¡Ni un paso atrás!
Order No.227 issued on July 28,1942 was an order issued by Joseph Stalin who was acting as the Peoples Commissar of Defence. It is famous for its line Not one step back, which became a slogan of Soviet resistance against the German invasion. During the first part of the Great Patriotic War, the Soviets experienced heavy losses along with mass retreat, combat goes on in region Voronej, near Don, in the south, and at the gates of the Northern Caucasus. The German invaders penetrate toward Stalingrad, to Volga and want at any cost to trap Kuban, the enemy already has captured Vorochilovgrad, Starobelsk, Rossosh, Kupyansk, Valuyki, Novochercassk, Rostov on Don, half Voronej. Part of the troops of the Southern front, following the panic-mongers, have left Rostov and Novochercassk without severe resistance and without orders from Moscow and they want to justify the infamous behavior at the front. But such talk is falsehood, helpful only to our enemies, each commander, Red Army soldier and political commissar should understand that our means are not limitless. The territory of the Soviet state is not a desert, but people - workers, peasants, intelligentsia, our fathers, mothers, wives, brothers, children. After the loss of Ukraine, Belarus, Baltic republics, Donetzk and we have lost more than 70 million people, more than 800 million pounds of bread annually and more than 10 million tons of metal annually. Now we do not have predominance over the Germans in human reserves, to retreat further - means to waste ourselves and to waste at the same time our Motherland. This leads to the conclusion, it is time to finish retreating, such should now be our main slogan. It goes on to state that The Supreme General Headquarters of the Red Army commands,1 and this order is to be read in all companies, cavalry squadrons, batteries, squadrons, commands and headquarters. No commander had the right to retreat without an order, anyone who did so was subject to a military tribunal of the corresponding seniority level. Order No.227 established that each front must create one to three battalions of up to 800 middle-ranking commanders and high-ranking commanders accused of disciplinary problems. Penal battalions were sent to the most dangerous sections of the front lines, each front had to create penal companies for privates and NCOs. By the end of 1942 there were 24,993 troops serving in penal battalions, which increased to 177,694 in 1943. The number decreased over the two years to 143,457 and 81,766 soldiers in 1944 and 1945, respectively. The total of Red Army personnel sentenced by court was 994,300, Not included are 212,400 deserters, who were not found and escaped the custody of the military districts. The order also directed that each army must create blocking detachments that would capture or shoot cowards, both measures were cited in the preamble of the order as having been successfully used by the Germans during their winter retreat
¿Está usted de broma, Sr. Feynman?
Adventures of a Curious Character is an edited collection of reminiscences by the Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman. The book, released in 1985, covers a variety of instances in Feynmans life, others cover more serious material, including his work on the Manhattan Project and his critique of the science education system in Brazil. The anecdotes were edited from taped conversations that Feynman had with his close friend and its surprise success led to a sequel entitled What Do You Care What Other People Think. also taken from Leightons taped conversations. The closing chapter, Cargo Cult Science, is adapted from the address that Feynman gave during the 1974 commencement exercises at the California Institute of Technology. The title derives from a response at Princeton University when, after she asked the newly arrived Feynman if he wanted cream or lemon in his tea
¿Sueñan los androides con ovejas eléctricas?
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep. is a science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. First published in 1968, the novel is set in a post-apocalyptic San Francisco, most animal species are endangered or extinct from extreme radiation poisoning, so that owning an animal is now a sign of status and empathy, an attitude encouraged towards animals. The book served as the basis for the 1982 film Blade Runner. In connection with Deckards mission, the novel explores the issue of what it is to be human, unlike humans, the androids are claimed to possess no sense of empathy. Poor people can only afford realistic-looking electric animals, including Deckard, the story also contains passing mention to Penfield mood organs, which fill the role that mind-altering drugs take in other Dick stories. The mood organ can induce any desired mood in the nearby, such as an optimistic business-like attitude or the desire to watch television. A slightly ironic passage in the chapter has Deckard and his wife, Iran. She announces that she has scheduled six hours of existential despair for later in order to deal with their loneliness in an apartment building. The mission involves hunting down a group of six Nexus-6 androids that violently went rogue, Deckard visits Rosen headquarters in Seattle to confirm the validity of a question-and-answer empathy test, a method for identifying any androids posing as humans. Deckard is greeted by Rachael Rosen, who fails his test. Rachael attempts to bribe Deckard into silence, but he verifies that she is indeed a Nexus-6 android used by Rosen to try to discredit the test, Deckard soon meets a Soviet police contact, who turns out to be one of the disguised Nexus-6 renegades. Deckard retires the android, then flies off to retire his next target, Luba Luft and this android, however, has him arrested by a police officer he has never met and detained at a police department he has never known. At this strange police station, Deckards worldview is shaken when an official named Garland accuses Deckard of being an android, phil Resch, the stations bounty hunter, finally gets testing equipment to determine if his coworkers as well as Deckard are androids or humans. Finally, Garland reveals that the station is a sham, completely staffed by androids. Resch shoots Garland in the head and escapes with Deckard, together, they find and arrest the android opera singer, although Resch and Deckard are now collaborating, each still worries that the other, or himself, might be an android. Deckard administers the empathy test to himself and Resch, which confirms that Resch is a particularly ruthless human being, and that Deckard is also human, the lonely Isidore attempts to befriend her. Roy and Irmgard Baty, the two rogue androids, visit the building, and they all together plan how to survive. Meanwhile, Deckard with his reward money buys Iran an authentic Nubian goat, Deckard calls back upon Rachael Rosen, since her own insider knowledge as an android will aid his investigation
.22 Extra Long
The.22 Extra Long is a.22 in American rimfire rifle and handgun cartridge. Using the same 40 gr outside-lubricated bullet later adapted for the more common.22 Long Rifle. Originally, it outperformed the.22 LR, but was not noted for great accuracy. As with the.22 Winchester Automatic and.22 Remington Automatic, because it is very dimensionally-similar, however, the shorter.22 Short.22 Long, and.22 LR will chamber in weapons designed for it. The power of the.22 Extra Long is comparable to the standard velocity.22 Long Rifle, the.22 Extra Long ceased to be offered commercially in 1935. 5mm caliber List of cartridges by caliber List of rifle cartridges List of rimfire cartridges Barnes, Frank C. ed. by John T. Amber.22 Extra Long, in Cartridges of the World, pp.274,282, &283
The. 30-03 was a short-lived cartridge developed by the United States in 1903, to replace the. 30-40 Krag in the new Springfield 1903 rifle. The. 30-03 was also called the. 30-45, since it used a 45 grain powder charge and it used a 220 grain roundnose bullet. It was replaced after three years of service by the. 30-06, firing a spitzer bullet giving better ballistic performance. A new rifle was designed, using the Mauser as a guide, the new cartridge was more powerful, using a 45 grain charge of smokeless powder,5 grains more than the. 30-40. The bullet was the same, a.30 caliber,220 grain round nosed jacketed bullet, at a velocity of 2300 feet per second. The. 30-03 cartridge was also a design, which allowed better feeding through the box magazine than the old. 30-40 Krag case. The Model 1895 Winchester lever-action rifle was offered in 30-03 from 1905, in 1903, the Army converted its M1900 Gatling guns in.30 Army to fit the new. 30-03 cartridge as the M1903. The later M1903-06 was an M1903 converted to. 30-06 and this conversion was principally carried out at the Armys Springfield Armory arsenal repair shops. All models of Gatling guns were declared obsolete by the U. S. Army in 1911, the. 30-03 cartridge suffered from the start. It caused severe erosion of the bore of the rifle, due to the pressures and temperatures needed to push the heavy bullet to the desired velocity. The heavy bullet was also an issue, the 220 grain bullet was aerodynamically inefficient and had a curved trajectory so it was not well suited for long range shots. It was also unfashionable, since most countries were switching to a 7 or 8 mm cartridge firing a lighter, around 150 grains and this gave better energy retention and a flatter trajectory. The. 30-03 was shortened slightly by 0.07 inches in the neck, the powder was reformulated to burn cooler, since the new. 30-06 was shorter than the. 30-03, it could fire in 1903 rifle, but with poor accuracy. The 1903 rifles were all recalled, fitted with the Model of 1905 sights and bayonet and this last procedure was done by unscrewing the barrels, milling off the end of each chamber, re-threading the barrels, rechambering them and screwing them back on the same actions. This ended the life of the. 30-03, out of nearly 75,000 made, few original 1903 rifles escaped the conversion to. 30-06. Even the. 30-03 cartridge is a rarity, found only in collections of rare cartridges, the.270 Winchester and.280 Remington cartridges were based on reducing the neck diameter of a. 30-03 cartridge case to retain a similar bullet-holding length with the same shoulder. List of rifle cartridges 7 mm caliber Pictures and information on the development of the. 30-06 from the. 30-03 at the Cartridge Collectors Exchange
Since the cartridge it was replacing was the. 45-70 Government, the round was considered small-bore at the time. The design selected was ultimately the Krag–Jørgensen, formally adopted as the M1892 Springfield and it was also used in M1893 and later Gatling guns. After a brief experiment with a 230-grain bullet loading, the.30 Army loading was standardized in 1894 using a 220-grain metal-jacketed round-nose bullet with 40 grains of nitrocellulose powder. This loading developed a velocity of 2,000 ft/s in the 30-inch barrel of the Krag rifle. The rimmed. 30-40 round was known as.30 Army. The first use of a smokeless powder round by Winchester was a shot in 30-40. From the outset, the. 30-40 cartridge proved popular for hunting, in 1899, a Krag in. 30-40 caliber was used to shoot the world-record Rocky Mountain elk. The record stood until the half of the 20th century. The new loading increased the velocity in the rifle version of the Krag to 2,200 ft/s at 45,000 psi. However, once the new loading was issued, reports of cracked locking lugs on service Krags began to surface, in March 1900 the remaining stocks of this ammunition were returned to the arsenals, broken down, and reloaded back to the original 2,000 ft/s specification. In 1903, after recommendations from the infantry Small Arms Board, the new cartridge was designated by its year of adoption, the. 30-03. Handbook of the Gatling Gun, Caliber.30
.44 Bull Dog
The.44 Bull Dog was an American centerfire revolver cartridge produced from the 1880s until the 1930s. No known firearm was chambered exclusively for the.44 Bull Dog cartridge, It was a shorter, also, the Bull Dog was very easy to carry. Webleys British Bulldog revolver was a popular and widely copied self-defense or pocket gun and it proved a great deal better than contemporary rimfire rounds, being in a class with the.41 Short Colt. However, by modern standards, the.44 Bull Dog was an extremely marginal round, not really suitable for anything but point-blank range, which is how it normally would have been used. List of cartridges by caliber 11mm caliber Barnes, Frank C. ed. by John T. Amber.44 Bull Dog, in Cartridges of the World, ISBN 0-695-80326-3. ______ and _____.25 Automatic Pisto, in Cartridges of the World, p.149. Kirkland, WA, Commonwealth Heritage Foundation,1987, ficken, Homer R. Webleys The British Bull Dog Revolver, Serial Numbering and Variations
The.44 Colt was an American centerfire revolver cartridge produced commercially from 1871 until the 1940s. The cartridge was developed for the United States Army, and introduced by Colts Patent Firearms around 1871, the Army used it until 1873, at which time it was replaced by the better known.45 Colt cartridge used in the recently adopted Colt Single Action Army revolver. The.44 Colt was used in the Richards-Mason conversions of Colts 1860 Army percussion revolver, the conversion process involved boring through the chambers of the obsolete cap and ball revolvers to enable them to chamber centerfire metallic cartridges. This process left a chamber of uniform diameter, with no step at the front, thus the bullet and the brass case were made the same diameter, with a short heel section at the base of the bullet of smaller diameter to inserted in the mouth of the case. Modern.44 Colt ammunition is similar to.44 Special with regard to bullet diameter and case width. The original.44 Colt loading used a heeled, outside lubricated bullet, the major diameter of the bullet was approximately the groove diameter of the converted.44 cap and ball revolver. The smaller heel at the base of the bullet was sized to fit inside the case at approximately.430. Upon firing, the soft lead bullet allowed the base of the bullet to bump up to first the chamber diameter in the cylinder, then jump the gap. This is effective with black powder, but less so with Smokeless powder, alloying the lead with tin or antimony to harden it makes this nearly impossible. Use of hard alloys typically leads to poor accuracy, benet cup and Martin-type primers were later replaced by more reliable Boxer type primers. The ballistic performance of the original.44 Colt is comparable to the.44 Remington, cases for the modern.44 Colt chambered handguns are typically made using trimmed.44 Magnum.44 Special, or.44 Russian brass and a historically inaccurate.429 lead bullet. Brass is available from Starline and can be made by trimming the length of.44 Special cases. List of cartridges by caliber 11mm caliber Barnes, Frank C. ed. by John T. Amber.44 Colt, in Cartridges of the World, pp.169 &177. Fitzsimons, Bernard, ed. Illustrated Encyclopedia of 20th Century Weapons & Warfare, Volume 20, p.2192, Remington