1. Adige – The river sources near the Reschen Pass close to the borders with Austria and Switzerland above the Inn valley. It flows through the artificial alpine Lake Reschen, the lake is known for the church tower that marks the site of the former village of Alt Graun, it was evacuated and flooded in 1953 after the dam was finished. Near Glurns, the Rom river joins from the Swiss Val Müstair, the Adige runs eastbound through the Vinschgau to Merano, where it is met by the Passer river from the north. The section between Merano and Bolzano, is called Etschtal, meaning Adige Valley, the Chiusa di Salorno narrows at Salorno mark the southernmost part of the predominantly German-speaking province of South Tyrol. The Adige was mentioned in the Lied der Deutschen of 1841 as the border of the German language area. In 1922 Germany adopted the song as its anthem, although by that time Italy had taken control of all of the Adige. Near Trento, the Avisio, Noce, and Fersina rivers join, the Adige crosses Trentino and later Veneto, flowing past the town of Rovereto, the Lagarina Valley, the cities of Verona and Adria and the north-eastern part of the Po Plain into the Adriatic Sea. The Adige and the Po run parallel in the river delta without properly joining, the Adige is connected to Lake Garda by the Mori-Torbole tunnel, an artificial underground canal built for flood prevention. The Adige is a home to the Marble trout, but at far lower populations than in the past, fish stocking is one of the most significant causes of the sharp reduction in the original fish population of this subspecies. It will spawn with and interbreed with brown trout, which are stocked in the riverAdige – The true source of Adige inside a bunker of the Alpine Wall
2. Bruneck – Bruneck is the largest town in the Puster Valley in the Italian province of South Tyrol. Bruneck lies at the confluence of the Ahr with the Rienz, here the northern Tauferer Ahrntal side valley and the southern Gadertal of the Gran Ega creek join the broad Pustertal. The municipal area stretches from the slopes of the Zillertal Alps in the west to the Rieserferner Group of the High Tauern range in the east. The Bruneck town centre is located about 35 kilometres west of Brixen and 70 kilometres of the regional capital Bolzano on the road to the Brenner Pass, to the east, the town is 60 kilometres from Winnebach on the border with East Tyrol in Austria. According to the 2011 census,82. 47% of the population speak German,15. 24% Italian and 2. 29% Ladin as first language. The town was named after its founder, the Brixen prince-bishop Bruno von Kirchberg. At that time, the town consisted of two rows of houses forming a narrow lane, the castle was significantly enlarged under Prince-Bishop Albert von Enn, who also had the town walls and moat completed until 1336. Soon thereafter, further rows of houses were built outside the eastern gate and these led to the small Church of Our Lady. The first church inside the walls was built beneath the castle by the Brunecker burgher Niklas von Stuck. This church is today the Rainkirche, in 1358, Heinrich von Stuck, brother of Niklas, brother, funded the hospital/almshouse that was built in the following years. Soon the town received the right to hold a weekly market, a castle leader occupied the fortress as the bishops representative. In the 14th and 15th centuries, there was trade between Augsburg and Venice. Some of the goods were brought through the Puster Valley. This soon brought the prosperity and fame. In this time, the Puster Valley painting school was founded by the painter Hans von Bruneck, the great masters Michael and Friedrich Pacher studied at this school. In 1500, the Puster Valley was reunited with Tyrol because of a contract between the house of Habsburg and the counts of Görz-Tirol. The town of Bruneck remained an episcopal possession, in 1610, Bruneck, which had previously belonged to the parish of St. Lorenzen, became a parish in its own right. The first parish priest documented was Johann Herlin in 1613, in 1626, the Capuchin order came to BruneckBruneck – Bruneck
3. Sigmundskron Castle – Sigmundskron Castle is an extensive castle and set of fortifications near Bolzano in South Tyrol. Today its ruins house the fourth mountain museum established by the South Tyrolean mountaineer, on 9 June 2006 the MMM was opened in this fortified castle dating to the Late Middle Ages. The first historical mention of the castle, under the name Formicaria, in 1027 Emperor Conrad II transferred it to the Bishop of Trent. In the 12th century it was given to ministeriales, who then on were named the Firmian family. Around 1473 the Prince of Tyrol, Duke Sigismund the Rich, bought the castle, of the old castle of Formigar there are only a few remnants left today, mostly located on the highest point of the site. Due to financial difficulties Sigmund had to pledge the castle soon afterwards, as a result the site fell increasingly into disrepair. At the end of the 18th century the castle belonged to the Count Wolkenstein, from 1807 to 1870 the counts of Sarnthein, in 1976, the half-ruined castle was partially restored by an innkeepers family and opened as a restaurant. In 1996 the castle passed into the possession of the Province of Bolzano, in the spring of 2003, after much controversy, Reinhold Messner was given a licence for his long-planned mountain museum. During construction work a Neolithic grave was discovered in March 2006, the age of the grave is estimated to be 6, 000-7,000 years. The fortress is an important political symbol in South Tyrol, in 1957, under the leadership of Silvius Magnago, the largest protest rally in the history of South Tyrol was held here. More than 30,000 gathered in the castle to protest against the failure of the Paris Convention to protest, tour through the castle site and museum in 81 photosSigmundskron Castle – Sigmundskron Castle.
4. Eisack – The Eisack is a river in Northern Italy, the second largest river in South Tyrol. Its source is near the Brenner Pass, at an altitude of about 1990 m above sea level, the river draws water from an area of about 4,200 km². After about 96 km, it joins the Adige river south of Bolzano, at first the river flows though the Wipptal and after the village of Vahrn through the Eisacktal. Its source is sung of in the Bozner Bergsteigerlied as the frontier of the South Tyrolean homeland. The major towns and villages along the course of the river are Sterzing, Franzensfeste, Brixen, Klausen, Waidbruck, in Brixen it merges with the Rienz. The Eisack is used extensively for the production of electricity, it is dammed near Franzensfeste, Klausen, media related to Eisack at Wikimedia Commons Eisack Water quality reportEisack – The river near the city of Bolzano
5. Administrative divisions of Italy – Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars, artists and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France, Spain and Austria. Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military, cultural and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, Italia, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern worldAdministrative divisions of Italy – The Colosseum in Rome, built c. 70 – 80 AD, is considered one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering of ancient history.
6. Lingua italiana – By most measures, Italian, together with Sardinian, is the closest to Latin of the Romance languages. Italian is a language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City. Italian is spoken by minorities in places such as France, Montenegro, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Crimea and Tunisia and by large expatriate communities in the Americas. Many speakers are native bilinguals of both standardized Italian and other regional languages, Italian is the fourth most studied language in the world. Italian is a major European language, being one of the languages of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe. It is the third most widely spoken first language in the European Union with 65 million native speakers, including Italian speakers in non-EU European countries and on other continents, the total number of speakers is around 85 million. Italian is the working language of the Holy See, serving as the lingua franca in the Roman Catholic hierarchy as well as the official language of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. Italian is known as the language of music because of its use in musical terminology and its influence is also widespread in the arts and in the luxury goods market. Italian has been reported as the fourth or fifth most frequently taught foreign language in the world, Italian was adopted by the state after the Unification of Italy, having previously been a literary language based on Tuscan as spoken mostly by the upper class of Florentine society. Its development was influenced by other Italian languages and to some minor extent. Its vowels are the second-closest to Latin after Sardinian, unlike most other Romance languages, Italian retains Latins contrast between short and long consonants. As in most Romance languages, stress is distinctive, however, Italian as a language used in Italy and some surrounding regions has a longer history. What would come to be thought of as Italian was first formalized in the early 14th century through the works of Tuscan writer Dante Alighieri, written in his native Florentine. Dante is still credited with standardizing the Italian language, and thus the dialect of Florence became the basis for what would become the language of Italy. Italian was also one of the recognised languages in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Italy has always had a dialect for each city, because the cities. Those dialects now have considerable variety, as Tuscan-derived Italian came to be used throughout Italy, features of local speech were naturally adopted, producing various versions of Regional Italian. Even in the case of Northern Italian languages, however, scholars are not to overstate the effects of outsiders on the natural indigenous developments of the languagesLingua italiana – Dante Alighieri (above) and Petrarch (below) were influential in establishing their Tuscan dialect as the most prominent literary language in all of Italy in the Late Middle Ages
7. German (Deutsch) – German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol, the German-speaking Community of Belgium and it is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg. Major languages which are most similar to German include other members of the West Germanic language branch, such as Afrikaans, Dutch, English, Luxembourgish and it is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English. One of the languages of the world, German is the first language of about 95 million people worldwide. The German speaking countries are ranked fifth in terms of publication of new books. German derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family, a portion of German words are derived from Latin and Greek, and fewer are borrowed from French and English. With slightly different standardized variants, German is a pluricentric language, like English, German is also notable for its broad spectrum of dialects, with many unique varieties existing in Europe and also other parts of the world. The history of the German language begins with the High German consonant shift during the migration period, when Martin Luther translated the Bible, he based his translation primarily on the standard bureaucratic language used in Saxony, also known as Meißner Deutsch. Copies of Luthers Bible featured a long list of glosses for each region that translated words which were unknown in the region into the regional dialect. Roman Catholics initially rejected Luthers translation, and tried to create their own Catholic standard of the German language – the difference in relation to Protestant German was minimal. It was not until the middle of the 18th century that a widely accepted standard was created, until about 1800, standard German was mainly a written language, in urban northern Germany, the local Low German dialects were spoken. Standard German, which was different, was often learned as a foreign language with uncertain pronunciation. Northern German pronunciation was considered the standard in prescriptive pronunciation guides though, however, German was the language of commerce and government in the Habsburg Empire, which encompassed a large area of Central and Eastern Europe. Until the mid-19th century, it was essentially the language of townspeople throughout most of the Empire and its use indicated that the speaker was a merchant or someone from an urban area, regardless of nationality. Some cities, such as Prague and Budapest, were gradually Germanized in the years after their incorporation into the Habsburg domain, others, such as Pozsony, were originally settled during the Habsburg period, and were primarily German at that time. Prague, Budapest and Bratislava as well as cities like Zagreb, the most comprehensive guide to the vocabulary of the German language is found within the Deutsches Wörterbuch. This dictionary was created by the Brothers Grimm and is composed of 16 parts which were issued between 1852 and 1860, in 1872, grammatical and orthographic rules first appeared in the Duden Handbook. In 1901, the 2nd Orthographical Conference ended with a standardization of the German language in its written formGerman (Deutsch) – Old Frisian (Alt-Friesisch)
8. Bozen Province – South Tyrol, also known by its alternative Italian name Alto Adige, is an autonomous province in northern Italy. It is one of the two provinces that make up the autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. The province has an area of 7,400 square kilometres and its capital is the city of Bolzano. As of 2011, South Tyrol is among the wealthiest regions in Italy, South Tyrol is the term most commonly used in English for the province, and its usage reflects that it was created from a portion of the southern part of the historic County of Tyrol. German and Ladin speakers usually refer to the area as Südtirol, Alto Adige, one of the Italian names for the province, is also used in English. The term had been the name of political subdivisions along the Adige River in the time of Napoleon Bonaparte and it was reused as the Italian name of the current province after its post-World War I creation, and was a symbol of the subsequent forced Italianization of South Tyrol. The official name of the today in German is Autonome Provinz Bozen — Südtirol. German speakers usually refer to it not as a Provinz, provincial institutions are referred to using the prefix Landes-, such as Landesregierung and Landeshauptmann. The official name in Italian is Provincia autonoma di Bolzano — Alto Adige, South Tyrol as an administrative entity originated during the First World War. The Allies promised the area to Italy in the Treaty of London of 1915 as an incentive to enter the war on their side, with the rise of Fascism, the new regime made efforts to bring forward the Italianization of South Tyrol. The German language was banished from public service, German teaching was officially forbidden, the regime also favored immigration from other Italian regions. The subsequent alliance between Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini declared that South Tyrol would not follow the destiny of Austria, the region was de facto annexed to the German Reich until the end of the war. This status ended along with the Nazi regime, and Italian rule was restored in 1945, after the war the Allies decided that the province would remain a part of Italy, under the condition that the German-speaking population be granted a significant level of self-government. Italy and Austria negotiated an agreement in 1946, recognizing the rights of the German minority, alcide De Gasperi, Italys prime minister, a native of Trentino, wanted to extend the autonomy to his fellow citizens. This led to the creation of the region called Trentino-Alto Adige/Tiroler Etschland, German and Italian were both made official languages, and German-language education was permitted once more. Still Italians were the majority in the combined region, in a first phase, only public edifices and fascist monuments were targeted. The second phase was bloodier, costing 21 lives, the South Tyrolean question became an international issue. A fresh round of negotiations took place in 1961 but proved unsuccessful, the issue was resolved in 1971, when a new Austro-Italian treaty was signed and ratifiedBozen Province – The Atlas Tyrolensis, showing the entire County of Tyrol, printed in Vienna. 1774
9. Salorno – Salorno is the southernmost comune in South Tyrol in northern Italy, located about 30 kilometres southwest of the city of Bolzano. It is one of only five mainly Italian speaking municipalities in South Tyrol, the village centre is located on a scree in the Adige valley, about 20 kilometres northeast of the city of Trento and about 30 kilometres southwest of Bolzano. Parts of the area belong to the Naturpark Trudner Horn nature reserve. Salorno station is a stop on the Brenner Railway line from Innsbruck to Verona, in the northwest Salorno borders the South Tyrolean municipalities of Kurtinig, Margreid, Montan, and Neumarkt. In the east and south it borders the Trentino municipalities of Capriana, Cembra, Faver, Giovo, Grauno, Grumes, Mezzocorona, Roverè della Luna and Valda. The Salurner Klause, a section of the Adige Valley between the Fiemme Mountains and the Nonsberg Group, marks the southern border of the South Tyrolean Unterland. Since about 1600 a German-Italian language border solidified here, a circumstance which received a nationalist emphasis by the 19th century, the municipality contains the frazioni Gfrill and Buchholz. As of 31 December 2011, Salorno had a population of 3,591, ″Salurn un gros bourg aux confins dAllemagne e dItalie dans le Tirol, dont il fait la séparation. The village is best known for the ruins of the medieval castle Haderburg, first mentioned in a 1053 travelogue, it is situated on a limestone rock high above the Salurner Klause bottleneck of the Adige Valley. In 1158 the local Counts of Eppan had two cardinals of the Roman Curia on their way to the court of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa attacked and raided, fredericks cousin Henry the Lion launched a punitive expedition, whereby the castle was demolished. It was rebuilt afterwards and about 1200 was acquired by the Counts of Tyrol and it was purchased by Count Meinhard II of Gorizia-Tyrol in 1284, besieged and occupied by Duke Louis V of Bavaria in 1349, and finally bequested to the Austrian House of Habsburg in 1363. Emperor Maximilian I had the enlarged, however, the castle lost its strategical significance soon afterwards. Since 1648 the ruins are in possession of the Venetian counts of Zenobio-Albrizzi, according to the census of 1921 the majority of the population of Salorno declared themselves as German speaking. After that a governmental commission adjusted the result by modifying the declaration of people whose family name sounded Italian, Salorno and other municipalities of South Tyrol have since then an Italian speaking majority. The effective Italianization conducted by the fascist Regime changed definitively the proportion between the languages, only 37% of the inhabitants speak mainly German today. The emblem is argent a pile reversed and chief azure and it is the insignia of the Lords of Graland who obtained the village in the thirteenth century. The emblem was adopted in 1971, since 2001 Salornos population has risen strongly. According to the 2011 census,61. 85% of the population speak Italian,37. 74% German and 0. 40% Ladin as first languageSalorno – Salorno in the Adige valley, view from the Haderburg
10. Bozen mountaineer song – The Bozner Bergsteigerlied is one of the two unofficial hymns of the South Tyroleans, the other being the Andreas-Hofer-Lied. Its lyrics were composed in 1926 by Karl Felderer in Moos am Ritten to the melody of an old Tyrolean craftsmens song, therefore, the lyrics never mention South Tyrol directly, referring instead to its geographical extension. The West-East extension is characterized by the mountain Ortler and the Sexten Dolomites, in the following verses, various landmarks of South Tyrol such as the Schlern and the Rosengarten group are celebrated. Prontuario dei nomi locali dellAlto Adige Kommt zum Singen - Südtiroler Liederbuch, Athesia,1986Bozen mountaineer song