Artikelen in de categorie "1480-1489"
Deze categorie bevat de volgende 37 pagina’s, van in totaal 37.
Deze categorie bevat de volgende 37 pagina’s, van in totaal 37.
1. Wikimedia Commons – Wikimedia Commons is an online repository of free-use images, sound, and other media files. It is a project of the Wikimedia Foundation, the repository contains over 38 million media files. In July 2013, the number of edits on Commons reached 100,000,000, the project was proposed by Erik Möller in March 2004 and launched on September 7,2004. The expression educational is to be according to its broad meaning of providing knowledge. Wikimedia Commons itself does not allow fair use or uploads under non-free licenses, for this reason, Wikimedia Commons always hosts freely licensed media and deletes copyright violations. The default language for Commons is English, but registered users can customize their interface to use any other user interface translations. Many content pages, in particular policy pages and portals, have also translated into various languages. Files on Wikimedia Commons are categorized using MediaWikis category system, in addition, they are often collected on individual topical gallery pages. While the project was proposed to also contain free text files. In 2012, BuzzFeed described Wikimedia Commons as littered with dicks, in 2010, Wikipedia co-founder Larry Sanger reported Wikimedia Commons to the FBI for hosting sexualized images of children known as lolicon. Wales responded to the backlash from the Commons community by voluntarily relinquishing some site privileges, over time, additional functionality has been developed to interface Wikimedia Commons with the other Wikimedia projects. Specialized uploading tools and scripts such as Commonist have been created to simplify the process of uploading large numbers of files. In order to free content photos uploaded to Flickr, users can participate in a defunct collaborative external review process. The site has three mechanisms for recognizing quality works, one is known as Featured pictures, where works are nominated and other community members vote to accept or reject the nomination. This process began in November 2004, another process known as Quality images began in June 2006, and has a simpler nomination process comparable to Featured pictures. Quality images only accepts works created by Wikimedia users, whereas Featured pictures additionally accepts nominations of works by third parties such as NASA, the three mentioned processes select a slight part from the total number of files. However, Commons collects files of all quality levels, from the most professional level across simple documental, files with specific defects can be tagged for improvement and warning or even proposed for deletion but there exists no process of systematic rating of all files. The site held its inaugural Picture of the Year competition, for 2006, all images that were made a Featured picture during 2006 were eligible, and voted on by eligible Wikimedia users during two rounds of voting
2. Aanbidding door de Wijzen (da Vinci) – The Adoration of the Magi is an early painting by Leonardo da Vinci. Leonardo was given the commission by the Augustinian monks of San Donato a Scopeto in Florence and it has been in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence since 1670. The Virgin Mary and Child are depicted in the foreground and form a shape with the Magi kneeling in adoration. Behind them is a semicircle of accompanying figures, including what may be a self-portrait of the young Leonardo, in the background on the left is the ruin of a pagan building, on which workmen can be seen, apparently repairing it. On the right are men on horseback fighting, and a sketch of a rocky landscape, the ruins are a possible reference to the Basilica of Maxentius, which, according to Medieval legend, the Romans claimed would stand until a virgin gave birth. It is supposed to have collapsed on the night of Christs birth, the ruins dominate a preparatory perspective drawing by Leonardo, which also includes the fighting horsemen. The palm tree in the centre has associations with the Virgin Mary, partly due to the phrase You are stately as a tree from the Song of Solomon. The other tree in the painting is from the carob family and they measure valuable stones and jewels. This tree and its seeds are associated with crowns suggesting Christ as the king of kings or the Virgin as the future Queen of heaven, jesus and the virgin Mary are, in fact, painted yellow, the color of light. It is also interesting how the trees are painted blue, a color for trees of any kind. On the right side the most credible self-portrait of Leonardo da Vinci as a 30 year old can be seen, see Angelo Paratico Much of the composition of this painting was influenced by an earlier work of the Northern artist Rogier van der Weyden. It is housed in the Uffizi of Florence, domenico Ghirlandaio, completed a separate painting, expanding upon Leonardos theme, in 1488. He concluded that the painting could not be restored without damaging it, another artist was responsible for all of the existing paintwork on top of the underdrawing. Seracini stated that none of the paint we see on the Adoration today was put there by Leonardo, the new images revealed by the diagnostic techniques used by Seracini were initially made public in 2002 in an interview with New York Times reporter Melinda Henneberger. In 2005, nearing the end of his investigation, Seracini gave another interview and they chose instead to relegate it to a storage house, rather than to destroy the original work. It was only later, and probably in the context of the subsequent rise in value of Leonardo artworks. This later re-working of the resulted in alterations to Leonardos original design for the piece. Recently the painting was under restoration at the Opificio delle Pietre Dure, Adoration of the Magi Adoration of the Magi of 1475 Costantino, Maria
3. Altaarstuk van San Giobbe – The San Giobbe Altarpiece is a c.1487 oil painting by the Italian Renaissance master Giovanni Bellini, now in the Gallerie dellAccademia in Venice. This altarpiece is one of the masterworks of Bellinis mature period and it was probably inspired by the San Cassiano Altarpiece by Antonello da Messina, and absorbed and further developed that works innovations. Yet, as the dating of Bellinis painting is uncertain, such dependency cannot be proved, the work is among Bellinis most famous, a claim made as early as De Urbe Sito, a description of Venice by Marco Antonio Sabellico. The depiction of Saints Sebastian and Job indicates that the painting might be created in connection with the plague probably that of 1987, the dating of the work is disputed, ranging from the early 1470s to the late 1480s. Jacopo Sansovino wrote in 1581 that the work for San Giobbe was Bellinis first using oil painting, yet, many scholars have disputed such claim. They are, on the left, Sts, francis, John the Baptist and Job, on the right, Sts. Dominic, Sebastian and Louis of Toulouse, the childs feature are very similar to those in the Contarini Madonna, also housed in the Accademia Gallery. The upper part features a coffered ceiling, flanked with pillars which are copies of the real ones at the original altar. Behind the Madonna is a dark niche, in the latters half-dome is a gilt mosaic decoration in the Venetian style. San Zaccaria Altarpiece Montini Altarpiece Olivari, Mariolina, nepi Sciré, Giovanna & Valcanover, Francesco, Accademia Galleries of Venice, Electa, Milan,1985, ISBN 88-435-1930-1
4. Beleg van Rodos (1480) – In 1480 the small Knights Hospitaller garrison of Rhodes withstood an attack of the Ottoman Empire. In 1470, the island of Tilos was evacuated to Rhodes because they were susceptible to attacks from the Ottoman Empire, in 1475, the island of Chalki was also evacuated to Rhodes for the same reason. On 23 May 1480 an Ottoman fleet of 160 ships appeared before Rhodes, at the gulf of Trianda, the Knights Hospitaller garrison was led by Grand Master Pierre dAubusson. The Knights were reinforced from France by 500 knights and 2,000 soldiers under dAubussons brother Antoine, the Turkish artillery kept up an unbroken bombardment and on 9 June the infantry made a series of attacks. Grand Master dAubusson himself sped to the aid of the garrison, shortly after came a second attack on the tower, this time on the eastern sector of the wall towards the bay of Akandia, which was the battle station of the tongue of Italy and was quite weak. During the bombardment from the Turkish artillery, the Knights and the people dug a new moat on the inside of the wall at this point. Once again the Knights reacted valiantly and decisively and after a battle with many casualties on both sides, the danger was once more averted. The last act of the drama was played out in the Jewish quarter of the city, at dawn on 27 July the Turks launched a vigorous offensive and their vanguard of around 2,500 Janissaries managed to take the tower of Italy and enter the city. The grand master, wounded in five places, directed the battle, after three hours of fighting the enemy were decimated and the exhausted survivors began to withdraw. The Knights´ counter-attack caused the Turks to beat a retreat, dragging along with them the Vizier. The Hospitallers reached as far as his tent and took, along with other booty, on that day between three and four thousand Turks were slain. On August 17,1480, the Ottoman fleet gave up their attempt to capture Rhodes, sultan Mehmed II was furious and would have attacked the island again, but his death in 1481 put a stop to the attempt. The French knight Guillaume Caoursin, vice-chancellor of the Knights Hospitaller, fought in the siege of Rhodes, an earlier English translation was the work of John Caius the Elder. DAubussons own report on the siege can be found in John Taaffes history of the Holy, military, in 1521-22 the Ottomans besieged Rhodes once again and captured the city and island. A new history, Stroud, The History Press, ISBN 978-0-7524-6178-6
5. La Bella Principessa – Sold at auction in 1998 as an early 19th-century German work, some experts have since attributed it to Leonardo da Vinci. In 2010 one of those experts, Martin Kemp, made it the subject of his book La Bella Principessa, the attribution to Leonardo da Vinci has been disputed. The current owner purchased the portrait in 2007, the portrait is a mixed media drawing in pen and brown ink and bodycolour, over red, black and white chalk, on vellum,33 by 23.9 centimetres which has been laid down on an oak board. There are three holes in the left-hand margin of the vellum, indicating that the leaf was once in a bound volume. It represents a girl in her teens, depicted in profile. The girls dress and hairstyle indicate that she was a member of the court of Milan during the 1490s, if it is a Renaissance work, it would have been executed in the 1490s. If the drawing is originally a Leonardo illustration for the present-day Warsaw copy of the Sforziad, the book is known to have been rebound at the turn of the 18 and 19th century. The modern provenance of the drawing is only from 1955 and is documented only from 1998. Jeanne Marchig became the owner of the drawing in 1983, following her husbands death. The work was included in a sale at Christies in New York on January 1,1998, catalogued as Young Girl in Profile in Renaissance Dress and it was sold to a New York art dealer for $21,850. Who sold it on for an amount in 2007. The drawing was shown in an exhibition called And there was Light in Eriksberg, Gothenburg in Sweden, reflecting the subject of an Italian woman of high nobility, Kemp named the portrait La Bella Principessa, although Sforza ladies were not princesses. The first study of the drawing was published by Cristina Geddo, Leonardo was the first artist in Italy to use pastels, a drawing technique he had learned from the French artist Jean Perréal, whom he met in Milan at the end of the fifteenth century. Leonardo acknowledges his debt to Perréal in the Codex Atlanticus, Geddo also points out that the coazzone of the sitters hairstyle was fashionable during the same period. Kemp describes the work as a portrait of a lady on the cusp of maturity shows her with the fashionable costume. By process of involving the inner group of young Sforza women, Kemp concluded that she is probably Bianca Sforza. In 1496, when Bianca was no more than 13, she was married to Galeazzo Sanseverino, captain of the dukes Milanese forces, Bianca was dead within months of her marriage, having suffered from a stomach complaint. The drawing and hatching was carried out entirely by a left-handed artist, the portrait is characterized by particularly subtle details, such as the relief of the ear hinted at below the hair, and the amber of the sitter’s iris
6. Christus als Man van Smarten (Geertgen tot Sint Jans) – Man of Sorrows is a small Early Netherlandish oil on wood panel painting completed c. The panel has a complex and suffocating spatial design, and seems to examine themes of the mocking of Jesus. The panel is steeped in both iconography and pathos, Christ is in obvious pain and shows his wounds. He looks out at the viewer from his tomb, around him white robed weeping angels bear the Arma Christi, objects associated with his crucifixion, the attending saints include Mary and the Magdalene. Nothing is known about the lost right hand panel, it may have contained another religious scene or a donor portrait and it is housed in the Museum Catharijneconvent, Utrecht. The panel is in the tradition of the devotional image of the Man of Sorrows, which developed in Europe from the 13th century. The phrase, in the passages of Isaiah 53 in the Hebrew Bible, translates into English as Man of Sorrows 3) He is despised and rejected of men, a Man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief. And we hid as it were our faces from Him, He was despised, 4) Surely He hath borne our griefs and carried our sorrows, yet we did esteem Him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted. 5) But He was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our iniquities, the chastisement of our peace was upon Him, and with His stripes we are healed. 6) All we like sheep have gone astray, we have turned every one to his own way, and the Lord hath laid on Him the iniquity of us all. In these works, the viewer is asked to stand before the wounded and maimed, half naked body of Christ, geertgens depiction differs from previous iconographical depictions in that Christs head is raised, and he looks directly at the viewer. Christ stands in his tomb, a stone sarcophagus and his entire body is lacerated and deformed by wounds sustained during his flogging. Yet he not clearly dead, as in earlier depictions and his eyes stare directly at the viewer, a device identified by Panofsky as referring to the biblical text Behold what I have suffered for you, what have you suffered for me. The gesture was earlier identified by art historian Alois Riegl as evoking an external unity where Christs gaze becomes one with the viewers world. Art historian Wouter Slob writes that Christs expression confronts the viewer with the consequences of His sinning. Despite Christs apparent agony, his animated, half-standing, half-kneeling pose in his sarcophagus seems to reference his Resurrection and he may be equally descending into or our the tomb. To his left, Mary Magdalene kneels in prayer and her arms rest on the sarcophagus, her eyes are downcast, her plaintive expression is a study of grief. At the foot of the cross, Jesus mother, Mary, laments with arms folded and she is supported by John the Evangelist with only his head and hands visible, wiping his tears with the back of his hand
7. De dame met de hermelijn – Lady with an Ermine is a painting by Leonardo da Vinci from around 1489–1490. The subject of the portrait is Cecilia Gallerani, painted at a time when she was the mistress of Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan, and Leonardo was in the service of the duke. The painting is one of four portraits of women painted by Leonardo, the others being the Mona Lisa, the portrait of Ginevra de Benci. The small portrait generally called The Lady with the Ermine was painted in oils on wooden panel, at the time of its painting, the medium of oil paint was relatively new to Italy, having been introduced in the 1470s. The subject has been identified with certainty as Cecilia Gallerani. Cecilia Gallerani was a member of a family that was neither wealthy nor noble. Her father served for a time at the Dukes court, at the time her portrait was painted, she was about 16 years old and was renowned for her beauty, her scholarship, and her poetry. She was married at age six to a young nobleman of the house of Visconti, but she sued to annul the marriage in 1487 for undisclosed reasons. Cecilia became the mistress of the Duke and bore him a son, even after his marriage to another woman 11 years previously, Beatrice was promised to the Duke when she was only 5, and married him when she was 16 in 1491. After a few months, she discovered the Duke was still seeing Cecilla, the painting shows a half-length figure, the body of a woman turned at a three-quarter angle toward her right, but her face turned toward her left. Her gaze is directed neither straight ahead, nor toward the viewer, in her arms, Gallerani holds a small white-coated stoat, known as an ermine. Galleranis dress is comparatively simple, revealing that she is not a noblewoman and her coiffure, known as a coazone, confines her hair smoothly to her head with two bands of hair bound on either side of her face and a long plait at the back. Her hair is held in place by a gauze veil with a woven border of gold-wound threads, a black band. There are several interpretations of the significance of the ermine in her portrait, the ermine, a stoat in its winter coat, was a traditional symbol of purity because it was believed an ermine would face death rather than soil its white coat. He repeats this idea in another note, Moderation curbs all the vices, the ermine prefers to die rather than soil itself. Ermines were kept as pets by the aristocracy and their pelts were used to line or trim aristocratic garments. For Ludovico il Moro, the ermine had a personal significance in that he had been in the Order of the Ermine in 1488. The association of the ermine with Cecilia Gallerani could have intended to refer both to her purity and to make an association with her lover
8. De Heilige Hiëronymus in gebed – St. Jerome at Prayer is a painting of St. Jerome by Hieronymus Bosch, thought to have been completed c. Today it is housed at the Museum of Fine Arts in Ghent, the work is known only from its acquisition by the museum in 1908. As for most of Boschs works, dating has long disputed. However, dendochronologic analysis has proved that it has been painted not after 1482, St. Jerome was a frequent subject of 15th century European art, depicted in his studio or during his penitence in the desert. Bosch for this picture adopted the latter iconography, although his saint is prone instead of kneeling and he is praying with a crucifix in his arms, also an unusual gesture of communion with Christ. Jerome lies on a rock located under a kind of shell-like cave and he is surrounded by his traditional symbols, but Bosch, as common in his works, also added some bizarre elements, such as the bony pig or the spherical shell emerging from the pool. This could symbolize the world floating towards decay, an owl and little owl are depicted on a branch, they allude, respectively, to heresy and the struggle against heresy. The Ten Commandments tables can be seen above the cave, the landscape is wide, in green tones
9. De Verzoeking van de H. Antonius (Michelangelo) – The Torment of Saint Anthony is the earliest known painting by Michelangelo, painted after an engraving by Martin Schongauer when he was only 12 or 13 years old. It is currently in the permanent collection of the Kimbell Art Museum in Fort Worth, but this composition shows a later episode where St Anthony, normally flown about the desert supported by angels, was ambushed in mid-air by devils. The painting was attributed to the workshop of Domenico Ghirlandaio. Under that attribution it was bought at a Sothebys auction in July 2008 by an American art dealer for US$2 million, on the basis of stylistic hallmarks such as emphatic cross hatching, it was decided that the painting was indeed by Michelangelo. It was soon bought by the Kimbell Art Museum for an undisclosed amount, besides this enhancement, Michelangelo also added a landscape below the figures, and altered the expression of the saint. Schongauers late-Gothic style is also in strong contrast with the rest of Michelangelos oeuvre, the prints of Schongauer, just reaching the end of his short life when Michelangelo copied him, were widely distributed in Europe, including Italy
10. Ecce Homo (Jheronimus Bosch) – Ecce Homo is a painting of the episode in the Passion of Jesus by the Early Netherlandish painter Hieronymus Bosch, painted between 1475 -85. The original version, with a provenance in collections in Ghent, is in the Städel Museum in Frankfurt, Ecce Homo shows Jesus stripped and brought before the people by the members of the Roman council, who are flanked by soldiers. The people mock and jeer Jesus, who wears a Crown of Thorns and his hands are bound with shackles, while the redness of the now raw flesh on his legs, hands and chest attests to the fact that he has been beaten with a scourge. The dialogue between Pilate and the mob is indicated by three Gothic inscriptions placed near the mouths of the protagonists and these function in a similar manner to banderoles or the speech balloons used in modern comic strips. To Pilates cry of Ecce Homo the mob reply Crucifige Eum, a third inscription Salve nos Christe redemptor can be seen in the lower left of the canvass, from the mouths of what were the representations of two donors, but which were later painted over. Typical of Bosch, the painting is suffused with symbolic imagery, the upper right quadrant of the composition presents an all-but-autonomous cityscape that represents Jerusalem under the familiar guise of a Late Gothic Netherlandish town. Its large open spaces, eerily empty, form the strongest contrast to the densely packed jostle of grotesquely caricatured and exotically garbed figures of the foreground mob. The theme of Ecce Homo was not often taken up by painters before the Renaissance, typically, this episode of the Passion takes one of two forms. This is the tradition to which this work belongs, Christ is shown to be human and is shown as a stooped, humiliated. In the 1490s, Bosch painted a version, the Ecce Homo. Very little is known of Boschs life, and as with a many of his paintings. The recent dendrochronological investigation of the oak panel places the time of the creation of the painting approximately between 1475 and 1485. The investigation by the scientist at The Bosch Research and Conservation Project has revealed the use of the pigments of the Renaissance period such as azurite, lead-tin-yellow. He also employed red and green glazes and gold leaf, ISBN 1-55643-759-5 Gibson, Walter S. Hieronymus Bosch. New York, Thames and Hudson,1973, ISBN 0-500-20134-X Matthijs Ilsink, Jos Koldeweij, Hieronymus Bosch, Painter and Draughtsman – Catalogue raisonné, Yale University Press, New Haven and London 2016, pp 224–235. Das Städel official website Hieronymus Bosch, Ecce Homo, ColourLex