1.
Wiskunde
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Mathematics is the study of topics such as quantity, structure, space, and change. There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope, Mathematicians seek out patterns and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof, when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry, rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclids Elements. Galileo Galilei said, The universe cannot be read until we have learned the language and it is written in mathematical language, and the letters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word. Without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth, carl Friedrich Gauss referred to mathematics as the Queen of the Sciences. Benjamin Peirce called mathematics the science that draws necessary conclusions, David Hilbert said of mathematics, We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules, rather, it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can only be so and by no means otherwise. Albert Einstein stated that as far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain, Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, finance and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics, Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The earliest uses of mathematics were in trading, land measurement, painting and weaving patterns, in Babylonian mathematics elementary arithmetic first appears in the archaeological record. Numeracy pre-dated writing and numeral systems have many and diverse. Between 600 and 300 BC the Ancient Greeks began a study of mathematics in its own right with Greek mathematics. Mathematics has since been extended, and there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to the benefit of both. Mathematical discoveries continue to be made today, the overwhelming majority of works in this ocean contain new mathematical theorems and their proofs. The word máthēma is derived from μανθάνω, while the modern Greek equivalent is μαθαίνω, in Greece, the word for mathematics came to have the narrower and more technical meaning mathematical study even in Classical times

2.
Logica
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Logic, originally meaning the word or what is spoken, is generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of arguments. A valid argument is one where there is a relation of logical support between the assumptions of the argument and its conclusion. Historically, logic has been studied in philosophy and mathematics, and recently logic has been studied in science, linguistics, psychology. The concept of form is central to logic. The validity of an argument is determined by its logical form, traditional Aristotelian syllogistic logic and modern symbolic logic are examples of formal logic. Informal logic is the study of natural language arguments, the study of fallacies is an important branch of informal logic. Since much informal argument is not strictly speaking deductive, on some conceptions of logic, formal logic is the study of inference with purely formal content. An inference possesses a purely formal content if it can be expressed as an application of a wholly abstract rule, that is. The works of Aristotle contain the earliest known study of logic. Modern formal logic follows and expands on Aristotle, in many definitions of logic, logical inference and inference with purely formal content are the same. This does not render the notion of informal logic vacuous, because no formal logic captures all of the nuances of natural language, Symbolic logic is the study of symbolic abstractions that capture the formal features of logical inference. Symbolic logic is divided into two main branches, propositional logic and predicate logic. Mathematical logic is an extension of logic into other areas, in particular to the study of model theory, proof theory, set theory. Logic is generally considered formal when it analyzes and represents the form of any valid argument type, the form of an argument is displayed by representing its sentences in the formal grammar and symbolism of a logical language to make its content usable in formal inference. Simply put, formalising simply means translating English sentences into the language of logic and this is called showing the logical form of the argument. It is necessary because indicative sentences of ordinary language show a variety of form. Second, certain parts of the sentence must be replaced with schematic letters, thus, for example, the expression all Ps are Qs shows the logical form common to the sentences all men are mortals, all cats are carnivores, all Greeks are philosophers, and so on. The schema can further be condensed into the formula A, where the letter A indicates the judgement all - are -, the importance of form was recognised from ancient times

3.
Systeem (wetenschap)
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A system is a set of interacting or interdependent component parts forming a complex or intricate whole. Every system is delineated by its spatial and temporal boundaries, surrounded and influenced by its environment, described by its structure and purpose and expressed in its functioning. Alternatively, and usually in the context of social systems. The term system comes from the Latin word systēma, in turn from Greek σύστημα systēma, whole compounded of several parts or members, system, according to Marshall McLuhan, System means something to look at. You must have a high visual gradient to have systematization. In philosophy, prior to Descartes, there was no system, in the 19th century the French physicist Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, who studied thermodynamics, pioneered the development of the concept of a system in the natural sciences. In 1824 he studied the system which he called the substance in steam engines. The working substance could be put in contact with either a boiler, in 1850, the German physicist Rudolf Clausius generalized this picture to include the concept of the surroundings and began to use the term working body when referring to the system. The biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy became one of the pioneers of the systems theory. Norbert Wiener and Ross Ashby, who pioneered the use of mathematics to study systems, in the 1980s John H. Holland, Murray Gell-Mann and others coined the term complex adaptive system at the interdisciplinary Santa Fe Institute. Environment and boundaries Systems theory views the world as a system of interconnected parts. One scopes a system by defining its boundary, this means choosing which entities are inside the system, one can make simplified representations of the system in order to understand it and to predict or impact its future behavior. These models may define the structure and behavior of the system, Natural and human-made systems There are natural and human-made systems. Natural systems may not have an apparent objective but their behavior can be interpreted as purposefull by an observer, human-made systems are made to satisfy an identified and stated need with purposes that are achieved by the delivery of wanted outputs. Their parts must be related, they must be designed to work as a coherent entity – otherwise they would be two or more distinct systems, Theoretical framework An open system exchanges matter and energy with its surroundings. Most systems are open systems, like a car, a coffeemaker, a closed system exchanges energy, but not matter, with its environment, like Earth or the project Biosphere2 or 3. An isolated system exchanges neither matter nor energy with its environment, a theoretical example of such system is the Universe. Inputs are consumed, outputs are produced, the concept of input and output here is very broad

4.
Wiskundig model
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A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language. The process of developing a model is termed mathematical modeling. Mathematical models are used in the sciences and engineering disciplines. Physicists, engineers, statisticians, operations research analysts, and economists use mathematical models most extensively, a model may help to explain a system and to study the effects of different components, and to make predictions about behaviour. Mathematical models can take many forms, including systems, statistical models, differential equations. These and other types of models can overlap, with a model involving a variety of abstract structures. In general, mathematical models may include logical models, in many cases, the quality of a scientific field depends on how well the mathematical models developed on the theoretical side agree with results of repeatable experiments. Lack of agreement between theoretical mathematical models and experimental measurements often leads to important advances as better theories are developed, in the physical sciences, the traditional mathematical model contains four major elements. These are Governing equations Defining equations Constitutive equations Constraints Mathematical models are composed of relationships. Relationships can be described by operators, such as operators, functions, differential operators. Variables are abstractions of system parameters of interest, that can be quantified, a model is considered to be nonlinear otherwise. The definition of linearity and nonlinearity is dependent on context, for example, in a statistical linear model, it is assumed that a relationship is linear in the parameters, but it may be nonlinear in the predictor variables. Similarly, an equation is said to be linear if it can be written with linear differential operators. In a mathematical programming model, if the functions and constraints are represented entirely by linear equations. If one or more of the functions or constraints are represented with a nonlinear equation. Nonlinearity, even in simple systems, is often associated with phenomena such as chaos. Although there are exceptions, nonlinear systems and models tend to be difficult to study than linear ones. A common approach to nonlinear problems is linearization, but this can be if one is trying to study aspects such as irreversibility

5.
Thoralf Skolem
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Thoralf Albert Skolem was a Norwegian mathematician who worked in mathematical logic and set theory. Although Skolems father was a school teacher, most of his extended family were farmers. Skolem attended secondary school in Kristiania, passing the university examinations in 1905. He then entered Det Kongelige Frederiks Universitet to study mathematics, also taking courses in physics, chemistry, zoology, in 1913, Skolem passed the state examinations with distinction, and completed a dissertation titled Investigations on the Algebra of Logic. He also traveled with Birkeland to the Sudan to observe the zodiacal light, in 1916 he was appointed a research fellow at Det Kongelige Frederiks Universitet. In 1918, he became a Docent in Mathematics and was elected to the Norwegian Academy of Science, Skolem did not at first formally enroll as a Ph. D. candidate, believing that the Ph. D. was unnecessary in Norway. He later changed his mind and submitted a thesis in 1926, titled Some theorems about integral solutions to certain algebraic equations and his notional thesis advisor was Axel Thue, even though Thue had died in 1922. In 1927, he married Edith Wilhelmine Hasvold, Skolem continued to teach at Det kongelige Frederiks Universitet until 1930 when he became a Research Associate in Chr. This senior post allowed Skolem to conduct research free of administrative, in 1938, he returned to Oslo to assume the Professorship of Mathematics at the university. There he taught the courses in algebra and number theory. Skolems Ph. D. student Øystein Ore went on to a career in the USA, Skolem served as president of the Norwegian Mathematical Society, and edited the Norsk Matematisk Tidsskrift for many years. He was also the editor of Mathematica Scandinavica. After his 1957 retirement, he made trips to the United States. He remained intellectually active until his sudden and unexpected death, for more on Skolems academic life, see Fenstad. Skolem published around 180 papers on Diophantine equations, group theory, lattice theory and he mostly published in Norwegian journals with limited international circulation, so that his results were occasionally rediscovered by others. An example is the Skolem–Noether theorem, characterizing the automorphisms of simple algebras, Skolem published a proof in 1927, but Emmy Noether independently rediscovered it a few years later. Skolem was among the first to write on lattices, in 1912, he was the first to describe a free distributive lattice generated by n elements. In 1919, he showed that every lattice is distributive and, as a partial converse

6.
Alfred Tarski
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Alfred Tarski was a renowned Polish logician, mathematician and philosopher. Tarski taught and carried out research in mathematics at the University of California, Alfred Tarski was born Alfred Teitelbaum, to parents who were Polish Jews in comfortable circumstances relative to other Jews in the overall region. He first manifested his mathematical abilities while in school, at Warsaws Szkoła Mazowiecka. Nevertheless, he entered the University of Warsaw in 1918 intending to study biology, Leśniewski recognized Tarskis potential as a mathematician and encouraged him to abandon biology. Tarski and Leśniewski soon grew cool to each other, however, in later life, Tarski reserved his warmest praise for Kotarbiński, as was mutual. In 1923, Alfred Teitelbaum and his brother Wacław changed their surname to Tarski, the Tarski brothers also converted to Roman Catholicism, Polands dominant religion. Alfred did so even though he was an avowed atheist, Tarski was a Polish nationalist who saw himself as a Pole and wished to be fully accepted as such — later, in America, he spoke Polish at home. In 1929 Tarski married fellow teacher Maria Witkowska, a Pole of Catholic background and she had worked as a courier for the army in the Polish–Soviet War. They had two children, a son Jan who became a physicist, and a daughter Ina who married the mathematician Andrzej Ehrenfeucht, Tarski applied for a chair of philosophy at Lwów University, but on Bertrand Russells recommendation it was awarded to Leon Chwistek. In 1930, Tarski visited the University of Vienna, lectured to Karl Mengers colloquium, thanks to a fellowship, he was able to return to Vienna during the first half of 1935 to work with Mengers research group. From Vienna he traveled to Paris to present his ideas on truth at the first meeting of the Unity of Science movement, in 1937, Tarski applied for a chair at Poznań University but the chair was abolished. Tarskis ties to the Unity of Science movement likely saved his life, thus he left Poland in August 1939, on the last ship to sail from Poland for the United States before the German and Soviet invasion of Poland and the outbreak of World War II. Tarski left reluctantly, because Leśniewski had died a few months before, oblivious to the Nazi threat, he left his wife and children in Warsaw. He did not see again until 1946. During the war, nearly all his Jewish extended family were murdered at the hands of the German occupying authorities, in 1942, Tarski joined the Mathematics Department at the University of California, Berkeley, where he spent the rest of his career. Tarski became an American citizen in 1945, although emeritus from 1968, he taught until 1973 and supervised Ph. D. candidates until his death. At Berkeley, Tarski acquired a reputation as an awesome and demanding teacher, Tarski was extroverted, quick-witted, strong-willed, energetic, and sharp-tongued. He preferred his research to be collaborative — sometimes working all night with a colleague — and was very fastidious about priority, some students were frightened away, but a circle of disciples remained, many of whom became world-renowned leaders in the field

7.
Wiskundige natuurkunde
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Mathematical physics refers to development of mathematical methods for application to problems in physics. It is a branch of applied mathematics, but deals with physical problems, there are several distinct branches of mathematical physics, and these roughly correspond to particular historical periods. The rigorous, abstract and advanced re-formulation of Newtonian mechanics adopting the Lagrangian mechanics, both formulations are embodied in analytical mechanics. These approaches and ideas can be and, in fact, have extended to other areas of physics as statistical mechanics, continuum mechanics, classical field theory. Moreover, they have provided several examples and basic ideas in differential geometry, the theory of partial differential equations are perhaps most closely associated with mathematical physics. These were developed intensively from the half of the eighteenth century until the 1930s. Physical applications of these developments include hydrodynamics, celestial mechanics, continuum mechanics, elasticity theory, acoustics, thermodynamics, electricity, magnetism, and aerodynamics. The theory of atomic spectra developed almost concurrently with the fields of linear algebra. Nonrelativistic quantum mechanics includes Schrödinger operators, and it has connections to atomic, Quantum information theory is another subspecialty. The special and general theories of relativity require a different type of mathematics. This was group theory, which played an important role in quantum field theory and differential geometry. This was, however, gradually supplemented by topology and functional analysis in the description of cosmological as well as quantum field theory phenomena. In this area both homological algebra and category theory are important nowadays, statistical mechanics forms a separate field, which includes the theory of phase transitions. It relies upon the Hamiltonian mechanics and it is related with the more mathematical ergodic theory. There are increasing interactions between combinatorics and physics, in statistical physics. The usage of the mathematical physics is sometimes idiosyncratic. Certain parts of mathematics that arose from the development of physics are not, in fact, considered parts of mathematical physics. The term mathematical physics is sometimes used to research aimed at studying and solving problems inspired by physics or thought experiments within a mathematically rigorous framework

8.
Abstracte algebra
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In algebra, which is a broad division of mathematics, abstract algebra is the study of algebraic structures. Algebraic structures include groups, rings, fields, modules, vector spaces, lattices, the term abstract algebra was coined in the early 20th century to distinguish this area of study from the other parts of algebra. Algebraic structures, with their homomorphisms, form mathematical categories. Category theory is a formalism that allows a way for expressing properties. Universal algebra is a subject that studies types of algebraic structures as single objects. For example, the structure of groups is an object in universal algebra. As in other parts of mathematics, concrete problems and examples have played important roles in the development of abstract algebra, through the end of the nineteenth century, many – perhaps most – of these problems were in some way related to the theory of algebraic equations. Numerous textbooks in abstract algebra start with definitions of various algebraic structures. This creates an impression that in algebra axioms had come first and then served as a motivation. The true order of development was almost exactly the opposite. For example, the numbers of the nineteenth century had kinematic and physical motivations. An archetypical example of this progressive synthesis can be seen in the history of group theory, there were several threads in the early development of group theory, in modern language loosely corresponding to number theory, theory of equations, and geometry. Leonhard Euler considered algebraic operations on numbers modulo an integer, modular arithmetic, lagranges goal was to understand why equations of third and fourth degree admit formulae for solutions, and he identified as key objects permutations of the roots. An important novel step taken by Lagrange in this paper was the view of the roots, i. e. as symbols. However, he did not consider composition of permutations, serendipitously, the first edition of Edward Warings Meditationes Algebraicae appeared in the same year, with an expanded version published in 1782. Waring proved the theorem on symmetric functions, and specially considered the relation between the roots of a quartic equation and its resolvent cubic. Kronecker claimed in 1888 that the study of modern algebra began with this first paper of Vandermonde, cauchy states quite clearly that Vandermonde had priority over Lagrange for this remarkable idea, which eventually led to the study of group theory. Paolo Ruffini was the first person to develop the theory of permutation groups and his goal was to establish the impossibility of an algebraic solution to a general algebraic equation of degree greater than four

9.
Theoretische natuurkunde
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Theoretical physics is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena. This is in contrast to physics, which uses experimental tools to probe these phenomena. The advancement of science depends in general on the interplay between experimental studies and theory, in some cases, theoretical physics adheres to standards of mathematical rigor while giving little weight to experiments and observations. Conversely, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for explaining the photoelectric effect, a physical theory is a model of physical events. It is judged by the extent to which its predictions agree with empirical observations, the quality of a physical theory is also judged on its ability to make new predictions which can be verified by new observations. A physical theory similarly differs from a theory, in the sense that the word theory has a different meaning in mathematical terms. A physical theory involves one or more relationships between various measurable quantities, archimedes realized that a ship floats by displacing its mass of water, Pythagoras understood the relation between the length of a vibrating string and the musical tone it produces. Other examples include entropy as a measure of the uncertainty regarding the positions and motions of unseen particles, Theoretical physics consists of several different approaches. In this regard, theoretical particle physics forms a good example, for instance, phenomenologists might employ empirical formulas to agree with experimental results, often without deep physical understanding. Modelers often appear much like phenomenologists, but try to model speculative theories that have certain desirable features, some attempt to create approximate theories, called effective theories, because fully developed theories may be regarded as unsolvable or too complicated. Other theorists may try to unify, formalise, reinterpret or generalise extant theories, or create completely new ones altogether. Sometimes the vision provided by pure mathematical systems can provide clues to how a system might be modeled, e. g. the notion, due to Riemann and others. Theoretical problems that need computational investigation are often the concern of computational physics, Theoretical advances may consist in setting aside old, incorrect paradigms or may be an alternative model that provides answers that are more accurate or that can be more widely applied. In the latter case, a correspondence principle will be required to recover the previously known result, sometimes though, advances may proceed along different paths. However, an exception to all the above is the wave–particle duality, Physical theories become accepted if they are able to make correct predictions and no incorrect ones. They are also likely to be accepted if they connect a wide range of phenomena. Testing the consequences of a theory is part of the scientific method, Physical theories can be grouped into three categories, mainstream theories, proposed theories and fringe theories. Theoretical physics began at least 2,300 years ago, under the Pre-socratic philosophy, during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, the concept of experimental science, the counterpoint to theory, began with scholars such as Ibn al-Haytham and Francis Bacon