The 1930s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1,1930, and ended on December 31,1939. In response, authoritarian regimes emerged in countries in Europe and South America. The 1930s also saw a proliferation of new technologies, especially in the fields of aviation, radio. Colombia–Peru War – fought between the Republic of Colombia and the Republic of Peru, Chaco War – the war was fought between Bolivia and Paraguay over the disputed territory of Gran Chaco resulting in an overall Paraguayan victory in 1935. An agreement dividing the territory was made in 1938, officially ending outstanding differences, saudi–Yemeni War – was a war between Saudi Arabia and Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen. Second Sino-Japanese War – fought between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan, the Second Sino-Japanese War was the largest Asian war in the 20th century. It also made up more than 50% of the casualties in the Pacific War, World War II breaks out on September 1,1939 Chinese Civil War - The ruling Kuomintang and the rebel Communist Party of China fight a civil war for control of China. The Communists consolidated territory in the early 1930s and proclaimed a short-lived Chinese Soviet Republic that collapsed upon Kuomintang attacks, the Kuomintang and Communists attempted to put away their differences after 1937 to fight the Japanese occupation of China, but intermittent clashes continued through the remainder of the 1930s. Spanish Civil War – Germany and Italy back anti-communist Falange forces of Francisco Franco, the Soviet Union and international communist parties back the left-wing republican faction in the war. The war ends in April 1939 with Francos nationalist forces defeating the republican forces, Franco becomes Head of State of Spain, President of Government and de facto dictator. The Republic gives way to the Spanish State, an authoritarian dictatorship, Hitler pulls Germany out of the League of Nations, but hosts the 1936 Summer Olympics to show his new reich to the world as well as the supposed superior athleticism of his Aryan troops/athletes. Neville Chamberlain, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, attempts the appeasement of Hitler in hope of avoiding war by allowing the dictator to annex the Sudetenland, later signing the Munich Agreement and promising constituents Peace for our time. He was ousted in favor of Winston Churchill in May 1940, some 267 synagogues were destroyed, and thousands of homes and businesses were ransacked. Kristallnacht also served as the pretext for the confiscation of firearms from German Jews. Germany and Italy pursue territorial expansionist agendas, Germany demands the annexation of the Federal State of Austria and of other German-speaking territories in Europe. Between 1935 and 1936, Germany recovers the Saar and remilitarizes the Rhineland, Germany and Italy improve relations by forming an alliance against communism in 1936 with the signing of the Anti-Comintern Pact. Germany annexes Austria in the event known as the Anschluss, the annexation of the Sudetenland followed negotiations which resulted in the Munich Agreement of 1938. The Italian invasion of Albania in 1939 succeeds in turning the Kingdom of Albania into an Italian protectorate, the vacant Albanian throne was claimed by Victor Emmanuel III of Italy
Japanese naval landing forces blasting Chinese pillbox and marching during the Canton Operation in 1938.
German dictator Adolf Hitler (right) and Italian dictator Benito Mussolini (left) pursue agendas of territorial expansion for their countries in the 1930s, eventually leading to the outbreak of World War II in 1939.