Artikelen in de categorie "1330-1339"
Deze categorie bevat de volgende 17 pagina’s, van in totaal 17.
Deze categorie bevat de volgende 17 pagina’s, van in totaal 17.
1. Wikimedia Commons – Wikimedia Commons is an online repository of free-use images, sound, and other media files. It is a project of the Wikimedia Foundation, the repository contains over 38 million media files. In July 2013, the number of edits on Commons reached 100,000,000, the project was proposed by Erik Möller in March 2004 and launched on September 7,2004. The expression educational is to be according to its broad meaning of providing knowledge. Wikimedia Commons itself does not allow fair use or uploads under non-free licenses, for this reason, Wikimedia Commons always hosts freely licensed media and deletes copyright violations. The default language for Commons is English, but registered users can customize their interface to use any other user interface translations. Many content pages, in particular policy pages and portals, have also translated into various languages. Files on Wikimedia Commons are categorized using MediaWikis category system, in addition, they are often collected on individual topical gallery pages. While the project was proposed to also contain free text files. In 2012, BuzzFeed described Wikimedia Commons as littered with dicks, in 2010, Wikipedia co-founder Larry Sanger reported Wikimedia Commons to the FBI for hosting sexualized images of children known as lolicon. Wales responded to the backlash from the Commons community by voluntarily relinquishing some site privileges, over time, additional functionality has been developed to interface Wikimedia Commons with the other Wikimedia projects. Specialized uploading tools and scripts such as Commonist have been created to simplify the process of uploading large numbers of files. In order to free content photos uploaded to Flickr, users can participate in a defunct collaborative external review process. The site has three mechanisms for recognizing quality works, one is known as Featured pictures, where works are nominated and other community members vote to accept or reject the nomination. This process began in November 2004, another process known as Quality images began in June 2006, and has a simpler nomination process comparable to Featured pictures. Quality images only accepts works created by Wikimedia users, whereas Featured pictures additionally accepts nominations of works by third parties such as NASA, the three mentioned processes select a slight part from the total number of files. However, Commons collects files of all quality levels, from the most professional level across simple documental, files with specific defects can be tagged for improvement and warning or even proposed for deletion but there exists no process of systematic rating of all files. The site held its inaugural Picture of the Year competition, for 2006, all images that were made a Featured picture during 2006 were eligible, and voted on by eligible Wikimedia users during two rounds of voting
2. Beklimming van de Mont Ventoux – The Italian poet Petrarch wrote about his ascent of Mont Ventoux on 26 April 1336 in a well-known letter published as one of his Epistolae familiares. In this letter, written around 1350, Petrarch claimed to be the first person since antiquity to have climbed a mountain for the view. Although the historical accuracy of his account has been questioned by modern scholars, Petrarchs letter is addressed to his former confessor, Dionigi di Borgo San Sepolcro. It says he ascended the mountain with his brother Gherardo and two servants, exactly ten years after they had left Bologna and they began at the village of Malaucène at the foot of the mountain. On the way up they met an old shepherd, who said he had climbed the mountain some fifty years before, finding only rocks and brambles, and that no-one else had done it before or since. The brothers continued, Gherardo continuing up the ridge they were following, Petrarch ever trying for an easier, if longer, path. At the top, they found a peak called Filiolus, Little Son, Petrarch reflected on the past ten years, and they looked out from here, seeing the Rhone and the Cévennes, but not the Pyrenees. But in themselves they are uninterested, Petrarch fell silent on this trip down, reflecting on the vanity of human wishes and the nobility of uncorrupted human thought. When they arrived back in the village in the middle of the night and it is often claimed that Petrarch was the first to climb Mont Ventoux, although he did not suggest so himself. Ventoux in order to make some meteorological observations, lyell Asher argued, indeed, that the ascent of the mountain was a figurative account of writing the letter itself. Petrarchs implication that he was the first to climb mountains for pleasure, There are also numerous references to Petrarch as an alpinist, although Mont Ventoux is not a hard climb, and is not usually considered part of the Alps. This implicit claim of Petrarch and Burckhardt, that Petrarch was the first to climb a mountain for pleasure since antiquity, was disproven by Lynn Thorndike in 1943. James Hillman, in Re-Visioning Psychology, uses the story of Petrarchs ascent to illustrate his argument that the world of nature is mirrored by an equally vast inner world of images. Both worlds exist apart from the human being, the outer world may have motivated Petrarch to climb Mont Ventoux, but the inner world is what he discovered when he reached the top and read the passage from Augustines Confessions. Edmund Burke Bishop, Morris Petrarch and His World, indiana University Press 1963 Blumenberg, Hans, The Legitimacy of the Modern Age. The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, tr, michael Kimmelman, NOT Because its There, New York Times, June 6,1999. Journal of the History of Ideas
3. Slag bij Cadzand – The Battle of Cadsand was a minor battle of the Hundred Years War fought in 1337. On 9 November Sir Walter Manny, with the troops for Edward IIIs continental invasion, made an attempt to take the city of Sluys. Edwards fleet was unprepared for the crossing with the body of his army. Thus he required some symbol of his intentions against the French, only a handful of the Flemish force were able to retreat across the channel, Guy of Flanders being captured with the other noblemen whilst the rank and file were all put to the sword. The battle had few longer-lasting effects, as Manny abandoned the island to its surviving inhabitants shortly after the victory, the allies were suitably impressed by the show of strength and the border regions of Flanders were intimidated. Ten years after the battle, when England and Flanders had become allies following an uprising in the latter, Edward III was forced to apologize, Sluys was later the scene of a highly significant naval battle in 1340. Sumption, Jonathan, The Hundred Years War, Vol 1, Trial by Battle,1990, ISBN 0-571-13895-0