!O!ung language

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Northern ǃXuun, Sekele, Vasekela
Native to Namibia, Angola
Region Okavango and Ovamboland Territory
Native speakers
54,000 (2002)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 vaj
Glottolog oung1238[2]

ǃOǃung (!'O!Khung, ǃʼOǃKung, ǃʼO ǃuŋ, [ǃˀoːǃʰũ] "Forest ǃKung"), or Northern ǃXuun (Northern Ju); also known by the Angolan Bantu name Sekele (Vasekele) and in one source as Maligo (Sekele Maligo), is the northern variety of the !Kung (ǃXuun) dialect continuum. It was widespread in southern Angola before the civil war,[3] but now is principally spoken among a diaspora in northern Namibia.

A dialect currently being investigated is Mangetti Dune !Kung (Mangetti Dune !Xuun), spoken by a resettled diaspora community of 500–1000 in Namibia and South Africa in the settlements of Mangetti Dune and Omtaku (Omatako?), east of Grootfontein, Namibia, and in Schmidtsdrif, west of Kimberley, South Africa.[citation needed]


Mangetti Dune !Kung has clicks with four places of articulation, /ǃ ǀ ǁ ǂ/. (A reported distinction between dental lateral and postalveolar lateral clicks has not been confirmed by further research.)[citation needed]

These come in the same eight series as in Grootfontein !Kung, here represented with the palatal articulation:


  1. ^ Simons 2017
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "!O!ung". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Gordon Jr. & Grimes 2005


  • Gordon Jr., Raymond G; Grimes, Barbara F, eds. (2005) [1951]. Ethnologue Languages of the World (15th ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. p. 151. ISBN 155671159X. LCCN 2004112063. +
  • Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D., eds. (2017) [1951]. Ethnologue Languages of the World (20th ed.). Summer Institute of Linguistics. ISBN 9781556714177. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Snyman, Jan Winston (1980). "The Relationship Between Angolan ǃXu and Zuǀʼõasi". Bushman and Hottentot Linguistic Studies. Pretoria, South Africa: University of South Africa (UNISA): 1–58. 
  • Miller, A.L.; Holliday, J.; Howcroft, D.M.; Phillips, S.; Smith, B.; Tsz-Hum, T.; Scott, A. (2011). "The Phonetics of the Modern-Day Reflexes of the Proto-Palatal Click in Juu Languages". Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Khoisan Languages and Linguistics. 

External links[edit]