Dimension stone is natural stone or rock that has been selected and finished to specific sizes or shapes. Color, texture and pattern, and surface finish of the stone are also normal requirements, quarries that produce dimension stone or crushed stone are interconvertible. Since most quarries can produce one, a crushed stone quarry can be converted to dimension stone production. However, first the stone shattered by heavy and indiscriminate blasting must be removed, Dimension stone is separated by more precise and delicate techniques, such as diamond wire saws, diamond belt saws, burners, or light and selective blasting with Primacord, a weak explosive. A variety of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks are used as structural and these rock types are more commonly known as granite, limestone, marble, travertine, quartz-based stone and slate. Other varieties of stone that are normally considered to be special minor types include alabaster, soapstone, serpentine. A variety of finishes can be applied to stone to achieve diverse architectural. These finishes include, but are not limited to, the following, a polished finish gives the surface a high luster and strong reflection of incident light. A honed finish provides a smooth, satin-like, nonreflective surface, more textured finishes include brush-hammered, sandblasted, and thermal. A brush-hammered finish, similar to a pattern, creates a rough. A sandblasted surface provides an irregular pitted surface by impacting sand or metal particles at high velocity against a stone surface, a thermal finish produces a textured, nonreflective surface with only a few reflections from cleavage faces, by applying a high-temperature flame. This finish may change the color of the stone depending on mineralogical composition. The most easily accessible general references are the latest Minerals Yearbook Chapter, the most comprehensive, graphic references are Natural Stone Database by Abraxas Verlag, Dimension Stones of the World, Volumes I & II and Natural Stones Worldwide CD. While common colors used in some of the applications are listed below, there is an extraordinarily wide range of colours. These patterns are created by geological phenomena such as grains, inclusions, veins, cavity fillings, blebs. In addition, rocks and stones not normally classed as dimension stone are sometimes selected for these applications and these can included tiles made of jade, agate, and jasper. Stone countertops and bathroom vanities both involve a finished slab of stone, usually polished but sometimes with another finish, industry standard thicknesses in the United States are 3/4 and 1.25. Often 2 cm slabs will be laminated at the edge to create the appearance of a thicker edge profile, the slabs are cut to fit the top of the kitchen or bathroom cabinet, by measuring, templating or digital templating
Large blocks of granite dimension stone being loaded at Teignmouth in 1827
Rough cut slabs of granite dimension stone.
Slate tile covers this entire structure in Germany
Dimension stone has been used in the construction of buildings for centuries. Due to costs, today stone veneers are usually used in place of solid stone blocks. This courthouse was built of dimension stone quarried in Berea, Ohio.