Deze categorie bevat de volgende 11 ondercategorieën, van een totaal van 11.
Deze categorie bevat de volgende 11 ondercategorieën, van een totaal van 11.
1. 1870-1879 – The 1870s continued the trends of the previous decade, as new empires, imperialism and militarism rose in Europe and Asia. The United States was recovering from the American Civil War, germany unified in 1871 and began its Second Reich. Labor unions and strikes occurred worldwide in the part of the decade. The Reconstruction era of the United States brought a legacy of bitterness, franco-Prussian War resulted in the collapse of the Second French Empire and in the formation of both the French Third Republic and the German Empire. The Anglo-Zulu War lasted from 11 January 1879 to 4 July 1879, the Third Carlist War was the last Carlist War in Spain. Bulgaria and Romania declared independence following a war against the Ottoman Empire, the Sioux battled the United States Cavalry and resisted encroachment by white settlers on the Great Plains. Passive resistance was used to prevent the confiscation of Māori land at Parihaka in New Zealand, the German Empire and Alliance System emerged. Racial and economic politics in Americas Reconstruction were bitter, pessimistic, the Gilded Age began in 1874, lasting until 1896. The prototype telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, the first version of the light bulb was invented by Thomas Edison in 1879. The phonograph is invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison, the steam drill is invented in 1879. Ludwig Boltzmann statistically defined thermodynamic entropy,1873 Weltausstellung in Vienna,1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia and 1878 Exposition universelle in Paris. Members of the association, which soon included Cézanne, Berthe Morisot, another painter who greatly influenced Monet and his friends, Johan Jongkind, declined to participate, as did Manet. In total, thirty artists participated in their first exhibition, held in April 1874 at the studio of the photographer Nadar, the group soon became known as the Impressionists. Jeanne Calment, born 1875, would become the longest-living human being in recorded history. She lived until 1997, at the age of 122 and she still holds the record as of 2016. Lewis Carroll publishes Through the Looking-Glass
2. Wikimedia Commons – Wikimedia Commons is an online repository of free-use images, sound, and other media files. It is a project of the Wikimedia Foundation, the repository contains over 38 million media files. In July 2013, the number of edits on Commons reached 100,000,000, the project was proposed by Erik Möller in March 2004 and launched on September 7,2004. The expression educational is to be according to its broad meaning of providing knowledge. Wikimedia Commons itself does not allow fair use or uploads under non-free licenses, for this reason, Wikimedia Commons always hosts freely licensed media and deletes copyright violations. The default language for Commons is English, but registered users can customize their interface to use any other user interface translations. Many content pages, in particular policy pages and portals, have also translated into various languages. Files on Wikimedia Commons are categorized using MediaWikis category system, in addition, they are often collected on individual topical gallery pages. While the project was proposed to also contain free text files. In 2012, BuzzFeed described Wikimedia Commons as littered with dicks, in 2010, Wikipedia co-founder Larry Sanger reported Wikimedia Commons to the FBI for hosting sexualized images of children known as lolicon. Wales responded to the backlash from the Commons community by voluntarily relinquishing some site privileges, over time, additional functionality has been developed to interface Wikimedia Commons with the other Wikimedia projects. Specialized uploading tools and scripts such as Commonist have been created to simplify the process of uploading large numbers of files. In order to free content photos uploaded to Flickr, users can participate in a defunct collaborative external review process. The site has three mechanisms for recognizing quality works, one is known as Featured pictures, where works are nominated and other community members vote to accept or reject the nomination. This process began in November 2004, another process known as Quality images began in June 2006, and has a simpler nomination process comparable to Featured pictures. Quality images only accepts works created by Wikimedia users, whereas Featured pictures additionally accepts nominations of works by third parties such as NASA, the three mentioned processes select a slight part from the total number of files. However, Commons collects files of all quality levels, from the most professional level across simple documental, files with specific defects can be tagged for improvement and warning or even proposed for deletion but there exists no process of systematic rating of all files. The site held its inaugural Picture of the Year competition, for 2006, all images that were made a Featured picture during 2006 were eligible, and voted on by eligible Wikimedia users during two rounds of voting
3. Grote Depressie (1873-1896) – The Long Depression was a worldwide price and economic recession, beginning in 1873 and running either through the spring of 1879, or 1896, depending on the metrics used. It was the most severe in Europe and the United States, the episode was labeled the Great Depression at the time, and it held that designation until the Great Depression of the 1930s. Though a period of deflation and a general contraction, it did not have the severe economic retrogression of the Great Depression. It was most notable in Western Europe and North America, at least in part because reliable data from the period is most readily available in parts of the world. The United Kingdom is often considered to have been the hardest hit, the National Bureau of Economic Research dates the contraction following the panic as lasting from October 1873 to March 1879. At 65 months, it is the longest-lasting contraction identified by the NBER, in the US, from 1873 to 1879,18,000 businesses went bankrupt, including 89 railroads. Ten states and hundreds of banks went bankrupt, unemployment peaked in 1878, long after the panic ended. Different sources peg the peak U. S. unemployment rate anywhere from 8. 25% to 14%, the period preceding the depression was dominated by several major military conflicts and a period of economic expansion. New technologies in such as the Bessemer converter were being rapidly applied. This essentially ended the bimetallic standard of the US, forcing it for the first time onto a gold standard. This measure, referred to by its opponents as the Crime of 1873 and it also drove down silver prices further, even as new silver mines were being established in Nevada, which stimulated mining investment but increased supply as demand was falling. Silver miners arrived at US mints, unaware of the ban on production of silver coins, by September, the US economy was in a crisis, deflation causing banking panics and destabilizing business investment, climaxing in the Panic of 1873. The Panic of 1873 has been described as the first truly international crisis, the optimism that had been driving booming stock prices in central Europe had reached a fever pitch, and fears of a bubble culminated in a panic in Vienna beginning in April 1873. Financial panic arrived in the Americas only months later on Black Thursday, September 18,1873 after the failure of the house of Jay Cooke. The New York Stock Exchange closed for ten days on September 20, the financial contagion then returned to Europe, provoking a second panic in Vienna and further failures in continental Europe before receding. France, which had been experiencing deflation in the preceding the crash, was spared financial calamity for the moment. The primary cause of the depression in the United States was the tight monetary policy that the US followed to get back to the gold standard after the US Civil War. The US government was taking out of circulation to achieve this goal