 1982, from 1964 to 1965 he was at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, from 1965 to 1967 he was a Sloan Fellow. From 1971 to 1979 he was a member of the Board of Trustees of the American Mathematical Society, since 1977, he is co-editor of the Pacific Journal of Mathematics. From 1978 to 1979 he was a Miller research professor at Berkeley and he has written on a history of mathematics at Berkeley. His students include Roger Howe and Bruce Blackadar, with Claude Schochet Global Analysis on Foliated Spaces, MSRI Publications, Springer Verlag 1988, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press 2006 Homepage

4.
James Simons
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James Harris Jim Simons is an American mathematician, hedge fund manager, and philanthropist. He is known as an investor and in 1982 founded Renaissance Technologies. Although Simons retired from the fund in 2009, he remains its non-executive chairman, Simons was a mathematics professor and subsequent chair of the mathematics department at Stony Brook University. As a consequence of his investment career, Forbes Magazine estimated Simons net worth is to be US$18 billion as of February 2017, james Harris Simons was born to a Jewish family, the only child of Marcia and Matthew Simons, and raised in Brookline, Massachusetts. His father owned a shoe factory, for more than two decades, Simons Renaissance Technologies hedge funds, which trade in markets around the world, have employed mathematical models to analyze and execute trades, many automated. Renaissance uses computer-based models to price changes in financial instruments. These models are based on analyzing as much data as can be gathered, Renaissance employs specialists with non-financial backgrounds, including mathematicians, physicists, signal processing experts and statisticians. The firms latest fund is the Renaissance Institutional Equities Fund, RIEF has historically trailed the firms better-known Medallion fund, a separate fund that contains only the personal money of the firms executives. In 2006, Simons was named Financial Engineer of the Year by the International Association of Financial Engineers. In 2007, he was estimated to have personally earned $2.8 billion, $1.7 billion in 2006, $1.5 billion in 2005, Simons mathematical work has primarily focused on the geometry and topology of manifolds. These and other contributions to geometry and topology led to Simons becoming the 1976 recipient of the AMS Oswald Veblen Prize in Geometry, in 2014, he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences of the USA. In 1964, Simons worked with the National Security Agency to break codes, in 1968, he was appointed chairman of the math department at Stony Brook University. Simons was asked by IBM in 1973 to attack the block cipher Lucifer and he funds a variety of research projects. Simons shuns the limelight and rarely gives interviews, citing Benjamin the Donkey in Animal Farm for explanation, but Id rather have had no tail and no flies. On October 10,2009, Simons announced he would retire on January 1,2010, Simons is a major contributor to Democratic Party political action committees. Simons has donated $7 million to Hillary Clintons Priorities USA Action, $2.6 million to the House and Senate Majority PACs and he also donated $25,000 to Republican Senator Lindsey Grahams super PAC. Since 2006 Simons has contributed about $30.6 million to federal campaigns, since 1990, Renaissance Technologies has contributed $59,081,152 to federal campaigns and since 2001, has spent $3,730,000 on lobbying. According to the Wall Street Journal in May 2009, Simons was questioned by investors on the performance gap of Renaissance Technologies portfolios

5.
Steve Martin
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Stephen Glenn Steve Martin is an American actor, comedian, writer, producer and musician. Martin came to notice in the 1960s as a writer for The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour. In the 1970s, Martin performed his offbeat, absurdist comedy routines before packed houses on national tours, in 2004, Comedy Central ranked Martin at sixth place in a list of the 100 greatest stand-up comics. He was awarded an Honorary Academy Award at the Academys 5th Annual Governors Awards in 2013 and he released his first solo music album, The Crow, New Songs for the 5-String Banjo, in 2009, for which he won the Grammy Award for Best Bluegrass Album. Martin was born on August 14,1945, in Waco, Texas, the son of Mary Lee and Glenn Vernon Martin, Martin was raised in Inglewood, California, and then later in Garden Grove, California, in a Baptist family. Martin was a cheerleader of Garden Grove High School, One of his earliest memories is of seeing his father, as an extra, serving drinks onstage at the Call Board Theatre on Melrose Place. During World War II, in the United Kingdom, Martins father had appeared in a production of Our Town with Raymond Massey, expressing his affection through gifts of cars, bikes, etc. Martins father was stern, and not emotionally open to his son and he was proud but critical, with Martin later recalling that in his teens his feelings for his father were mostly ones of hatred. Martins first job was at Disneyland, selling guidebooks on weekends, during his free time, he frequented the Main Street Magic shop, where tricks were demonstrated to potential customers. While working at Disneyland, he was captured in the background of the movie that was made into the short-subject film Disneyland Dream. By 1960, he had mastered several of the tricks and illusions, there he perfected his talents for magic, juggling, and creating balloon animals in the manner of mentor Wally Boag, frequently performing for tips. After high school graduation, Martin attended Santa Ana College, taking classes in drama, in his free time, he teamed up with friend and Garden Grove High School classmate Kathy Westmoreland to participate in comedies and other productions at the Bird Cage Theatre. He joined a comedy troupe at Knotts Berry Farm, later, he met budding actress Stormie Sherk, and they developed comedy routines and became romantically involved. Sherks influence caused Martin to apply to the California State University, Long Beach, Stormie enrolled at UCLA, about an hours drive north, and the distance eventually caused them to lead separate lives. Inspired by his classes, Martin considered becoming a professor instead of an actor-comedian. His time at college changed his life and it changed what I believe and what I think about everything. Something about non-sequiturs appealed to me, in philosophy, I started studying logic, and they were talking about cause and effect, and you start to realize, Hey, there is no cause and effect. Then it gets real easy to write this stuff because all you have to do is twist everything hard—you twist the punch line, Martin recalls reading a treatise on comedy that led him to think What if there were no punch lines

6.
Tom Stoppard
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Sir Tom Stoppard OM CBE FRSL is a Czech-born British playwright and screenwriter, knighted in 1997. He co-wrote the screenplays for Brazil, The Russia House, and Shakespeare in Love, themes of human rights, censorship and political freedom pervade his work along with exploration of linguistics and philosophy. Stoppard has been a key playwright of the National Theatre and is one of the most internationally performed dramatists of his generation, in 2008 The Daily Telegraph ranked him number 11 in their list of the 100 most powerful people in British culture. Born in Czechoslovakia, Stoppard left as a refugee, fleeing imminent Nazi occupation. He settled with his family in Britain after the war, in 1946, after being educated at schools in Nottingham and Yorkshire, Stoppard became a journalist, a drama critic and then, in 1960, a playwright. He has been married three times, to Josie Ingle, then Miriam Stoppard, and Sabrina Guinness, Stoppard was born Tomáš Straussler, in Zlín, a shoe town, in the Moravia region of Czechoslovakia. He was the son of Martha Becková and Eugen Straussler, a doctor with the Bata shoe company, both of his parents were non-observant Jews, part of a long-established community. Just before the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, the patron, Jan Antonín Baťa, helped re-post his Jewish employees, mostly physicians. On 15 March 1939, the day that the Nazis invaded Czechoslovakia, before the Japanese occupation of Singapore, the two sons and their mother were sent on to Australia. Stoppards father remained in Singapore as a British army volunteer, knowing that, as a doctor and his father died when Stoppard was four years old. From there, in 1941, when Tomas was five, the three were evacuated to Darjeeling in India, the boys attended Mount Hermon School, an American multi-racial school, where Tomas became Tom and his brother Petr became Peter. In 1945, his mother Martha married British army major Kenneth Stoppard, setting up Stoppards desire as a child to become an honorary Englishman. I fairly often find Im with people who forget I dont quite belong in the world were in, he says. I find I put a foot wrong – it could be pronunciation, a bit of English history – and suddenly Im there naked, as someone with a pass. This is reflected in his characters, he notes, who are constantly being addressed by the name, with jokes. Stoppard attended the Dolphin School in Nottinghamshire, and later completed his education at Pocklington School in East Riding, Yorkshire, which he hated. Stoppard left school at seventeen and began work as a journalist for the Western Daily Press in Bristol, never receiving a university education, having taken against the idea. Years later he came to not going to university, but at the time he loved his work as a journalist

7.
Philip Glass
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Philip Morris Glass is an American composer. He is considered one of the most influential makers of the late 20th century. Glasss compositions have been described as music, similar to other minimalist composers including La Monte Young, Steve Reich. However, Glass has described himself instead as a composer of music with repetitive structures, Glass founded the Philip Glass Ensemble, with which he still performs on keyboards. He has written numerous operas and musical works, eleven symphonies, eleven concertos, seven string quartets and various other chamber music. Three of his scores have been nominated for Academy Awards. Glass was born in Baltimore, Maryland, the son of Ida and his family were Jewish immigrants from Lithuania. His father owned a store and his mother was a librarian. She developed a plan to help them learn English and develop skills so they could find work and his sister, Sheppie, would later do similar work as an active member of the International Rescue Committee. Glass developed his appreciation of music from his father, discovering later his fathers side of the family had many musicians and his cousin Cevia was a classical pianist, while others had been in vaudeville. He learned his family was related to Al Jolson. Glasss father often received promotional copies of new recordings at his music store and he spent many hours listening to them, developing his knowledge and taste in music. This openness to modern sounds affected Glass at an age, My father was self-taught, but he ended up having a very refined and rich knowledge of classical, chamber. Typically he would come home and have dinner, and then sit in his armchair, I caught on to this very early, and I would go and listen with him. The elder Glass promoted both new recordings and a selection of composers to his customers, sometimes convincing them to try something new by allowing them to return records they didnt like. His store soon developed a reputation as Baltimores leading source of modern music, Glass cites Schuberts work as a big influence growing up. He studied the flute as a child at the school of the Peabody Institute. At the age of 15, he entered a college program at the University of Chicago where he studied mathematics

8.
Irving Kaplansky
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Irving Kaplansky was a mathematician, college professor, author, and musician. He attended the University of Toronto as an undergraduate, astoundingly, through 2015, there have been 144,589 participants. Over the seventy-six competitions between 1938 and 2015 there have been only four perfect scores. Kaplansky only got one question wrong, below is a table of the first five recipients. He was professor of mathematics at the University of Chicago from 1945 to 1984, Kaplansky was the Director of the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute from 1984 to 1992, and the President of the American Mathematical Society from 1985 to 1986. Kaplansky was also an amateur musician. He had perfect pitch, studied piano until the age of 15, earned money in school as a dance band musician, taught Tom Lehrer. He also had a program on Harvards student radio station. He often composed music based on mathematical themes, Kaplansky made major contributions to group theory, ring theory, the theory of operator algebras and field theory and created the Kaplansky density theorem, Kaplanskys game and Kaplansky conjecture. He published more than 150 articles and over 20 mathematical books and he has over 800 academic descendants, including many through his academic grandchildren David J. Foulis and Carl Pearcy. He was the speaker at the British Mathematical Colloquium in 1966. Won the William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition, the Guggenheim Fellowship, the Jeffery-Williams Prize, revised edn.1971 with several later reprintings ——. Introdução à teoria de Galois, por I, linear algebra and geometry, a second course. Algebraic and analytic aspects of operator algebras, Lie Algebras and Locally Compact Groups. 1966, revised 1974 with several later reprintings with I. N. Herstein, fun with Mathematics, Some Thoughts from Seven Decades, a video lecture of Kaplanskys advice on writing mathematical papers Symbolic solution of certain problems in permutations. A note on groups without isomorphic subgroups, with I. S. Cohen, Rings with a finite number of primes. On a problem of Kurosch and Jacobson, with Richard F. Arens, Topological representations of algebras. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.35, 133–136, the Weierstrass theorem in fields with valuations. The structure of certain operator algebras, modules over Dedekind rings and valuations rings

9.
William Thurston
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William Paul Thurston was an American mathematician. He was a pioneer in the field of low-dimensional topology, in 1982, he was awarded the Fields Medal for his contributions to the study of 3-manifolds. From 2003 until his death he was a professor of mathematics and his early work, in the early 1970s, was mainly in foliation theory, where he had a dramatic impact. His more significant results include, The proof that every Haefliger structure on a manifold can be integrated to a foliation, the construction of a continuous family of smooth, codimension-one foliations on the three-sphere whose Godbillon–Vey invariant takes every real value. With John Mather, he gave a proof that the cohomology of the group of homeomorphisms of a manifold is the same whether the group is considered with its discrete topology or its compact-open topology. His later work, starting around the mid-1970s, revealed that hyperbolic geometry played a far more important role in the theory of 3-manifolds than was previously realised. Prior to Thurston, there were only a handful of examples of hyperbolic 3-manifolds of finite volume. This was the first example of a hyperbolic knot, inspired by their work, Thurston took a different, more explicit means of exhibiting the hyperbolic structure of the figure-eight knot complement. By utilizing Hakens normal surface techniques, he classified the incompressible surfaces in the knot complement and these were the first such examples, previously it had been believed that except for certain Seifert fiber spaces, all irreducible 3-manifolds were Haken. These examples were actually hyperbolic and motivated his next revolutionary theorem, Thurston proved that in fact most Dehn fillings on a cusped hyperbolic 3-manifold resulted in hyperbolic 3-manifolds. This is his celebrated hyperbolic Dehn surgery theorem, to complete the picture, Thurston proved a hyperbolization theorem for Haken manifolds. A particularly important corollary is that many knots and links are in fact hyperbolic, together with his hyperbolic Dehn surgery theorem, this showed that closed hyperbolic 3-manifolds existed in great abundance. The geometrization theorem has been called Thurstons Monster Theorem, due to the length, complete proofs were not written up until almost 20 years later. The proof involves a number of deep and original insights which have linked many apparently disparate fields to 3-manifolds, Thurston was next led to formulate his geometrization conjecture. Hyperbolic geometry is the most prevalent geometry in this picture and also the most complicated, the conjecture was proved by Grigori Perelman in 2002–2003. In his work on hyperbolic Dehn surgery, Thurston realized that orbifold structures naturally arose, such structures had been studied prior to Thurston, but his work, particularly the next theorem, would bring them to prominence. In 1981, he announced the orbifold theorem, an extension of his theorem to the setting of 3-orbifolds. Two teams of mathematicians around 2000 finally finished their efforts to write down a complete proof and his original proof relied partly on Richard S. Hamiltons work on the Ricci flow