Artikelen in de categorie "1370-1379"
Deze categorie bevat de volgende 19 pagina’s, van in totaal 19.
Deze categorie bevat de volgende 19 pagina’s, van in totaal 19.
1. Wikimedia Commons – Wikimedia Commons is an online repository of free-use images, sound, and other media files. It is a project of the Wikimedia Foundation, the repository contains over 38 million media files. In July 2013, the number of edits on Commons reached 100,000,000, the project was proposed by Erik Möller in March 2004 and launched on September 7,2004. The expression educational is to be according to its broad meaning of providing knowledge. Wikimedia Commons itself does not allow fair use or uploads under non-free licenses, for this reason, Wikimedia Commons always hosts freely licensed media and deletes copyright violations. The default language for Commons is English, but registered users can customize their interface to use any other user interface translations. Many content pages, in particular policy pages and portals, have also translated into various languages. Files on Wikimedia Commons are categorized using MediaWikis category system, in addition, they are often collected on individual topical gallery pages. While the project was proposed to also contain free text files. In 2012, BuzzFeed described Wikimedia Commons as littered with dicks, in 2010, Wikipedia co-founder Larry Sanger reported Wikimedia Commons to the FBI for hosting sexualized images of children known as lolicon. Wales responded to the backlash from the Commons community by voluntarily relinquishing some site privileges, over time, additional functionality has been developed to interface Wikimedia Commons with the other Wikimedia projects. Specialized uploading tools and scripts such as Commonist have been created to simplify the process of uploading large numbers of files. In order to free content photos uploaded to Flickr, users can participate in a defunct collaborative external review process. The site has three mechanisms for recognizing quality works, one is known as Featured pictures, where works are nominated and other community members vote to accept or reject the nomination. This process began in November 2004, another process known as Quality images began in June 2006, and has a simpler nomination process comparable to Featured pictures. Quality images only accepts works created by Wikimedia users, whereas Featured pictures additionally accepts nominations of works by third parties such as NASA, the three mentioned processes select a slight part from the total number of files. However, Commons collects files of all quality levels, from the most professional level across simple documental, files with specific defects can be tagged for improvement and warning or even proposed for deletion but there exists no process of systematic rating of all files. The site held its inaugural Picture of the Year competition, for 2006, all images that were made a Featured picture during 2006 were eligible, and voted on by eligible Wikimedia users during two rounds of voting
2. Catalaanse Atlas – The Catalan Atlas is the most important map of the medieval period in the Catalan language. It was produced by the Majorcan cartographic school and is attributed to Cresques Abraham and it has been in the royal library of France since the time of King Charles V. The Catalan Atlas originally consisted of six vellum leaves folded down the middle, painted in colors including gold. The leaves are now cut in half, each half-leaf is mounted on one side of five wooden panels. The first half of the first leaf and the half of the last leaf are mounted on the inner boards of a brown leather binding. Each leaf measures approximately 65 ×50 cm, adding to a size of 65 ×300 cm. The first two leaves contain texts in Catalan language covering cosmography, astronomy, and astrology and these texts are accompanied by illustrations. The texts and illustration emphasize the Earths spherical shape and the state of the known world and they also provide information to sailors on tides and how to tell time at night. The four remaining leaves make up the map, which is divided into two principal parts. The map shows illustrations of many cities, whose allegiances are symbolized by a flag. Christian cities are marked with a cross, other cities with a dome, wavy blue vertical lines are used to symbolize oceans. Place names of important ports are transcribed in red, while others are indicated in black, unlike many other nautical charts, the Catalan Atlas is read with the north at the bottom. As a result of this the maps are oriented from left to right, many Indian and Chinese cities can be identified. The explanatory texts report customs described by Polo and catalogue local economic resources, real or supposed
3. Eerste Gelderse Successieoorlog – The First War of the Guelderian Succession was a battle for the throne of the Duchy of Guelders that raged between 1371 and 1379. The war originated when Duke Rainald III died without issue in 1371 and his brother, Edward, who had been killed in the Battle of Baesweiler earlier that same year also left no offspring. 14th-century Guelders was divided in two factions, The Heeckerens supported Machteld of Guelders, and were led by Frederik van Heeckeren van der Eze, the Bronckhorsters supported William of Guelders, and were led by Gijsbert V van Bronckhorst. The war lasted eight years, with Mary and her supporters emerging victorious,1372 The Bronckhorst faction carries out raids in the Sticht Utrecht, presumably because the bisschop of Utrecht Arnold II of Horne had joined their enemies. In the Battle near Heerewaarden, the Bronckhorst faction is defeated,1372, Gozewijn van Varik, cousin of Machteld of Guelders, conquers Tiell in the spring of this year. Throughout the year, struggles continue within the city, 1372/73, troops of Arnold II of Horne conquer Harderwijk on behalf of Machteld of Guelders. 1373, John II, Count of Blois begins his Siege of Venlo,1374, Reinoud I van Brederode conquer Tiel on behalf of Machteld of Guelders. 1376, the leades of the Bronckhorst factiën are ambushed and taken as prisoners near Oosterbeek,1377, Charles IV gives the Dukedom of Guelders to the son of Mary and William III. 1378, In the Battle near Gennep the Heeckeren and Bronckhorst factions confront each other,1379, The village of Zennuwijnen with its church and abbey are destroyed by the Bronckhorst faction. 1379, On March 24 the last battle was fought near Hönnepel, Machteld of Guelders was defeated by the troops of Julich and resigned from her rights to the dukedom of Guelders
4. Sacrament van Mirakel – The Brussels massacre was an anti-Semitic episode in Brussels in 1370 in connection with an alleged host desecration at the Brussels synagogue. A number of Jews, variously given as six or about twenty, were executed or otherwise killed, while the rest of the small community was banished. The event was commemorated by local Christians as the Sacrament of Miracle, as it was said that the desecrated hosts stabbed by a Jew had miraculously shed blood, the cult of the putative miracle survived until after the Second World War. Black Death Jewish persecutions had previously destroyed Brussels community in 1350, host desecration was a common anti-Semitic canard in medieval Europe, and the wafers the Jews were supposed to have tried to profane were often said to have been miraculously spared from harm. The clerical usury scandal in Brussels was the context of the accusations of host desecration. According to Premonstratensian historian Placide Lefèvre, contemporary records indicate that there were eight Jewish households in Brussels. Shortly thereafter, the Enghien merchant was murdered and his widow passed the stolen hosts to the Jews of Brussels, where in the synagogue on Good Friday 1370 some tried to stab the wafers with their daggers, causing blood to pour forth. The Duke of Brabant, on the testimony, ordered the stabbers burnt at the stake. The hosts were placed in reliquaries and preserved in the chapel of Saint Gudula, the saint of Brussels. They became a feature of the procession on her feast day. Ten stained-glass windows depicting the putative miracle were donated to the chapel in the 16th Century by Emperor Charles V and this compared perceived Jewish anti-Catholicism to the nascent Protestant Reformation, with the miraculous bleeding countering Protestant denials of transubstantiation. In the early 1580s, during a period of Calvinist rule in Brussels, from 1579 to 1585 the relics had been hidden in a house in the Korte Ridderstraat. After the end of Calvinist rule in 1585, a procession of citizens and officeholders had retrieved the hosts, the re-emergence of the cult in 1585 was primarily as a celebration of the end of Calvinist rule. The Archdukes Albert and Isabella, who ruled in Brussels 1598–1621, made the annual procession a state occasion, had emerged as doubly miraculous after the end of Calvinist rule in Brussels in 1585 when it became clear that the sacred hosts had survived intact. The 1870 quincentenary of the Miracle was marked with celebrations, after the Second World War, in light of the mass murder of Belgian Jews during The Holocaust, the anti-semitic elements of the cult were de-emphasised. In 1968, in the wake of Nostra aetate issued by the Second Vatican Council, in 1977 Cardinal Leo Joseph Suenens installed a plaque in the cathedral to highlight this. The former chapel of Saint Gudula is now the museum, displaying its treasures, including the former reliquaries. History of the Jews in Belgium
5. Sint-jansziekte – Dancing mania was a social phenomenon that occurred primarily in mainland Europe between the 14th and 17th centuries. It involved groups of people dancing erratically, sometimes thousands at a time, the mania affected men, women, and children who danced until they collapsed from exhaustion. Affecting thousands of people across several centuries, dancing mania was not an isolated event and it was nevertheless poorly understood, and remedies were based on guesswork. Generally, musicians accompanied dancers, to ward off the mania. There is no consensus among scholars as to the cause of dancing mania. The several theories proposed range from religious cults being behind the processions to people dancing to relieve themselves of stress, Dancing mania is derived from the term choreomania, from the Greek choros and mania, and is also known as dancing plague. St Vituss Dance was diagnosed, in the 17th century, as Sydenham chorea, Dancing mania has also been known as epidemic chorea and epidemic dancing. A disease of the system, chorea is characterized by symptoms resembling those of dancing mania. Scientists have described dancing mania as a mental disorder, collective hysterical disorder. The earliest known outbreak of dancing mania occurred in the 7th century, and it reappeared many times across Europe until about the 17th century, when it stopped abruptly. One of the earliest known incidents occurred sometime in the 1020s in Bernburg, another incident, in 1278, involved about 200 people dancing on a bridge over the River Meuse in Germany, resulting in its collapse. Many of the survivors were restored to health at a nearby chapel dedicated to St Vitus. The first major outbreak of the mania occurred between 1373 and 1374, with incidents reported in England, Germany and the Netherlands, further episodes occurred in 1375 and 1376, with incidents in France, Germany and Holland, and in 1381 there was an outbreak in Augsburg. Further incidents occurred in 1418 in Strasbourg, where people fasted for days, in another outbreak, in 1428 in Schaffhausen, a monk danced to death and, in the same year, a group of women in Zurich were reportedly in a dancing frenzy. Further incidents occurred during the 16th century, when the mania was at its peak, in 1536 in Basel, involving a group of children, and in 1551 in Anhalt, involving just one man. In the 17th century, incidents of recurrent dancing were recorded by professor of medicine Gregor Horst, Dance madly all day and all night until they collapse in ecstasy. In this way come to themselves again and feel little or nothing until the next May. Forced around St. Vitus Day to betake themselves to that place, ne of these women is said to have danced every year for the past twenty years, another for a full thirty-two