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Artikelen in de categorie "Robotica"
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Deze categorie bevat de volgende 2 ondercategorieën, van een totaal van 2.
Deze categorie bevat de volgende 31 pagina’s, van in totaal 31.
1. Robotica – Robotics is the interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, computer science, and others. Robotics deals with the design, construction, operation, and use of robots, as well as systems for their control, sensory feedback. These technologies are used to develop machines that can substitute for humans, Robots can be used in any situation and for any purpose, but today many are used in dangerous environments, manufacturing processes, or where humans cannot survive. Robots can take on any form but some are made to resemble humans in appearance and this is said to help in the acceptance of a robot in certain replicative behaviors usually performed by people. Such robots attempt to replicate walking, lifting, speech, cognition, many of todays robots are inspired by nature, contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics. Throughout history, it has been assumed that robots will one day be able to mimic human behavior. Many robots are built to do jobs that are hazardous to people such as defusing bombs, finding survivors in unstable ruins, Robotics is also used in STEM as a teaching aid. The word robotics was derived from the robot, which was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel Čapek in his play R. U. R. which was published in 1920. The word robot comes from the Slavic word robota, which means labour, the play begins in a factory that makes artificial people called robots, creatures who can be mistaken for humans – very similar to the modern ideas of androids. Karel Čapek himself did not coin the word and he wrote a short letter in reference to an etymology in the Oxford English Dictionary in which he named his brother Josef Čapek as its actual originator. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word robotics was first used in print by Isaac Asimov, published in May 1941 in Astounding Science Fiction. Asimov was unaware that he was coining the term, since the science and technology of electrical devices is electronics, he assumed robotics already referred to the science and technology of robots. In some of Asimovs other works, he states that the first use of the word robotics was in his short story Runaround, however, the original publication of Liar. Predates that of Runaround by ten months, so the former is generally cited as the words origin, in 1942, the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov created his Three Laws of Robotics. In 1948, Norbert Wiener formulated the principles of cybernetics, the basis of practical robotics, fully autonomous only appeared in the second half of the 20th century. The first digitally operated and programmable robot, the Unimate, was installed in 1961 to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine, commercial and industrial robots are widespread today and used to perform jobs more cheaply, more accurately and more reliably, than humans. They are also employed in jobs which are too dirty, dangerous. For example, a designed to travel across heavy dirt or mud
2. Robot – A robot is a machine—especially one programmable by a computer—capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically. Robots can be guided by a control device or the control may be embedded within. Robots may be constructed to take on human form but most robots are designed to perform a task with no regard to how they look. By mimicking a lifelike appearance or automating movements, a robot may convey a sense of intelligence or thought of its own. These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans in dangerous environments or manufacturing processes, or resemble humans in appearance, many of todays robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics. These robots have also created a branch of robotics, soft robotics. From the time of ancient civilization there have many accounts of user-configurable automated devices and even automata resembling animals and humans. As mechanical techniques developed through the Industrial age, there appeared more practical applications such as automated machines, remote-control and wireless remote-control. The word robot was first used to denote a fictional humanoid in a 1920 play R. U. R. by the Czech writer, Karel Čapek but it was Karels brother Josef Čapek who was the words true inventor. Electronics evolved into the force of development with the advent of the first electronic autonomous robots created by William Grey Walter in Bristol. The first digital and programmable robot was invented by George Devol in 1954 and was named the Unimate, there are concerns about the increasing use of robots and their role in society. Robots are blamed for rising unemployment as they replace workers in increasing numbers of functions, the use of robots in military combat raises ethical concerns. The possibilities of robot autonomy and potential repercussions have been addressed in fiction, the word robot can refer to both physical robots and virtual software agents, but the latter are usually referred to as bots. Closely related to the concept of a robot is the field of Synthetic Biology, the idea of automata originates in the mythologies of many cultures around the world. Engineers and inventors from ancient civilizations, including Ancient China, Ancient Greece, since circa 400 BC, myths of Crete include Talos, a man of bronze who guarded the Cretan island of Europa from pirates. In ancient Greece, the Greek engineer Ctesibius applied a knowledge of pneumatics and hydraulics to produce the first organ, in the 4th century BC, the Greek mathematician Archytas of Tarentum postulated a mechanical steam-operated bird he called The Pigeon. Hero of Alexandria, a Greek mathematician and inventor, created numerous user-configurable automated devices, the 11th century Lokapannatti tells of how the Buddhas relics were protected by mechanical robots, from the kingdom of Roma visaya, until they were disarmed by King Ashoka. Yan Shi proudly presented the king with a life-size, human-shaped figure of his mechanical handiwork made of leather, wood, in 1066, the Chinese inventor Su Song built a water clock in the form of a tower which featured mechanical figurines which chimed the hours
3. Wikimedia Commons – Wikimedia Commons is an online repository of free-use images, sound, and other media files. It is a project of the Wikimedia Foundation, the repository contains over 38 million media files. In July 2013, the number of edits on Commons reached 100,000,000, the project was proposed by Erik Möller in March 2004 and launched on September 7,2004. The expression educational is to be according to its broad meaning of providing knowledge. Wikimedia Commons itself does not allow fair use or uploads under non-free licenses, for this reason, Wikimedia Commons always hosts freely licensed media and deletes copyright violations. The default language for Commons is English, but registered users can customize their interface to use any other user interface translations. Many content pages, in particular policy pages and portals, have also translated into various languages. Files on Wikimedia Commons are categorized using MediaWikis category system, in addition, they are often collected on individual topical gallery pages. While the project was proposed to also contain free text files. In 2012, BuzzFeed described Wikimedia Commons as littered with dicks, in 2010, Wikipedia co-founder Larry Sanger reported Wikimedia Commons to the FBI for hosting sexualized images of children known as lolicon. Wales responded to the backlash from the Commons community by voluntarily relinquishing some site privileges, over time, additional functionality has been developed to interface Wikimedia Commons with the other Wikimedia projects. Specialized uploading tools and scripts such as Commonist have been created to simplify the process of uploading large numbers of files. In order to free content photos uploaded to Flickr, users can participate in a defunct collaborative external review process. The site has three mechanisms for recognizing quality works, one is known as Featured pictures, where works are nominated and other community members vote to accept or reject the nomination. This process began in November 2004, another process known as Quality images began in June 2006, and has a simpler nomination process comparable to Featured pictures. Quality images only accepts works created by Wikimedia users, whereas Featured pictures additionally accepts nominations of works by third parties such as NASA, the three mentioned processes select a slight part from the total number of files. However, Commons collects files of all quality levels, from the most professional level across simple documental, files with specific defects can be tagged for improvement and warning or even proposed for deletion but there exists no process of systematic rating of all files. The site held its inaugural Picture of the Year competition, for 2006, all images that were made a Featured picture during 2006 were eligible, and voted on by eligible Wikimedia users during two rounds of voting
4. Isaac Asimov – Isaac Asimov was an American writer and professor of biochemistry at Boston University. He was known for his works of fiction and popular science. Asimov was a writer, and wrote or edited more than 500 books. His books have published in 9 of the 10 major categories of the Dewey Decimal Classification. Asimov wrote hard science fiction and, along with Robert A. Heinlein, Clarke, he was considered one of the Big Three science fiction writers during his lifetime. Asimovs most famous work is the Foundation Series, his major series are the Galactic Empire series. The Galactic Empire novels are set in earlier history of the same fictional universe as the Foundation series. He wrote hundreds of stories, including the social science fiction Nightfall. Asimov wrote the Lucky Starr series of juvenile science-fiction novels using the pen name Paul French, Asimov also wrote mysteries and fantasy, as well as much nonfiction. Most of his science books explain scientific concepts in a historical way. He often provides nationalities, birth dates, and death dates for the scientists he mentions, as well as etymologies, Asimov was a long-time member and vice president of Mensa International, albeit reluctantly, he described some members of that organization as brain-proud and aggressive about their IQs. He took more joy in being president of the American Humanist Association, the asteroid 5020 Asimov, a crater on the planet Mars, a Brooklyn elementary school, and a literary award are named in his honor. His exact date of birth within that range is unknown, the family name derives from a word for winter crops, in which his great-grandfather dealt. This word is spelled озимые in Russian, and азімыя in Belarusian, phonetically, both words are almost identical because in Russian О in the first unstressed syllable is always pronounced as А. Accordingly, his name originally was Исаак Озимов in Russian, however, he was known in Russia as Ayzek Azimov. Asimov had two siblings, a sister, Marcia, and a brother, Stanley, who was vice-president of New York Newsday. His family emigrated to the United States when he was three years old, since his parents always spoke Yiddish and English with him, he never learned Russian, but he remained fluent in Yiddish as well as English. Growing up in Brooklyn, New York, Asimov taught himself to read at the age of five, after becoming established in the U. S. his parents owned a succession of candy stores, in which everyone in the family was expected to work
5. Bewegingsplanning – For example, consider navigating a mobile robot inside a building to a distant waypoint. It should execute this task while avoiding walls and not falling down stairs, a motion planning algorithm would take a description of these tasks as input, and produce the speed and turning commands sent to the robots wheels. Motion planning algorithms might address robots with a number of joints, more complex tasks, different constraints. A basic motion planning problem is to produce a motion that connects a start configuration S. The robot and obstacle geometry is described in a 2D or 3D workspace, a configuration describes the pose of the robot, and the configuration space C is the set of all possible configurations. For example, If the robot is a single point translating in a 2-dimensional plane, C is a plane, If the robot is a 2D shape that can translate and rotate, the workspace is still 2-dimensional. However, C is the special Euclidean group SE = R2 × SO, If the robot is a fixed-base manipulator with N revolute joints, C is N-dimensional. The set of configurations that avoids collision with obstacles is called the free space Cfree, the complement of Cfree in C is called the obstacle or forbidden region. Often, it is difficult to explicitly compute the shape of Cfree. However, testing whether a given configuration is in Cfree is efficient, First, forward kinematics determine the position of the robots geometry, and collision detection tests if the robots geometry collides with the environments geometry. Target space is a subspace of free space which we want robot to go there. In global motion planning, target space is observable by the robots sensors, however, in local motion planning, the robot cannot observe the target space in some states. To solve this problem, the robot goes through several virtual target spaces, a virtual target space is called a sub-goal. Low-dimensional problems can be solved with grid-based algorithms that overlay a grid on top of configuration space, or geometric algorithms that compute the shape, exact motion planning for high-dimensional systems under complex constraints is computationally intractable. Potential-field algorithms are efficient, but fall prey to local minima, sampling-based algorithms avoid the problem of local minima, and solve many problems quite quickly. They are unable to determine that no path exists, but they have a probability of failure that decreases to zero as time is spent. Sampling-based algorithms are currently considered state-of-the-art for motion planning in high-dimensional spaces, grid-based approaches overlay a grid on configuration space, and assume each configuration is identified with a grid point. At each grid point, the robot is allowed to move to adjacent grid points as long as the line between them is completely contained within Cfree and this discretizes the set of actions, and search algorithms are used to find a path from the start to the goal
6. Cybernetica – Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities. Norbert Wiener defined cybernetics in 1948 as the study of control and communication in the animal. In the 21st century, the term is used in a rather loose way to imply control of any system using technology. Cybernetics is relevant to, for example, mechanical, physical, biological, cognitive and its focus is how anything processes information, reacts to information, and changes or can be changed to better accomplish the first two tasks. Cybernetics includes the study of feedback, black boxes and derived concepts such as communication and control in living organisms, machines and organizations including self-organization. Concepts studied by cyberneticists include, but are not limited to, learning, cognition, adaptation, social control, emergence, convergence, communication, efficiency, efficacy, in cybernetics these concepts are abstracted from the context of the specific organism or device. During the second half of the 20th century cybernetics evolved in ways that distinguish first-order cybernetics from second-order cybernetics, more recently there is talk about a third-order cybernetics. System dynamics, originated with applications of electrical engineering control theory to other kinds of models by Jay Forrester at MIT in the 1950s, is a related field. Cybernetics has been defined in a variety of ways, by a variety of people, as with the ancient Greek pilot, independence of thought is important in cybernetics. French physicist and mathematician André-Marie Ampère first coined the word cybernetique in his 1834 essay Essai sur la philosophie des sciences to describe the science of civil government. The term was borrowed by Norbert Wiener, in his book Cybernetics, to define the study of control and communication in the animal, the word cybernetics was first used in the context of the study of self-governance by Plato in The Alcibiades to signify the governance of people. The word cybernétique was also used in 1834 by the physicist André-Marie Ampère to denote the sciences of government in his system of human knowledge. This was the first artificial truly automatic self-regulatory device that no outside intervention between the feedback and the controls of the mechanism. Although they considered part of engineering, Ktesibios and others such as Heron. Alfred Russel Wallace identified this as the principle of evolution in his famous 1858 paper, in 1868 James Clerk Maxwell published a theoretical article on governors, one of the first to discuss and refine the principles of self-regulating devices. Jakob von Uexküll applied the feedback mechanism via his model of functional cycle in order to explain animal behaviour, electronic control systems originated with the 1927 work of Bell Telephone Laboratories engineer Harold S. Black on using negative feedback to control amplifiers. Early applications of negative feedback in electronic circuits included the control of gun mounts, W. Numerous papers spearheaded the coalescing of the field. In 1935 Russian physiologist P. K. Anokhin published a book in which the concept of feedback was studied, in 1936, Ștefan Odobleja publishes Phonoscopy and the clinical semiotics
7. Drie wetten van de robotica – The Three Laws of Robotics are a set of rules devised by the science fiction author Isaac Asimov. The rules were introduced in his 1942 short story Runaround, although they had been foreshadowed in a few earlier stories. The Three Laws, quoted as being from the Handbook of Robotics, 56th Edition,2058 A. D. are, A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law, a robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Laws. These form an organizing principle and unifying theme for Asimovs robotic-based fiction, appearing in his Robot series, the stories linked to it, and his Lucky Starr series of young-adult fiction. The Laws are incorporated into almost all of the positronic robots appearing in his fiction, other authors working in Asimovs fictional universe have adopted them and references, often parodic, appear throughout science fiction as well as in other genres. The original laws have been altered and elaborated on by Asimov, Asimov himself made slight modifications to the first three in various books and short stories to further develop how robots would interact with humans and each other. In later fiction where robots had taken responsibility for government of whole planets and human civilizations, Asimov also added a fourth, or zeroth law, a robot may not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm. The Three Laws, and the zeroth, have pervaded science fiction and are referred to in books, films. In The Rest of the Robots, published in 1964, Asimov noted that when he began writing in 1940 he felt one of the stock plots of science fiction was. Robots were created and destroyed their creator, knowledge has its dangers, yes, but is the response to be a retreat from knowledge. Or is knowledge to be used as itself a barrier to the dangers it brings and he decided that in his stories robots would not turn stupidly on his creator for no purpose but to demonstrate, for one more weary time, the crime and punishment of Faust. Three days later Asimov began writing my own story of a sympathetic and noble robot, thirteen days later he took Robbie to John W. Campbell the editor of Astounding Science-Fiction. Frederik Pohl published Robbie in Astonishing Stories magazine the following year, Asimov attributes the Three Laws to John W. Campbell, from a conversation that took place on 23 December 1940. Campbell claimed that Asimov had the Three Laws already in his mind, several years later Asimovs friend Randall Garrett attributed the Laws to a symbiotic partnership between the two men – a suggestion that Asimov adopted enthusiastically. Although Asimov pins the creation of the Three Laws on one particular date and he wrote two robot stories with no explicit mention of the Laws, Robbie and Reason. He assumed, however, that robots would have certain inherent safeguards and his third robot story, makes the first mention of the First Law but not the other two. All three laws finally appeared together in Runaround, in particular the idea of a robot protecting human lives when it does not believe those humans truly exist is at odds with Elijah Baleys reasoning, as described below
8. Humanoïde – A humanoid is something that has an appearance resembling a human being. The earliest recorded use of the term, in 1870, referred to indigenous peoples in areas colonized by Europeans, by the 20th century, the term came to describe fossils which were morphologically similar, but not identical, to those of the human skeleton. Although this usage was common in the sciences for much of the 20th century, American psychologist and Dinosaur intelligence theorist Harry Jerison suggested the possibility of sapient dinosaurs. In a 1978 presentation at the American Psychological Association, he speculated that dromiceiomimus could have evolved into an intelligent species like human beings. In his book, Wonderful Life, Stephen Jay Gould argues that if the tape of life were re-wound and played back, over geologic time, Russell noted that there had been a steady increase in the encephalization quotient or EQ among the dinosaurs. Russell had discovered the first Troodontid skull, and noted that, while its EQ was low compared to humans, if the trend in Troodon evolution had continued to the present, its brain case could by now measure 1,100 cm3, comparable to that of a human. Troodontids had semi-manipulative fingers, able to grasp and hold objects to a certain degree, Russell proposed that this Dinosauroid, like most dinosaurs of the troodontid family, would have had large eyes and three fingers on each hand, one of which would have been partially opposed. As with most modern reptiles, he conceived of its genitalia as internal, Russell speculated that it would have required a navel, as a placenta aids the development of a large brain case. However, it would not have possessed mammary glands, and would have fed its young, as birds do and he speculated that its language would have sounded somewhat like bird song. Russells thought experiment has been met with criticism from other paleontologists since the 1980s, gregory S. Paul and Thomas R. Holtz, Jr. A humanoid robot does not necessarily look convincingly like a real person, an android or gynoid is a humanoid robot designed to look as much like a real person as possible, although these words are frequently perceived to be synonymous with humanoid. While there are many humanoid robots in fictional stories, some humanoid robots have been developed since the 1990s. Similarly to robots, virtual avatars may also be called humanoid when resembling humans, deities are often imagined in human shape, sometimes as hybrids. In animism in general, the spirits innate in certain objects are typically depicted in human shape, e. g. spirits of trees, of the woodlands, of wells or waterways, many aliens in television and science fiction films are presented as humanoid. This is usually attributed to budget constraints, as human actors can more easily portray human-like aliens, in much of science fiction, the reason for the abundance of humanoid aliens is not explained and usually requires suspension of disbelief. In some cases, however, explanations have been offered for this, in the field of ufology, humanoid refers to any of the claimed extraterrestrials which abduct human victims, such as the Greys, the Reptilians, Nordics, and Martians. In fantasy settings the term humanoid is used to refer to a fantastical creature, such as a dwarf, elf, gnome, halfling, goblin, troll, orc or an ogre. Animals that are humanoid are also shown in fantasy, humanoids are also used in some old horror movies, for example in Creature From the Black Lagoon, made in 1954 by Jack Arnold
9. Inverse kinematica – This is useful in robotics and in film animation. In robotics, inverse kinematics makes use of the equations to determine the joint parameters that provide a desired position for each of the robots end-effectors. Specification of the movement of a robot so that its end-effectors achieve the tasks is known as motion planning. Inverse kinematics transforms the motion plan into joint actuator trajectories for the robot, the movement of a kinematic chain, whether it is a robot or an animated character is modeled by the kinematics equations of the chain. These equations define the configuration of the chain in terms of its joint parameters, kinematic analysis is one of the first steps in the design of most industrial robots. Kinematic analysis allows the designer to obtain information on the position of each component within the mechanical system and this information is necessary for subsequent dynamic analysis along with control paths. Inverse kinematics is an example of the analysis of a constrained system of rigid bodies. The kinematic equations of a robot can be used to define the loop equations of an articulated system. These loop equations are non-linear constraints on the parameters of the system. The independent parameters in these equations are known as the degrees of freedom of the system, other applications of inverse kinematic algorithms include interactive manipulation, animation control and collision avoidance. Inverse kinematics is important to game programming and 3D animation, where it is used to connect game characters physically to the world, an animated figure is modeled with a skeleton of rigid segments connected with joints, called a kinematic chain. The kinematics equations of the figure define the relationship between the joint angles of the figure and its pose or configuration, the forward kinematic animation problem uses the kinematics equations to determine the pose given the joint angles. The inverse kinematics problem computes the joint angles for a pose of the figure. Therefore, inverse kinematics is used in computer-aided design systems to animate assemblies and by computer-based artists and animators to position figures, the assembly is modeled as rigid links connected by joints that are defined as mates, or geometric constraints. Movement of one element requires the computation of the joint angles for the elements to maintain the joint constraints. Successful implementation of computer animation usually also requires that the move within reasonable anthropomorphic limits. An analytic solution to an inverse problem is a closed-form expression that takes the end-effector pose as input and gives joint positions as output. Analytical inverse kinematics solvers can be faster than numerical solvers