Akbara was an Arab Palestinian village. An Arab-majority village existed during Ottoman and British eras, prior to summer 1948, there was a Palestinian Arab Muslim village, located 2.5 kilometres south of Safed, which was depopulated of original residents. The village of Akbara was situated 2.5 km south of Safad, southeast of the village lay Khirbat al-Uqayba, identified as the Roman village Achabare, or Acchabaron. This khirba was a village as late as 1904. The nearby khirba was excavated during the Mandate period, and was shown to contain remains such as building foundations, hewn stones, according to Josephus, the village was fortified by him during the First Jewish-Roman War. It is later mentioned in the Talmudic era under late Roman rule, Akhbara remained a Jewish village following Arab occupation of the region. The Cairo Geniza mentions a Jew from the village of Akhbara, by the 11th century however it appears to have been abandoned. It paid taxes on a number of crops and produce, including wheat, barley, summer crops, olives, occasional revenues, goats, beehives, round these are grouped the remains of ancient constructions now overthrown. The village lies on the east of the wady and it is dominated by a platform on which foundations can be traced of a rectangular enclosure called el Kuneiseh, measuring thirty paces in length by twenty-three in breadth. It stands east and west, and was constructed of good cut stones. The interior is at present given up to cultivation and this enclosure seems to have been once a Christian church. In 1881, the Palestine Exploration Funds Survey of Western Palestine described Akbara as a built of stone and adobe with about 90 inhabitants who cultivated olive. During this period the village houses were made of masonry. In 1945 the population was 390, and the land area was 3,224 dunums,2,222 dunums was used for cereals,199 dunums were irrigated or used for orchards. During the siege of Safad Akbara was targeted for occupation in line with Plan D, the Hagana attack was launched on 9 May and completed by the Palmach first battalion. It was found many of the villagers had fled due to news of Deir Yassin and Ein al Zeitun. 25 May 1948, during Operation Yiftah, under the command of Yigal Allon, the expellees remained at ’Akbara for eighteen years until agreeing to resettlement in Wadi Hamam. Salman Abu-Sitta, author of the Atlas of Palestine, estimated that the number of Palestinian refugees from Akbara in 1998 was 1,852 people
Ariadne, in Greek mythology, was the daughter of Minos, King of Crete, Son of Zeus and his queen Pasiphaë, daughter of Helios. She is mostly associated with mazes and labyrinths because of her involvement in the myths of the Minotaur and her father put her in charge of the labyrinth where sacrifices were made as part of reparations, later, she helped Theseus overcome the Minotaur and save the potential sacrificial victims. In other stories, she became the bride of the god Dionysus, since ancient Greek myths are passed down through oral tradition, many variations of this and other myths exist. According to an Athenian version of the legend, Minos attacked Athens after his son was killed there, the Athenians asked for terms, and were required to sacrifice seven young men and seven maidens to the Minotaur every seven or nine years. One year, the party included Theseus, the son of King Aegeus. Ariadne fell in love at first sight, and helped him by giving him a sword and a ball of thread, so that he could find his way out of the Minotaurs labyrinth. She eloped with Theseus after he achieved his goal, but according to Homer he had no joy of her, for ere that, Artemis slew her in seagirt Dia because of the witness of Dionysus. Homer does not expand on the nature of Dionysuss accusation, in Hesiod and most other accounts, Theseus abandoned Ariadne sleeping on Naxos, and Dionysus rediscovered and wedded her. The vase-painters of Athens often showed Athena leading Theseus from the sleeping Ariadne to his ship. With Dionysus, she was the mother of Oenopion, the personification of wine, Staphylus, Thoas, Peparethus, Phanus, Eurymedon, Enyeus, Ceramus, Maron, Euanthes, Latramys and her wedding diadem was set in the heavens as the constellation Corona Borealis. Ariadne remained faithful to Dionysus but was killed by Perseus at Argos. In other myths she hanged herself from a tree, like Erigone and the hanging Artemis, some scholars have posited, due to her thread-spinning and winding associations, that she was a weaving goddess, like Arachne, supporting this theory with the mytheme of the Hanged Nymph. Dionysus descended into Hades and brought her and his mother Semele back and they then joined the gods in Olympus. Karl Kerenyi and Robert Graves theorize that Ariadne was a Great Goddess of Crete, Kerenyi notes a Linear B inscription from Knossos, to all the gods, honey. To the mistress of the honey in equal amounts, suggesting to him that the Mistress of the Labyrinth was a Great Goddess in her own right. Professor Barry Powell has suggested she was Minoan Cretes Snake Goddess, in a kylix by the painter Aison Theseus drags the Minotaur from a temple-like labyrinth, but the goddess who attends him, in this Attic representation, is Athena. Theseus, attempting to secure the ship, was swept out to sea. The Cypriote women cared for Ariadne, who died in childbirth and was memorialized in a shrine, Theseus, overcome with grief upon his return, left money for sacrifices to Ariadne and ordered two cult images, one of silver and one of bronze, set up
Beatrix der Nederlanden
Beatrix reigned as Queen of the Netherlands from 1980 until her abdication in 2013, after a reign of exactly 33 years. Beatrix is the eldest daughter of Queen Juliana and her husband, upon her mothers accession in 1948, she became heir presumptive. Beatrix attended a primary school in Canada during World War II. In 1961, she received her law degree from Leiden University, in 1966, Beatrix married Claus von Amsberg, a German diplomat, with whom she had three children. When her mother abdicated on 30 April 1980, Beatrix succeeded her as queen, on Koninginnedag,30 April 2013, Beatrix abdicated in favour of her eldest son, Willem-Alexander, and resumed the title of princess. At the time of her abdication, Beatrix was the oldest reigning monarch of the Netherlands, Beatrix was born Princess Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld, on 31 January 1938 at the Soestdijk Palace in Baarn, Netherlands. She is the first child of Princess Juliana of the Netherlands, Beatrix was baptized on 12 May 1938 in the Great Church in The Hague. Beatrixs middle names are the first names of her grandmother, the then reigning Queen Wilhelmina. When Beatrix was one old, in 1939, her younger sister Princess Irene was born. World War II broke out in the Netherlands on 10 May 1940, on 13 May, the Dutch Royal Family evacuated to London, United Kingdom. One month later, Beatrix went to Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, with her mother Juliana and her sister Irene, while her father Bernhard, the family lived at the Stornoway residence. With bodyguards and ladies in waiting, the family summered at Bigwin Inn on Lake of Bays, while on Bigwin Island, the constitution of the Netherlands was stored in the cast iron safe of Bigwin Inns Rotunda building. In order to them with a greater sense of security, culinary chefs. Upon their departure, the musicians of the Bigwin Inn Orchestra assembled dockside, and at every public performance afterward through to the end of World War II. In the years following the shuttering and neglect of the island resort, the second sister of Beatrix, Princess Margriet, was born in Ottawa in 1943. During their exile in Canada, Beatrix attended nursery and Rockcliffe Park Public School, on 5 May 1945, the German troops in the Netherlands surrendered. The family returned to the Netherlands on 2 August 1945, Beatrix went to the progressive primary school De Werkplaats in Bilthoven. Her third sister Princess Christina was born in 1947, in April 1950, Princess Beatrix entered the Incrementum, a part of Baarnsch Lyceum, where, in 1956, she passed her school-graduation examinations in the subjects of arts and classics
Bersiap is the name given by the Dutch to a violent and chaotic phase of the Indonesian National Revolution following the end of World War II. The Indonesian word bersiap means get ready or be prepared, the Bersiap period lasted from August 1945 to December 1946. The term refers to that period when, after being kidnapped by Republican youths, the period ended with the departure of the British military in 1946, by which time the Dutch had rebuilt their military capacity. Meanwhile, the Indonesian revolutionary fighters were well into the process of forming a formal military, the last Japanese troops had been evacuated by July 1946. This particular phase of the Indonesian revolution is termed Bersiap by Dutch Indo survivors of the period and is used in both Dutch and English language academic works. The term is derived from the Indonesian battle cry and perpetual call to arms, on 15 August 1945 the Japanese surrendered to the Allies. As there was for the most part no Allied reconquest of Indonesia, Sukarno, Hatta, and the older leadership were hesitant to act and did not want to provoke conflict with the Japanese. Vice Admiral Maeda Tadashi, fearing volatile youth groups and the demoralised Japanese troops, while the older nationalist leadership group, including Sukarno and Hatta, were reluctant, younger members of the new elite, the youth, believed they had a duty to push for revolution. A group associated with Menteng 31 kidnapped both Sukarno and Hatta and forced them to agree to declaring Indonesian independence, on 17 August 1945, two days after the surrender, Sukarno and Hatta declared independence at Sukarnos house in Jakarta. Indonesian staff briefly seized Jakarta radio from their Japanese supervisor and broadcast the news of the declaration across Java and it was mid-September before news of the declaration of independence spread to the outer islands, and many Indonesians far from the capital Jakarta did not believe it. As the news spread, most Indonesians came to regard themselves as pro-Republican, external power had shifted, it would be weeks before Allied Forces entered Indonesia, and the Dutch were too weakened by World War II. The resulting power vacuums in the following the Japanese surrender, created an atmosphere of uncertainty. Many pemuda joined pro-Republic struggle groups, the most disciplined were soldiers from the Japanese-formed but disbanded Giyugun and Heiho groups. Many groups were undisciplined, due to both the circumstances of their formation and what they perceived as revolutionary spirit, in the first weeks, Japanese troops often withdrew from urban areas to avoid confrontations. However, as Republican youths fought to secure the cities and take arms, many of the Indonesian militia and some Japanese troops had no intention of allowing Indonesian disarmament, and in places like Bandung open conflict broke out. By September 1945, control of major infrastructure installations, including railway stations, to spread the revolutionary message, pemuda set up their own radio stations and newspapers, and graffiti proclaimed the nationalist sentiment. On most islands, struggle committees and militia were set up, in southern Kalimantan, Australian Communist soldiers spread the word of Indonesian independence declaration. Republican leaders struggled to come to terms with popular sentiment, some wanted passionate armed struggle, some leaders, such as the leftist Tan Malaka, spread the idea that this was a revolutionary struggle to be led and won by the Indonesian pemuda
Cruising is a 1980 American crime thriller film written and directed by William Friedkin, and starring Al Pacino, Paul Sorvino and Karen Allen. It is loosely based on the novel of the name, by The New York Times reporter Gerald Walker, about a serial killer targeting gay men. The title is a play on words with a meaning, as cruising can describe police officers on patrol. Poorly reviewed by critics upon release, Cruising was a modest financial success, the shooting and promotion were dogged by gay rights protesters, who believed that the film stigmatized them. The film is notable for its open-ended finale, further complicated by the directors incoherent changes in the rough cut and synopsis. In New York City during the middle of a hot summer and he rents an apartment in the area and befriends a neighbor, Ted Bailey, a struggling young gay playwright. Burns mistakenly compels the police to interrogate a waiter, Skip Lee, Burns is disturbed by this police brutality, and tells Captain Edelson he didnt sign on for this so that they can arrest anyone just because hes gay. Exhausted by his assignment, Burns is close to quitting. Following a new lead, Burns investigates Columbia University students who studied one of the previous victims. Burns brings the man into custody, but shortly afterward Teds mutilated body is found, the police dismiss the murder as a lovers quarrel turned violent and put out an arrest warrant for Gregory, with whom Burns earlier had a fight over his relationship with Ted. With the police under the impression that the murders have been solved with Richards in custody, Burns, meanwhile, wipes off his shaving cream and looks directly at the camera. Friedkin was not particularly interested in the project, dAntoni tried to attach Steven Spielberg, but they were not able to interest a studio. A few years later Jerry Weintraub brought the idea back to Friedkin, Friedkin changed his mind following a series of unsolved killings in gay leather bars in the early 1970s and the articles written about the murders by Village Voice journalist Arthur Bell. All of these factors gave Friedkin the angle he wanted to pursue in making the film, jurgenson and Bateson served as film consultants, as did Sonny Grosso, who had earlier consulted with Friedkin on The French Connection. Jurgenson and Grosso appear in bit parts in the film, in his research, Friedkin worked with members of the Mafia, who at the time owned many of the citys gay bars. Al Pacino was not Friedkins first choice for the lead, Richard Gere had expressed a strong interest in the part, Gere was Friedkins choice because he believed that Gere would bring an androgynous quality to the role that Pacino could not. The Motion Picture Association of America originally gave Cruising an X rating, Friedkin claims he took the film before the MPAA board 50 times at a cost of $50,000 and deleted 40 minutes of footage from the original cut before he secured an R rating. When Friedkin sought to restore the missing footage for the films DVD release and he believes that UA destroyed the footage
Sammy Davis jr.
Samuel George Sammy Davis Jr. was an American entertainer. Primarily a dancer and singer, he was also an actor of stage and screen, comedian, musician, at the age of 3, Davis began his career in vaudeville with his father and Will Mastin as the Will Mastin Trio, which toured nationally. After military service, Davis returned to the trio, Davis became an overnight sensation following a nightclub performance at Ciros after the 1951 Academy Awards. With the trio, he became a recording artist, in 1954, he lost his left eye in a car accident, and several years later, he converted to Judaism. Daviss film career began as a child in 1933, in 1960, he appeared in the Rat Pack film Oceans 11. After a starring role on Broadway in 1956s Mr Wonderful, he returned to the stage in 1964s Golden Boy, in 1966 he had his own TV variety show, titled The Sammy Davis Jr. Show. Daviss career slowed in the late 1960s, but he had a hit record with The Candy Man in 1972 and became a star in Las Vegas, earning him the nickname Mister Show Business. Davis was a victim of racism throughout his life, particularly during the pre-Civil Rights era, Davis had a complex relationship with the black community, and drew criticism after publicly supporting President Richard Nixon in 1972. One day on a course with Jack Benny, he was asked what his handicap was. This was to become a comment, recounted in his autobiography. After reuniting with Sinatra and Dean Martin in 1987, Davis toured with them and Liza Minnelli internationally and he died in debt to the Internal Revenue Service, and his estate was the subject of legal battles. Davis was awarded the Spingarn Medal by the NAACP and was nominated for a Golden Globe Award and he was the recipient of the Kennedy Center Honors in 1987, and in 2001, he was posthumously awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. During his lifetime, Davis stated that his mother was Puerto Rican, as an infant, he was reared by his paternal grandmother. When he was 3 years old, his parents separated and his father, not wanting to lose custody of his son, took him on tour. Davis learned to dance from his father and his uncle Will Mastin, Davis joined the act as a child and they became the Will Mastin Trio. Throughout his career, Davis included the Will Mastin Trio in his billing, Mastin and his father shielded him from racism. Snubs were explained as jealousy, for instance, when Davis served in the United States Army during World War II, however, he was confronted by strong racial prejudice. He later said, Overnight the world looked different and it wasnt one color any more