Twelve Olympians

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Fragment of a Hellenistic relief (1st century BC – 1st century AD) depicting the twelve Olympians carrying their attributes in procession; from left to right, Hestia (scepter), Hermes (winged cap and staff), Aphrodite (veiled), Ares (helmet and spear), Demeter (scepter and wheat sheaf), Hephaestus (staff), Hera (scepter), Poseidon (trident), Athena (owl and helmet), Zeus (thunderbolt and staff), Artemis (bow and quiver), Apollo (lyre), from the Walters Art Museum.[1]

In ancient Greek religion and mythology, the twelve Olympians are the major deities of the Greek pantheon, commonly considered to be Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Ares, Aphrodite, Hephaestus, Hermes, and either Hestia or Dionysus.[2] They were called 'Olympians' because they were considered to reside on Mount Olympus.

Although Hades was a major ancient Greek god, and was the brother of the first generation of Olympians: Zeus, Poseidon, Hera, Demeter, and Hestia, he resided in the underworld, far from Olympus, and thus was not usually considered to be one of the Olympians. Besides the twelve Olympians, there were many other cultic groupings of twelve gods.

Olympians[edit]

The Olympians were the principal deities of the Greek pantheon, so named because of their residency atop Mount Olympus. They gained their supremacy in a ten-year-long war of gods, in which Zeus led his siblings to victory over the previous generation of ruling gods, the Titans. They were a family of gods, the most important consisting of the first generation of Olympians, offspring of the Titans Cronus and Rhea: Zeus, Posidon, Hera, Demeter and Hestia, along with the principal offspring of Zeus: Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Ares, Aphrodite,[3] Hephaestus, Hermes, and Dionysus. Although Hades was a major deity in the Greek pantheon, and was the brother of Zeus and the other first generation of Olympians, his realm was far away from Olympus in the underworld, and thus he was not usually considered to be one of the Olympians.[4]

The canonical number of Olympian gods was twelve, but besides the (thirteen) principal Olympians listed above, there were many other important residents of Olympus, who thus might be called Olympians.[5] Heracles became a resident of Olympus after his apotheosis and married another Olympian resident Hebe.[6] Others include the Muses, the Graces, Iris, Dione, Eileithyia, the Horae, and Ganymede.

Twelve gods[edit]

Besides the twelve Olympians, there were many other various cultic groupings of twelve gods throughtout ancient Greece. The earliest evidence of Greek religious practice involving twelve gods (Greek: Dodekatheon, from dōdeka, "twelve" and theoi, "gods") comes no earlier than the late sixth century BC.[7] According to Thucydides, an altar of the twelve gods was established in the agora of Athens by the archon Pisistratus (son of Hippias, and the grandson of the tyrant Pisistratus), in c. 522 BC.[8] The altar became the central point from which distances from Athens were measured and a place of supplication and refuge.[9]

Olympia apparently also had an early tradition of twelve gods.[10] The Homeric Hymn to Hermes (c. 500 BC) has the god Hermes divide a sacrifice of two cows he has stolen from Apollo, into twelve parts, on the banks of the river Alpheius (presumably at Olympia):

"Next glad-hearted Hermes dragged the rich meats he had prepared and put them on a smooth, flat stone, and divided them into twelve portions distributed by lot, making each portion wholly honorable."[11]

Pindar, in an ode written to be sung at Olympia c. 480 BC, has Heracles sacrificing, alongside the Alpheius, to the "twelve ruling gods":[12]

"He [Heracles] enclosed the Altis all around and marked it off in the open, and he made the encircling area a resting-place for feasting, honoring the stream of the Alpheus along with the twelve ruling gods."[13]

Another of Pindar's Olympian odes, mentions "six double altars".[14] Herodorus of Heraclea (c. 400 BC) also has Heracles founding a shrine at Olympia, with six pairs of gods, each pair sharing a single altar.[15]

Many other places had cults of the twelve gods, including Delos, Chalcedon, Magnesia on the Maeander, and Leontinoi in Sicily.[16] As with the twelve Olympians, although the number of gods was fixed at twelve, the membership varied.[17] While the majority of the gods included as members of these other cults of twelve gods were Olympians, non-Olympians were also sometimes included. For example, Herodorus of Heraclea identified the six pairs of gods at Olympia as: Zeus and Poseidon, Hera and Athena, Hermes and Apollo, the Graces and Dionysus, Artemis and Alpheus, and Cronus and Rhea.[18] Thus while this list includes the eight Olympians: Zeus, Poseidon, Hera, Athena, Hermes, Apollo, Artemis, and Dionysus, it also contains three clear non-Olympians: the Titan parents of the first generation of Olympians, Cronus and Rhea, and the river god Alpheius, with the status of the Graces (here apparently counted as one god) being unclear.

Plato connected "twelve gods" with the twelve months, and implies that he considered Pluto one of the twelve in proposing that the final month be devoted to him and the spirits of the dead.[19]

The Roman poet Ennius gives the Roman equivalents (the Dii Consentes) as six male-female complements,[20] preserving the place of Vesta (Greek Hestia), who played a crucial role in Roman religion as a state goddess maintained by the Vestals.

List[edit]

The "twelve" Olympians[edit]

There is no single canonical list of the twelve Olympian gods. The thirteen gods and goddesses most commonly considered to be one of the twelve Olympians are listed below.

Greek Roman Image Functions and attributes
Zeus Jupiter Jupiter Smyrna Louvre Ma13.jpg King of the gods and ruler of Mount Olympus; god of the sky, storms, lightning, thunder, law, order and justice. Youngest child of the Titans Cronus and Rhea. Symbols include the thunderbolt, eagle, oak tree, lion, scepter, and scales. Brother and husband of Hera, although he had many lovers, also brother of Poseidon, Hades, Demeter, and Hestia.
Hera Juno Hera Campana Louvre Ma2283.jpg Queen of the gods and the goddess of marriage, women, childbirth and family. Symbols include the peacock, cuckoo, and cow. Youngest daughter of Cronus and Rhea. Wife and sister of Zeus. Being the goddess of marriage, she frequently tried to get revenge on Zeus' lovers and their children.
Poseidon Neptune 0036MAN Poseidon.jpg God of the seas, water, storms, hurricanes, earthquakes and horses. Symbols include the horse, bull, dolphin, and trident. Middle son of Cronus and Rhea. Brother of Zeus and Hades. Married to the Nereid Amphitrite, although, like most male Greek Gods, he had many lovers.
Demeter Ceres Demeter Altemps Inv8546.jpg Goddess of the harvest, fertility, agriculture, nature and the seasons. Who presided over grains and the fertility of the earth. Symbols include the poppy, wheat, torch, cornucopia, and pig. Middle daughter of Cronus and Rhea. Also the lover of Zeus and Poseidon, and the mother of Persephone.
Athena Minerva Mattei Athena Louvre Ma530 n2.jpg Goddess of wisdom, knowledge, reason, intelligent activity, literature, handicrafts, science, defense and strategic warfare. Symbols include the owl and the olive tree. Daughter of Zeus and the Oceanid Metis, she rose from her father's head fully grown and in full battle armor.
Apollo/
Apollon[A]
Apollo[A] Apollo of the Belvedere.jpg God of light, the sun, prophecy, philosophy, truth, inspiration, poetry, music, arts, medicine, healing, and plague. Son of Zeus and Leto. Symbols include the sun, lyre, swan, and mouse. Twin brother of Artemis.
Artemis Diana Diane de Versailles Leochares.jpg Goddess of the hunt, virginity, birth, archery, the moon, forests, all animals, protection and plaque. Symbols include the moon, horse, deer, hound, she-bear, snake, cypress tree, and bow and arrow. Daughter of Zeus and Leto and twin sister of Apollo.
Ares Mars Ares Canope Villa Adriana b.jpg God of war, violence, bloodshed and manly virtues. Symbols include the boar, serpent, dog, vulture, spear, and shield. Son of Zeus and Hera, all the other gods despised him. His Latin name, Mars, gave us the word "martial."
Aphrodite Venus NAMA Aphrodite Syracuse.jpg Goddess of love, pleasure, passion, procreation, fertility, beauty and desire. Symbols include the dove, bird, apple, bee, swan, myrtle, and rose. Daughter of Zeus and the Oceanid Dione, or perhaps born from the sea foam after Uranus' semen dripped into the sea after being castrated by his youngest son, Cronus, who then threw his father's genitals into the sea. Married to Hephaestus, although she had many adulterous affairs, most notably with Ares. Her name gave us the word "aphrodisiac", while her Latin name, Venus, gave us the word "venereal".[B]
Hephaestus Vulcan Vulcan Coustou Louvre MR1814.jpg Master blacksmith and craftsman of the gods; god of the forge, craftsmanship, invention, fire and volcanoes. Symbols include fire, anvil, axe, donkey, hammer, tongs, and quail. Son of Hera, either by Zeus or alone. Married to Aphrodite, though unlike most divine husbands, he was rarely ever licentious. His Latin name, Vulcan, gave us the word "volcano."
Hermes Mercury Hermes Ingenui Pio-Clementino Inv544.jpg Messenger of the gods; god of travel, commerce, communication, borders, eloquence, diplomacy, thieves and games. Symbols include the caduceus (staff entwined with two snakes), winged sandals and cap, stork, and tortoise (whose shell he used to invent the lyre). Son of Zeus and the nymph Maia. The second-youngest Olympian, just older than Dionysus.

Most canonical listings include either one or the other of the following deities as one of the twelve Olympians.

Greek Roman Image Functions and attributes
Hestia Vesta Hestia - Wellesley College - DSC09634.JPG Goddess of the hearth, fire and of the right ordering of domesticity and the family; she was born into the first Olympian generation and was one of the original twelve Olympians. Some lists of the Twelve Olympians omit her in favor of Dionysus, but the speculation that she gave her throne to him in order to keep the peace seems to be modern invention. She is the first child of Cronus and Rhea, eldest sister of Hades, Demeter, Poseidon, Hera, and Zeus.
Dionysus (or
Bacchus)
Bacchus Dionysos Louvre Ma87 n2.jpg God of wine, the grape vine, fertility, celebrations, ecstasy, madness and resurrection. Patron god of the art of theatre. Symbols include the grapevine, ivy, cup, tiger, panther, leopard, dolphin, goat, and pinecone. Son of Zeus and the mortal Theban princess Semele. Married to the Cretan princess Ariadne. The youngest Olympian god, as well as the only one to have a mortal mother.
  1. Notes
  2. ^ Romans also associated Phoebus with Helios and the sun itself,[21][22] however, they also used the Greek name Apollon in a Latinized form Apollo.[23]
  3. ^ According to an alternate version of her birth, Aphrodite was born of Uranus, Zeus' grandfather, after Cronus threw his castrated genitals into the sea. This supports the etymology of her name, "foam-born". As such, Aphrodite would belong to the same generation as Cronus, Zeus' father, and would be Zeus' aunt. See the birth of Aphrodite

Others[edit]

The following gods and goddess are sometimes included as one of the twelve Olympians, or other cultic groupings of twelve gods.

Greek Roman Image Functions and Attributes
Hades (or
Pluto)
Orcus (or
Dis Pater)
Hades-et-Cerberus-III.jpg God of the Underworld, the dead, and the riches under the Earth; he was born into the first Olympian generation, the elder brother of Zeus, Poseidon, Hera, and Demeter, and younger brother of Hestia, but, because he lives in the Underworld rather than on Mount Olympus, he is typically not included amongst the twelve Olympians, and is normally viewed as a chthonic god.
Persephone (or Kore) Proserpina AMI - Isis-Persephone.jpg Queen of the Underworld and a daughter of Demeter and Zeus. Also goddess of spring time. She became the consort of Hades, the god of the underworld, when he kidnapped her. Demeter, driven to distraction by the disappearance of her daughter, neglected all of the earth so that nothing would grow. Zeus eventually ordered Hades to allow Persephone to leave the underworld and rejoin her mother. Hades did this, but because Persephone had eaten six of the twelve pomegranate seeds in the underworld when Hades first kidnapped her, she had to spend six months in the underworld each year. This created the seasons when for six months everything grows and flourishes then for the other six months everything wilts and dies. Her symbols include the pomegranate, willow tree, waterfalls, rivers and springs.
Heracles Hercules Hercules Farnese 3637104088 9c95d7fe3c b.jpg A divine hero, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, foster son of Amphitryon and great-grandson (and half-brother) of Perseus (Περσεύς). He was the greatest of the Greek heroes, a paragon of masculinity and a champion of the Olympian order against chthonic monsters.
Asclepius Vejovis Asklepios - Epidauros.jpg The god of medicine and healing. He represents the healing aspect of the medical arts; his daughters are Hygieia ("Health"), Iaso ("Medicine"), Aceso ("Healing"), Aglæa/Ægle ("Healthy Glow"), and Panacea ("Universal Remedy"). He is the son of Apollo and Coronis.
Eros Cupid (or Amor) Eros Farnese MAN Napoli 6353.jpg The god of sexual love and beauty. He was also worshipped as a fertility deity, son of Aphrodite and Ares. He was depicted often as carrying a lyre or bow and arrow. He is often accompanied by dolphins, roses, and torches.
Hebe Juventas Canova-Hebe 30 degree view.jpg She is the daughter of Zeus and Hera. Hebe was the cupbearer for the gods and goddesses of Mount Olympus, serving their nectar and ambrosia, until she was married to Heracles. She is the goddess of youth.

Other residents of Mount Olympus[edit]

The following gods and goddesses were not usually counted as Olympians, although they had close ties to them.

  • Amphitrite – Queen of the Sea, mother of Triton and wife of Poseidon.
  • Anemoi – The personifications of the four wind directions (North, South, East and West).
  • Angelos – An underworld goddess, a daughter of Zeus and Hera.
  • Aura – Goddess of cool breezes and fresh air.
  • Bia – Personification of force.
  • Circe – Minor goddess of magic, not to be confused with Hecate.
  • Deimos – God of terror, son of Ares and brother of Phobos.
  • Dione – Oceanid; mother of Aphrodite by Zeus in Homer's version.
  • Eileithyia – Goddess of childbirth; daughter of Hera and Zeus.
  • Enyo – A goddess of warfare, companion of Ares. She was also the sister of Ares in some cases. In those cases, her parents are Zeus and Hera.
  • Eos – Personification of dawn.
  • Eris – Goddess of discord and strife.
  • Ganymede – Cupbearer of the gods' palace at Olympus.
  • Graces – Goddesses of beauty and attendants of Aphrodite and Hera.
  • Harmonia – Goddess of concord and harmony, opposite of Eris, daughter of Aphrodite.
  • Hecate – Goddess associated with magic, witches and crossroads.
  • Helios – Titan; personification of the sun.
  • Horae – Wardens of Olympus.
  • Hypnos – God of sleep, father of Morpheus and son of Nyx.
  • Iris – Personification of the Rainbow, also the messenger of Olympus along with Hermes.
  • Kratos – Personification of power.
  • Leto – Titaness of the unseen; mother of Apollo and Artemis.
  • Metis – Oceanid; mother of Athena.
  • Moirai – The 'Fates'. Clotho (the spinner), Lachesis (the allotter) and Atropos (the unturnable).
  • Momus – God of satire, mockery, satires, and poets.
  • Morpheus – God of dreams.
  • Muses – Nine goddesses of science and arts. Their names are Calliope, Urania, Clio, Polyhymnia, Melpomene, Terpsichore, Thalia, Euterpe, and Erato.
  • Nemesis – Greek goddess of retribution and revenge, daughter of Nyx.
  • Nike – Goddess of victory.
  • Nyx – Goddess of night.
  • Paean – Physician of the gods.
  • Pan – God of the wild, shepherds and flocks
  • Phantasos – God of surreal dreams.
  • Phobos – God of fear, son of Ares and brother of Deimos.
  • Styx – Goddess of the River Styx, the river where gods swear oaths on.
  • Thanatos – God of Death, sometimes a personification of Death.
  • Triton – Messenger of the Seas, son of Poseidon and Amphitrite. He holds a twisted conch shell.
  • Tyche – Goddess of Luck.
  • Zelus – Personification of Emulation.
Assembly of twenty gods, predominantly the twelve Olympians, as they receive Psyche (Loggia di Psiche, 1518–19, by Raphael and his school, at the Villa Farnesina)

Genealogy[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Walters Art Museum, accession number 23.40.
  2. ^ Hansen, p. 250; Burkert, pp. 125 ff.; Dowden, p. 43; Chadwick, p. 85; Müller, pp. 419 ff.; Pache, pp. 308 ff.; Thomas, p. 12; Shapiro, p. 362; Long, pp. 140–141; Morford, p. 113; Hard p. 80.
  3. ^ According to Homer, Aphrodite was the daughter of Zeus (Iliad 3.374, 20.105; Odyssey 8.308, 320) and Dione (Iliad 5.370–71), see Gantz, pp. 99–100. However, According to Hesiod, Theogony 183–200, Aphrodite was born from Uranus' severed genitals, see Gantz, pp. 99–100.
  4. ^ Hansen, p. 250; Morford, p. 113; Hard p. 80.
  5. ^ Ogden, pp. 2–3; Dowden, pp. 43, 45; Rutherford, p. 47; Hansen, p. 250; Burkert, p. 125.
  6. ^ Herodotus, 2.43–44.
  7. ^ Dowden, p. 43; Rutherford, p. 43;.
  8. ^ Rutherford, pp. 43–44; Thucydides, 6.54.6-7.
  9. ^ Gadbery, p. 447.
  10. ^ Dowden, p. 43; Rutherford, p. 44; Long, pp. 154–157.
  11. ^ Homeric Hymn to Hermes, 128–129.
  12. ^ Dowden, p. 43; Rutherford, p. 44; Long, pp. 59–60 (T 13 C), 154–155.
  13. ^ Pindar, Olympian 10.49.
  14. ^ Rutherford, p. 44; Long, pp. 58 (T 13 A), 154; Pindar, Olympian 5.5.
  15. ^ Dowden, p. 43; Rutherford, p. 47; Long, pp. 58–59 (T 13 B), 154; FGrH 31 F34a-b.
  16. ^ Rutherford, p. 45.
  17. ^ Long, pp. 360–361, lists 54 Greek (and Roman) gods who have been identified as members of one or more cultic groupings of twelve gods.
  18. ^ Dowden, p. 43; Rutherford, p. 47; Long, pp. 58–59 (T 13 B), 154; FGrH 31 F34a-b.
  19. ^ Rutherford, pp. 45–46; Plato, The Laws 828 b-d
  20. ^ "Greek mythology". Encyclopedia Americana. 13. 1993. p. 431. 
  21. ^ North John A., Beard Mary, Price Simon R.F. "The Religions of Imperial Rome". Classical Mythology in English Literature: A Critical Anthology. (Cambridge University Press, 1998), p.259. ISBN 0-521-31682-0.
  22. ^ Hacklin, Joseph. "The Mythology of Persia". Asiatic Mythology (Asian Educational Services, 1994), p.38. ISBN 81-206-0920-4.
  23. ^ See, for example, Ovid's Met. I 441, 473, II 454, 543, 598, 612, 641, XII 585, XVIII 174, 715, 631, and others.
  24. ^ This chart is based upon Hesiod's Theogony, unless otherwise noted.
  25. ^ According to Homer, Iliad 1.570–579, 14.338, Odyssey 8.312, Hephaestus was apparently the son of Hera and Zeus, see Gantz, p. 74.
  26. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony 927–929, Hephaestus was produced by Hera alone, with no father, see Gantz, p. 74.
  27. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony 886–890, of Zeus' children by his seven wives, Athena was the first to be conceived, but the last to be born; Zeus impregnated Metis then swallowed her, later Zeus himself gave birth to Athena "from his head", see Gantz, pp. 51–52, 83–84.
  28. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony 183–200, Aphrodite was born from Uranus' severed genitals, see Gantz, pp. 99–100.
  29. ^ According to Homer, Aphrodite was the daughter of Zeus (Iliad 3.374, 20.105; Odyssey 8.308, 320) and Dione (Iliad 5.370–71), see Gantz, pp. 99–100.

References[edit]