the entire wiki with video and photo galleries

find something interesting to watch in seconds

find something interesting to watch in seconds

YouTube Videos – Absolute zero and Related Articles

Absolute zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a …

Robert Boyle pioneered the idea of an absolute zero.

Commemorative plaque in Leiden

The rapid expansion of gases leaving the Boomerang Nebula, a bi-polar, filamentary, likely proto-planetary nebula in Centaurus, causes the lowest observed temperature outside a laboratory: 1 K

Velocity-distribution data of a gas of rubidium atoms at a temperature within a few billionths of a degree above absolute zero. Left: just before the appearance of a Bose–Einstein condensate. Center: just after the appearance of the condensate. Right: after further evaporation, leaving a sample of nearly pure condensate.

RELATED RESEARCH TOPICS

1. Absolute zero – Absolute zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reaches its minimum value, taken as 0. The corresponding Kelvin and Rankine temperature scales set their zero points at absolute zero by definition, in the quantum-mechanical description, matter at absolute zero is in its ground state, the point of lowest internal energy. And a system at absolute zero still possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy, the kinetic energy of the ground state cannot be removed. Scientists and technologists routinely achieve temperatures close to zero, where matter exhibits quantum effects such as superconductivity and superfluidity. At temperatures near 0 K, nearly all molecular motion ceases and ΔS =0 for any adiabatic process, in such a circumstance, pure substances can form perfect crystals as T →0. Max Plancks strong form of the law of thermodynamics states the entropy of a perfect crystal vanishes at absolute zero. The Nernst postulate identifies the isotherm T =0 as coincident with the adiabat S =0, although other isotherms, as no two adiabats intersect, no other adiabat can intersect the T =0 isotherm. Consequently no adiabatic process initiated at nonzero temperature can lead to zero temperature, a perfect crystal is one in which the internal lattice structure extends uninterrupted in all directions. The perfect order can be represented by translational symmetry along three axes, every lattice element of the structure is in its proper place, whether it is a single atom or a molecular grouping. For substances that exist in two crystalline forms, such as diamond and graphite for carbon, there is a kind of chemical degeneracy. The question remains whether both can have zero entropy at T =0 even though each is perfectly ordered, using the Debye model, the specific heat and entropy of a pure crystal are proportional to T3, while the enthalpy and chemical potential are proportional to T4. These quantities drop toward their T =0 limiting values and approach with zero slopes, for the specific heats at least, the limiting value itself is definitely zero, as borne out by experiments to below 10 K. Even the less detailed Einstein model shows this curious drop in specific heats, in fact, all specific heats vanish at absolute zero, not just those of crystals. Likewise for the coefficient of thermal expansion, maxwells relations show that various other quantities also vanish. Since the relation between changes in Gibbs free energy, the enthalpy and the entropy is Δ G = Δ H − T Δ S thus, as T decreases, ΔG and ΔH approach each other. Experimentally, it is found that all spontaneous processes result in a decrease in G as they proceed toward equilibrium, if ΔS and/or T are small, the condition ΔG <0 may imply that ΔH <0, which would indicate an exothermic reaction. However, this is not required, endothermic reactions can proceed spontaneously if the TΔS term is large enough, moreover, the slopes of the derivatives of ΔG and ΔH converge and are equal to zero at T =0. e. An actual process is the most exothermic one, one model that estimates the properties of an electron gas at absolute zero in metals is the Fermi gas

2. Thermodynamic temperature – Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature and is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic temperature is defined by the law of thermodynamics in which the theoretically lowest temperature is the null or zero point. At this point, absolute zero, the constituents of matter have minimal motion. In the quantum-mechanical description, matter at absolute zero is in its ground state, the International System of Units specifies a particular scale for thermodynamic temperature. It uses the Kelvin scale for measurement and selects the point of water at 273.16 K as the fundamental fixing point. Other scales have been in use historically, the Rankine scale, using the degree Fahrenheit as its unit interval, is still in use as part of the English Engineering Units in the United States in some engineering fields. ITS-90 gives a means of estimating the thermodynamic temperature to a very high degree of accuracy. Internal energy is called the heat energy or thermal energy in conditions when no work is done upon the substance by its surroundings. Internal energy may be stored in a number of ways within a substance, each way constituting a degree of freedom. At equilibrium, each degree of freedom will have on average the energy, k B T /2 where k B is the Boltzmann constant. Temperature is a measure of the random submicroscopic motions and vibrations of the constituents of matter. These motions comprise the internal energy of a substance, more specifically, the thermodynamic temperature of any bulk quantity of matter is the measure of the average kinetic energy per classical degree of freedom of its constituent particles. Translational motions are almost always in the classical regime, translational motions are ordinary, whole-body movements in three-dimensional space in which particles move about and exchange energy in collisions. Figure 1 below shows translational motion in gases, Figure 4 below shows translational motion in solids, Zero kinetic energy remains in a substance at absolute zero. Throughout the scientific world where measurements are made in SI units, many engineering fields in the U. S. however, measure thermodynamic temperature using the Rankine scale. By international agreement, the kelvin and its scale are defined by two points, absolute zero, and the triple point of Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water. Absolute zero, the lowest possible temperature, is defined as being precisely 0 K, the triple point of water is defined as being precisely 273.16 K and 0.01 °C. This definition does three things, It fixes the magnitude of the unit as being precisely 1 part in 273.15 kelvins

3. International System of Units – The International System of Units is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement. It comprises a coherent system of units of measurement built on seven base units, the system also establishes a set of twenty prefixes to the unit names and unit symbols that may be used when specifying multiples and fractions of the units. The system was published in 1960 as the result of an initiative began in 1948. It is based on the system of units rather than any variant of the centimetre-gram-second system. The motivation for the development of the SI was the diversity of units that had sprung up within the CGS systems, the International System of Units has been adopted by most developed countries, however, the adoption has not been universal in all English-speaking countries. The metric system was first implemented during the French Revolution with just the metre and kilogram as standards of length, in the 1830s Carl Friedrich Gauss laid the foundations for a coherent system based on length, mass, and time. In the 1860s a group working under the auspices of the British Association for the Advancement of Science formulated the requirement for a coherent system of units with base units and derived units. Meanwhile, in 1875, the Treaty of the Metre passed responsibility for verification of the kilogram, in 1921, the Treaty was extended to include all physical quantities including electrical units originally defined in 1893. The units associated with these quantities were the metre, kilogram, second, ampere, kelvin, in 1971, a seventh base quantity, amount of substance represented by the mole, was added to the definition of SI. On 11 July 1792, the proposed the names metre, are, litre and grave for the units of length, area, capacity. The committee also proposed that multiples and submultiples of these units were to be denoted by decimal-based prefixes such as centi for a hundredth, on 10 December 1799, the law by which the metric system was to be definitively adopted in France was passed. Prior to this, the strength of the magnetic field had only been described in relative terms. The technique used by Gauss was to equate the torque induced on a magnet of known mass by the earth’s magnetic field with the torque induced on an equivalent system under gravity. The resultant calculations enabled him to assign dimensions based on mass, length, a French-inspired initiative for international cooperation in metrology led to the signing in 1875 of the Metre Convention. Initially the convention only covered standards for the metre and the kilogram, one of each was selected at random to become the International prototype metre and International prototype kilogram that replaced the mètre des Archives and kilogramme des Archives respectively. Each member state was entitled to one of each of the prototypes to serve as the national prototype for that country. Initially its prime purpose was a periodic recalibration of national prototype metres. The official language of the Metre Convention is French and the version of all official documents published by or on behalf of the CGPM is the French-language version

4. Imperial units – The system of imperial units or the imperial system is the system of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824, which was later refined and reduced. The Imperial units replaced the Winchester Standards, which were in effect from 1588 to 1825, the system came into official use across the British Empire. The imperial system developed from what were first known as English units, the Weights and Measures Act of 1824 was initially scheduled to go into effect on 1 May 1825. However, the Weights and Measures Act of 1825 pushed back the date to 1 January 1826, the 1824 Act allowed the continued use of pre-imperial units provided that they were customary, widely known, and clearly marked with imperial equivalents. Apothecaries units are mentioned neither in the act of 1824 nor 1825, at the time, apothecaries weights and measures were regulated in England, Wales, and Berwick-upon-Tweed by the London College of Physicians, and in Ireland by the Dublin College of Physicians. In Scotland, apothecaries units were unofficially regulated by the Edinburgh College of Physicians, the three colleges published, at infrequent intervals, pharmacopoeiae, the London and Dublin editions having the force of law. The Medical Act of 1858 transferred to The Crown the right to publish the official pharmacopoeia and to regulate apothecaries weights, Metric equivalents in this article usually assume the latest official definition. Before this date, the most precise measurement of the imperial Standard Yard was 0.914398416 metres, in 1824, the various different gallons in use in the British Empire were replaced by the imperial gallon, a unit close in volume to the ale gallon. It was originally defined as the volume of 10 pounds of distilled water weighed in air with brass weights with the standing at 30 inches of mercury at a temperature of 62 °F. The Weights and Measures Act of 1985 switched to a gallon of exactly 4.54609 l and these measurements were in use from 1826, when the new imperial gallon was defined, but were officially abolished in the United Kingdom on 1 January 1971. In the USA, though no longer recommended, the system is still used occasionally in medicine. The troy pound was made the unit of mass by the 1824 Act, however, its use was abolished in the UK on 1 January 1879, with only the troy ounce. The Weights and Measures Act 1855 made the pound the primary unit of mass. In all the systems, the unit is the pound. For the yard, the length of a pendulum beating seconds at the latitude of Greenwich at Mean Sea Level in vacuo was defined as 39.01393 inches, the imperial system is one of many systems of English units. Although most of the units are defined in more than one system, some units were used to a much greater extent, or for different purposes. The distinctions between these systems are not drawn precisely. One such distinction is that between these systems and older British/English units/systems or newer additions, the US customary system is historically derived from the English units that were in use at the time of settlement