Jacobite rising of 1745

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The Jacobite rising of 1745 (Scottish Gaelic: Bliadhna Theàrlaich [ˈbliən̪ˠə ˈhjaːrˠl̪ˠɪç], "The Year of Charles") was the attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the British throne for the males of the House of Stuart. The uprising began while the throne was held by their older sisters Mary II and Anne, successive Queen regnant (sometimes referred to as the Stuart Queens Regnant) enthroned in conjunction with the documentation of the 1689 Bill of Rights, which the Jacobites sought to reverse through asserting the Papal-based Divine right of kings. By 1745, the Kings George of the House of Hanover had become heirs to the throne when neither of the Stuart Queens Regnant had surviving children; in Hanover only males could inherit, pursuant to the legacy Salic law of the Holy Roman Empire which was not repealed in the German Reformation; however in Britain females could. Imposition of the Salic Law by Papal-based invaders from the Continent had been blocked many times in Britain, most famously by Elizabeth I of England and her allies, the 1745 rising occurred during the War of the Austrian Succession, which was a cause being fought for females to inherit on the Continent, when most of the British Army was on the European continent. Charles Edward Stuart, commonly known as "Bonnie Prince Charlie" or "the Young Pretender", sailed to Scotland and raised the Jacobite standard at Glenfinnan in the Scottish Highlands, where he was supported by a gathering of Highland clansmen. The march south began with an initial victory at Prestonpans near Edinburgh, the Jacobite army, now in bold spirits, marched onwards to Carlisle, over the border in England. When it reached Derby, some British divisions were recalled from the Continent and the Jacobite army retreated north to Inverness where the last battle on Scottish soil took place on a nearby moor at Culloden. The Battle of Culloden ended with the final defeat of the Jacobite cause. Charles Edward Stuart fled with a price on his head before finally sailing to France.

Background[edit]

James III or the Old Pretender

In 1689, the Glorious Revolution led to the deposition and exile of the Catholic James II, he was replaced by his Protestant daughter Mary II and her husband William III, ruling as joint monarchs. After Mary's death in 1694 and that of William in 1702, James' younger daughter Anne became the last Stuart ruler, since neither Mary or Anne had surviving children, the 1701 Act of Settlement ensured a Protestant successor by excluding the Catholic exiles in favour of Electress Sophia of Hanover. James III became the Stuart heir when his father James II died in 1701 but refused to improve his chances of regaining the throne by converting to Protestantism. When Sophia died in June 1714 followed by Anne in August, her son became George I, placing the pro-Hanoverian Whigs in control of government for the next 30 years.[2]

Despite the failure of rebellions in 1715 and 1719, Jacobites remained a force throughout Britain but with very different goals, the Stuarts were absolutist Unionist centralisers who wanted the British/Unionist throne and tolerance for Catholicism. English Jacobites were primarily anti-Catholic Church of England Tories whose support was based on the principle of hereditary right but also resentment at their exclusion from government,[3] during the 1689-91 Williamite War in Ireland, James II had promised Irish Jacobites an autonomous, Catholic Ireland and the return of lands confiscated by Cromwell.[4] Most Scottish Jacobites were Episcopalian or Presbyterian Nationalists who opposed the 1707 Act of Union.[5]

A successful invasion required significant French backing but after the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht their priority was peace with Britain,[6] the 1716 Anglo-French alliance removed French political and financial support for the exiled Stuarts, forcing them to leave France and settle in Rome.[7] The birth of James' sons Charles and Henry kept the cause alive, while many British gentry visited the unofficial court in Rome regardless of political affiliation but by 1740 Stuart prospects seemed remote.[8]

This changed due to France's concern at the huge expansion in British commerce and wealth arising from the commercial clauses of the Treaty of Utrecht,[9] this increased their ability to finance a war while the British monarch's dual status as ruler of Hanover complicated France's strategic aims in Europe. A Stuart regime might solve the problem of Hanover but not Britain's economic power, this made an ongoing, low cost Jacobite insurgency more useful to France than a full scale Restoration, as Charles himself later pointed out.[10] In addition, their statesmen continually underestimated the cost and complexity of seaborne invasions which meant a great deal of planning but very little action.[11]

In 1739, conflict between Spain and Britain led to the War of Jenkins' Ear, followed in 1740-41 by the War of the Austrian Succession, the long-serving British Prime Minister Robert Walpole was forced to resign in February 1742 by an alliance of Tories and pro-war Patriot Whigs. The Whigs promptly did a deal keeping their Tory partners out of government.[12] Fury at this led second-rank Tories like the Duke of Beaufort and Lord Barrymore to ask for French support in restoring the Stuarts to the British throne. The group of Scottish Jacobites known as the Association made a similar request but to put James on the throne of Scotland and dissolve the Union, these differences were not lost on the French Chief Minister Cardinal Fleury who consistently viewed Jacobite claims with scepticism and ignored both requests.[13]

Louis XV of France

When Fleury died in January 1743 at the age of 90, Louis XV took control of government. While Britain and France were not yet formally at war, they were funding different sides in the War of the Austrian Succession and open hostilities seemed imminent, this meant Louis was more open to Jacobite requests and in August sent James Butler, his Master of Horse to England to assess their prospects.[14] Butler was provided lists of supporters, including one claiming 190 of the 236 members of the powerful trade body the Corporation of London as 'Jacobite.'[15] When Louis asked why the English needed help if support was so widespread, his advisors attributed it to dislike of foreigners and government repression;[16] in reality it was a combination of wishful thinking and confusing indifference to the Hanoverians with enthusiasm for the Jacobites.[17]

In November, Louis notified his uncle Philip V of Spain and Sempill of his decision to launch a cross-channel invasion in February.[18] 12,000 troops were assembled at Dunkirk, under Maurice, Count of Saxony; a French fleet would divert the Royal Navy squadrons guarding the Channel and the troops would then board the transports and land in Essex, close to London.[19] Since success depended upon speed and surprise, James III remained in Rome to assist the deception and Charles was appointed his Regent, he then travelled in secret to the port of Gravelines in France, arriving there in late February.[20]

These efforts were wasted as details of the plan were given to the British by François de Bussy, French Ambassador in London, so when a French naval force left Brest on 26 January, the Royal Navy refused the bait.[21] Fierce storms then sank 12 French ships and severely damaged the transports, while the British government arrested a number of suspected Jacobites.[22] Louis cancelled the invasion at the end of March, declared war on Britain in October and thereafter focused on campaigns in Europe.[23]

Charles came to Paris to argue for an alternative landing in Scotland and in August 1744 met with Murray of Broughton. Murray later claimed he advised against it but that Charles replied he was 'determined to come the following summer... though with a single footman.'[24] Hearing this, the Scottish Jacobites reiterated their opposition to a rising without French military support but Charles gambled that once there, the French would have to back him.[25]

Charles in Scotland[edit]

Charles Edward Stuart, by Allan Ramsay, painted at Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh, late autumn 1745

Charles spent the first months of 1745 purchasing weapons for his expedition, while victory at Fontenoy in April 1745 led to limited support from the French government, the Regiment du Clare of the French Army's Irish Brigade provided a detachment of 700 volunteers, with transport supplied by the Ministère de la Marine. This comprised Elisabeth, a elderly 64-gun warship captured from the British in 1704 and Du Teillay a 16 gun privateer.[26]

In early July, Charles boarded Du Teillay at St Nazaire, accompanied by the seven companions later known as the Men of Moidart,[27] the most prominent of these was John O'Sullivan, an Irish exile and former French Army officer who acted as Charles' chief advisor. After meeting with Elizabeth, the two ships left for the Western Isles on 15 July but were intercepted four days out by the British warship HMS Lion. Lion engaged Elizabeth with both ships suffering so much damage that they had to return to port, this was a major setback as Elizabeth carried most of the weapons and the volunteers but Du Teillay sailed on and Charles landed on Eriskay on 23 July.[28]

The Glenfinnan banner

Their initial reception was unpromising, both the MacLeods and MacDonalds advising Charles to return to France,[29] they were eventually persuaded but the turning point was the commitment of the powerful and influential Donald Cameron of Lochiel. Charles' force now totalled about 1,000 and on 19th August he launched the rebellion with the raising of the Royal Standard at Glenfinnan, the Jacobites then set off towards Edinburgh, reaching Perth on 4 September where they were joined by more sympathisers. The most prominent of these was Lord George Murray, an experienced soldier previously pardoned by the government for his participation in the 1715 and 1719 risings. Murray replaced O'Sullivan as Commander of the Jacobite army due to his better understanding of Highland military culture and spent the next week re-organising it.[30]

The senior government officer in Scotland, Lord President Duncan Forbes had received confirmation of the landing on 9 August, which he forwarded to London,[31] his military commander Sir John Cope had only 3,000 mostly untrained recruits and initially could do little to suppress the rebellion. Forbes instead relied on personal relationships to keep people loyal and though unsuccessful with Lochiel, Lord George Murray and Lord Lovat, many others stayed on the sidelines as a result.[32]

The Jacobite army entered Edinburgh on 17th September unopposed although the Castle itself remained in government hands, the next day James was proclaimed King of Scotland and Charles his Regent [33] and shortly thereafter, Sir John Cope landed at the port of Dunbar a few miles from Edinburgh. The Jacobites marched out to intercept him and in the early morning of 21st September the government army was scattered in less than 30 minutes at Prestonpans. Victory meant the rebellion was now taken more seriously and in mid-October, the Jacobites received a shipment of money and weapons from France with an envoy, the Marquis d'Eguilles. The Duke of Cumberland, George II's younger son and commander of the British army in Europe arrived in London in late October, while 12,000 troops were recalled from Flanders.[34]

The Prince's Council now spent the next six weeks arguing about what to do next, the Council consisted of 15-20 senior leaders and met most days for several hours. It had been set up largely due to Scottish concerns with Charles' autocratic style and fears he was too influenced by his Irish advisors.[35] Charles resented it as an unwarranted control by the Scots on their divinely appointed monarch and it emphasised the deep divisions between the factions, these became most apparent in the meetings held on 30th and 31st October to discuss the invasion of England.[36]

The primary Scottish objective of ending the Union was now possible and they wanted to consolidate their position; although willing to assist an English rising or French invasion, they would not do it on their own. For the Irish, only a Stuart on the British throne could provide the autonomous, Catholic Ireland promised them by James II. Charles argued only removing the Hanoverians could guarantee an independent Scotland and thousands of supporters would join once they entered England, while the Marquis d'Eguilles provided assurances a French landing was imminent.[37]

The Council agreed to the invasion but only if these two conditions were met. Scottish incursions into England traditionally crossed the border at Berwick upon Tweed but to maximise their chances, Murray selected a route via Carlisle and the traditional heartland of Jacobite support in North-West England,[38] the last elements of the Jacobite army of about 5,000 [39] left Edinburgh on 4 November and government forces under General Handasyde retook the city on 14th.[40]

Invasion of England[edit]

William Hogarth's The March of the Guards to Finchley, depicting British soldiers mustered for the defence of London against Jacobite forces

The army formed two columns to conceal their destination from General Wade in Newcastle and on 8 November, crossed into England without opposition.[41] Two days later they reached Carlisle, an important border fortress prior to Union but since neglected, the defences were in poor condition, manned only by 80 elderly veterans; the Jacobites had no siege equipment but it surrendered on 15 November after learning Wade could not relieve them in time. Leaving a small garrison, the Jacobites continued south to Preston on 26 November [42] and Manchester on 28th, where the first significant intake of 200-300 English recruits was received. Reaching Derby on 4 December, the Council met the following day to discuss next steps.[43]

Neither of the conditions agreed in Edinburgh had been met, the only French assistance was the landing of 800 troops in Montrose on 24 November, while there was no sign of support from English Jacobite leaders; the Manchester recruits had been a one-off, only three joined in Derby. Similar discussions were held in both Preston and Manchester and several senior officers felt they should have turned back at Preston.[44] Murray argued they had gone as far as possible and now risked being caught between Cumberland in the south-west and Wade in the north, each army being twice the size of theirs, the admission by Charles that he had not been contacted by any English Jacobites or the French since landing in Scotland was greeted with incredulity by the Council.[45] As this meant he had lied in Edinburgh when claiming otherwise, his relationship with the Scots was fatally damaged, despite frantic attempts by Charles, the Council was overwhelmingly in favour of retreat and the next day they left Derby and headed north.[46]

Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland

The decision has been debated ever since but there is no evidence for allegations made later by exiles that there was panic in London on 6 December.[47] Most historians agree that the Hanoverian regime would not have fallen even had the Jacobites reached London,[48] the decision to retreat was validated by the Duke of Richmond, who was with Cumberland's army. He wrote to the Duke of Newcastle on 30 November listing five possible options for the Jacobites, of which retreating to Scotland was by far the best for them and the worst for the government.[49]

The fast moving Jacobite army evaded pursuit with only a minor skirmish at Clifton Moor, crossing back into Scotland on 20 December. Cumberland's army arrived outside Carlisle on 22 December and seven days later, the garrison was forced to surrender, ending the Jacobite military presence in England.[50]

The road to Culloden[edit]

While the invasion was a strategic failure, reaching Derby and successfully retreating back into Scotland was a considerable achievement. Morale was high and recruits from the Frasers, Mackenzies and Gordons plus drafts from Scottish and Irish regiments in French service brought Jacobite strength to over 8,000.[51] Artillery provided by the French was used to besiege Stirling Castle, the strategic key to the Highlands, on 17 January the Jacobites dispersed a relief force under Henry Hawley at the Battle of Falkirk Muir but the siege itself made little progress.[52]

Hawley's forces were largely intact and advanced on Stirling again once Cumberland arrived in Edinburgh on 30 January. Many Highlanders had gone home for the winter, leaving the Jacobites understrength and on 1 February, they abandoned the siege and retreated to Inverness.[53] Cumberland's army entered Aberdeen on 27 February and both sides halted operations until the weather improved.[54]

The Jacobites received several French shipments during the winter but the Royal Navy's blockade caused increasing shortages of both money and food, this meant that when Cumberland left Aberdeen on 8 April, Charles and his senior officers agreed a decisive battle was their best option. The choice of location has been argued ever since but is unlikely to have changed the result, as well as superior numbers and equipment, Cumberland's troops were intensively drilled in countering the key Highlanders offensive tactic of using the speed and ferocity of their initial charge to break the enemy line. When successful, this resulted in rapid victories as at Prestonpans and Falkirk but if it failed, they could not hold their ground,[55] with the Jacobite forces exhausted by an ill-advised night march, the Battle of Culloden on 16 April was over in less than an hour and ended in a decisive government victory.

Charles and most of his personal retinue escaped northwards while an estimated 1,500 survivors assembled at Ruthven Barracks,[56] on 20 April, Charles ordered them to disband, explaining his reasons in a letter dated 23 April. He argued the French preferred an ongoing, low level civil war in Scotland to a decisive victory, a view almost certainly correct as explained in the Background section above, since this placed the burden of suffering on the Scots, they should disperse until he returned from France with additional support.[57] In reality, the breakdown of the relationship between Charles and his Scottish supporters made a successful second campaign unlikely. Even before Derby, Charles accused Murray and others of treachery; disappointment and his habitual heavy drinking made these outbursts more frequent, while the Scots no longer trusted in his promises of support.[58] After several months of evading capture in the Western Highlands, Charles was picked up by a French ship on 20 September and never returned to Scotland.

Aftermath[edit]

The Glenfinnan Monument, erected in 1814 to commemorate the rebellion

After Culloden, government forces spent the next few weeks searching for rebels, confiscating cattle and burning Non-Juring Episcopalian or Catholic meeting houses. Prisoners from regiments in the French service were treated as POWs and exchanged but 3,500 captured Jacobites were indicted for treason. Of those, 650 died awaiting trial, 120 executed (including 40 British Army deserters and several officers from the Manchester Regiment), 900 pardoned and the rest transported.[59] Three Jacobite lords, Kilmarnock, Balmerino and Lovat were also executed but the public was now more sympathetic to those involved and they were among the last; Cumberland's insistence on severity led to a City of London alderman giving him the nickname 'Butcher.'[60]

Steps were taken to prevent future rebellions; William Roy, the Chief Surveyor, completed the first Ordnance Survey of the Highlands, new forts were built and the network of military roads started by Wade after 1715 finally completed. Even before Culloden, the clan system was in decline due to crop failures, disease and economic downturn;[61] this was accelerated by the Heritable Jurisdictions Act which ended the traditional powers exercised by chiefs over their clansmen (loyalists like the Duke of Argyll received compensation, rebels like Lochiel did not). The Act of Proscription outlawed Highland dress, unless worn in military service (repealed in 1782, by which time its purpose was achieved).

The Jacobite cause did not entirely disappear after 1746 but the exposure of the key factions' conflicting objectives ended it as a serious threat; Stuart Unionism meant an independent Scotland was no longer attainable, while the ineffectiveness of the English Jacobites was highlighted by failure to provide substantive support (the only Englishmen punished for their part in the Rebellion were members of the Manchester Regiment). France's biggest issue was Britain's increasing financial strength; a Stuart king would not change that and d'Eguilles argued a low level civil war in Scotland was far more useful to France.[62]

Charles was initially treated as a hero on his return to Paris but after several years of war, the French were short of money and eager to bring it to a conclusion; following the 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, the Stuarts were once more banished from France. Charles secretly visited London in 1750 and continued attempts to reignite his cause but the heavy drinking that was now a feature of his life made him argumentative and hard to work with; in 1759, the French Chief Minister, de Choiseul met with Charles to discuss Jacobite participation in another ambitious invasion attempt but dismissed him as incapable through drink.[63] Charles never visited Britain again and in January 1788, died in Rome, a disappointed and embittered man.

Legacy[edit]

The traditional focus on Bonnie Prince Charlie and the Highland clans obscures the true legacy of the 45. Modern historians argue Scottish Jacobites were primarily Nationalists and the Rebellion part of an ongoing political idea, not the last act of a doomed Stuart cause and Highland culture,[64] the Jacobite Army was a national force; many of its most effective units were Lowlanders, versus the traditional view of it as essentially one of Gaelic Highlanders.[65] This confusion still exists; Lowland units such as Lord Elcho's and Balmerino's Life Guards,[66] Baggot's Hussars[67] and Viscount Strathallan’s Perthshire Horse[68] are included by the Culloden Visitors Centre on a list of 'Highland Horse.' [69]

Defeat meant acceptance of Union and the search for an identity that was Unionist but also uniquely Scottish. One aspect was converting Highlanders from half-naked savages into a noble warrior race, for decades before 1745, rural poverty drove many to enlist in European armies but while military experience was common, the military aspects of clanship itself had been in decline for many years.[70] Foreign service was banned after 1745 and recruitment into the British Army accelerated as deliberate policy.[71] Britain was at war for 43 of the years between 1756 and 1815 with Scotland providing disproportionate numbers of recruits,[72] during Empire, British policy makers focused recruiting on a small number of so-called 'martial races,' a category including Highlanders, Sikhs, Dogras and Gurkhas.[73] In many ways, this view remains with us today.

A second element was the creation of a distinct Scottish literary culture, this had not been considered necessary prior to 1707 but was a reaction to Union by the Scottish Romantic movement, most famously the vernacular poetry of Allan Ramsay. This trend accelerated after 1746, Ramsay being followed by Robert Burns while others like James MacPherson looked to a more distant past that was both Scottish and Gaelic; in the early 19th century, the novelist Sir Walter Scott went further by transforming the Rising and its aftermath into a shared Unionist past. The hero of his most famous novel Waverley is an Englishman who fights for the Stuarts, rescues a Hanoverian Colonel and marries the daughter of a prominent Lowland aristocrat.

19th century Scottish art was particularly important in creating a view of Scotland that colours perspectives today. The mid 19th century landscapes of artists like Horatio McCulloch were superseded by so-called 'Jacobite Romantic" artists like John Blake MacDonald, this can be illustrated by comparing McCulloch's 1864 landscape of an empty and rugged Glen Coe [74] with MacDonald's 1879 painting 'Glencoe, 1692.'[75]

The end result was an identity which was Scottish, Unionist and Imperialist but expressed through culture, not politics. Burns Suppers, Highland Games, and tartans all date to the late 19th century, as was the adoption by a largely Protestant nation of the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots and Bonnie Prince Charlie.[76]

The 45 in popular culture[edit]

In literature, apart from Scott's Waverly novels, the best known books with the Rebellion as a backdrop include Robert Louis Stevenson's novels 'Kidnapped' and 'Catriona,' the Jacobite trilogy by D.K. Broster and in modern times, Diana Gabaldon's Outlander novels.

Significant screen versions include 1948's Bonnie Prince Charlie starring David Niven who summarised it as 'one of those huge, florid extravaganzas that reek of disaster from the start' and Culloden, Peter Watkins' 1964 docu-drama; in addition to the current Outlander TV series, the aftermath of the Rebellion is the theme of the now lost 1966 Dr Who series The Highlanders.

Musical references to the 45 are numerous, both for bagpipes (eg Johnnie Cope) and in song; the most famous is the Skye Boat Song but there are many others, one collection being the 1960 album 'Songs of Two Rebellions: The Jacobite Wars of 1715 and 1745 in Scotland' by Ewan MacColl and Peggy Seeger.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Forty-five Rebellion". Britannica. Retrieved 7 March 2016. 
  2. ^ Somerset, Anne (2012). Queen Anne; the Politics of Passion. Harper Press. pp. 532–535. ISBN 0007203764. 
  3. ^ Lord, Evelyn (2004). The Stuarts' Secret Army: English Jacobites, 1689-1752. Pearson. pp. 131–136. ISBN 0582772567. 
  4. ^ Harris, Tim (2006). Revolution; the Great Crisis of the British Monarchy 1685-1720. Penguin. pp. 439–444. ISBN 0141016523. 
  5. ^ Stephen, Jeffrey (January 2010). "Scottish Nationalism and Stuart Unionism". Journal of British Studies. 49 (1, Scottish Special): 47–72. 
  6. ^ Szechi, Daniel (1994). The Jacobites: Britain and Europe, 1688-1788 (First ed.). Manchester University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0719037743. 
  7. ^ Szechi, Daniel (1994). The Jacobites: Britain and Europe, 1688-1788 (First ed.). Manchester University Press. pp. 93–95. ISBN 0719037743. 
  8. ^ Riding, Jacqueline (2016). Jacobites; A New History of the 45 Rebellion. Bloomsbury. pp. 7–13. ISBN 1408819120. 
  9. ^ McKay, Derek (1983). The Rise of the Great Powers 1648-1815 (First ed.). Routledge. pp. 138–140. ISBN 0582485541. 
  10. ^ RA SP/MAIN/273/117 The Princes' letter to the chiefs, in parting from Scotland 28th April 1746
  11. ^ Katherine, Wormeley (2016). Volume 1: Journal and Memoirs of the Marquis D'Argenson. Wentworth Press. pp. 181–182. ISBN 1372987991. 
  12. ^ Szechi, Daniel (1994). The Jacobites: Britain and Europe, 1688-1788. Manchester University Press. pp. 94–95. 
  13. ^ Riding, Jacqueline (2016). Jacobites; A New History of the 45 Rebellion. Bloomsbury. pp. 19–20. ISBN 1408819120. 
  14. ^ Duffy, Christopher (2003). The '45: Bonnie Prince Charlie and the untold story of the Jacobite Rising (First ed.). Orion. p. 43. ISBN 0304355259. 
  15. ^ Riding, Jacqueline (2016). Jacobites; A New History of the 45 Rebellion. Bloomsbury. pp. 22–23. ISBN 1408819120. 
  16. ^ Cruickshanks, Eveline (1979). Political Untouchables: The Tories and the '45. Holmes & Meier. ISBN 0841905118. 
  17. ^ Szechi, Daniel (1994). The Jacobites: Britain and Europe, 1688-1788 (First ed.). Manchester University Press. pp. 96–98. ISBN 0719037743. 
  18. ^ Cruickshanks, Eveline (1979). Political Untouchables: The Tories and the '45. Holmes & Meier. pp. 50–52. ISBN 0841905118. 
  19. ^ Duffy, Christopher (2003). The '45: Bonnie Prince Charlie and the untold story of the Jacobite Rising (First ed.). Orion. p. 43. ISBN 0304355259. 
  20. ^ Riding, Jacqueline (2016). Jacobites; A New History of the 45 Rebellion. Bloomsbury. p. 27. ISBN 1408819120. 
  21. ^ Cruickshanks, Eveline (1979). Political Untouchables: The Tories and the '45. Holmes & Meier. pp. 34–36. ISBN 0841905118. 
  22. ^ Fremont, Gregory (2011). The Jacobite Rebellion 1745-46. Osprey Publishing. p. 48. ISBN 1846039924. 
  23. ^ Riding, Jacqueline (2016). Jacobites; A New History of the 45 Rebellion. Bloomsbury. pp. 27–29. ISBN 1408819120. 
  24. ^ Murray, John (1898). Memorials of John Murray of Broughton. University Press for the Scottish History Society. 
  25. ^ Riding, Jacqueline (2016). Jacobites; A New History of the 45 Rebellion. Bloomsbury. pp. 55–58. ISBN 1408819120. 
  26. ^ Riding, Jacqueline (2016). Jacobites; A New History of the 45 Rebellion. Bloomsbury. pp. 57–58. ISBN 1408819120. 
  27. ^ "The Seven Men of Moidart". 1745association.org.uk. Retrieved 5 September 2017. 
  28. ^ Duffy, Christopher (2003). The '45: Bonnie Prince Charlie and the untold story of the Jacobite Rising (First ed.). Orion. p. 43. ISBN 0304355259. 
  29. ^ Riding, Jacqueline (2016). Jacobites; A New History of the 45 Rebellion. Bloomsbury. pp. 83–84. ISBN 1408819120. 
  30. ^ Riding, Jacqueline (2016). Jacobites; A New History of the 45 Rebellion. Bloomsbury. pp. 123–125. ISBN 1408819120. 
  31. ^ Riding, Jacqueline (2016). Jacobites; A New History of the 45 Rebellion. Bloomsbury. pp. 93–94. ISBN 1408819120. 
  32. ^ Riding, Jacqueline (2016). Jacobites; A New History of the 45 Rebellion. Bloomsbury. pp. 95–97. ISBN 1408819120. 
  33. ^ Duffy, Christopher (2003). The '45: Bonnie Prince Charlie and the untold story of the Jacobite Rising (First ed.). Orion. p. 198. ISBN 0304355259. 
  34. ^ Riding, Jacqueline (2016). Jacobites; A New History of the 45 Rebellion. Bloomsbury. pp. 198–199. ISBN 1408819120. 
  35. ^ Lord Elcho, David (2010). A Short Account Of The Affairs Of Scotland In The Years 1744-46 (First published 1748 ed.). Kessinger Publishing. p. 289. ISBN 1163535249. 
  36. ^ Riding, Jacqueline (2016). Jacobites; A New History of the 45 Rebellion. Bloomsbury. pp. 175–176. ISBN 1408819120. 
  37. ^ Stephen, Jeffrey (January 2010). "Scottish Nationalism and Stuart Unionism". Journal of British Studies. 49 (1, Scottish Special): 55–58. 
  38. ^ Stephen, Jeffrey (January 2010). "Scottish Nationalism and Stuart Unionism". Journal of British Studies. 49 (1, Scottish Special): 60–61. 
  39. ^ Home, Robert (2014). The History of the Rebellion (First published 1802 ed.). Nabu Publishing. pp. 329–333. ISBN 1295587386. 
  40. ^ Riding, Jacqueline (2016). Jacobites; A New History of the 45 Rebellion. Bloomsbury. pp. 200–201. ISBN 1408819120. 
  41. ^ Duffy, Christopher (2003). The '45: Bonnie Prince Charlie and the untold story of the Jacobite Rising (First ed.). Orion. p. 223. ISBN 0304355259. 
  42. ^ Riding, Jacqueline (2016). Jacobites; A New History of the 45 Rebellion. Bloomsbury. pp. 209–216. ISBN 1408819120. 
  43. ^ Riding, Jacqueline (2016). Jacobites; A New History of the 45 Rebellion. Bloomsbury. pp. 298–299. ISBN 1408819120. 
  44. ^ Maxwell, James (2010). Narrative of Charles Prince of Wales' Expedition to Scotland in the Year 1745 (First published 1841 ed.). Kessinger Publishing. p. 77. ISBN 1165625350. 
  45. ^ Riding, Jacqueline (2016). Jacobites; A New History of the 45 Rebellion. Bloomsbury. pp. 299–300. ISBN 1408819120. 
  46. ^ Riding, Jacqueline (2016). Jacobites; A New History of the 45 Rebellion. Bloomsbury. pp. 304–305. ISBN 1408819120. 
  47. ^ Winchester, Paul (2017). Memoirs of the Chevalier de Johnstone (First published 1843 ed.). Leopold Publishing. p. 48. ISBN 1356079512. 
  48. ^ Colley, Linda (2009). Britons: Forging the Nation 1707-1837 (Third ed.). Yale University Press. pp. 72–79. ISBN 9780300152807. 
  49. ^ BL Add MS 32705 ff.399-400 Richmond to Newcastle. Lichfield 30 November 1745
  50. ^ Riding, Jacqueline (2016). Jacobites; A New History of the 45 Rebellion. Bloomsbury. pp. 328–329. ISBN 1408819120. 
  51. ^ Home, Robert (2014). The History of the Rebellion (First published 1802 ed.). Nabu Publishing. pp. 329–333. ISBN 1295587386. 
  52. ^ Riding, Jacqueline (2016). Jacobites; A New History of the 45 Rebellion. Bloomsbury. pp. 343–344. ISBN 1408819120. 
  53. ^ Home, Robert (2014). The History of the Rebellion (First published 1802 ed.). Nabu Publishing. pp. 353–354. ISBN 1295587386. 
  54. ^ Riding, Jacqueline (2016). Jacobites; A New History of the 45 Rebellion. Bloomsbury. pp. 377–378. ISBN 1408819120. 
  55. ^ Reid, Stuart (1996). British Redcoat 1740-93. Osprey Publishing. p. 9. ISBN 1855325543. 
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  57. ^ RA SP/MAIN/273/117 The Princes' letter to the chiefs, in parting from Scotland 28th April 1746
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References[edit]

  • Robert Chambers, History of the Rebellion of 1745–6 (W. & R. Chambers, 1869).
  • Eveline Cruickshanks, Political Untouchables. The Tories and the '45 (Duckworth, 1979).
  • Christopher Duffy, The '45 (Cassell, 2003).
  • Michael Hook and Walter Ross, The 'Forty-Five. The Last Jacobite Rebellion (Edinburgh: HMSO, The National Library of Scotland, 1995).
  • Jacqueline Riding, Jacobites; A New History of the 45 Rebellion (Bloomsbury 2016).
  • Stephen McGarry, Irish Brigades Abroad, (Dublin, 2013)
  • Thomas McInally, "Missionaries or Soldiers for the Jacobite Cause?". In Douglas J. Hamilton, ed., Jacobitism, Enlightenment and Empire, 1680–1820 (Routledge, 2015).
  • Frank McLynn, The Jacobite Army in England. 1745. The Final Campaign (John Donald, 1998).
  • Murray G. H. Pittock, ‘Charles Edward (1720–1788)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, September 2004; online edn, May 2006, accessed 25 October 2009.
  • W. A. Speck, The Butcher. The Duke of Cumberland and the Suppression of the 45 (Welsh Academic Press, 1995).
  • Rex Whitworth, William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland. A Life (Leo Cooper, 1992).