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Artikelen in de categorie "1740-1749"
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Deze categorie bevat de volgende 2 ondercategorieën, van een totaal van 2.
Deze categorie bevat de volgende 34 pagina’s, van in totaal 34.
1. Wikimedia Commons – Wikimedia Commons is an online repository of free-use images, sound, and other media files. It is a project of the Wikimedia Foundation, the repository contains over 38 million media files. In July 2013, the number of edits on Commons reached 100,000,000, the project was proposed by Erik Möller in March 2004 and launched on September 7,2004. The expression educational is to be according to its broad meaning of providing knowledge. Wikimedia Commons itself does not allow fair use or uploads under non-free licenses, for this reason, Wikimedia Commons always hosts freely licensed media and deletes copyright violations. The default language for Commons is English, but registered users can customize their interface to use any other user interface translations. Many content pages, in particular policy pages and portals, have also translated into various languages. Files on Wikimedia Commons are categorized using MediaWikis category system, in addition, they are often collected on individual topical gallery pages. While the project was proposed to also contain free text files. In 2012, BuzzFeed described Wikimedia Commons as littered with dicks, in 2010, Wikipedia co-founder Larry Sanger reported Wikimedia Commons to the FBI for hosting sexualized images of children known as lolicon. Wales responded to the backlash from the Commons community by voluntarily relinquishing some site privileges, over time, additional functionality has been developed to interface Wikimedia Commons with the other Wikimedia projects. Specialized uploading tools and scripts such as Commonist have been created to simplify the process of uploading large numbers of files. In order to free content photos uploaded to Flickr, users can participate in a defunct collaborative external review process. The site has three mechanisms for recognizing quality works, one is known as Featured pictures, where works are nominated and other community members vote to accept or reject the nomination. This process began in November 2004, another process known as Quality images began in June 2006, and has a simpler nomination process comparable to Featured pictures. Quality images only accepts works created by Wikimedia users, whereas Featured pictures additionally accepts nominations of works by third parties such as NASA, the three mentioned processes select a slight part from the total number of files. However, Commons collects files of all quality levels, from the most professional level across simple documental, files with specific defects can be tagged for improvement and warning or even proposed for deletion but there exists no process of systematic rating of all files. The site held its inaugural Picture of the Year competition, for 2006, all images that were made a Featured picture during 2006 were eligible, and voted on by eligible Wikimedia users during two rounds of voting
2. Beleg van Bergen op Zoom (1747) – Bergen op Zoom was defended by allies, consisting of the Dutch, Austrians, British, Hanoverians and Hessians, that supported the Pragmatic Sanction. After seven years of war, both sides in this conflict were suffering from weariness of the war. Although tentative peace initiatives had been put forward, neither side was yet willing to make meaningful concessions, the capture of Bergen op Zoom would be a signal defeat for the Dutch and would open the door for an invasion of the Dutch Netherlands. Saxe calculated that his numerically inferior opponents would not be able to defend two fortified cities at once. Bergen op Zoom was a town with a population of some 5,000 people. The circumference of the ramparts was about three miles with ten bastions covered by five hornworks. The intervals contain twenty one ravelins which are covered by stone lunettes, much of the surrounding country was marshland. Because of these lines and some lines to the west, Bergen op Zoom could not be completely invested. The fortress was the work of the great Dutch engineer. It was believed to be impregnable and was considered the strongest fortification in Dutch Brabant, Bergen op Zoom had withstood two previous sieges, the first in 1588 and a second in 1622. It could be supplied with munitions and provision by boats using two navigable canals each defended by its own fort, Bergen op Zoom was well-garrisoned and well-supplied, so the siege by French forces did not cause immediate alarm in the Netherlands. The fortress had access to the sea, and the Dutch navy supplied the fortress without serious interference by the French, the French, since they were the besieging force and controlled much of the surrounding area, were also well-supplied and reinforced. However, the allies had an army under Prince Waldeck nearby which posed a threat to French supply lines. The various bastions, ravelins and lunettes of the fortification were all named and would mount over 230 cannon, the principal effort of the French concentrated on the bastions Coehoorn and Pucelle. Facing the French trench lines, the sides of Coehoorn were flanked on its right by the ravelin Antwerpen, between the bastion and Antwerpen was the lunette Holland and between the bastion and Diden was the lunette Zealand. To the left of Diden was the lunette, Utrecht, and this area would witness the most continuous and fierce combat of the siege. On the night of the 14 July the French opened the trenches using 2,400 workers supported by 10 companies of grenadiers and 5 battalions of infantry. Lowendal used 12,000 of his troops to man the trench lines, the first parallel was laid overnight of the first day,400 paces out from the fortifications
3. Beleg van Maastricht (1748) – The Siege of Maastricht took place in April-May 1748 during the War of the Austrian Succession. A French force under the command of Maurice de Saxe besieged and captured the Dutch barrier fortress of Maastricht in the final few months of the campaign in the Low Countries. After a relatively long siege the garrison of Maastricht capitulated and marched out with the honours of war, Maastricht was returned along with Frances conquests in the Austrian Netherlands according to the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle signed in 1748. Among the defenders were the Austro-Walloon Regiment of Los Rios, commanded by its Colonel Jean Charles Joseph, Count of Merode, Marquis of Deynze, Charles, 5th Duke of Arenberg Browning, the War of the Austrian Succession
4. Oorlog van koning George – King Georges War is the name given to the military operations in North America that formed part of the War of the Austrian Succession. It was the third of the four French and Indian Wars and it took place primarily in the British provinces of New York, Massachusetts Bay, New Hampshire, and Nova Scotia. In French, it is known as the Third Intercolonial War, the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the war in 1748 and restored Louisbourg to France, but failed to resolve any outstanding territorial issues. The War of Jenkins Ear broke out in 1739 between Spain and Great Britain, but was confined to the Caribbean Sea and conflict between Spanish Florida and the neighboring British Province of Georgia, Massachusetts did not declare war until June 2. News of war reached the French fortress at Louisbourg first, on May 3,1744. Concerned about their overland supply lines to Quebec, they first raided the British fishing port of Canso on May 23, and then organized an attack on Annapolis Royal, then the capital of Nova Scotia. However, French forces were delayed in departing Louisbourg, and their Mikmaq and Maliseet allies in conjunction with Father Jean-Louis Le Loutre, Annapolis had received news of the war declaration, and was somewhat prepared when the Indians began besieging Fort Anne. Lacking heavy weapons, the Indians withdrew after a few days, in 1745, British colonial forces captured Fortress Louisbourg after a siege of six weeks. In retaliation, the Wabanaki Confederacy of Acadia launched the Northeast Coast Campaign against the British settlements on the border of Acadia in Maine, France launched a major expedition to recover Louisbourg in 1746. Beset by storms, disease, and finally the death of its commander, the war was also fought on the frontiers between the northern British colonies and New France. On November 28,1745, the French with their Indian allies raided and destroyed the village of Saratoga, New York, all of the British settlements north of Albany were accordingly abandoned. In July 1746 an Iroquois and intercolonial force assembled in northern New York for an attack against Canada. British regulars expected to participate never arrived, and the attack was called off, in 1748, Indian allies of the French attacked Schenectady, New York. The war took a toll, especially in the northern British colonies. The losses of Massachusetts men alone in 1745–46 have been estimated as 8% of that colonys adult male population. According to the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Louisbourg was returned to France three years later, in exchange for the city of Madras in India, captured by the French from the British and this decision outraged New Englanders, particularly Massachusetts colonists who had contributed the most to the expedition. The British government eventually acknowledged their effort with a payment of £180,000 after the war, in Acadia and Nova Scotia, the fighting continued in Father Le Loutres War. The Enduring Vision, A History of the American People Drake, a Particular History of the Five Years French and Indian War in New England Kingsford, William
5. Oostenrijkse Successieoorlog – The War of the Austrian Succession involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresas succession to the Habsburg Monarchy. The war included King Georges War in British America, the War of Jenkins Ear, the First Carnatic War in India, the Jacobite rising of 1745 in Scotland, and the First and Second Silesian Wars. Austria was supported by Great Britain and the Dutch Republic, the enemies of France, as well as the Kingdom of Sardinia. France and Prussia were allied with the Electorate of Bavaria, the war ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, by which Maria Theresa was confirmed as Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary, but Prussia retained control of Silesia. But the peace was soon to be shattered, when Austrias desire to recapture Silesia intertwined with the political changes in Europe. In 1740, after the death of her father, Charles VI, Maria Theresa succeeded him as Queen of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia, Archduchess of Austria and Duchess of Parma. The complications involved in a female Habsburg ruler had been long foreseen, problems began when King Frederick II of Prussia violated the Pragmatic Sanction and invaded Silesia on 16 December 1740, using the 1537 Treaty of Brieg as a pretext. For much of the century, France approached its wars in the same way. It would let its colonies defend themselves, or would offer only minimal help, similarly, several long land borders made an effective domestic army imperative for any ruler of France. At the end of the war, France gave back its European conquests, the British—by inclination as well as for pragmatic reasons—had tended to avoid large-scale commitments of troops on the Continent. For the War of the Austrian Succession, the British were allied with Austria, by the time of the Seven Years War, they were allied with its enemy, Prussia. In marked contrast to France, Britain strove to prosecute the war in the colonies once it became involved in the war. The British pursued a strategy of naval blockade and bombardment of enemy ports. They would harass enemy shipping and attack enemy outposts, frequently using colonists from nearby British colonies in the effort and this plan worked better in North America than in Europe, but set the stage for the Seven Years War. Prince Frederick had been only 28 years of age on 31 May 1740 when his father, Frederick William I died, neither Frederick nor his father had ever been fond of Austria and its various snubs against Prussia. Emperor Charles VI had made provision for the succession of his daughter, in support of his invasion of Silesia, Frederick also used a questionable interpretation of a treaty between the Hohenzollerns and the Piasts of Brieg as pretext. In particular, Frederick feared that Augustus III, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, was preparing to seize Silesia for himself to unite Saxony and Poland. The only recent combat experience of the Prussian Army was their participation in the War of the Polish Succession, accordingly, the Prussian Army had an uninspiring reputation and was counted as one of the many minor armies of the Holy Roman Empire
6. Slag bij Culloden – The Battle of Culloden was the final confrontation of the Jacobite rising of 1745 and part of a religious civil war in Britain. On 16 April 1746, the Jacobite forces of Charles Edward Stuart were decisively defeated by loyalist troops commanded by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, queen Anne died in 1714, with no living children, she was the last monarch of the House of Stuart. The conflict was the last pitched battle fought on British soil, Charles Stuarts Jacobite army consisted largely of Catholics and Episcopalians, mainly Scots but with a small detachment of Englishmen from the Manchester Regiment. The Jacobites were supported and supplied by the Kingdom of France from Irish, between 1,500 and 2,000 Jacobites were killed or wounded in the brief battle. Government losses were lighter with 50 dead and 259 wounded although recent geophysical studies on the government burial pit suggest the figure for deaths to be nearer 300. Charles Edward Stuart, known as Bonnie Prince Charlie or the Young Pretender and he successfully raised forces, mainly of Scottish Highland clansmen, and slipped past the Hanoverian stationed in Scotland and defeated a force of militiamen at the Battle of Prestonpans. The British government recalled forces from the war with France in Flanders to deal with the rebellion, after a lengthy wait, Charles persuaded his generals that English Jacobites would stage an uprising in support of his cause. He was convinced that France would launch an invasion of England as well and his army of around 5,000 invaded England on 8 November 1745. They advanced through Carlisle and Manchester to Derby and a position where they appeared to threaten London, the Jacobites met only token resistance. There was, however, little support from English Jacobites, the armies of Field Marshal George Wade and of William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, were approaching. In addition to the militia, London was defended by nearly 6,000 infantry,700 horse and 33 artillery pieces, the Jacobite general, Lord George Murray, and the Council of War insisted on returning to join their growing force in Scotland. On 6 December 1745, they withdrew, with Charles Edward Stuart leaving command to Murray, on the long march back to Scotland, the Highland Army wore out its boots and demanded all the boots and shoes of the townspeople of Dumfries as well as money and hospitality. The Jacobites reached Glasgow on 25 December, there they reprovisioned, having threatened to sack the city, and were joined by a few thousand additional men. They then defeated the forces of General Henry Hawley at the Battle of Falkirk Muir, the Duke of Cumberland arrived in Edinburgh on 30 January to take over command of the government army from General Hawley. He then marched north along the coast, with the army being supplied by sea, six weeks were spent at Aberdeen training. The Kings forces continued to pressure Charles and he retired north, losing men and failing to take Stirling Castle or Fort William. But he invested Fort Augustus and Fort George in Inverness-shire in early April, Charles then took command again, and insisted on fighting a defensive action. Hugh Rose of Kilravock entertained Charles Edward Stuart and the Duke of Cumberland respectively on 14 and 15 April 1746, Charles manners and deportment were described by his host as most engaging
7. Slag bij Fontenoy (1745) – The battle was one of the most important in the war and considered the masterpiece of Saxe, serving France, Louis XV, and his son, the Dauphin, were present at the battle. Saxe went on the offensive in April 1745 with a large French army and his initial aim was to take control of the upper Scheldt basin and thereby gain access to the heart of the Austrian Netherlands. To these ends, he first besieged the fortress of Tournai, in order to relieve Tournai, the allies first decided to attack Saxes position – a naturally strong feature, hinged on the village of Fontenoy and further strengthened by defensive works. Despite devastating flanking fire the allied column, made up of British and Hanoverian infantry, only when Saxe concentrated all available infantry, cavalry, and artillery was the column forced to yield. The allies retreated in order, conducting a fighting withdrawal. The battle had shown, however, the strength of a defensive force relying on firepower, casualties were high on both sides, but the French had gained the field, and Tournai fell shortly after the battle. This success was followed by an advance against the less organised and outnumbered allied army, Ghent, Oudenarde, Bruges. By the years end, the Saxon-born Saxe had completed the conquest of much of the Austrian Netherlands, the battle had established French superiority in force and high command. In 1744, France went over to the offensive in the Low Countries. King Louis XV and the Duke of Noailles scored early successes with the capture of the fortresses of western Flanders, Menin, Ypres. Opposing Saxe was the Pragmatic Army, the bulk of which was made up of British and Hanoverian troops under General George Wade, much had been expected of the allies in 1744 but the timidity of their generals had produced nothing against a numerically inferior enemy. Although Wade eventually advanced towards Lille, he did more than bicker with the Austrians about the cost of moving his siege train from Antwerp. Saxe was able to maintain his position at Courtrai and along the lines of the Lys, elsewhere, the Pragmatic Allies had scored considerable success in late 1744. A joint Austro-Saxon force under Charles of Lorraine and Count Traun drove Frederick IIs Prussian army from Bohemia, further success followed with the death in January 1745 of the French puppet emperor, Charles VII. Joseph sued for peace and gave his support for the candidacy of Maria Theresas husband, Francis Stephen, with Bavaria out of the war the Austrians could now try to win back Silesia from Frederick II. Likewise, Bavarian repudiation of its French ties meant France was freed of its German involvement, and could now concentrate on its own efforts in Italy. As early as December 1744, Saxe had prepared plans for an offensive in the Low Countries. The trio of generals was completed by Prince Waldeck, commander of the Dutch contingent in theatre and they hoped to gain the initiative by the establishment of forward magazines and an early opening of the campaign season
8. Slag bij Lafelt – The Battle of Lauffeld, also known as Lafelt, Laffeld, Lawfeld, Lawfeldt, Maastricht or Val, took place on 2 July 1747, during the French invasion of the Netherlands. It was part of the War of the Austrian Succession, Cumberland moved to defeat a detachment of the French army commanded by the Prince of Clermont that de Saxe had sent to bait the Pragmatic Allies into moving. Then Saxe force-marched the main French force to the ground he had chosen, once again, as at the Battle of Rocoux, the Austrians on the right refused to move against the open French left flank. The French made five assaults on Lauffeld and the villages changed hands several times, a large French column drove the 10,000 British and Hessian defenders out of the village of Lauffeld a final time. The French cavalry then pierced the allied center, now, a general French advance began to turn the Allied left flank, threatening the annihilation of the British infantry. General Ligonier, on his own initiative, then led the cavalry in charges that would save the army, the greatest cavalry engagement of the war ensued with over 15,000 horsemen charging and counter-charging. Seven regiments of the Irish Brigade in the French service lost over 1400 killed or wounded, the Duke of Cumberland, George IIs favourite son was nearly taken prisoner by the Irish, as in the confusion of battle he mistook the red-coated Irish Brigade for his own troops. Ligonier came up with a body of horse, enabling Cumberland to escape. It was a French victory that left the gateway to the Dutch Republic open to invasion, the allied retreat allowed Saxe to send a detachment of 30,000 troops under Count Lowendahl north across the Low Lands, capturing the city of Bergen-op-Zoom to finish that years campaigning season. At the opening of the campaigning season of 1748, the French invested Maastricht and, after a brief siege. The citys siege started negotiations in April, ending the war in October 1748 with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, ripley, George, Dana, Charles A. eds. The Vinkhuijzen collection of uniforms, France, 1750-1757. Archived from the original on 8 March 2013, flags through the ages and across the world. History of England From the Peace of Utrecht to the Peace of Versailles, browning, Reed. The War of the Austrian Succession, St. Martins Press, New York, ISBN 0-312-12561-5 Chandler, David. The Art of Warfare in the Age of Marlborough, spellmount Limited, ISBN 0-946771-42-1 Skrine, Francis Henry. Fontenoy and Great Britains Share in the War of the Austrian Succession 1741-48, history of England, from The Revolution to the Death of George the Second, London,1848, Vol. II
9. Slag bij Rocourt – The Battle of Rocoux was a French victory over an allied Austrian, British, Hanoveran and Dutch army in Rocourt, outside Liège during War of the Austrian Succession. The result was a major French victory but not the crushing blow Maurice had hoped to inflict, the French army was commanded by Marshall Saxe and the army of the Pragmatic Allies by Prince Charles of Lorraine of Austria and the British General Sir John Ligonier. Saxe had nearly completed his campaign to take Flanders and was threatening to invade the Netherlands, heavily outnumbering the Dutch, the French defeated them on the third assault. The Dutch were forced to withdraw behind the British and Hannoverian lines, in the face of a general French advance the allied line began to give way. The Austrians on the right were not engaged and made no attempt to take the initiative. Ligoniers cavalry and some British, Hanoverian and Dutch infantry formed a guard that held off the French as the army withdrew. The French were victorious, although the army escaped from destruction. This was the great victory of three for Saxe, after Fontenoy and prior to Lauffeld. The French were victorious, immediately capturing Liège and breaking Austrian control over the Austrian Netherlands for the remainder of the war, ripley, George, Dana, Charles A. eds. The Vinkhuijzen collection of uniforms, France, 1750-1757. Archived from the original on 8 March 2013, flags through the ages and across the world. Browning, Reed. The War of the Austrian Succession, St. Martins Press, New York, ISBN 0-312-12561-5 Chandler, the Art of Warfare in the Age of Marlborough. Spellmount Limited, ISBN 0-946771-42-1 Skrine, Francis Henry, Fontenoy and Great Britains Share in the War of the Austrian Succession 1741-48
10. Vrede van Aken (1748) – The resulting treaty was signed on 18 October 1748 by Great Britain, France, and the Dutch Republic. Two implementation treaties were signed at Nice on 4 December 1748 and 21 January 1749 by Austria, Spain, Sardinia, Modena, France withdrew from the Austrian Netherlands but had some of its colonies returned. France regained Cape Breton Island, lost during the war, and it returned the city of Madras in India to Great Britain. Maria Theresa ceded the Duchy of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla in present-day Italy to Spain, the Duchy of Modena and the Republic of Genoa, conquered by Austria, were restored. The Asiento contract, which had guaranteed to Great Britain in 1713 through the Treaty of Utrecht, was renewed. Spain later raised objections to the Asiento clauses, and the Treaty of Madrid, signed on 5 October 1750, for the most part, the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle and the War of Austrian Succession concluded status quo ante bellum. In the commercial struggle between Britain and France in the West Indies, Africa, and India, nothing was settled, the treaty was thus no basis for a lasting peace. By the same token, British colonists in New England and merchants back in Great Britain resented the return of Louisbourg to the French after they had captured the stronghold in a 46-day siege and this resentment was an early seed of the later American Revolution. In fact, Britain had exchanged Louisbourg so that France would withdraw from the Netherlands, Madras, captured by French Admiral La Bourdonnais in 1746, was returned to Britain likewise. In Austria, reactions to the peace were mixed, ostensibly, the source of the long, bitter War of Austrian Succession, this sanction was upheld by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. The Austrians had saved Bohemia and the duchy of Milan, conceding only minor concessions in Italy, Maria Theresa was also happy that France had given back the Austrian Netherlands that it had conquered. Overall, she referred to the war as a miracle as she had saved her Empire from destruction, however, she was very upset by the loss of the rich province of Silesia at the hand of Prussia. Britains support for this repossession at Aix-la-Chapelle spurned Kaunitz to establish an alliance with Austrias traditional enemy, France. In the West Indies, the treaty did little to address possession of the islands, European powers had long pursued control of the Americas, viewing them as well-needed resources and proof of power. Spain, the Netherlands, France and Britain all had unresolved tensions following settlements like the Treaty of Breda, the Treaty of Westminster, by 1713, the islands of Saint Lucia and Tobago were the subjects of Anglo-Franco conflict. However, the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle declared neutrality in Tobago, Grenada, Saint Vincent and Dominica, allowing all European powers unfettered economic access, in addition, France gained Saint Lucia as a colony. In contrast to French and British unhappiness with the treaty, Italy gained stability for the first time in the 18th century. The new territorial settlement and the accession of the peaceful Ferdinand VI of Spain allowed the Aix settlement to last until the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars in 1792