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Artikelen in de categorie "1640-1649"
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Deze categorie bevat de volgende ondercategorie.
Deze categorie bevat de volgende 28 pagina’s, van in totaal 28.
1. Wikimedia Commons – Wikimedia Commons is an online repository of free-use images, sound, and other media files. It is a project of the Wikimedia Foundation, the repository contains over 38 million media files. In July 2013, the number of edits on Commons reached 100,000,000, the project was proposed by Erik Möller in March 2004 and launched on September 7,2004. The expression educational is to be according to its broad meaning of providing knowledge. Wikimedia Commons itself does not allow fair use or uploads under non-free licenses, for this reason, Wikimedia Commons always hosts freely licensed media and deletes copyright violations. The default language for Commons is English, but registered users can customize their interface to use any other user interface translations. Many content pages, in particular policy pages and portals, have also translated into various languages. Files on Wikimedia Commons are categorized using MediaWikis category system, in addition, they are often collected on individual topical gallery pages. While the project was proposed to also contain free text files. In 2012, BuzzFeed described Wikimedia Commons as littered with dicks, in 2010, Wikipedia co-founder Larry Sanger reported Wikimedia Commons to the FBI for hosting sexualized images of children known as lolicon. Wales responded to the backlash from the Commons community by voluntarily relinquishing some site privileges, over time, additional functionality has been developed to interface Wikimedia Commons with the other Wikimedia projects. Specialized uploading tools and scripts such as Commonist have been created to simplify the process of uploading large numbers of files. In order to free content photos uploaded to Flickr, users can participate in a defunct collaborative external review process. The site has three mechanisms for recognizing quality works, one is known as Featured pictures, where works are nominated and other community members vote to accept or reject the nomination. This process began in November 2004, another process known as Quality images began in June 2006, and has a simpler nomination process comparable to Featured pictures. Quality images only accepts works created by Wikimedia users, whereas Featured pictures additionally accepts nominations of works by third parties such as NASA, the three mentioned processes select a slight part from the total number of files. However, Commons collects files of all quality levels, from the most professional level across simple documental, files with specific defects can be tagged for improvement and warning or even proposed for deletion but there exists no process of systematic rating of all files. The site held its inaugural Picture of the Year competition, for 2006, all images that were made a Featured picture during 2006 were eligible, and voted on by eligible Wikimedia users during two rounds of voting
2. Beleg van Hulst (1645) – The Siege of Hulst was the last major siege of the Eighty Years War. The heavily fortified town of Hulst was conquered by Dutch troops commanded by Frederick Henry after only 28 days, the Spanish were informed of the siege only two days before it started. The Spanish army compromised 2,500 infantrymen and 250 cavalry, the Dutch attacked with a force of 12,500 infantry,2,500 cavalry and 20 pieces of artillery. The battle was split in two stages, first Stage, Frederick commanded 4,500 infantry and 5 pieces of artillery to attack the east side of the city. When the Dutch forces reached the Eastern side of the city, the Dutch started with several cannon shots which killed already 100 men. The Spanish where quickly approached by the Dutch forces, in 10 days, the Spanish lost 1,000 men and the Dutch lost 400 men. The Dutch now controlled the east side of the city, second stage, After Frederick heard about the success in the eastern Hulst he sent 1,000 cavalry reinforcements. He then attacked the center of the city, after 18 days of artillery fire, the Spanish commander finally surrendered. The Dutch captured Hulst with minimum losses,1,500 infantry and 100 cavalry, the Spanish losses were,2,000 infantry and 225 cavalry
3. Slag bij Naseby – It was fought near the village of Naseby in Northamptonshire. This political campaign was successful, forming the New Model Army, after the Royalists stormed the Parliamentarian stronghold of Leicester, Fairfax was ordered to lift his siege of Oxford, the Royalist capital, and engage the Kings main army. Eager to bring battle to the Royalists, Fairfax set off in pursuit of the Royalist army, the King, faced with retreating north with Fairfax close behind, or giving battle, decided to give battle, fearing a loss of morale if his army continued retreating. After hard fighting, the Parliamentarian army had all but destroyed the Royalist force, captured in the baggage train were the Kings private papers, revealing to the fullest extent his attempts to draw Irish Catholics and foreign mercenaries into the war. Publication of these papers gave Parliament an added moral cause in fighting the war to a finish, within a year, Parliament had won the first civil war. At the beginning of 1645, most of King Charless advisers urged him to attack the New Model Army while it was still forming, initially, Charles welcomed this move, as Fairfax would be unable to interfere with his move north. Then at the end of May he was told that Oxford was short of provisions, to distract Fairfax, the Royalists stormed the Parliamentarian garrison at Leicester on 31 May. Having done so, Prince Rupert and the Kings council reversed their former decision and they sent messages ordering Goring to rejoin them, but Goring refused to leave the West Country. Parliament had indeed been alarmed by the loss of Leicester, and Fairfax was now instructed to abandon the siege of Oxford and he accordingly marched north from Oxford on 5 June. His leading detachments of horse clashed with Royalist outposts near Daventry on 12 June, on 13 June, the Royalists, who were now making for Newark so as to receive reinforcements, were at Market Harborough. Fairfax was eager to engage them, and held a council of war, during which Oliver Cromwell, the King now had to accept battle, or retreat with Fairfax in close pursuit. Early on 14 June, ignoring Ruperts advice and urged on by Secretary of State Lord Digby, the morning of 14 June was foggy, preventing the opposing armies from sighting each other at first. The Royalist army occupied a position on a ridge between the villages of Little Oxendon and East Farndon about 2 miles south of Market Harborough. The Royalist scoutmaster, Sir Francis Ruce, was sent out to find the Parliamentarian army, Rupert himself moved forward and saw some Parliamentarian cavalry, apparently retiring. He was determined to secure the commanding Naseby ridge and ordered the Royalist army to advance, Fairfax initially considered occupying the northern slopes of Naseby ridge. Cromwell believed that this position was too strong, and that the Royalists would refuse battle rather than attack it and he is said to have sent a message to Fairfax, saying, I beseech you, withdraw to yonder hill, which may provoke the enemy to charge us. Fairfax agreed, and moved his army back slightly, the Royalists did not see Fairfaxs position until they reached the village of Clipston, just over a mile north of Naseby ridge. It was clearly impossible for the Royalists to withdraw to their position without being attacked by the Parliamentarian cavalry while on the line of march
4. Slag bij Rocroi – The battle is considered by many to be the turning point of the perceived invincibility of the Spanish tercio. The Habsburg Spanish army of about 27,000 men advanced from Flanders, through the Ardennes, the Spanish troops set siege to Rocroi, which lay athwart the route to the valley of the Oise. The French, under the command of 21-year-old Louis, duc dEnghien, reacted quickly, the Spanish failed to block the route to Rocroi, which passed through a defile bordered by woods and marsh. Enghien advanced through the defile and assembled his force along a ridge looking down on the town of Rocroi. The Spanish quickly formed up between the town and the ridge, the French army, some 23,000 strong, was arranged with two lines of infantry in the center, squadrons of cavalry on each wing and with a thin line of artillery at the front. The Spanish army was arranged, but with its infantry in their traditional tercios. The two armies bivouacked in their positions for the night, the French army attacked, but the French infantry in the centre were bested by the Spanish. The cavalry on the French left, advancing against Enghiens orders, was thrown back. But the cavalry on the French right, under the command of Jean de Gassion, Enghien was able to follow this up by attacking the exposed left flank of the Spanish infantry. Spanish cavalry made a successful counter-attack to drive off the French cavalry, the Spanish horse was put to flight, leaving the Spanish infantry to carry on the fight. The French were twice repulsed by the stubborn Spanish squares, so Enghien arranged for his artillery, Enghien then offered surrender conditions just like those obtained by a besieged garrison in a fortress. Having agreed to terms, the remains of the two tercios left the field with deployed flags and weapons. The total Spanish losses were about 7,000 dead, wounded, despite this, the battle was of great symbolic importance because of the high reputation of the Army of Flanders. They were given the treatment usually given to a garrison and retired from the field with their arms, flags. With the end of the Fronde, Cardinal Mazarin slowly turned the tide against the Spanish in France and in the Low Countries. Mazarins alliance with England resulted in the defeat of the Spanish at the Battle of the Dunes and consequently the taking of Dunkirk in 1658, although Spain looked to be all-powerful in 1652, the peace settlement reflected the demise of Spains mastery of Europe in the late 1650s. A2006 Spanish movie, Alatriste, directed by Agustín Díaz Yanes, the sedan chair belonging to the elderly Spanish infantry general Fontaines was taken as a trophy by the French and may be seen in the museum of Les Invalides in Paris. Fontaines was killed in the battle, Enghien is reported to have said, Had I not won the day I wish I had died like him
5. Slag bij Stirling (1648) – The second Battle of Stirling was fought on the 12 September 1648 during the Scottish Civil War of the 17th century. The Battle of Stirling in 1648 was part of the War of the Three Kingdoms, by this time, the Presbyterian Covenanter movement had defeated the Scottish Royalists, who favoured unconditional loyalty to King Charles I. Those that supported this engagement between the King became known as Engagers, the Engagers army under the command of the Duke of Hamilton was defeated by the New Model Army under the command of Oliver Cromwell at the Battle of Preston. This initiated the civil war between the Engagers and their opponents known as the Kirk party. The nucleus of the Marquis of Argylls force amounted to about 300 men and he was also joined by a further 300 militiamen when he arrived in Stirling on the morning of September 12,1648. His men were assigned to various areas of the town. Argyll had barely begun his meal when the Earl of Lanarks advance forces, commanded by Sir George Munro, 1st of Newmore, Argyll then mounted his horse and galloped over Stirling Bridge to seek safety. While making his escape he came under fire from Stirling Castle which had not yet surrendered to Argyll and was flying the Kings colours. Munro even personally kicked down a door to chase out Argylls men. The battle surprised the Marquis of Argylls men, who broke after some initial resistance, losing about 200 dead. Many more were killed trying to escape and some even drowned trying to swim across the River Forth to safety, among the dead on Argylls side were William Campbell of Glenfalloch and Sir Colin Campbell of Ardkinglas, both killed in action. Outside Stirling the Earl of Lanark had a force of 4000 horse and 6000 men on foot, Argylls General David Leslie commanded 3000 horse and 8000 men on foot also outside Stirling. It is interesting to speculate what sort of battle would have taken place the day had it not been for Munros initiative on the morning of 12 September 1648. Munro urged Lanark to continue fighting after the battle and attack David Leslies forces, both sides agreed to disband their forces by the 29 September 1648. Shortly after this battle the armies of the Earl of Lanark and the Marquess of Argyll, on 27 September 1648 the Treaty of Stirling was agreed and led to the end of Engager dominance of Scotland. Scotland in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, David Leslie Stirling Battle of Stirling 1648 a. d. Scotwars General History of the Highlands 1645 -1649 at ElectricScotland. com The Engagement, 1647-8
6. Vrede van Westfalen – The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster, effectively ending the European wars of religion. The Treaty of Osnabrück, involving the Holy Roman Empire, Sweden, the treaties did not restore peace throughout Europe, but they did create a basis for national self-determination. Inter-state aggression was to be held in check by a balance of power, a norm was established against interference in another states domestic affairs. As European influence spread across the globe, these Westphalian principles, especially the concept of states, became central to international law. Peace negotiations between France and the Habsburgs, provided by the Holy Roman Emperor and the Spanish King, were started in Cologne in 1641 and these negotiations were initially blocked by France. Cardinal Richelieu of France desired the inclusion of all its allies, in Hamburg and Lübeck, Sweden and the Holy Roman Empire negotiated the Treaty of Hamburg. This was done with the intervention of Richelieu, the Holy Roman Empire and Sweden declared the preparations of Cologne and the Treaty of Hamburg to be preliminaries of an overall peace agreement. This larger agreement was negotiated in Westphalia, in the cities of Münster. Both cities were maintained as neutral and demilitarized zones for the negotiations, Münster was, since its re-Catholization in 1535, a strictly mono-denominational community. It housed the Chapter of the Prince-Bishopric of Münster, only Roman Catholic worship was permitted. No places of worship were provided for Calvinists and Lutherans, in the years of 1628–1633 Osnabrück had been subjugated by troops of the Catholic League. The Catholic Prince-Bishop Franz Wilhelm, Count of Wartenberg then imposed the Counter-Reformation onto the city with many Lutheran burgher families being exiled, while under Swedish occupation Osnabrückss Catholics were not expelled, but the city severely suffered from Swedish war contributions. Therefore, Osnabrück hoped for a great relief becoming neutralised and demilitarised, since Lutheran Sweden preferred Osnabrück as a conference venue, its peace negotiations with the Empire, including the allies of both sides, took place in Osnabrück. The Empire and its opponent France, including the allies of each, as well as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, between January 1646 and July 1647 probably the largest number of diplomats were present. The French delegation was headed by Henri II dOrléans, duc de Longueville and further comprised the diplomats Claude dAvaux, the Swedish delegation was headed by Count Johan Oxenstierna and was assisted by Baron Johan Adler Salvius. Philip IV of Spain was represented by a double delegation, the Spanish delegation was headed by Gaspar de Bracamonte y Guzmán, and notably included the diplomats and writers Diego de Saavedra Fajardo, and Bernardino de Rebolledo. The Burgundian lawyer Antoine Brun represented Philip as hereditary ruler of the Franche Comté, the papal nuncio in Cologne, Fabio Chigi, and the Venetian envoy Alvise Contarini acted as mediators. Various Imperial States of the Holy Roman Empire also sent delegations, Brandenburg sent several representatives, including Vollmar
7. Zeeslag bij Kaap Sint-Vincent (1641) – After a fierce battle two Dutch ships were lost but the Dutch claimed only a hundred of their men were killed, the Spanish fleet also lost 2 ships but over a thousand dead. The damaged Dutch fleet was forced to abandon its planned attack on the Spanish treasure fleet, in 1641, after the outbreak of the Portuguese Restoration War, the Portuguese government, with Dutch and French help, prepared to start the offensive against Spain at sea. The attempts failed thanks to the encounter that they had with 5 Dunkirkers under Judocus Peeters. Peeters managed to reach Cádiz without losing a single vessel and put on alert the Marquis of Ayamonte and Don Gaspar Alfonso Pérez de Guzmán, Gijsels and Telles returned to Lisbon, where Telles was replaced by Tristão de Mendonça, former Ambassador to the Dutch Republic. It was a hasty maneuver, since the Dutch ships had orders to return to their country if the West Indies Fleet didnt appear before November and he was a veteran soldier, having seen action in the Siege of Leucata against the French, but was unexperienced in sea battles. Gijsels fleet was sighted off Cape St. Vincent on 4 November, the Duke of Ciudad Real immediately ordered to attack the major Dutch vessels. After suffering severe casualties he stopped the attack and the ships to fall back to Cádiz, Michiel de Ruyter was present at this battle as Rear Admiral of the Dutch fleet. Some of the Dutch ships under Artus Gijsels, abandoned by their Portuguese, cesáreo Fernández Duro, Armada española desde la unión de los reinos de Castilla y de León, Vol. IV. Est. tipográfico Sucesores de Rivadeneyra, Madrid,1898, antonio Espinosa, Semanario erudito, que comprehende varias obras ineditas de nuestros mejores autores antiguos y modernos. Agustín Ramón Rodríguez González, Victorias por mar de los Españoles, Biblioteca de Historia, R. Prud’homme van Reine, Rechterhand van Nederland. Biografie van Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter