Artikelen in de categorie "1500-1509"
Deze categorie bevat de volgende 32 pagina’s, van in totaal 32.
Deze categorie bevat de volgende 32 pagina’s, van in totaal 32.
1. Wikimedia Commons – Wikimedia Commons is an online repository of free-use images, sound, and other media files. It is a project of the Wikimedia Foundation, the repository contains over 38 million media files. In July 2013, the number of edits on Commons reached 100,000,000, the project was proposed by Erik Möller in March 2004 and launched on September 7,2004. The expression educational is to be according to its broad meaning of providing knowledge. Wikimedia Commons itself does not allow fair use or uploads under non-free licenses, for this reason, Wikimedia Commons always hosts freely licensed media and deletes copyright violations. The default language for Commons is English, but registered users can customize their interface to use any other user interface translations. Many content pages, in particular policy pages and portals, have also translated into various languages. Files on Wikimedia Commons are categorized using MediaWikis category system, in addition, they are often collected on individual topical gallery pages. While the project was proposed to also contain free text files. In 2012, BuzzFeed described Wikimedia Commons as littered with dicks, in 2010, Wikipedia co-founder Larry Sanger reported Wikimedia Commons to the FBI for hosting sexualized images of children known as lolicon. Wales responded to the backlash from the Commons community by voluntarily relinquishing some site privileges, over time, additional functionality has been developed to interface Wikimedia Commons with the other Wikimedia projects. Specialized uploading tools and scripts such as Commonist have been created to simplify the process of uploading large numbers of files. In order to free content photos uploaded to Flickr, users can participate in a defunct collaborative external review process. The site has three mechanisms for recognizing quality works, one is known as Featured pictures, where works are nominated and other community members vote to accept or reject the nomination. This process began in November 2004, another process known as Quality images began in June 2006, and has a simpler nomination process comparable to Featured pictures. Quality images only accepts works created by Wikimedia users, whereas Featured pictures additionally accepts nominations of works by third parties such as NASA, the three mentioned processes select a slight part from the total number of files. However, Commons collects files of all quality levels, from the most professional level across simple documental, files with specific defects can be tagged for improvement and warning or even proposed for deletion but there exists no process of systematic rating of all files. The site held its inaugural Picture of the Year competition, for 2006, all images that were made a Featured picture during 2006 were eligible, and voted on by eligible Wikimedia users during two rounds of voting
2. Altaarstuk van San Zaccaria – The San Zaccaria Altarpiece is a painting by the Italian Renaissance painter Giovanni Bellini, executed in 1505 and located in the church of San Zaccaria, Venice. They are St. Peter the Apostle, St. Catherine of Alexandria, St. Lucy, the colors and light show the new adherence of Bellini to Giorgiones color and mood style. The egg above Marys head is a symbol of the creation, the lucerne below recalls Andrea Mantegnas San Zeno Altarpiece. Santa Cristina al Tiverone Altarpiece Olivari, Mariolina
3. Antonius-drieluik – The Triptych of Temptation of St. Anthony is an oil painting on wood panels by the Early Netherlandish painter Hieronymus Bosch, dating from around 1501. The work tells the story of the mental and spiritual torments endured by Saint Anthony the Great, one of the most prominent of the Desert Fathers of Egypt in the late 3rd, the Temptation of St. Anthony was a popular subject in Medieval and Renaissance art. In common with many of Boschs works, the triptych contains much fantastic imagery, the painting hangs in the Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga in Lisbon. According to some historians, the work could be one of the three Temptations recorded in the inventory of Philip II of Spain sent to the Escorial in 1574. However, it is now considered likely that the triptych was that bought by the Portuguese humanist Damião de Góis between 1523 and 1545. In fact, the painting was documented as part of the collections in the Royal Palace of Lisbon in the mid-19th century, although the painting has usually been attributed to the period 1490–1500, dendochronologic analysis has assigned it to around 1501. Like many of Boschs paintings, The Temptation of St. Anthony was the subject of a number of copies, a third copy is owned by the Barnes Foundation, near Philadelphia, USA. The Temptation of St. Anthony is an oil painting on three panels, having the form of a triptych, the two outer panels being hinged shutters to the central section. The centre panel measures 131.5 by 119 cm, the work tells symbolically the story of the mental and spiritual torments endured by St. Anthony Abbott throughout his life. The sources for the subjects were Athanasius of Alexandrias Life of St. Anthony, which had popularized in Flanders by Pieter van Os. The left panel portrays the legendary flight and the fall of St. Anthony, in the sky, the saint is brought down by a host of demons. Below, is the grotto, carved within a hill in the shape of a man on all fours. An impious procession is directed towards the latter, led by a demon wearing holy vestments, in the foreground is a tired-out Anthony, supported after the fall by a monk and a layman, the latter has been traditionally identified as Bosch himself. Under the bridge crosses an icy lake are three figures, one of which is a monk reading a letter. Also on the lake is a bird with skates, its beak holds a cartouche with the word fat. This could be a reference to the simony scandal, the center panel exemplifies Boschs attraction to the saintly ability of refusing temptation. It depicts the temptation of St. Anthony scene proper, a black-skinned priestess holds a vessel with a toad, a symbol of witchcraft as well as of luxury, the animal in turns holds an egg. A black-dressed singer has a pig face and an owl above his head
4. Codex Leicester – The Codex Leicester is a collection of famous scientific writings by Leonardo da Vinci. The Codex is named after Thomas Coke, later created Earl of Leicester, of Leonardos 30 scientific journals, the Codex may be the most famous of all. The manuscript holds the record for the price of any book. The topics addressed include, an explanation of why fossils can be found on mountains, hundreds of years before plate tectonics became accepted scientific theory, Leonardo believed that mountains had previously formed sea beds, which were gradually lifted until they formed mountains. This is the topic of the Leicester Codex. Among other things, Leonardo wrote about the flow of water in rivers, from his observations he made recommendations about bridge construction and erosion. Leonardo speculated that the surface is covered by water, which reflects light from the sun. In this model, waves on the surface cause the light to be reflected in many directions. Leonardo explained that the pale glow on the portion of the crescent moon is caused by sunlight reflected from the Earth. Thus, he described the phenomenon of planetshine one hundred years before the German astronomer Johannes Kepler proved it, the Codex consists of 18 sheets of paper, each folded in half and written on both sides, forming the complete 72-page document. At one time the sheets were bound together, but they are now displayed separately and it was handwritten in Italian by Leonardo, using his characteristic mirror writing, and supported by copious drawings and diagrams. Hammer commissioned Leonardo da Vinci scholar, Dr. Carlo Pedretti, over the next 7 years Dr. Pedretti translated each page to English, completing the project in 1987. The Codex was sold to Bill Gates by Christies auction house on 11 November 1994 in New York for US$30,802,500, a comprehensive CD-ROM version was released by Corbis in 1997. The Codex Leicester has been unbound with each page individually mounted between glass panes and it is put on public display once a year in a different city around the world. In 2000, it was displayed at Sydneys Powerhouse Museum, in 2004, it was exhibited in the Château de Chambord, and in 2005 in Tokyo. One page was exhibited at the Seattle Museum of Flights 2006 exhibit Leonardo da Vinci, Man, Inventor, from June to August 2007, the Codex was the centerpiece of a two-month exhibition hosted by the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin, Ireland. The Codex was on view at the Phoenix Art Museum in Phoenix, Arizona from January 24,2015 through April 12,2015 for the exhibition Leonardo Da Vincis Codex Leicester and the Power of Observation. Its presentation at Phoenix Art Museum was the first time a work by the hand of Leonardo himself was on view in Arizona
5. De dame met de eenhoorn – Portrait of Young Woman with Unicorn is a painting by Raphael, which art historians date to 1505 or 1506. It is in the Galleria Borghese in Rome, the painting was originally oil on panel, and was transferred to canvas during conservation work in 1934. The work was of uncertain attribution until recent times, in the 1760 inventory of the Gallery, the subject of the painting was identified as Saint Catherine of Alexandria and attributed to Perugino. Later restoration work on the painting in 1959 revealed through radiography the image of a small dog and this alteration is believed to have been made by Raphael, it is not known why the alteration was made. Giulia Farnese Barchiesi, Sofia, and Marina # Minozzi, The Galleria Borghese, The Masterpieces, Galleria Borghese, Rome, thoenes, Christof, Raphael 1483-1520, The Invention of the High Renaissance, Koln, Taschen,2012
6. David (Michelangelo) – David is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture created between 1501 and 1504 by Michelangelo. It is a 5. 17-metre marble statue of a male nude. The statue represents the Biblical hero David, a subject in the art of Florence. The eyes of David, with a glare, were turned towards Rome. The statue was moved to the Galleria dellAccademia, Florence, in 1873, the history of the statue begins before Michelangelos work on it from 1501 to 1504. In 1410 Donatello made the first of the statues, a figure of Joshua in terracotta, a figure of Hercules, also in terracotta, was commissioned from the Florentine sculptor Agostino di Duccio in 1463 and was made perhaps under Donatellos direction. Eager to continue their project, in 1464, the Operai contracted Agostino to create a sculpture of David, a block of marble was provided from a quarry in Carrara, a town in the Apuan Alps in northern Tuscany. Agostino only got as far as beginning to shape the legs, feet and his association with the project ceased, for reasons unknown, with the death of Donatello in 1466, and ten years later Antonio Rossellino was commissioned to take up where Agostino had left off. Rossellinos contract was terminated soon thereafter, and the block of marble remained neglected for 25 years, all the while exposed to the elements in the yard of the cathedral workshop. This was of concern to the Opera authorities, as such a large piece of marble not only was costly but represented a large amount of labour. In 1500, an inventory of the cathedral workshops described the piece as a figure of marble called David, badly blocked out. A year later, documents showed that the Operai were determined to find an artist who could take this piece of marble. They ordered the block of stone, which they called The Giant, raised on its feet so that an experienced in this kind of work might examine it. Though Leonardo da Vinci and others were consulted, it was Michelangelo, only 26 years old, on 16 August 1501, Michelangelo was given the official contract to undertake this challenging new task. He began carving the statue early in the morning on 13 September and he would work on the massive statue for more than two years. They convened a committee of 30 Florentine citizens that comprised many artists, including Leonardo da Vinci and Sandro Botticelli, while nine different locations for the statue were discussed, the majority of members seem to have been closely split between two sites. Another opinion, supported by Botticelli, was that the sculpture should be situated on or near the cathedral. In June 1504, David was installed next to the entrance to the Palazzo Vecchio, replacing Donatellos bronze sculpture of Judith and Holofernes and it took four days to move the statue the half mile from Michelangelos workshop into the Piazza della Signoria
7. De drie gratiën (Rafaël) – The Three Graces is an oil painting by Italian painter Raphael, housed in the Musée Condé of Chantilly, France. The date of origin has not been determined, though it seems to have been painted at some point after his arrival to study with Pietro Perugino in about 1500. According to James Patrick in 2007s Renaissance and Reformation, the painting represents the first time that Raphael had depicted the nude form in front. The image depicts three of the Graces of classical mythology, julia Cartwright in Early Work of Raphael proposes that the painting bears far more influence of the school of Ferrara than classical sculpture, making clear that the statue was not Raphaels model. Some art historians disagree with Panofskys conclusion, cole presents the figures as handmaidens of Venus, holding the golden apples with which she is associated and affirming the proper connection of Virtus and Amor. The Three Graces remain a motif in pop culture
8. De Graflegging (Michelangelo) – The chronological position of this work has been the source of some dispute, although it is generally considered an early work. Some authorities believe that it may have been executed by one of Michelangelos pupils from a drawing by the master or was an imitation of his work. According to documents discovered in 1981, Michelangelo had been commissioned to paint a panel for the church of SantAgostino in Rome and it is probable that this work was the Entombment, which remained unfinished upon Michelangelos return to Florence. The centre of the panel portrays Christ being carried up a flight of steps to the sepulchre, the bearded older man behind him is probably Joseph of Arimathea, who gave up his tomb for use as Christs sepulchre. The long-haired figure on the left is probably Saint John, wearing a long orange-red gown, the identity of the two figures on the right is uncertain. Suggested identities for the elongated inner figure range from Nicodemus to one of the Marys, the large unfinished area at the bottom right was intended to be used for the kneeling form of the Virgin Mary. The floating appearance of some of the figures may be explained by the fact that the painting is intended to be viewed from below. However, the apparent incongruity of the stance of the bearer on the right remains problematical, many of the unfinished parts of the painting, such as the cloak of the missing Virgin, would have required quantities of the expensive lapis lazuli blue. If this was in short supply, it could be that this would have held up completion of the painting, which may explain why it was unfinished. However, even if this were so, it would not explain why the artist could not have completed the other parts of the painting that did not require any blue. There is also an anecdote that Michelangelo received a letter from his saying that he should abandon whatever he was doing because a great piece of marble had arrived for him. So he did, and turned that marble into David, study of a Kneeling Nude Girl for The Entombment National Gallery page
9. Dispuut over het Heilige Sacrament – The Disputation of the Sacrament, or Disputa, is a painting by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael. At the time, this room was known as the Stanza della Segnatura, in the painting, Raphael has created a scene spanning both heaven and earth. Above, Christ is surrounded by a halo, with the Blessed Virgin Mary, John the Baptist at his right, other various biblical figures such as Adam, Jacob and Moses are to the sides. God the Father sits above Jesus, depicted reigning over the light of heaven. On opposite sides of the Holy Spirit are the four gospels, below, on the altar sits the monstrance. The altar is flanked by theologians who are depicted debating Transubstantiation, pope Sixtus IV is the gold dressed pope in the bottom of the painting. Directly behind Sixtus is Dante, wearing red and sporting a laurel wreath, the bald figure reading a book and leaning over a railing in the left hand corner is Raphaels mentor and Renaissance architect Bramante
10. De droom van de ridder – The Vision of a Knight, also called The Dream of Scipio or Allegory, is a small egg tempera painting on poplar by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael, finished in 1504–1505. It is in the National Gallery in London and it probably formed a pair with the Three Graces panel, also 17 cm square, now in the Château de Chantilly museum. There are a number of theories as to what the panel is intended to represent, some art historians think the sleeping knight represents the Roman general Scipio Africanus who dreamed that he had to choose between Virtue and Pleasure. However, the two figures are not presented as contestants. They may represent the attributes of the knight, the book, sword and flower which they hold suggest the ideals of scholar. The most likely source for the allegory depicted is from a passage in the Punica, the panel was moved to England by William Young Ottley in 1800. Raphael used a palette of paints to depict this colourful scene, pigments such as lead-tin yellow, ultramarine, verdigris. Details of the piece, National Gallery