1ª Divisione alpina "Taurinense"
The 1st Alpine Division Taurinense was a World War II light Infantry division of the Italian Army which specialised in Mountain Combat. The Alpini that formed the divisions are a highly decorated and elite mountain corps of the Italian Army consisting of infantry and artillery units. Today, the traditions and name of the 1st Alpine Division Taurinense are carried on by the Alpine Brigade Taurinense, the Taurinense division was constituted on 10 September 1935 through the reorganization of the existing 1st Superior Alpini Command. The detached units returned to the Taurinense after the Pusterias return to Italy in 1937, from 10 June to 24 June 1940 the division advanced with other Italian units into Southern France and occupied Bourg-Saint-Maurice, where it was garrisoned after the end of hostilities. It remained in France until January 1942, the division was then sent to Mostar in the Independent State of Croatia to take part in anti-partisan operations during World War II in Yugoslavia. After arriving in Mostar, the division was placed under the command of the Italian XIV Army Corps and participated in the third Axis anti-Partisan offensive. The division captured Trnovo, and also reached and blocked Kalinovik where it made contact with elements of the 22 Infantry Division Cacciatori delle Alpi, but, overall, in August 1942 the division was sent to Montenegro. A year later the division part in the fifth Axis anti-Partisan offensive
1. Infanterie-Division (Wehrmacht)
The German 1st Infantry Division, was one of the original infantry divisions of the Reichswehr and Wehrmacht and served throughout World War II. Originally formed as the beginning of Germanys first wave of rearmament and these names were an effort to cover Germanys expansion of infantry divisions from seven to twenty-one. The divisions infantry regiments were built up from the 1, infanterie-Regiment of the 1. Division of the Reichswehr and originally consisted of recruits from East Prussia. The units Prussian heritage is represented by the Hohenzollern coat of arms served as the divisional insignia. Upon the official revelation of the Wehrmacht in October 1935, the received its title of 1. Infanterie-Division. In February 1936, the headquarters of the division was moved from Insterburg to Königsberg, with the German invasion of Poland in September 1939, the 1st Infantry Division advanced toward Warsaw as a component of the XXVI Army Corps in von Küchlers 3rd Army. It engaged Polish forces near the heavily defended town of Mława for several days, then crossed over the Bug and it fought again near Węgrów and Garwolin and ended the campaign east of Warsaw. Playing a minor role in the invasion of France, the returned to East Prussia in the autumn of 1940. With the launch of Operation Barbarossa, the 1st Infantry Division participated in the Baltic Operation as part of the 18th Army with Army Group North and it remained and fought in the area of Leningrad and Lake Ladoga through December 1943. Transferred to the 1st Panzer Army, the fought at Krivoy Rog. The 1st Infantry Division returned to its native East Prussia in the summer of 1944, alternating between 3rd Panzer and 4th Armies, the division was trapped in the Königsberg/Samland area after it was cut off from the rest of Germany by the end of January,1945. Capturing the town of Metgethen, the unit opened the way for the 5th Panzer Division to join with Gollnicks forces near the town of Gross Heydekrug the next day. This action re-opened the land route from Königsberg to Pillau, allowing for the evacuation of civilian refugees via the port, with the capitulation of Königsberg on April 9,1945, the surviving elements of the division retreated to Pillau where it later surrendered to the Soviets. The 1st Infantry Division was a Wave 1 division, meaning it existed prior to the outbreak of the war and it was equipped and organized along standard lines for a German infantry division. Its original form in 1934 consisted of two regiments, an artillery regiment, a pioneer battalion, and a signals unit. Red Storm on the Reich, The Soviet March on Germany,1945, pp 164,165,207 ISBN 0-689-12092-3 Samuel W. Mitcham, Jr. Crumbling Empire, The German Defeat in the East,1944. Pp 66,141 ISBN 0-275-96856-1 Burkhard Müller-Hillebrand, Das Heer 1933–1945, Das Heer vom Beginn des Feldzuges gegen die Sowjetunion bis zum Kriegsende. Mittler, Frankfurt am Main 1969, p.285, georg Tessin, Verbände und Truppen der deutschen Wehrmacht und Waffen-SS im Zweiten Weltkrieg,1939 –1945
The 1st Cossack Cavalry Division was a Russian Cossack division of the German Army that served during World War II. It was created on the Eastern Front mostly out of Don Cossacks already serving in the Wehrmacht, in 1945, the division was transferred to the Waffen SS, becoming the 1st SS Cossack Cavalry Division. At the end of the war, the unit ceased to exist, the Divisions first fighting engagement was on October 12,1943, when the unit was dispatched against Yugoslav partisans in Fruška Gora Mountains. In the operation the Cossacks aided by 15 tanks and 1 armoured car captured the village of Beocin with the partisan HQ, subsequently, the unit was used to protect the Zagreb-Belgrade railroad and the Sava valley. Several regiments of the division part in several anti-partisan operations. As part of a wide anti-partisan operation Napfkuchen the Cossack division was transferred to Croatia, during its first two months of deployment in Croatia, special divisional court martials imposed at least twenty death sentences in each of the four regiments for related crimes. The Cossacks first engagement against the Red Army happened in December 1944 near Pitomača, the fighting resulted in Soviet withdrawal from the area. In January 1945, the 1st Cossack Division together with the 2nd Cossack Division was transferred to the Waffen-SS, sS-Kosaken-Kavallerie-Division it became part of the newly formed XV SS Cossack Cavalry Corps. At the end of the war, Cossacks of the division retreated into Austria and they were promised safety by the British only to be lied to and removed from the compound and transferred to the USSR. German Order of Battle Vol.2 291st - 999th Infantry Divisions, Named Infantry Divisions, newland, Samuel J. Cossacks in the German Army, 1941–1945. War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945, Occupation and Collaboration, Pannwitz Cossacks, Les Cosaques de Pannwitz 1942 -1945
1. Panzer-Division (Wehrmacht)
The 1st Panzer Division was an elite armoured division in the German Army, the Wehrmacht, during World War II. The division was one of the three tank divisions established by Germany in 1935. It took part in pre-war occupations of Austria and Czechoslovakia and the invasions of Poland in 1939 and Belgium, from 1941 to 1945 it fought on the Eastern Front, except for a period in 1943 when it was sent for refitting to France and Greece. At the end of the war the division surrendered to US forces in Bavaria, the 1st Panzer Division was formed on 15 October 1935 from the 3rd Cavalry Division, and was headquartered in Weimar. It was one of three tank divisions created at the time, the two being the 2nd and 3rd Panzer Division. Initially the division was equipped with the sub-standard light Panzer I, despite this the division was also equipped with obsolete Panzer IIs up until 1941. In 1938 the division participated in the Anschluss of Austria and the occupation of the Sudetenland in 1938, in September 1939 the 1st Panzer Division took part in the invasion of Poland, reaching the outskirts of Warsaw after eight days. After Warsaw the division was moved to support the 18th Infantry Division before returning to Germany in November 1939, in May 1940 the 1st Panzer Division was part of the invasion of France, Luxembourg and Belgium. It took part in the battles of Sedan and Dunkirk before swinging south to participate in the attack on the Weygand Line and it advanced towards the Swiss border and occupied Belfort before the surrender of France. During the battle of France the division suffered relatively low casualties, the 1st Panzer Division remained in France until September 1940 when it was moved to East Prussia. It supplied a substantial amount of units to the new 16th and 18th Panzer Divisions, from 22 June 1941 it took part of Operation Barbarossa, crossing the former German-Lithuanian frontier as part of the Army Group North and the 4th Panzer Group. The division was involved in fighting and, by mid-August, had only 44 of the 155 tanks it had started out less than two month earlier left in serviceable condition. It continued to advance towards Leningrad until early October when it was transferred to the Army Group Centre to take part in the advance on Moscow, the division advanced within 32 kilometres on Moscow before being forced to retreat during the Soviet counterattack. The division was part of the defence of the Rzhev Salient during early 1942, initially being very short on tanks, the 1st Panzer Division was engaged in the defence of the supply lines of the 9th Army in the centre of the Eastern Front. It suffered heavy casualties during the defence against repeated Soviet attacks in the Winter of 1942–43 before eventually being transferred back to France in January 1943 for refitting. After month in northern France the division was sent to occupied Greece in June 1943 because of the threat of an Allied landing there. Instead the landing place in Sicily and the division participated in the disarming of Italian forces in Greece when the former defected from the Axis in September 1943. The 1st Panzer Division was brought up to strength again in October when it received a substantial number of Panther and Tiger I tanks
The 1st Panzer Army was a German tank army which was a large armoured formation of the Wehrmacht during World War II. When originally formed on 1 March 1940, the 1st Panzer Army was named Panzer Group Kleist with Colonel General Ewald von Kleist in command, Panzer Group Kleist was the first operational formation of several Panzer corps in the Wehrmacht. Created for the Battle of France on 1 March 1940, it was named after its commander Ewald von Kleist, after the successful invasion it was deployed in occupied France, being renamed into Panzer Group 1 in November. In April 1941, Panzer Group 1 took part in the invasion of Yugoslavia as part of Field Marshal Maximilian von Weichss Second Army. In May 1941, Panzer Group Kleist became Panzer Group 1, at the start of Operation Barbarossa in June 1941, Panzer Group 1 included the III, XIV and XLVIII Army Corps with five panzer divisions and four motorized divisions equipped with 799 tanks. Panzer Group 1 served on the sector of the Eastern Front against the Red Army and was involved the Battle of Brody which involved as many as 1,000 Red Army tanks. On October 6,1941, Panzer Group 1 was enlarged to the 1st Panzer Army following the fall of Kiev, the army captured Rostov, but was forced to retreat eight days later. In January 1942, Army Group Kleist, which consisted of the First Panzer Army along with the Seventeenth Army, was formed with its namesake, Kleist, Army Group Kleist played a major role in repulsing the Red Army attack in the Second Battle of Kharkov in May 1942. Army Group Kleist was disbanded that month, the First Panzer Army, still under Kleist, which had been attached to Army Group South earlier, became part of Army Group A under Field Marshal Wilhelm List. Army Group A was to lead the thrust into the Caucasus during Operation Blue and capture Grozny, the First Panzer Army was to spearhead the attack. An initially successful attack was led, with Rostov, Maykop, Krasnodar, however, in September 1942, Army Group As offensive was stalled in the Caucasus, and List was sacked. After Adolf Hitler briefly took control of Army Group A. As Kleist took command of Army Group A, Colonel-General Eberhard von Mackensen took the reins of the First Panzer Army. In December 1942, as the German Sixth Army was already being crushed in the Battle of Stalingrad, the First Panzer Army was ordered to evacuate through Rostov in January 1943, before the Soviet forces could cut it off in the Kuban. By February 1943 it had been withdrawn west of the Don River, in January 1943, von Mackensens First Panzer Army became attached to Army Group Don under Field Marshal Erich von Manstein. The month after that, von Manstein redeployed the First Panzer Army together with the Fourth Panzer Army to counter-attack Soviet penetrations along his northern flank, the First Panzer Army contributed to the success of the Third Battle of Kharkov in March 1943. In October 1943 Soviet forces crossed the Dnieper River between Dnipropetrovsk and Kremenchug, the First Panzer Army counter-attacked along with the 8th Army, but failed to dislodge the Soviet forces. At the end of month, as the Red Army closed in on Kiev
1ª Brigata di fanteria "Golani"
The Golani Brigade is an Israeli regular service infantry brigade that is subordinated to the 36th Division and traditionally associated with the Northern Command. It is one of the five regular infantry brigades of the Israel Defense Forces. Its symbol is an olive tree against a yellow background. It is one of the most highly decorated units in the IDF. The brigade consists of five battalions, including two which it kept from its inception, one transferred from the Givati Brigade, and two special forces battalions. The brigade was formed on February 22,1948 during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, when the Levanoni Brigade in the Galilee split into the 1st Golani Brigade and the 2nd Carmeli Brigade. As the end of the British Mandate of Palestine was fast approaching, on February 28,1948, the Levanoni Brigade was split into two—Carmeli in the northwest, and Golani in the northeast. Golanis area of operations included much of the Lower Galilee and Jezreel Valley, the Jordan Valley and it extended to al-Jalama and Bat Shlomo in the west. Major population centers included Safed, Tiberias, Beit Shean and Nazareth, the 12th Battalion captured al-Shajara on May 6,1948 and the 13th captured Beit Shean on May 12. After these operations, responsibility over the part of the brigades sector, was handed over to the Oded Brigade. In December 1948, the 14th and 15th battalions were merged into the Mechanized Attack Battalion, the first Golani action following the Arab intervention in the 1948 war was the defense of the kibbutzim Degania Alef and Bet from the Syrian Army in the Battles of the Kinarot Valley. Units from the Barak Battalion, with Yiftach and Guard Corps reinforcements, the brigade was also successful at repelling Iraqi forces at the Battle of Gesher to the south. The attack eventually succeeded, but Jenin was retaken by the Iraqi Army shortly after, in December 1948, the brigade was largely transferred to the south in preparation for Operation Horev. Golani fought the Egyptians in the Gaza Strip, in Operation Assaf, in March 1949, the brigade was tasked with capturing Umm Rashrash with the 7th Armored Brigade. Golani advanced through the Arabah region in the east and arrived at the two hours after the 7th. This was the last operation of the war, after the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the Golani Brigade participated in a number of reprisal raids in the first part of the 1950s. In 1951, a Syrian patrol entered the zone near Tel Mutilla. Golani reinforced a reserve battalion and entered a battle lasted five days
1ª Divisione fanteria "Libia"
The Libyan Division was a formation of colonial troops raised by the Italians in their colony in Libya. It participated in the invasion of Ethiopia in the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, the formation was reorganized into the 1 Libyan Infantry Division Sibelle by the beginning of Italys entry into World War II. In September 1940, the 1st Libyan Division participated in the Italian invasion of Egypt, by December, the division was dug in at Maktila and was forced to surrender during Operation Compass. Following the Italo-Turkish War of 1911-12, Italy occupied the coastal zones of the provinces of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica. The Italians continued to face strong opposition from the Senussi. By 1913 these comprised seven battalions of infantry, three squadrons of cavalry, one squadron of meharistes, a mountain artillery battery and a section of camel artillery. By the 1930s the Libyan units had brought together into the Royal Corps of Libyan Troops comprising infantry, cavalry, artillery, motorised troops. A battalion of Libyan parachutists was raised shortly before World War II, the first force of this kind to be created in Africa
1ª Divisione libica
The 1st Libyan Division Sibille was an Infantry Division of the Italian Army during World War II. Originally called in the 1920s with the name Italian Libyan Colonial Division and this was a formation of colonial troops raised by the Italians in their colony in Libya and participated in the invasion of Ethiopia in the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. This formation was reorganized into the 1st Libyan Infantry Division Sibille by the beginning of Italys entry into World War II, there was even a Regiment Libyan Paratroopers, that was formed mainly by the Libyan Paratrooper Battalion Fanti dell’Aria. In September 1940, the 1st Libyan Division participated in the Italian invasion of Egypt, by December, the division was dug in at Maktila near Sidi Barrani and was forced to surrender after heavy fighting during Operation Compass. Indeed, on September 13 the entire 1st Libyan Division, including a regiment of Libyan paratroopers attacked Sollum on the Egyptian northern coast, the British laid mines in the area and quickly withdrew to Marsa Matruh after suffering 50 casualties. In December the British started a counter-offensive, the Arabs and paratroopers of 1st Libyan Division fought hard on the December 10,1940, amid a howling sandstorm, until on December 11 the division began to disintegrate with heavy losses. Some units of Libyan paratroopers were able to reach Tobruk in Italian Libya, the Division was not recreated in the following years, because of direct orders from Rommel
1. SS-Panzer-Division "Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler"
The 1st SS Panzer Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler began as Adolf Hitlers personal bodyguard, responsible for guarding the Führers person, offices, and residences. Initially the size of a regiment, the LSSAH eventually grew into a division-sized unit, by the end of World War II it had been increased in size from a regiment to a Panzer division. Members of the LSSAH perpetrated numerous atrocities and war crimes, including the Malmedy massacre and they killed at least an estimated 5,000 prisoners of war in the period 1940–1945, mostly on the Eastern Front. In the early days of the Nazi Party, the leadership realized that a unit composed of reliable men was needed. Ernst Röhm formed a guard formation from the 19. Granatwerfer-Kompanie, Adolf Hitler in early 1923, ordered the formation of a small separate bodyguard dedicated to his service rather than a suspect mass, such as the SA. Originally the unit was composed of eight men, commanded by Julius Schreck. The Stabswache were issued unique badges, but at this point was still under SA control, in May 1923, the unit was renamed Stoßtrupp –Hitler. The unit numbered no more than 20 members at that time, on 9 November 1923, the Stoßtrupp, along with the SA and several other Nazi paramilitary units, took part in the abortive Beer Hall Putsch in Munich. In the aftermath, Hitler was imprisoned and his party and all associated formations, in the mid-1920s, violence remained a large part of Bavaria politics. In 1925, Hitler ordered the formation of a new bodyguard unit, the unit was renamed the Sturmstaffel and in November was renamed the Schutzstaffel, abbreviated to SS. By 1933 the SS had grown from a small unit to a formation of over 50,000 men. The decision was made to form a new unit, again called the Stabswache. By 1933 this unit was placed under the command of Sepp Dietrich who selected 117 men to form the SS-Stabswache Berlin on 17 March 1933, the unit replaced the army guards at the Reich Chancellery. Eleven men from the first company of 117 went on to win the Knights Cross, later in 1933, two further training units were formed, SS-Sonderkommando Zossen on 10 May, and a second unit, designated SS-Sonderkommando Jüterbog on 8 July. These were the only SS units to receive training at that time. Most of the staff came from the ranks of the army. On 3 September 1933 the two Sonderkommando merged into the SS-Sonderkommando Berlin under Dietrichs command, most of their duties involved providing outer security for Hitler, at his residences, public appearances and guard duty at the Reich Chancellery. In November 1933, on the 10th anniversary of the Beer Hall Putsch, during the ceremony, the members of the Sonderkommando swore personal allegiance to Hitler