Artikelen in de categorie "1250-1259"
Deze categorie bevat de volgende 22 pagina’s, van in totaal 22.
Deze categorie bevat de volgende 22 pagina’s, van in totaal 22.
1. Wikimedia Commons – Wikimedia Commons is an online repository of free-use images, sound, and other media files. It is a project of the Wikimedia Foundation, the repository contains over 38 million media files. In July 2013, the number of edits on Commons reached 100,000,000, the project was proposed by Erik Möller in March 2004 and launched on September 7,2004. The expression educational is to be according to its broad meaning of providing knowledge. Wikimedia Commons itself does not allow fair use or uploads under non-free licenses, for this reason, Wikimedia Commons always hosts freely licensed media and deletes copyright violations. The default language for Commons is English, but registered users can customize their interface to use any other user interface translations. Many content pages, in particular policy pages and portals, have also translated into various languages. Files on Wikimedia Commons are categorized using MediaWikis category system, in addition, they are often collected on individual topical gallery pages. While the project was proposed to also contain free text files. In 2012, BuzzFeed described Wikimedia Commons as littered with dicks, in 2010, Wikipedia co-founder Larry Sanger reported Wikimedia Commons to the FBI for hosting sexualized images of children known as lolicon. Wales responded to the backlash from the Commons community by voluntarily relinquishing some site privileges, over time, additional functionality has been developed to interface Wikimedia Commons with the other Wikimedia projects. Specialized uploading tools and scripts such as Commonist have been created to simplify the process of uploading large numbers of files. In order to free content photos uploaded to Flickr, users can participate in a defunct collaborative external review process. The site has three mechanisms for recognizing quality works, one is known as Featured pictures, where works are nominated and other community members vote to accept or reject the nomination. This process began in November 2004, another process known as Quality images began in June 2006, and has a simpler nomination process comparable to Featured pictures. Quality images only accepts works created by Wikimedia users, whereas Featured pictures additionally accepts nominations of works by third parties such as NASA, the three mentioned processes select a slight part from the total number of files. However, Commons collects files of all quality levels, from the most professional level across simple documental, files with specific defects can be tagged for improvement and warning or even proposed for deletion but there exists no process of systematic rating of all files. The site held its inaugural Picture of the Year competition, for 2006, all images that were made a Featured picture during 2006 were eligible, and voted on by eligible Wikimedia users during two rounds of voting
2. Slag bij El-Mansoera – In 1245, during the First Council of Lyon, Pope Innocent IV gave his full support to the Seventh Crusade being prepared by Louis IX, King of France. The goals of the Seventh Crusade were to destroy the Ayyubid dynasty in Egypt and Syria, the Crusaders asked the Mongols to become their allies against the Muslims, the Crusaders attacking the Islamic world from west, and the Mongols attacking from the east. Güyük, the Great Khan of the Mongols, told the Popes envoy that the Pope and the kings of Europe should submit to the Mongols. The ships of the Seventh Crusade, led by King Louiss brothers, Charles dAnjou and Robert dArtois, sailed from Aigues-Mortes and Marseille to Cyprus during the autumn of 1248, the ships entered Egyptian waters and the troops of the Seventh Crusade disembarked at Damietta in June 1249. Louis IX sent a letter to as-Salih Ayyub, the Crusaders crossed over the bridge and occupied Damietta, which was deserted. The fall of Damietta caused a general emergency to be declared, for many weeks, the Muslims used guerrilla tactics against the Crusader camps, many of the Crusaders were captured and sent to Cairo. The Crusaders began their march towards Cairo, the Crusaders approached the battle by the canal of Ashmum, which separated them from the Muslim camp. An Egyptian showed the Crusaders the way to the canal shoals, the leadership of the Egyptian forces passed to the Mamluks Faris Ad-Din Aktai and Baibars al-Buduqdari who contained the attack and reorganized the Muslim forces. This was the first appearance of the Mamluks as supreme commanders inside Egypt, shajar al-Durr, who had full control of Egypt, agreed with Baibars plan to defend Al Mansurah. Baibars ordered the gate be opened to let the Crusaders enter the town, the crusaders rushed in, thinking the town deserted, only to find themselves trapped inside. The Crusaders were besieged from all directions by Egyptian forces and the local population, Robert of Artois, who took refuge in a house, and William of Salisbury were both killed along with most of the Knights Templar. Only five Templar Knights escaped alive, the Crusaders retreated to their camp in disorder, and surrounded it with a ditch and wall. Early on the morning of February 11, the Muslim forces launched an offensive against the Frankish camp. On February 27, the new sultan Turanshah arrived in Al Mansurah to lead the Egyptian army, ships were transported overland and dropped in the Nile behind the Crusader ships blocking the reinforcement line from Damietta. The Egyptians used Greek fire, destroying and seizing many Crusader supply vessels, the besieged Crusaders soon began suffering from famine and disease. Some Crusaders deserted to the Muslim side, the Egyptians rejected the offer, and the Crusaders retreated to Damietta under cover of darkness on April 5, followed closely by the Muslim forces. At the subsequent Battle of Fariskur, the last major battle of the Seventh Crusade, meanwhile, the Crusaders were circulating false information in Europe, claiming that King Louis IX defeated the Sultan of Egypt in a great battle, and Cairo had been betrayed into Louiss hands. Later, when the news of Louis IXs capture and the French defeat reached France, according to medieval Muslim historians,15,000 to 30,000 French fell on the battlefield and thousands were taken prisoners
3. Slag bij Fariskur – The Battle of Fariskur was the last major battle of the Seventh Crusade. The battle was fought on April 6,1250, between the Crusaders led by King Louis IX of France and Egyptian forces led by Turanshah of the Ayyubid dynasty. Following an earlier Crusader defeat at the Battle of Al Mansurah, Fariskur resulted in the defeat of the crusader army. The aims of the crusade were to defeat Egypt, destroy the Ayyubid dynasty in Egypt and Syria, the ships entered the Egyptian waters and the troops of the Seventh Crusade disembarked at Damietta in June 1249. Louis IX sent a letter to as-Salih Ayyub, the Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt, the Franks succeeded in crossing the Canal of Ashmum and launched a surprise attack against the Egyptian camp in Gideila, two miles away from Al Mansurah. The Egyptian troops in the camp, who were taken by surprise, retreated to Al Mansurah, the leadership of the Egyptian force passed to the Mamluk commandants Faris ad-Din Aktai, Baibars al-Bunduqdari who succeeded in reorganizing the retreating troops. Shajar al-Durr who was in charge of Egypt agreed about the plan of Baibars to defend Al Mansurah. Baibars ordered the opening of a gate to let the knights of the enter the town. The crusaders rushed into the town that they thought was deserted to find themselves trapped inside, the crusaders were besieged from all directions by the Egyptian forces and the towns population and heavy losses were inflicted upon them. Robert de Artois who took refuge in a house and William of Salisbury were among those who were killed in Al Mansurah, only five Knights Templar survived the battle. The crusaders were forced to retreat in disorder to Gideila where they camped within a ditch, early in the morning of February 11, the Muslim forces launched an offensive against the Franks camp. For many weeks the Franks were forced to remain in their camp enduring an exhausting guerilla war, many crusaders were captured and taken to Cairo. On February 27, Turanshah, the new sultan, arrived in Egypt from Hasankeyf, ships were transported overland and dropped in the Nile behind the ships of the crusaders cutting the reinforcement line from Damietta and besieging the crusade force of King Louis IX. The Egyptians used Greek fire and destroyed and seized many ships, soon the besieged crusaders were suffering from devastating attacks, famine and disease. Some crusaders lost faith and deserted to the Muslim side, King Louis IX proposed to the Egyptians the surrender of Damietta in exchange for Jerusalem and some towns on the Syrian coast. The Egyptians, aware of the situation of the crusaders. On April 5, covered by the darkness of night, the crusaders evacuated their camp, in their panic and haste they neglected to destroy a pontoon bridge they had set over the canal. The Egyptians crossed the canal over the bridge and followed them to Fariskur where the Egyptians utterly destroyed the crusaders on 6 April, thousands of crusaders were killed or taken prisoner