'48 Smallholders Party
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politics and government of
After 1922 the party did not contest any further elections.
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
After 1922 the party did not contest any further elections.
1. Hungary – Hungary is a unitary parliamentary republic in Central Europe. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a member state of the European Union. The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken language in Europe. Hungarys capital and largest metropolis is Budapest, a significant economic hub, major urban areas include Debrecen, Szeged, Miskolc, Pécs and Győr. His great-grandson Stephen I ascended to the throne in 1000, converting the country to a Christian kingdom, by the 12th century, Hungary became a middle power within the Western world, reaching a golden age by the 15th century. Hungarys current borders were established in 1920 by the Treaty of Trianon after World War I, when the country lost 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, following the interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a four-decade-long communist dictatorship. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became again a democratic parliamentary republic, in the 21st century, Hungary is a middle power and has the worlds 57th largest economy by nominal GDP, as well as the 58th largest by PPP, out of 188 countries measured by the IMF. As a substantial actor in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds 36th largest exporter and importer of goods, Hungary is a high-income economy with a very high standard of living. It keeps up a security and universal health care system. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and part of the Schengen Area since 2007, Hungary is a member of the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe and Visegrád Group. Well known for its cultural history, Hungary has been contributed significantly to arts, music, literature, sports and science. Hungary is the 11th most popular country as a tourist destination in Europe and it is home to the largest thermal water cave system, the second largest thermal lake in the world, the largest lake in Central Europe, and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. The H in the name of Hungary is most likely due to historical associations with the Huns. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Medieval Greek Oungroi, according to an explanation the Greek name was borrowed from Proto-Slavic Ǫgǔri, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the name for the tribes who later joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars. The Hungarians likely belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance and it is possible they became its ethnic majority. The Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of magyar and ország, the word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri
2. Government of Hungary – The Government of Hungary exercises executive power in Hungary. It is led by the Prime Minister, and comprises ministers and it is the principal organ of public administration. The Prime Minister elected by the National Assembly and serves as the head of government, the Prime Minister is the leader of the party with the most seats in parliament. The Prime Minister selects Cabinet ministers and has the right to dismiss them. Cabinet nominees must appear before consultative open hearings before one or more parliamentary committees, survive a vote in the National Assembly, the cabinet is responsible to the parliament. Since the fall of communism, Hungary has a multi-party system, the last Hungarian parliamentary election took place on 6 April 2014. This parliamentary election was the 7th since the 1990 first multi-party election, the result was a victory for Fidesz–KDNP alliance, preserving its two-thirds majority with Viktor Orbán remaining Prime Minister. It was the first election according to the new Constitution of Hungary which went into force on 1 January 2012, the new electoral law also entered into force that day. The voters elected 199 MPs instead of previous 386 lawmakers, list of cabinets since 1989, Following the Hungarian parliamentary election,2014, the current prime minister, Viktor Orbán is serving with his government since 6 June 2014. The Minister of Interior of Hungary is a member of the Hungarian cabinet, the current foreign minister is Sándor Pintér. Between 2006 and 2010 the ministry was split into the Ministry of Local Government, in 2010 the prior organization was restored. Ministry of Local Government Ministry of Justice and Law Enforcement The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Hungary is a member of the Hungarian cabinet, the current foreign minister is Péter Szijjártó. The Minister of National Economy of Hungary is a member of the Hungarian cabinet, the current minister of national economy is Mihály Varga
3. Jobbik – Jobbik, the Movement for a Better Hungary, commonly known as Jobbik, is a Hungarian radical nationalist political party. The party describes itself as a principled, conservative and radically patriotic Christian party, whose purpose is the protection of Hungarian values. By contrast, the party has been described by others as neo-Nazi, after the Hungarian parliamentary elections on 6 April 2014, the party polled 1,020,476 votes, securing 20. 54% of the total, making them Hungarys third largest party in the National Assembly. The Movement for a Better Hungary more commonly goes under its abbreviated name Jobbik, the word jobb in Hungarian has two meanings, the adjective for better and the direction right, the comparative Jobbik therefore means both the more preferable choice and more to the right. This is similar to the English phrase right choice, which could mean both a choice on the side of the political spectrum and a correct choice. The party describes itself as a principled, conservative and radically patriotic Christian party, whose purpose is the protection of Hungarian values. For its part, Jobbik rejects the common classification of the spectrum in left. It prefers a distinction of political parties based on their stance towards globalisation, on this scheme, the party sees itself as patriotic. The party also rejects the term far-right, and instead labels itself as radical right-wing and it has also criticised media companies for labelling them as far-right and has threatened to take action towards those who do. Jobbik describes itself as rejecting global capitalism, European integration and Zionism, instead it adheres to Pan-Turanism, an ideology that asserts that Hungarians originate from the Ural–Altaic race. The movement is described by scholars and media outlets as fascist, neo-fascist, Neo-Nazi, extremist, racist, antisemitic, antiziganist. Jobbik rejects globalised capitalism, and the influence of foreign investors in Hungary, Jobbik specifically opposes Israeli and Jewish investment in Hungary. Jobbik officially maintains that it rejects violence and supports democracy, the party argues that the national police should be greatly strengthened and, along with the Fidesz, supports introducing a three strikes law. However, Jobbiks connections to the now-banned Magyar Gárda militia have raised concerns about the commitment to ensuring peace and order within Hungarian society. Jobbik supports bringing back the death penalty and have promised to restore capital punishment if they come to power. Jobbiks Hungarian irredentism can be found in pleas for cross-border ethnic self-determination, for example, the party demands territorial autonomy for the Székely Land in Romania and desires to make Carpathian Ruthenia an independent Hungarian district. Jobbik frequently calls for a return to pre-Treaty of Trianon borders in political rhetoric, a quarter of ethnic Hungarians live outside the country. Jobbik dedicates itself to supporting the cause of the significant Hungarian minorities residing in adjoining countries, the meaning of the partys 2009 election slogan Hungary belongs to the Hungarians was also the subject of considerable scrutiny
4. Hungarian Socialist Party – The Hungarian Socialist Party, known mostly by its acronym MSZP, is a social-democratic political party in Hungary. It was founded on 7 October 1989 as a democratic party by the reform wing of the ruling socialist Hungarian Socialist Workers Party. MSZP was one of the two parties in Hungarian politics until 2010, however, the party lost much of its popular support as a result of 2006 protests. Since then, the MSZP has been the strongest opposition party in the parliament since 2010 and it is the partial successor of the communist Hungarian Socialist Workers Party, which ruled Hungary between 1956 and 1989. The decision to declare the party a successor of the MSZMP was controversial, another source of controversy is that some members of the former communist elite maintained political influence in the MSZP. Indeed, many key MSZP politicians were members or held leadership positions within the MSZMP. The party is not to be confused with the Workers Party, the MSZP, in contrast, implemented a strong package of market reforms, austerity and privatization in 1995-96, called the Bokros package, when Hungary faced an economic and financial crisis. In contrast, issues like church and state and former communists show alignment along the traditional left-right spectrum and it is also noteworthy that, according to research, the MSZP elites positions used to be closer to voters of the SZDSZ than to their own. Besides Gyula Horn, the MSZPs most internationally recognized politicians were Ferenc Gyurcsány and László Kovács, at the 2006 elections, MSZP won with 43. 2% of party list votes, which gave it 190 representatives out of 386 in the Parliament. The MSZP was therefore able to retain its coalition government from the previous term, in earlier elections, the MSZP polled 10. 89%,32. 98%,32. 92% and 42. 05%. After the successful fees abolishment referendum, MSZP formed the first minority government of Hungary, on 21 March 2009 Gyurcsány announced his resignation as Prime Minister due to failure management of the economic crisis. Gordon Bajnai became the nominee of MSZP for the post of minister in March 2009. Gyurcsány also resigned from his position of party chairman, which he had occupied since 2007. MSZP has lost half of its supporters during the European Parliament election in 2009 and this electoral defeat marked the end of the de facto two-party system in Hungary, which lasted since 1998. The Hungarian Socialist Party suffered a defeat in the 2010 election, gaining only 19, 3% of the votes. Following the resignation of Ildikó Lendvai, the prime minister candidate Attila Mesterházy was elected Chairman of the Socialist Party. Nevertheless, MSZP became the biggest opposition party in Hungary, initially, the former PM wanted to reform the party, but his goals remained in the minority. As a result, Gyurcsány, along with nine members of the parliamentary group, left MSZP
5. Hungarian Two-tailed Dog Party – The Hungarian Two-tailed Dog Party is a joke political party in Hungary. It was founded in Szeged in 2006, but registered as an political party in 2014. The partys main activity is street art – graffiti, stencils, all of the electoral candidates were called István Nagy during the 2006 national and local elections. The name was chosen because Nagy is the single most common surname in Hungary, the Two-tailed Dog Party was not a registered political party until 2014, but planned to participate in the 2006 elections. The party made the following promises, eternal life, world peace, one day per week. Other promises include building a mountain on the Great Hungarian Plain, the election posters could mainly be seen in Szeged. Most of the featured the candidate, István Nagy, who is a two-tailed dog, with inscriptions like He is so cute. The party is on good terms with another party, the Fourth Way. However, there are disagreements between them, since Fourth Way plans to abolish bird flu, and this is opposed by the Two-tailed Dog Party. On 20 June 2009, the MKKP held a general protest with approximately three hundred participants in front of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office to demand Tomorrow should be yesterday, etc. with a slogan that What do we want. In 2010, the party announced their candidacy for mayor of Budapest with the main slogan Let everything better, campaign slogans include More everything, less nothing. Eternal life, free beer, tax-deduction. and We promise anything, however, neither candidate was able to collect the appropriate number of recommendation slips to participate in the election. According to its economic program, MKKP intended to develop Szeged space station into an interplanetary spaceport. The program also contained environmental elements, such as patching the ozone hole, the party also aimed the establishment of trade relations with extraterrestrial life forms and opening a Hungarian restaurant on Mars in order to improve the countrys image. Since 2013, the party was trying to finish the official registration process, the registration was rejected in early 2014, referring to the partys flippancy. In July 2014, the Supreme Court ruled that there is no objections against registering the party, the MKKP was officially registered on 8 September 2014, only 16 minutes before the deadline for nomination of candidates for the 2014 local elections. Thus it prevented the partys participation in the election, in June 2015, the ruling Third Orbán Government launched a poster campaign during the intensifying European migrant crisis. Their billboard, among others, said If you come to Hungary, on 4 February 2016, Mediáns poll for the first time registered support for the Hungarian Two-tailed Dog Party, which received 1% among the entire population
6. European Parliament – The European Parliament is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union. Together with the Council of the European Union and the European Commission, the Parliament is composed of 751 members, who represent the second-largest democratic electorate in the world and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world. It has been elected every five years by universal suffrage since 1979. However, voter turnout at European Parliament elections has fallen consecutively at each election since that date, voter turnout in 2014 stood at 42. 54% of all European voters. The Parliament is the first institution of the EU, and shares equal legislative and it likewise has equal control over the EU budget. Finally, the European Commission, the body of the EU, is accountable to Parliament. In particular, Parliament elects the President of the Commission, and it can subsequently force the Commission as a body to resign by adopting a motion of censure. The President of the European Parliament is Antonio Tajani, elected in January 2017 and he presides over a multi-party chamber, the two largest groups being the Group of the European Peoples Party and the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats. The last union-wide elections were the 2014 elections, the European Parliament has three places of work – Brussels, the city of Luxembourg and Strasbourg. Luxembourg is home to the administrative offices, meetings of the whole Parliament take place in Strasbourg and in Brussels. Committee meetings are held in Brussels, the Parliament, like the other institutions, was not designed in its current form when it first met on 10 September 1952. One of the oldest common institutions, it began as the Common Assembly of the European Coal and it was a consultative assembly of 78 appointed parliamentarians drawn from the national parliaments of member states, having no legislative powers. Its development since its foundation shows how the European Unions structures have evolved without a master plan. Some, such as Tom Reid of the Washington Post, said of the union, nobody would have designed a government as complex. Even the Parliaments two seats, which have switched several times, are a result of various agreements or lack of agreements, the body was not mentioned in the original Schuman Declaration. It was assumed or hoped that difficulties with the British would be resolved to allow the Council of Europes Assembly to perform the task, a separate Assembly was introduced during negotiations on the Treaty as an institution which would counterbalance and monitor the executive while providing democratic legitimacy. The wording of the ECSC Treaty demonstrated the desire for more than a normal consultative assembly by using the term representatives of the people. Its early importance was highlighted when the Assembly was given the task of drawing up the treaty to establish a European Political Community
7. Fidesz – Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Alliance is a right-wing national conservative and populist political party in Hungary. Fidesz also retains current majorities in the county legislatures, almost all urban counties and it has been described as neo-fascist, and is a troubled member of the European Peoples Party. The party was founded in 1988, named simply Fidesz, originally as a youthful libertarian, Fidesz was founded by young democrats, mainly students, who were persecuted by the communist party and had to meet in small, clandestine groups. The movement became a force in many areas of modern Hungarian history. The membership had an age limit of 35 years. In 1989, Fidesz won the Rafto Prize, the Hungarian youth opposition movement was represented by one of its leaders, Dr Péter Molnár, who became a Member of Parliament in Hungary. In 1992, Fidesz joined the Liberal International, Fidesz received 8. 95%,7. 02% and 29. 48%. After its disappointing result in the 1994 elections, Fidesz changed its position from liberal to conservative. In 1995, it added Hungarian Civic Party to its shortened name, the conservative turn caused a severe split in the membership. Péter Molnár left the party, as well as Gábor Fodor and Klára Ungár, Fidesz gained power in 1998 under leader and Prime Minister Viktor Orbán, who governed Hungary in coalition with the smaller Hungarian Democratic Forum and the Independent Smallholders Party. In 2000, Fidesz joined the European Peoples Party and had its membership in the Liberal International terminated, Fidesz narrowly lost the 2002 elections to the Hungarian Socialist Party, by 41. 07% to the Socialists 42. 05%. Fidesz had 169 members of the Hungarian National Assembly, out of a total of 386, following the defeat, the municipal elections in October saw huge Fidesz losses. In the spring of 2003, Fidesz took its current name, the election of Dr. László Sólyom as the new President of Hungary as the most recent success of the party. He was endorsed by Védegylet, an NGO including people from the political spectrum. His activity does not entirely overlap with the ideals and he championed for elements of both political wings with a selective, but conscious choice of values. In 2005, Fidesz and the Christian Democratic Peoples Party formed an alliance for the 2006 elections, on October 1,2006, Fidesz won the municipal elections, which counterbalanced the MSZP-led governments power to some extent. In the 2009 European Parliament election, Fidesz won a landslide victory, in the final result, they won 263 seats, of which 173 are individual seats. Fidesz held 227 of these seats, giving it a majority in the National Assembly by itself
8. Hungarian parliamentary election, 2010 – Parliamentary elections were held in Hungary on 11 and 25 April 2010 to choose MPs for the National Assembly. They were the free elections since the end of communist era. 386 members of parliament were elected in a system of party lists. In the first round of the elections, the conservative party Fidesz won the majority of seats. In the second round Fidesz-Christian Democratic Peoples Party candidates won seats to achieve a two-thirds majority required to modify major laws. This speech surfaced in the press in the Autumn of 2006, as polls showed both MDF and SZDSZ would be unlikely to make it into parliament on their own, they have agreed to a limited electoral cooperation. Following the EU elections of 2009, trends showed the rise of right-wing parties, in this vein, the foreign media cited ominous trends concerning the election results. Jobbik leader, Gábor Vona, also stirred up controversy with allegations of chauvinism by saying Hungary is for Hungarians, Molnar also claimed that the language of instruction in Jerusalem schools was Hungarian and they were learning the language of their future homeland. His party at the time, Fidesz, did not denounce his statement, adding that he would not even consider ousting Molnar from his party or parliamentary faction, as the remark did not violate the partys bylaws. However, in 2010 he was excluded from the Fidesz, due to these remarks, instead of him, a Lebanese-origin doctor, Pierre Daher became the Fidesz candidate. Molnár also claimed that pregnant Roma women deliberately try to induce birth defects so they can give birth to fools to receive higher family subsidies, I have checked this and it’s true, they hit their bellies with a rubber hammer so that they’ll give birth to handicapped kids. In 2011, he denounced Roma women at the Hungarian police authorities, according to Ékes, the demonstrations would harm youngsters, whose school season was to start on the same day. A Hungarian analyst was cited as saying Fidesz tolerates such provocative rhetoric from its members because of fears they would vote for Jobbik instead and this was answered by Richard Field, an American businessman living in Hungary, who is a large financial supporter of Politics Can Be Different. Staudt, a co-founder of the Magyar Gárda Society—that was banned in 2007—had been on the security committee. The four would, however, continue to be MPs, NSD - European Election Database - Hungary