Congress has authorized DARPA to award cash prizes to further DARPAs mission to sponsor revolutionary, high-payoff research that bridges the gap between fundamental discoveries and military use. The third event, the DARPA Urban Challenge extended the initial Challenge to autonomous operation in an urban environment. The most recent Challenge, the 2012 DARPA Robotics Challenge, focused on autonomous emergency-maintenance robots, fully autonomous vehicles have been an international pursuit for many years, from endeavors in Japan, Germany, Italy, the European Union, the United States of America, and other countries. Following the 2004 event, Dr. Tony Tether, the director of DARPA, announced that the money had been increased to $2 million for the next event. The first, second and third places in the 2007 Urban Challenge received $2 million, $1 million, the competition was open to teams and organizations from around the world, as long as there were at least one U. S. citizen on the roster. Teams have participated from high schools, universities, businesses and other organizations, more than 100 teams registered in the first year, bringing a wide variety of technological skills to the race. In the second year,195 teams from 36 U. S. states and 4 foreign countries entered the race, none of the robot vehicles finished the route. Carnegie Mellon Universitys Red Team and car Sandstorm traveled the farthest distance, no winner was declared, and the cash prize was not given. Therefore, a second DARPA Grand Challenge event was scheduled for 2005, the second competition of the DARPA Grand Challenge began at 6, 40am on October 8,2005. All but one of the 23 finalists in the 2005 race surpassed the 11.78 km distance completed by the best vehicle in the 2004 race. Five vehicles successfully completed the course, Vehicles in the 2005 race passed through three tunnels and negotiated more than 100 sharp left and right turns. The race concluded through Beer Bottle Pass, a mountain pass with a sheer drop-off on one side. The natural rivalry between the teams from Stanford and Carnegie Mellon was played out during the race, mechanical problems plagued H1ghlander before it was passed by Stanley. Gray Teams entry was a miracle in itself, as the team from the suburbs of New Orleans was caught in Hurricane Katrina a few weeks before the race. The fifth finisher, Terramax, a 30,000 pound entry from Oshkosh Truck, the huge truck spent the night idling on the course, but was particularly nimble in carefully picking its way down the narrow roads of Beer Bottle Pass. The third competition of the DARPA Grand Challenge, known as the Urban Challenge, took place on November 3,2007 at the site of the now-closed George Air Force Base, in Victorville, California. The course involved a 96 km urban area course, to be completed in less than 6 hours, rules included obeying all traffic regulations while negotiating with other traffic and obstacles and merging into traffic. Unlike previous challenges, the 2007 Urban Challenge organizers divided competitors into two tracks, A and B, all Track A and Track B teams were part of the same competition circuit, but the teams chosen for the Track A program received US $1 million in funding
The site of the DARPA Grand Challenge on race day, fronted by the Team Case vehicle, DEXTER
A vehicle that was developed for the 2007 DARPA Urban Challenge
Stanford Racing and Victor Tango together at an intersection in the DARPA Urban Challenge Finals.