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Artikelen in de categorie "Robotica"
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Deze categorie bevat de volgende 2 ondercategorieën, van een totaal van 2.
Deze categorie bevat de volgende 31 pagina’s, van in totaal 31.
1. BEAM robot – BEAM robotics is a style of robotics that primarily uses simple analogue circuits, such as comparators, instead of a microprocessor in order to produce an unusually simple design. While not as flexible as microprocessor based robotics, BEAM robotics can be robust, BEAM robots may use a set of the analog circuits, mimicking biological neurons, to facilitate the robots response to its working environment. The basic BEAM principles focus on a stimulus-response based ability within a machine, the underlying mechanism was invented by Mark W. Tilden where the circuit is used to simulate biological neuron behaviours. Some similar research was previously done by Ed Rietman in Experiments In Artificial Neural Networks, Tildens circuit is often compared to a shift register, but with several important features making it a useful circuit in a mobile robot. Besides the simple computational layer of Tildens Nervous Networks, BEAM has brought a multitude of tools to the roboticists toolbox. The Solar Engine circuit, many H-bridge circuits for small motor control, tactile sensor designs, being focused on reaction-based behaviors, BEAM robotics attempts to copy the characteristics and behaviours of biological organisms, with the ultimate goal of domesticating these wild robots. The aesthetics of BEAM robots derive from the form follows function modulated by the particular design choices the builder makes while implementing the desired functionality. Various people have varying ideas about what BEAM actually stands for, the most widely accepted meaning is Biology, Electronics, Aesthetics, and Mechanics. This term originated with Mark Tilden during a discussion at the Ontario Science Centre in 1990, Mark was displaying a selection of his original bots which he had built while working at the University of Waterloo. This design philosophy is closely echoed in the classic book Vehicles, through a series of thought experiments, this book explores the development of complex robot behaviours through simple inhibitory and excitory sensor links to the actuators. Microcontrollers and computer programming are not a part of a traditional BEAM robot due to the very low-level hardware-centric design philosophy. There are successful robot designs mating the two technologies and these hybrids fulfill a need for robust control systems with the added flexibility of dynamic programming, like the horse-and-rider topology BEAMbots. Horse behavior is implemented with traditional BEAM technology but a microcontroller based rider can guide that behavior so as to accomplish the goals of the rider, there are various -trope BEAMbots, which attempt to achieve a specific goal. Of the series, the phototropes are the most prevalent, as light-seeking would be the most beneficial behaviour for a solar-powered robot, audiophobes go away from sound sources. Photophobes go away from light sources, radiotropes react to radio frequency sources. Radiophobes go away from RF sources, thermophobes go away from heat sources. BEAMbots have a variety of movements and positioning mechanisms and these include, Sitters, Unmoving robots that have a physically passive purpose. Beacons, Transmit a signal for other BEAMbots to use, ornaments, A catch-all name for sitters that are not beacons or pummersBEAM robot – Main articles
2. Motion planning – For example, consider navigating a mobile robot inside a building to a distant waypoint. It should execute this task while avoiding walls and not falling down stairs, a motion planning algorithm would take a description of these tasks as input, and produce the speed and turning commands sent to the robots wheels. Motion planning algorithms might address robots with a number of joints, more complex tasks, different constraints. A basic motion planning problem is to produce a motion that connects a start configuration S. The robot and obstacle geometry is described in a 2D or 3D workspace, a configuration describes the pose of the robot, and the configuration space C is the set of all possible configurations. For example, If the robot is a single point translating in a 2-dimensional plane, C is a plane, If the robot is a 2D shape that can translate and rotate, the workspace is still 2-dimensional. However, C is the special Euclidean group SE = R2 × SO, If the robot is a fixed-base manipulator with N revolute joints, C is N-dimensional. The set of configurations that avoids collision with obstacles is called the free space Cfree, the complement of Cfree in C is called the obstacle or forbidden region. Often, it is difficult to explicitly compute the shape of Cfree. However, testing whether a given configuration is in Cfree is efficient, First, forward kinematics determine the position of the robots geometry, and collision detection tests if the robots geometry collides with the environments geometry. Target space is a subspace of free space which we want robot to go there. In global motion planning, target space is observable by the robots sensors, however, in local motion planning, the robot cannot observe the target space in some states. To solve this problem, the robot goes through several virtual target spaces, a virtual target space is called a sub-goal. Low-dimensional problems can be solved with grid-based algorithms that overlay a grid on top of configuration space, or geometric algorithms that compute the shape, exact motion planning for high-dimensional systems under complex constraints is computationally intractable. Potential-field algorithms are efficient, but fall prey to local minima, sampling-based algorithms avoid the problem of local minima, and solve many problems quite quickly. They are unable to determine that no path exists, but they have a probability of failure that decreases to zero as time is spent. Sampling-based algorithms are currently considered state-of-the-art for motion planning in high-dimensional spaces, grid-based approaches overlay a grid on configuration space, and assume each configuration is identified with a grid point. At each grid point, the robot is allowed to move to adjacent grid points as long as the line between them is completely contained within Cfree and this discretizes the set of actions, and search algorithms are used to find a path from the start to the goalMotion planning – Motion from the initial configuration (blue) to the final configuration of the hook, avoiding the two obstacles (red segments). The left-bottom corner of the hook has to stay on the horizontal line, which makes the hook two degrees of freedom.
3. Configuration space – It is often the case that these parameters satisfy mathematical constraints, such that the set of actual configurations of the system is a manifold in the space of generalized coordinates. This manifold is called the configuration manifold of the system, the position of a single particle moving in ordinary Euclidean 3-space is defined by the vector r=, and therefore its configuration space is R3. If the particle is constrained to lie on a sphere, then its configuration space is the subset of coordinates in R3 that define points on the sphere S2, for n particles the configuration space is R3n, or possibly the subspace where no two positions are equal. An important problem in physics considers the set of all trajectories of a particle between two points, which is a space that is also known as a function space M. In quantum mechanics one formulation uses histories, or trajectories, as configurations, a configuration of the rigid body is defined by six parameters, three from R3 and three from S O, and is said to have six degrees of freedom. In Robotics, configuration space refers to the set of positions by a robots end-effector. Thus positions of the end-effector of a robot can be identified with the group of rigid transformations. The joint parameters of the robot are used as generalized coordinates to define configurations, the set of joint parameter values is called the joint space. A robots forward and inverse kinematics equations define maps between configurations and end-effector positions, or between joint space and configuration space, Robot motion planning uses this mapping to find a path in joint space that provides an achievable route in the configuration space of the end-effector. In Mechanics, the configuration of a system consists of the positions had by all components subject to kinematical constraints, the set of velocities available to a system defines a plane tangent to the configuration manifold of the system. Momentum vectors are linear functionals of the tangent plane, known as cotangent vectors, thus, the set of positions and momenta of a mechanical system forms the cotangent bundle of the configuration manifold. This larger manifold is called the space of the system. The joint space and configuration space can be viewed as a bijection on the space of a mechanical system. In mathematics a configuration space refers to a family of constructions closely related to the state space notion in physics. The most common notion of space in mathematics C n X is the set of n-element subsets of a topological space X. A configuration space is a type of classifying space or moduli space, the homotopy type of configuration spaces is not homotopy invariant – for example, the spaces F n R m are not homotopy equivalent for any two distinct values of m. For instance, F n R is not connected, F n R2 is a K and their example are two three-dimensional lens spaces, and the configuration spaces of at least two points in them. That these configuration spaces are not homotopy equivalent was detected by Massey products in their respective universal covers, feature space Parameter space Phase space State space Intuitive Explanation of Classical Configuration SpacesConfiguration space – The configuration space of all unordered pairs of distinct points on the circle is the Möbius strip.
4. Cybernetic – Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities. Norbert Wiener defined cybernetics in 1948 as the study of control and communication in the animal. In the 21st century, the term is used in a rather loose way to imply control of any system using technology. Cybernetics is relevant to, for example, mechanical, physical, biological, cognitive and its focus is how anything processes information, reacts to information, and changes or can be changed to better accomplish the first two tasks. Cybernetics includes the study of feedback, black boxes and derived concepts such as communication and control in living organisms, machines and organizations including self-organization. Concepts studied by cyberneticists include, but are not limited to, learning, cognition, adaptation, social control, emergence, convergence, communication, efficiency, efficacy, in cybernetics these concepts are abstracted from the context of the specific organism or device. During the second half of the 20th century cybernetics evolved in ways that distinguish first-order cybernetics from second-order cybernetics, more recently there is talk about a third-order cybernetics. System dynamics, originated with applications of electrical engineering control theory to other kinds of models by Jay Forrester at MIT in the 1950s, is a related field. Cybernetics has been defined in a variety of ways, by a variety of people, as with the ancient Greek pilot, independence of thought is important in cybernetics. French physicist and mathematician André-Marie Ampère first coined the word cybernetique in his 1834 essay Essai sur la philosophie des sciences to describe the science of civil government. The term was borrowed by Norbert Wiener, in his book Cybernetics, to define the study of control and communication in the animal, the word cybernetics was first used in the context of the study of self-governance by Plato in The Alcibiades to signify the governance of people. The word cybernétique was also used in 1834 by the physicist André-Marie Ampère to denote the sciences of government in his system of human knowledge. This was the first artificial truly automatic self-regulatory device that no outside intervention between the feedback and the controls of the mechanism. Although they considered part of engineering, Ktesibios and others such as Heron. Alfred Russel Wallace identified this as the principle of evolution in his famous 1858 paper, in 1868 James Clerk Maxwell published a theoretical article on governors, one of the first to discuss and refine the principles of self-regulating devices. Jakob von Uexküll applied the feedback mechanism via his model of functional cycle in order to explain animal behaviour, electronic control systems originated with the 1927 work of Bell Telephone Laboratories engineer Harold S. Black on using negative feedback to control amplifiers. Early applications of negative feedback in electronic circuits included the control of gun mounts, W. Numerous papers spearheaded the coalescing of the field. In 1935 Russian physiologist P. K. Anokhin published a book in which the concept of feedback was studied, in 1936, Ștefan Odobleja publishes Phonoscopy and the clinical semioticsCybernetic – James Watt
5. Fifth Law of Robotics – The Three Laws of Robotics are a set of rules devised by the science fiction author Isaac Asimov. The rules were introduced in his 1942 short story Runaround, although they had been foreshadowed in a few earlier stories. The Three Laws, quoted as being from the Handbook of Robotics, 56th Edition,2058 A. D. are, A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law, a robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Laws. These form an organizing principle and unifying theme for Asimovs robotic-based fiction, appearing in his Robot series, the stories linked to it, and his Lucky Starr series of young-adult fiction. The Laws are incorporated into almost all of the positronic robots appearing in his fiction, other authors working in Asimovs fictional universe have adopted them and references, often parodic, appear throughout science fiction as well as in other genres. The original laws have been altered and elaborated on by Asimov, Asimov himself made slight modifications to the first three in various books and short stories to further develop how robots would interact with humans and each other. In later fiction where robots had taken responsibility for government of whole planets and human civilizations, Asimov also added a fourth, or zeroth law, a robot may not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm. The Three Laws, and the zeroth, have pervaded science fiction and are referred to in books, films. In The Rest of the Robots, published in 1964, Asimov noted that when he began writing in 1940 he felt one of the stock plots of science fiction was. Robots were created and destroyed their creator, knowledge has its dangers, yes, but is the response to be a retreat from knowledge. Or is knowledge to be used as itself a barrier to the dangers it brings and he decided that in his stories robots would not turn stupidly on his creator for no purpose but to demonstrate, for one more weary time, the crime and punishment of Faust. Three days later Asimov began writing my own story of a sympathetic and noble robot, thirteen days later he took Robbie to John W. Campbell the editor of Astounding Science-Fiction. Frederik Pohl published Robbie in Astonishing Stories magazine the following year, Asimov attributes the Three Laws to John W. Campbell, from a conversation that took place on 23 December 1940. Campbell claimed that Asimov had the Three Laws already in his mind, several years later Asimovs friend Randall Garrett attributed the Laws to a symbiotic partnership between the two men – a suggestion that Asimov adopted enthusiastically. Although Asimov pins the creation of the Three Laws on one particular date and he wrote two robot stories with no explicit mention of the Laws, Robbie and Reason. He assumed, however, that robots would have certain inherent safeguards and his third robot story, makes the first mention of the First Law but not the other two. All three laws finally appeared together in Runaround, in particular the idea of a robot protecting human lives when it does not believe those humans truly exist is at odds with Elijah Baleys reasoning, as described belowFifth Law of Robotics – This cover of I, Robot illustrates the story "Runaround", the first to list all Three Laws of Robotics.
6. FIRST – Founded by Dean Kamen and Woodie Flowers in 1989, its expressed goal is to develop ways to inspire students in engineering and technology fields. Its philosophy is expressed by the organization as coopertition and gracious professionalism, FIRST also operates FIRST Place, a research facility at FIRST headquarters in Manchester, New Hampshire, where it holds educational programs and day camps for students and teachers. FIRST operates as a public charity corporation. It licenses qualified teams, usually affiliated with schools or other youth organizations, the teams in turn pay a fee to FIRST, these fees, the majority of which are redistributed to pay for teams kit of parts and other services, consist of the majority of FIRSTs revenue. The supreme body of FIRST is its board of directors, which includes corporate executives, FIRST also has an executive advisory board and several senior advisors, these advisors include engineers, involved volunteers, and other senior organizers. Day-to-day operations are run by a management team, consisting of a president. The inaugural FIRST Robotics Competition was held in 1992 in the Manchester Memorial High School gymnasium, the competition challenge changes each year, and the teams can only reuse certain components from previous years. The robots weigh at most 120 pounds, without batteries and bumpers, the kit issued to each team contains a base set of parts. Registration and the kit of parts together cost about US$6,000, in addition to that, teams are allowed to spend another $3,500 on their robot. The purpose of this rule is to lessen the influence of money on teams competitiveness, details of the game have been released on the first Saturday in January, and the teams have been given six weeks to construct a robot that can accomplish the games tasks. In 2011, teams participated in 48 regional and district competitions throughout March in an effort to qualify for the FIRST Championship in St. Louis in April, previous years Championships have been held in Atlanta, Georgia, Houston, Texas and at Walt Disney Worlds Epcot. On October 7,2009, FIRST announced that the Championship Event will be held in St. Louis, each year the FIRST Robotics Competition has scholarships for the participants in the program. In 2011, there were over $14 million worth of scholarships from more than 128 colleges and universities, associations, and corporations. The district competition system was introduced in Michigan and as of 2017 has expanded to Pacific Northwest, MAR, New England, Georgia, North Carolina, Ontario, and Israel. In general, there have been pushes to move more regions to the system, California, Texas. The FIRST Tech Challenge, formerly FIRST Vex Challenge, is a robotics competition announced by FIRST on March 22,2005. According to FIRST, this competition was designed to be an accessible and affordable option for schools. FIRST has also said that the FTC program was created for those of a skill levelFIRST – "Barrage", Team 254's 2014 World Champion FRC robot
7. Non-Earth Humans – A humanoid is something that has an appearance resembling a human being. The earliest recorded use of the term, in 1870, referred to indigenous peoples in areas colonized by Europeans, by the 20th century, the term came to describe fossils which were morphologically similar, but not identical, to those of the human skeleton. Although this usage was common in the sciences for much of the 20th century, American psychologist and Dinosaur intelligence theorist Harry Jerison suggested the possibility of sapient dinosaurs. In a 1978 presentation at the American Psychological Association, he speculated that dromiceiomimus could have evolved into an intelligent species like human beings. In his book, Wonderful Life, Stephen Jay Gould argues that if the tape of life were re-wound and played back, over geologic time, Russell noted that there had been a steady increase in the encephalization quotient or EQ among the dinosaurs. Russell had discovered the first Troodontid skull, and noted that, while its EQ was low compared to humans, if the trend in Troodon evolution had continued to the present, its brain case could by now measure 1,100 cm3, comparable to that of a human. Troodontids had semi-manipulative fingers, able to grasp and hold objects to a certain degree, Russell proposed that this Dinosauroid, like most dinosaurs of the troodontid family, would have had large eyes and three fingers on each hand, one of which would have been partially opposed. As with most modern reptiles, he conceived of its genitalia as internal, Russell speculated that it would have required a navel, as a placenta aids the development of a large brain case. However, it would not have possessed mammary glands, and would have fed its young, as birds do and he speculated that its language would have sounded somewhat like bird song. Russells thought experiment has been met with criticism from other paleontologists since the 1980s, gregory S. Paul and Thomas R. Holtz, Jr. A humanoid robot does not necessarily look convincingly like a real person, an android or gynoid is a humanoid robot designed to look as much like a real person as possible, although these words are frequently perceived to be synonymous with humanoid. While there are many humanoid robots in fictional stories, some humanoid robots have been developed since the 1990s. Similarly to robots, virtual avatars may also be called humanoid when resembling humans, deities are often imagined in human shape, sometimes as hybrids. In animism in general, the spirits innate in certain objects are typically depicted in human shape, e. g. spirits of trees, of the woodlands, of wells or waterways, many aliens in television and science fiction films are presented as humanoid. This is usually attributed to budget constraints, as human actors can more easily portray human-like aliens, in much of science fiction, the reason for the abundance of humanoid aliens is not explained and usually requires suspension of disbelief. In some cases, however, explanations have been offered for this, in the field of ufology, humanoid refers to any of the claimed extraterrestrials which abduct human victims, such as the Greys, the Reptilians, Nordics, and Martians. In fantasy settings the term humanoid is used to refer to a fantastical creature, such as a dwarf, elf, gnome, halfling, goblin, troll, orc or an ogre. Animals that are humanoid are also shown in fantasy, humanoids are also used in some old horror movies, for example in Creature From the Black Lagoon, made in 1954 by Jack ArnoldNon-Earth Humans – Honda 's ASIMO is an example of a humanoid robot.
8. Inverse kinematic animation – This is useful in robotics and in film animation. In robotics, inverse kinematics makes use of the equations to determine the joint parameters that provide a desired position for each of the robots end-effectors. Specification of the movement of a robot so that its end-effectors achieve the tasks is known as motion planning. Inverse kinematics transforms the motion plan into joint actuator trajectories for the robot, the movement of a kinematic chain, whether it is a robot or an animated character is modeled by the kinematics equations of the chain. These equations define the configuration of the chain in terms of its joint parameters, kinematic analysis is one of the first steps in the design of most industrial robots. Kinematic analysis allows the designer to obtain information on the position of each component within the mechanical system and this information is necessary for subsequent dynamic analysis along with control paths. Inverse kinematics is an example of the analysis of a constrained system of rigid bodies. The kinematic equations of a robot can be used to define the loop equations of an articulated system. These loop equations are non-linear constraints on the parameters of the system. The independent parameters in these equations are known as the degrees of freedom of the system, other applications of inverse kinematic algorithms include interactive manipulation, animation control and collision avoidance. Inverse kinematics is important to game programming and 3D animation, where it is used to connect game characters physically to the world, an animated figure is modeled with a skeleton of rigid segments connected with joints, called a kinematic chain. The kinematics equations of the figure define the relationship between the joint angles of the figure and its pose or configuration, the forward kinematic animation problem uses the kinematics equations to determine the pose given the joint angles. The inverse kinematics problem computes the joint angles for a pose of the figure. Therefore, inverse kinematics is used in computer-aided design systems to animate assemblies and by computer-based artists and animators to position figures, the assembly is modeled as rigid links connected by joints that are defined as mates, or geometric constraints. Movement of one element requires the computation of the joint angles for the elements to maintain the joint constraints. Successful implementation of computer animation usually also requires that the move within reasonable anthropomorphic limits. An analytic solution to an inverse problem is a closed-form expression that takes the end-effector pose as input and gives joint positions as output. Analytical inverse kinematics solvers can be faster than numerical solversInverse kinematic animation – An industrial robot performing arc welding. Inverse kinematics computes the joint trajectories needed for the robot to guide the welding tip along the part.
9. Braava – IRobot Corporation is an American advanced technology company founded in 1990 by three MIT graduates who designed robots for space exploration and military defense. IRobot is a corporation, based in Bedford, Massachusetts. IRobot was founded in 1990 by Rodney Brooks, Colin Angle, in 1998 the company received a DARPA research contract which led to the development of the PackBot. In September 2002, iRobot unveiled its home robots flagship, the Roomba, iRobot began being traded on the NASDAQ in November 2005, under ticker symbol IRBT. IRobot has been criticized for attempting unregulated use of 6240-6740 MHz band and this band is for use for the lawn mowing robot without needing to use an electronic fence as a boundary marker, instead by using radio beacons. The band falls into a reserved for radio astronomy use. In February 2016, iRobot announced that it would sell its military robotics business to Arlington Capital Partners, in April 2016, iRobot sold off its Defense & Security unit, with a new company being formed called Endeavor Robotics. It was designed as a test platform for researchers, the robot is currently at the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum Ariel is a crab-like robot designed to remove mines, both in and out of water. Urbie was a proof of concept robot designed for urban environments, the platform was designed with two tank-like tracks so it could climb stairs. Urbie was field tested at Fort Benning, Georgia, United States, High school students at Columbus High School in Columbus, GA, reconditioned the robot and created a usage manual for future students to continue to benefit from Urbies list of talents. Urbie is built around a light, machined aluminum chassis, the exterior consists of flat aluminum plates, bent at the front and back, which are attached to the chassis with small hex screws. 2 dc motors power the forward rotating arms, while 2 slightly larger dc motors power the body length treads, from the outside, Urbie is an exact replica of the PackBot Scout. The front compartment holds 2 banks of LEDs, one white light, the center-front compartment holds a video camera and an infrared camera. Both cameras images are transmitted back to a handheld LCD screen, the image that is transmitted back is controlled by a mechanical switch, thrown remotely inside the chassis by a remote controlled actuator. The motors are controlled the way that a remote control airplane or car is. The ability to reverse the direction on both sides gives the robot a 0 degree turn radius. In 2006, the body was refinished, the antennas were repaired. The robot is simply constructed, with electronic controls, and is the same physical design as the current PackBotsBraava – Evolution Robotics Mint Cleaner using wet cloths from Swiffer
10. List of books by Isaac Asimov – Isaac Asimov was an American writer and professor of biochemistry at Boston University. He was known for his works of fiction and popular science. Asimov was a writer, and wrote or edited more than 500 books. His books have published in 9 of the 10 major categories of the Dewey Decimal Classification. Asimov wrote hard science fiction and, along with Robert A. Heinlein, Clarke, he was considered one of the Big Three science fiction writers during his lifetime. Asimovs most famous work is the Foundation Series, his major series are the Galactic Empire series. The Galactic Empire novels are set in earlier history of the same fictional universe as the Foundation series. He wrote hundreds of stories, including the social science fiction Nightfall. Asimov wrote the Lucky Starr series of juvenile science-fiction novels using the pen name Paul French, Asimov also wrote mysteries and fantasy, as well as much nonfiction. Most of his science books explain scientific concepts in a historical way. He often provides nationalities, birth dates, and death dates for the scientists he mentions, as well as etymologies, Asimov was a long-time member and vice president of Mensa International, albeit reluctantly, he described some members of that organization as brain-proud and aggressive about their IQs. He took more joy in being president of the American Humanist Association, the asteroid 5020 Asimov, a crater on the planet Mars, a Brooklyn elementary school, and a literary award are named in his honor. His exact date of birth within that range is unknown, the family name derives from a word for winter crops, in which his great-grandfather dealt. This word is spelled озимые in Russian, and азімыя in Belarusian, phonetically, both words are almost identical because in Russian О in the first unstressed syllable is always pronounced as А. Accordingly, his name originally was Исаак Озимов in Russian, however, he was known in Russia as Ayzek Azimov. Asimov had two siblings, a sister, Marcia, and a brother, Stanley, who was vice-president of New York Newsday. His family emigrated to the United States when he was three years old, since his parents always spoke Yiddish and English with him, he never learned Russian, but he remained fluent in Yiddish as well as English. Growing up in Brooklyn, New York, Asimov taught himself to read at the age of five, after becoming established in the U. S. his parents owned a succession of candy stores, in which everyone in the family was expected to workList of books by Isaac Asimov – Isaac Asimov in 1965