Deze categorie bevat de volgende 2 ondercategorieën, van een totaal van 2.
Artikelen in de categorie "Virtuele realiteit"
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Deze categorie bevat de volgende 2 ondercategorieën, van een totaal van 2.
Deze categorie bevat de volgende 17 pagina’s, van in totaal 17.
1. Virtuele werkelijkheid – VR also simulates a users physical presence in this environment. A person using virtual reality equipment is able to look around the world, and with high quality VR move about in it. Virtual reality is displayed with a virtual reality headset, VR headsets are head-mounted goggles with a screen in front of the eyes. Programs may include audio and sounds through speakers or headphones, advanced haptic systems may include tactile information, generally known as force feedback in medical, video gaming and military training applications. Some VR systems used in games can transmit vibrations and other sensations to the user through the game controller. Virtual reality also refers to remote communication environments which provide a presence of users with through telepresence and telexistence or the use of a virtual artifact. The immersive environment can be similar to the world in order to create a life-like experience grounded in reality or sci-fi. In 1938, Antonin Artaud described the nature of characters and objects in the theatre as la réalité virtuelle in a collection of essays. The English translation of book, published in 1958 as The Theater. The term artificial reality, coined by Myron Krueger, has been in use since the 1970s, the term virtual reality was used in The Judas Mandala, a 1982 science fiction novel by Damien Broderick. Virtual has had the meaning being something in essence or effect, the term virtual has been used in the computer sense of not physically existing but made to appear by software since 1959. A dictionary definition for cyberspace states that word is a synonym for virtual reality. Virtual reality shares some elements with augmented reality, AR is a type of virtual reality technology that blends what the user sees in their real surroundings with digital content generated by computer software. The additional software-generated images with the virtual scene typically enhance way the real look in some way. Some AR systems use a camera to capture the surroundings or some type of display screen which the user looks at. The Virtual Reality Modelling Language, first introduced in 1994, was intended for the development of worlds without dependency on headsets. The Web3D consortium was founded in 1997 for the development of industry standards for web-based 3D graphics. The consortium subsequently developed X3D from the VRML framework as an archival and these components led to relative affordability for independent VR developers, and lead to the 2012 Oculus Rift kickstarter offering the first independently developed VR headset
2. Wikimedia Commons – Wikimedia Commons is an online repository of free-use images, sound, and other media files. It is a project of the Wikimedia Foundation, the repository contains over 38 million media files. In July 2013, the number of edits on Commons reached 100,000,000, the project was proposed by Erik Möller in March 2004 and launched on September 7,2004. The expression educational is to be according to its broad meaning of providing knowledge. Wikimedia Commons itself does not allow fair use or uploads under non-free licenses, for this reason, Wikimedia Commons always hosts freely licensed media and deletes copyright violations. The default language for Commons is English, but registered users can customize their interface to use any other user interface translations. Many content pages, in particular policy pages and portals, have also translated into various languages. Files on Wikimedia Commons are categorized using MediaWikis category system, in addition, they are often collected on individual topical gallery pages. While the project was proposed to also contain free text files. In 2012, BuzzFeed described Wikimedia Commons as littered with dicks, in 2010, Wikipedia co-founder Larry Sanger reported Wikimedia Commons to the FBI for hosting sexualized images of children known as lolicon. Wales responded to the backlash from the Commons community by voluntarily relinquishing some site privileges, over time, additional functionality has been developed to interface Wikimedia Commons with the other Wikimedia projects. Specialized uploading tools and scripts such as Commonist have been created to simplify the process of uploading large numbers of files. In order to free content photos uploaded to Flickr, users can participate in a defunct collaborative external review process. The site has three mechanisms for recognizing quality works, one is known as Featured pictures, where works are nominated and other community members vote to accept or reject the nomination. This process began in November 2004, another process known as Quality images began in June 2006, and has a simpler nomination process comparable to Featured pictures. Quality images only accepts works created by Wikimedia users, whereas Featured pictures additionally accepts nominations of works by third parties such as NASA, the three mentioned processes select a slight part from the total number of files. However, Commons collects files of all quality levels, from the most professional level across simple documental, files with specific defects can be tagged for improvement and warning or even proposed for deletion but there exists no process of systematic rating of all files. The site held its inaugural Picture of the Year competition, for 2006, all images that were made a Featured picture during 2006 were eligible, and voted on by eligible Wikimedia users during two rounds of voting
3. Immersie (virtual reality) – Immersion into virtual reality is a perception of being physically present in a non-physical world. The perception is created by surrounding the user of the VR system in images, the name is a metaphoric use of the experience of submersion applied to representation, fiction or simulation. The degree to which the virtual or artistic environment faithfully reproduces reality determines the degree of suspension of disbelief, the greater the suspension of disbelief, the greater the degree of presence achieved. According to Ernest W. Players feel in the zone while perfecting actions that result in success, Strategic immersion Strategic immersion is more cerebral, and is associated with mental challenge. Chess players experience strategic immersion when choosing a correct solution among an array of possibilities. Narrative immersion Narrative immersion occurs when players become invested in a story, in addition to these, they add a new category, Spatial immersion Spatial immersion occurs when a player feels the simulated world is perceptually convincing. The player feels that he or she is there and that a simulated world looks. It is defined as a subjective sensation of being there in a scene depicted by a medium. Most designers focus on the used to create a high-fidelity virtual environment, however. It is the perception, although generated by and/or filtered through human-made technology. Virtual reality glasses can produce a feeling of being in a simulated world. According to Oculus VR, the requirements to achieve this visceral reaction are low-latency. Michael Abrash gave a talk on VR at Steam Dev Days in 2014 and it consists of immersion in an artificial environment where the user feels just as immersed as they usually feel in consensus reality. The most considered method would be to induce the sensations that made up the reality in the nervous system directly. In functionalism/conventional biology we interact with consensus reality through the nervous system, thus we receive all input from all the senses as nerve impulses. It gives your neurons a feeling of heightened sensation and it would involve the user receiving inputs as artificially stimulated nerve impulses, the system would receive the CNS outputs and process them allowing the user to interact with the virtual reality. Natural impulses between the body and central nervous system would need to be prevented, a feedback system between the user and the computer which stores the information would also be needed. Considering how much information would be required for such a system and this will allow the correct sensations in the user, and actions in the virtual reality to occur
4. Gemengde werkelijkheid – Mixed reality takes place not only in the physical world or the virtual world, but is a mix of reality and virtual reality, encompassing both augmented reality and augmented virtuality. In 1994 Paul Milgram and Fumio Kishino defined a mixed reality as. anywhere between the extrema of the virtuality continuum, where the virtuality continuum extends from the completely real through to the completely virtual environment with augmented reality and augmented virtuality ranging between. In this paper we focus on a particular subclass of VR related technologies that involve the merging of real and virtual worlds, in a physics context, the term interreality system refers to a virtual reality system coupled to its real-world counterpart. A paper in the May 2007 issue of Physical Review E describes an interreality system comprising a real physical pendulum coupled to a pendulum that only exists in virtual reality. The use of the terms mixed reality and interreality in the context of physics is clearly defined, Augmented virtuality, is a subcategory of mixed reality which refers to the merging of real world objects into virtual worlds. This integration is achieved with the use of various techniques, often streaming video from physical spaces or using 3-dimensional digitalisation of physical objects. The use of real-world sensor information to control a virtual environment is a form of augmented virtuality. A topic of research, MR has found its way into a number of applications, evident in the arts. Solution consists of software products with scalable license model. SBL – Simulation Based Learning Moving from e-learning to s-learning—state of the art in knowledge transfer for education, simulation/VR based training, interactive experiential learning. Software and display solutions with scalable licensed curriculum development model, military Training Combat reality is simulated and represented in complex layered data through HMD. Real Asset Virtualization Environment 3D Models of Manufacturing Assets are incorporated into a virtual environment, avatars allow for multidisciplinary collaboration and decision making based on the data presented in the virtual environment. One of the earliest patents describing mixed reality is shown by Michael DeLuca in United States Patent 6,064,354 Stereoscopic user interface method and apparatus granted May 16,2000. Here are some commonly used MR display technologies, Example projects from the Mixed Reality Lab at National University of Singapore / Keio University. Examples of Augmented Reality with vision-based positioning system, ars Electronica ASTERION VR, Merged Reality for military and Law Enforcement training in Virtual CQB. EyeToy BAMZOOKi FightBox Microsoft Hololens Nokia Point & Find Interactive Multimedia Lab A research lab at the National University of Singapore focuses on Multi-modal Mixed Reality interfaces, Mixed Reality vs. Proceedings of »CAST01//Living in Mixed Realities« Intl. On Communication of Art, Science and Technology, Fraunhofer IMK2001,401, Interactive Multimedia Lab A research lab at the National University of Singapore focuses on Multi-modal Mixed Reality interfaces. Mixed Reality Geographical Information System Costanza, E. Kunz, A. and Fjeld, Mixed Reality, A Survey Costanza, E. Kunz, A. and Fjeld, M.2009
5. Google Arts & Culture Project – Google Arts & Culture is an online platform through which the public can access high-resolution images of artworks housed in the initiative’s partner museums. The platform enables users to virtually tour partner museums’ galleries, explore physical and contextual information about artworks, the walk-through feature of the project uses Googles Street View technology. The images of many of the artworks were reproduced with high quality. On April 3,2012, Google announced an expansion to the Art Project as it signed partnership agreements with 151 museums from 40 countries. The platform now features more than 32,000 artworks from 46 museums, additionally, Google launched a second, improved version of the website with new Google+ features, enhanced search capabilities, and a series of educational tools. Artwork View From the Gallery View, users can zoom in on an artwork to view the picture in greater detail. As of April 2012, over 32,000 high-quality images are available for view, microscope view provides users a dynamic image of an artwork, and scholarly and contextual information to enhance their understanding of the work. When examining an artwork, users may access information detailing the physical characteristics of the image. Partner museums were offered the option to include Viewing Notes, History of the Artwork, and Artist Information, each museum was allowed to include as much material as they wanted to contribute, so the level of information varies by museum and by artwork. Using services like Google Scholar and YouTube, Google includes external links for users to explore additional information about an artwork or gallery, create an Artwork Collection Users can log in with their Google Account to create their own collection. Users can compile any number of images from any of the partner museums, using Google’s link abbreviator, users can easily share their artwork collection with others through social media and conventional online communications mechanisms. This feature was so successful upon the Art Project’s launch, that Google had to dedicate additional servers to support it, explore and Discover In the second launch of the Art Project, Google updated the platforms search capabilities, so that users could more easily and intuitively find artworks. Now, users can find art by filtering their search with several categories, including, artist, museum, type of work, date, the search results are displayed in a slideshow format. This new functionality enables site users to search across numerous collections to find artworks that fit their parameters of interest, video and Audio Content Several partner museums have opted to include guided tour or welcome videos of their galleries. This provides users the option to walk through a museum themselves and listen to an audio guide at certain artworks. Education Google Art Project includes several tools and resources for teachers. First, Google has created a multitude of educational videos, available through a YouTube channel, Next, two pages called Look Like an Expert and DIY provides several activities for site users, similar to those often found in art galleries. For example, one quiz asks site visitors to match a painting to a particular style, finally, the Whats Next page provides site visitors with a list of resources and links to various art history timelines, art toolkits, and comparative teaching resources
6. Holografie – Holography is the science and practice of making holograms. The hologram itself is not an image and it is usually unintelligible when viewed under diffuse ambient light and it is an encoding of the light field as an interference pattern of seemingly random variations in the opacity, density, or surface profile of the photographic medium. In its pure form, holography requires the use of light for illuminating the subject. A microscopic level of detail throughout the volume of space can be reproduced. Holograms can now also be entirely computer-generated and show objects or scenes that never existed, stage illusions such as Peppers Ghost and other unusual, baffling, or seemingly magical images are also often incorrectly called holograms. The Hungarian-British physicist Dennis Gabor, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1971 for his invention and development of the holographic method. His work, done in the late 1940s, was built on pioneering work in the field of X-ray microscopy by other scientists including Mieczysław Wolfke in 1920 and William Lawrence Bragg in 1939. The discovery was a result of research into improving electron microscopes at the British Thomson-Houston Company in Rugby, England. The word holography comes from the Greek words ὅλος and γραφή, early holograms used silver halide photographic emulsions as the recording medium. They were not very efficient as the produced grating absorbed much of the incident light, various methods of converting the variation in transmission to a variation in refractive index were developed which enabled much more efficient holograms to be produced. Several types of holograms can be made, a later refinement, the rainbow transmission hologram, allows more convenient illumination by white light rather than by lasers. Rainbow holograms are used for security and authentication, for example, on credit cards. They are also capable of multicolour-image reproduction, specular holography is a related technique for making three-dimensional images by controlling the motion of specularities on a two-dimensional surface. It works by reflectively or refractively manipulating bundles of light rays, most holograms produced are of static objects but systems for displaying changing scenes on a holographic volumetric display are now being developed. Holograms can also be used to store, retrieve, and process information optically and it was thought that it would be possible to use X-rays to make holograms of very small objects and view them using visible light. Today, holograms with x-rays are generated by using synchrotrons or x-ray free-electron lasers as radiation sources, the reconstruction is then retrieved via computation. Due to the wavelength of x-rays compared to visible light. As free-electron lasers can provide ultrashort and x-ray pulses in the range of femtoseconds which are intense and coherent, in laser holography, the hologram is recorded using a source of laser light, which is very pure in its color and orderly in its composition
7. Layar – Layar is a Dutch company based in Amsterdam, founded in 2009 by Raimo van der Klein, Claire Boonstra and Maarten Lens-FitzGerald. They have created a browser called Layar. The browser allows users to various items based upon augmented reality technology. On September 1,2010, the World Economic Forum announced the company as a Technology Pioneer for 2011, in June 2014 Layar was acquired by the UK company Blippar. Layar office in Amsterdam was closed down in 2016, the browser makes use of the following, Accelerometer Built-in camera Compass GPS These are used together to identify the user’s location and field of view. From the geographical position, the forms of data are laid over the camera view like inserting an additional layer. Data in the browser comes in the form of layers, layers are REST web services serving geo-located points of interest in the vicinity of the user. Layers are developed and maintained by third parties using a free API, third-party projects which utilize Layar can be programs which require QR tags, or locative games, such as fAR-Play. As of July 2010, Layar had 1000 layers, as of September 2011, Layar had 2993 layers
8. Oculus Rift – The Oculus Rift is a virtual reality headset developed and manufactured by Oculus VR, a division of Facebook Inc. released on March 28,2016. Oculus initiated a Kickstarter campaign in 2012 to fund the Rifts development, the project proved successful, raising US$2.5 million. In March 2014, Facebook purchased Oculus for $2 billion, in March 2017, after 3 years at the company, it was announced Oculus founder and creator Palmer Luckey was leaving Facebook. The Rift has gone through various models since the Kickstarter campaign. Two of these models were shipped to backers, labelled as development kits, however, both were also purchased by a large number of enthusiasts who wished to get an early preview of the technology. The Rift has a stereoscopic OLED display, 1080×1200 resolution per eye, a 90 Hz refresh rate and it has integrated headphones which provide a 3D audio effect, rotational and positional tracking. The sensor normally sits on the users desk and this creates 3D space, allowing for the user to use the Rift while sitting, standing, or walking around the same room. The first rough prototype was hacked together in 2011 by Palmer Luckey in his garage in Long Beach. Coincidentally, John Carmack had been doing his own research and happened upon Luckeys developments as a member of MTBS. In June 2012, during the E3 convention, Carmack introduced a duct taped head-mounted display based on Luckeys Oculus Rift prototype, which ran Carmacks own software. Two months after being formed as a company, Palmers Oculus VR launched a Kickstarter crowdfunding campaign on August 1 of 2012 for their virtual reality headset, which was named the Rift. The main purpose of the kickstarter was to get an Oculus Rift prototype—now referred to as DK1 —into the hands of developers to begin integration of the device into their games. DK1 was given as a reward to backers who pledged $300 or more on Kickstarter and these kits sold at a rate of 4–5 per minute for the first day, before slowing down throughout the week. The pixel fill is also better, reducing the screen door effect, the LCD was brighter and the color depth is 24 bits per pixel. The 7-inch screen also makes the stereoscopic 3D no longer 100% overlapping, the eye seeing extra area to the left. The field of view is more than 90 degrees horizontal, which is more than double the FOV of previous VR devices from other companies, the resolution is 1280×800, which leads to an effective of 640×800 per eye. However, since the Rift does not feature a 100% overlap between the eyes, the horizontal resolution is effectively greater than 640. The latest version includes Oculuss new 1000 Hz Adjacent Reality Tracker that will allow for lower latency tracking than almost any other tracker
9. PlayStation VR – PlayStation VR, known by the codename Project Morpheus during development, is a virtual reality headset developed by Sony Interactive Entertainment, which launched on October 13,2016. It was designed to be functional with the PlayStation 4 home video game console. In certain games and demos for the VR, the player wearing the headset acts separately from other players without the headset, PlayStation VR works with either the standard DualShock 4 controller or the PlayStation Move controllers. The PlayStation VR has a 5.7 inch OLED panel, the headset also has a processor box which enables the Social Screen video output to the television, as well as process the 3D audio effect, and uses a 3. 5mm headphone jack. The headset also has nine positional LEDs on its surface for the PlayStation Camera to track 360 degree head movement, as of February 19,2017, PlayStation VR had sold 915,000 units. Sonys interest in head-mounted technology dates back to the 1990s and its first commercial unit, the Glasstron, was released in 1997. In early 2014, Sony Computer Entertainment research and development engineer Anton Mikhailov said his team had working on Project Morpheus for more than three years. According to Mikhailov, the PlayStation 3 Move peripheral, itself revealed in June 2009, was designed with unspecified and we specced it and built it to be a VR controller, even though VR wasnt a commodity. As engineers, we just said it was the thing to do. At the time, we didnt have a project that we could work on. Sony also went on record to say it is mandatory for all games to have no less than 60 frames per second at all times, Project Morpheus was first announced at The 2014 Game Developers Conference. On September 15,2015, it was announced that Project Morpheus would be officially named PlayStation VR, later in 2015, Sony acquired SoftKinetic, a tech startup whose focus includes visual depth-sensing gesture recognition, for an undisclosed amount. On October 13,2016, Sony released the PlayStation VR with the price of $399 in the US, €399 in Europe, £349 in the UK, and 44,980 yen in Japan. The prototype revealed at GDC15 included an OLED1920 ×1080 pixel display with an RGB subpixel matrix, the interpolation would be achieved with little system resources and a small latency of under 18 milliseconds. The technique would also be utilised in the native 120 Hz mode to ensure consistent framerate, according to a Sony representative the company expects the interpolated 120 Hz mode to be a popular choice for games. PlayStation VR games can send different perspectives to the headset and television, in March 2016, Sony said there were 230 developers actively working on content for PSVR, with 50 titles available by the end of the year. Existing, non-VR games can be played within PlayStation VR via Cinematic Mode, the mode has three screen size options, ranging up to 226 inches in virtual size. PlayStation VR also supports the display of 360-degree photos and video, other features, such as Share Play and Live from PlayStation, are also compatible within the headset
10. Rijsimulator – Driving simulators are used for entertainment as well as in training of drivers education courses taught in educational institutions and private businesses. Driving simulators are being used for training drivers all over the world. Research has shown that driving simulators are proven to be excellent practical, There are various types of driving simulators that are being used like train simulators, bus simulator, car simulator, truck simulator etc. This includes learner drivers being able to park a car in various examples that require successful parking in order for candidates to pass the test, multi station driving simulator, This type of simulator enables one instructor to train more drivers in less time. These systems are equipped with stations that enables centralised control of all driving stations. Advantages of these type of systems is training large number of drivers at the time thus saving time. Bus Simulator, is used to train Bus drivers on Route familiarisation, Safe driving techniques and it can be used for training drivers on a variety of bus models and on different type of gear transmissions. The wheel, which is plastic, may also include pedals to add to the games reality. These wheels are used only for computer games. In addition to the commercial releases there is a bustling community of amateur coders working on closed. Some of the major features popular with fans of the genre are online racing, realism and diversity of cars, dutch simulator designer Cruden offers private use car simulators for personal entertainment. Cruden car simulator is not connected to a game, system uses the same software that is designed for Formula 1 teams and engineers to improve their skills. The simulator provides different types of settings, such as, different cars, terrains or any other desired settings. Also, telemetry analyze is available as an optional feature, Driving simulators are used at research facilities for many purposes. Some vehicle manufacturers operate driving simulators, many universities also operate simulators for research. In addition to studying driver training issues, driving simulators allow researchers to study driver behavior under conditions in which it would be illegal and/or unethical to place drivers, for instance, studies of driver distraction would be dangerous and unethical to do on the road. Simulators are also used in testing, driver behaviour mapping, analysis of driving patterns for driverless car development. Example, Central Road Research Institute and Faros Simulation System have jointly developed a car simulator for extensive research purposes, CRRI Faros Research Simulator There exists a number of types research driving simulators, with a wide range of capabilities