¡Ni un paso atrás!
Order No.227 issued on July 28,1942 was an order issued by Joseph Stalin who was acting as the Peoples Commissar of Defence. It is famous for its line Not one step back, which became a slogan of Soviet resistance against the German invasion. During the first part of the Great Patriotic War, the Soviets experienced heavy losses along with mass retreat, combat goes on in region Voronej, near Don, in the south, and at the gates of the Northern Caucasus. The German invaders penetrate toward Stalingrad, to Volga and want at any cost to trap Kuban, the enemy already has captured Vorochilovgrad, Starobelsk, Rossosh, Kupyansk, Valuyki, Novochercassk, Rostov on Don, half Voronej. Part of the troops of the Southern front, following the panic-mongers, have left Rostov and Novochercassk without severe resistance and without orders from Moscow and they want to justify the infamous behavior at the front. But such talk is falsehood, helpful only to our enemies, each commander, Red Army soldier and political commissar should understand that our means are not limitless. The territory of the Soviet state is not a desert, but people - workers, peasants, intelligentsia, our fathers, mothers, wives, brothers, children. After the loss of Ukraine, Belarus, Baltic republics, Donetzk and we have lost more than 70 million people, more than 800 million pounds of bread annually and more than 10 million tons of metal annually. Now we do not have predominance over the Germans in human reserves, to retreat further - means to waste ourselves and to waste at the same time our Motherland. This leads to the conclusion, it is time to finish retreating, such should now be our main slogan. It goes on to state that The Supreme General Headquarters of the Red Army commands,1 and this order is to be read in all companies, cavalry squadrons, batteries, squadrons, commands and headquarters. No commander had the right to retreat without an order, anyone who did so was subject to a military tribunal of the corresponding seniority level. Order No.227 established that each front must create one to three battalions of up to 800 middle-ranking commanders and high-ranking commanders accused of disciplinary problems. Penal battalions were sent to the most dangerous sections of the front lines, each front had to create penal companies for privates and NCOs. By the end of 1942 there were 24,993 troops serving in penal battalions, which increased to 177,694 in 1943. The number decreased over the two years to 143,457 and 81,766 soldiers in 1944 and 1945, respectively. The total of Red Army personnel sentenced by court was 994,300, Not included are 212,400 deserters, who were not found and escaped the custody of the military districts. The order also directed that each army must create blocking detachments that would capture or shoot cowards, both measures were cited in the preamble of the order as having been successfully used by the Germans during their winter retreat
Scoop is a 1938 novel by the English writer Evelyn Waugh. It is a satire of sensationalist journalism and foreign correspondents, William Boot, a young man who lives in genteel poverty, far from the iniquities of London, contributes nature notes to Lord Coppers Daily Beast, a national daily newspaper. He is dragooned into becoming a correspondent, when the editors mistake him for a fashionable novelist. He is sent to the fictional East African state of Ishmaelia to report on the crisis there, Lord Copper believes it a very promising little war and proposes to give it fullest publicity. Despite his total ineptitude, Boot accidentally gets the scoop of the title, when he returns, the credit goes to the other Boot and he is left to return to his bucolic pursuits, much to his relief. When he got a scoop on the invasion, he telegraphed the story back in Latin for secrecy, Waugh wrote up his travels more factually in Waugh in Abyssinia, which complements Scoop. Lord Coppers idea of the lowliest of his employees is a book reviewer, the historian A. J. P. Taylor wrote, I have Evelyn Waughs authority for stating that Lord Beaverbrook was not the original of Lord Copper. Bill Deedes thought that the portrait of Copper exhibited the folie de grandeur of Rothermere and Beaverbrook and included the ghost of Rothermeres elder brother, Lord Northcliffe. It is widely believed that Waugh based his protagonist, William Boot, on Bill Deedes, in his memoir At War with Waugh, Deedes wrote that, Waugh like most good novelists drew on more than one person for each of his characters. He drew on me for my excessive baggage—and perhaps for my naivety, the novel is full of all but identical opposites, Lord Copper of The Beast, Lord Zinc of the Daily Brute, the CumReds and the White Shirts, parodies of Communists and Black Shirts etc. Other models for characters, Jakes is drawn from John Gunther of the Chicago Daily News, in excerpt, Jakes is found writing, The Archbishop of Canterbury who, it is well known, is behind Imperial Chemicals. The most recognisable figure from Fleet Street is Sir Jocelyn Hitchcock, Waughs portrait of Sir Percival Phillips, mrs Stitch is partly based on Lady Diana Cooper, Mr Baldwin is a combination of Francis Rickett and Antonin Besse. Waughs despised Oxford tutor C. R. M. F. Cruttwell makes his cameo appearance. Feather-footed through the plashy fen passes the questing vole, a line one of Boots countryside columns, has become a famous comic example of overblown prose style. It inspired the name of the environmentalist magazine Vole, which was originally titled The Questing Vole. this world of callousness and vulgarity, Scoop was included in The Observers list of the 100 greatest novels of all time. In 1998, the Modern Library ranked Scoop No.75 on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century, Scoop was made into a 1972 BBC serial and a 1987 British TV series, starring Michael Maloney and Denholm Elliott. William Boyd adapted the novel into a screenplay, which was directed by Gavin Millar and it aired on 26 April 1987. The fictional newspaper in Scoop served as the inspiration for the title of Tina Browns online news source, in 2009 the novel was serialised and broadcast on BBC Radio 4
¿De dónde venimos? ¿Quiénes somos? ¿Adónde vamos?
Where Are We Going. is a painting by French artist Paul Gauguin. Gauguin inscribed the original French title in the left corner. The inscription the artist wrote on his canvas has no mark, no dash. In the upper right corner he signed and dated the painting, the painting was created in Tahiti, and is in the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Gauguin had been a student at the Petit Séminaire de La Chapelle-Saint-Mesmin, just outside Orléans and his subjects there included a class in Catholic liturgy, the teacher for this class was the Bishop of Orléans, Félix-Antoine-Philibert Dupanloup. Dupanloup had devised his own catechism to be lodged in the minds of the young schoolboys, the three fundamental questions in this catechism were, Where does humanity come from. Although in later life Gauguin was vociferously anticlerical, these questions from Dupanloups catechism obviously had lodged in his mind, became the key question that Gauguin asked in his art. Looking for a society more simple and elemental than that of his native France, in addition to several other paintings that express his highly individualistic mythology, he completed this painting in 1897 or 1898. Gauguin considered it a masterpiece and the culmination of his thought. He was in despair when he undertook the painting, mourning the death of his favourite daughter earlier in the year and oppressed by debts. He subsequently made an attempt with an overdose of arsenic. Thomson thinks it possible that he only painted in the inscription while recovering from the attempt. Gauguin indicated that the painting should be read right to left. The blue idol in the background apparently represents what Gauguin described as the Beyond, of its entirety he said, I believe that this canvas not only surpasses all my preceding ones, but that I shall never do anything better—or even like it. It emerged in conjunction with other movements of the twentieth century. In 1898, Gauguin sent the painting to Georges-Daniel de Monfreid in Paris, Monfreid passed it to Ambroise Vollard along with eight other thematically related pictures shipped earlier. They went on view at Vollards gallery from November to December 1898, the exhibition was a success, although Doù Venons Nous. received mixed reviews. Vollard had already purchased the works as a job lot from Monfreid for 1,000 francs
¿Está usted de broma, Sr. Feynman?
Adventures of a Curious Character is an edited collection of reminiscences by the Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman. The book, released in 1985, covers a variety of instances in Feynmans life, others cover more serious material, including his work on the Manhattan Project and his critique of the science education system in Brazil. The anecdotes were edited from taped conversations that Feynman had with his close friend and its surprise success led to a sequel entitled What Do You Care What Other People Think. also taken from Leightons taped conversations. The closing chapter, Cargo Cult Science, is adapted from the address that Feynman gave during the 1974 commencement exercises at the California Institute of Technology. The title derives from a response at Princeton University when, after she asked the newly arrived Feynman if he wanted cream or lemon in his tea
¿Sueñan los androides con ovejas eléctricas?
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep. is a science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. First published in 1968, the novel is set in a post-apocalyptic San Francisco, most animal species are endangered or extinct from extreme radiation poisoning, so that owning an animal is now a sign of status and empathy, an attitude encouraged towards animals. The book served as the basis for the 1982 film Blade Runner. In connection with Deckards mission, the novel explores the issue of what it is to be human, unlike humans, the androids are claimed to possess no sense of empathy. Poor people can only afford realistic-looking electric animals, including Deckard, the story also contains passing mention to Penfield mood organs, which fill the role that mind-altering drugs take in other Dick stories. The mood organ can induce any desired mood in the nearby, such as an optimistic business-like attitude or the desire to watch television. A slightly ironic passage in the chapter has Deckard and his wife, Iran. She announces that she has scheduled six hours of existential despair for later in order to deal with their loneliness in an apartment building. The mission involves hunting down a group of six Nexus-6 androids that violently went rogue, Deckard visits Rosen headquarters in Seattle to confirm the validity of a question-and-answer empathy test, a method for identifying any androids posing as humans. Deckard is greeted by Rachael Rosen, who fails his test. Rachael attempts to bribe Deckard into silence, but he verifies that she is indeed a Nexus-6 android used by Rosen to try to discredit the test, Deckard soon meets a Soviet police contact, who turns out to be one of the disguised Nexus-6 renegades. Deckard retires the android, then flies off to retire his next target, Luba Luft and this android, however, has him arrested by a police officer he has never met and detained at a police department he has never known. At this strange police station, Deckards worldview is shaken when an official named Garland accuses Deckard of being an android, phil Resch, the stations bounty hunter, finally gets testing equipment to determine if his coworkers as well as Deckard are androids or humans. Finally, Garland reveals that the station is a sham, completely staffed by androids. Resch shoots Garland in the head and escapes with Deckard, together, they find and arrest the android opera singer, although Resch and Deckard are now collaborating, each still worries that the other, or himself, might be an android. Deckard administers the empathy test to himself and Resch, which confirms that Resch is a particularly ruthless human being, and that Deckard is also human, the lonely Isidore attempts to befriend her. Roy and Irmgard Baty, the two rogue androids, visit the building, and they all together plan how to survive. Meanwhile, Deckard with his reward money buys Iran an authentic Nubian goat, Deckard calls back upon Rachael Rosen, since her own insider knowledge as an android will aid his investigation