'48 Smallholders Party
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
After 1922 the party did not contest any further elections.
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
After 1922 the party did not contest any further elections.
1. Hungary – Hungary is a unitary parliamentary republic in Central Europe. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a member state of the European Union. The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken language in Europe. Hungarys capital and largest metropolis is Budapest, a significant economic hub, major urban areas include Debrecen, Szeged, Miskolc, Pécs and Győr. His great-grandson Stephen I ascended to the throne in 1000, converting the country to a Christian kingdom, by the 12th century, Hungary became a middle power within the Western world, reaching a golden age by the 15th century. Hungarys current borders were established in 1920 by the Treaty of Trianon after World War I, when the country lost 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, following the interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a four-decade-long communist dictatorship. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became again a democratic parliamentary republic, in the 21st century, Hungary is a middle power and has the worlds 57th largest economy by nominal GDP, as well as the 58th largest by PPP, out of 188 countries measured by the IMF. As a substantial actor in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds 36th largest exporter and importer of goods, Hungary is a high-income economy with a very high standard of living. It keeps up a security and universal health care system. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and part of the Schengen Area since 2007, Hungary is a member of the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe and Visegrád Group. Well known for its cultural history, Hungary has been contributed significantly to arts, music, literature, sports and science. Hungary is the 11th most popular country as a tourist destination in Europe and it is home to the largest thermal water cave system, the second largest thermal lake in the world, the largest lake in Central Europe, and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. The H in the name of Hungary is most likely due to historical associations with the Huns. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Medieval Greek Oungroi, according to an explanation the Greek name was borrowed from Proto-Slavic Ǫgǔri, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the name for the tribes who later joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars. The Hungarians likely belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance and it is possible they became its ethnic majority. The Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of magyar and ország, the word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri
2. Politics of Hungary – Politics of Hungary takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic. The Prime Minister is the head of government of a pluriform multi-party system, while the President is the head of state, Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the parliament, the party system since the last elections is dominated by the conservative Fidesz. Hungary is an independent, democratic and constitutional state, which has been a member of the European Union since 2004, since 1989 Hungary has been a parliamentary republic. Legislative power is exercised by the unicameral National Assembly that consists of 199 members, members of the National Assembly are elected for four years. If the President dies, resigns or is unable to carry out his duties. Each cabinet nominee appears before one or more parliamentary committees in consultative open hearings, survive a vote by the Parliament, in Communist Hungary, the executive branch of the Peoples Republic of Hungary was represented by the Council of Ministers. The unicameral, 199-member National Assembly is the highest organ of state authority and its members are elected for a four-year term. The election threshold is 5%, but it applies to the multi-seat constituencies. A fifteen-member Constitutional Court has power to challenge legislation on grounds of unconstitutionality and this body was last filled on July 2010. Members are elected for a term of twelve years, the President of the Supreme Court of Hungary and the Hungarian civil and penal legal system he leads is fully independent of the Executive Branch. They have held the authority to legally binding decisions since late 2003. Note, with restructruring and reorganization, this information may change even within a governmental period, Ministers without portfolio, Zsolt Semjén, Tamás Fellegi
3. Constitution of Hungary – The Fundamental Law of Hungary, the countrys constitution, was adopted on 18 April 2011, promulgated a week later and entered into force on 1 January 2012. It is Hungarys first constitution adopted within a framework and following free elections. The document succeeded the 1949 Constitution, originally adopted at the creation of the Hungarian Peoples Republic on 20 August 1949, both domestically and abroad, the 2011 constitution has been the subject of controversy. The government that enacted the charter has dismissed such assertions, saying it was enshrined lawfully, the constitution is divided into sections and articles as outlined below. Described as socially and fiscally conservative, the initiates a number of changes. In an effort to push the public debt below 50% of gross domestic product, the President is allowed to dissolve Parliament if a budget is not approved, and only companies with transparent activities and ownership structures are allowed to bid for government contracts. The powers of the head of the Hungarian National Bank are also limited, the life of a fetus is protected from the moment of conception, and although the move is seen as opening the possibility for a future ban or restrictions on abortion, existing laws were unaffected. Same-sex couples may register their partnerships, but marriage is defined as being between one man and one woman. A ban on discrimination does not mention age or sexual orientation, the constitution lowers judges mandatory retirement age from 70 to the general retirement age, which was 62 at the time of adoption and is set to rise to 65 by 2022. The provision also covers prosecutors, while the Prosecutor General and the head of the Curia are exempt, for centuries, the Hungarian constitution was unwritten, based upon customary law. There was no civil code either, lawyers worked with the Corpus Iuris Hungarici, following the advent of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, the Revolutionary Governing Council adopted a Provisional Constitution on 2 April 1919, providing for a Soviet-style political system. On 23 June, the National Assembly of Allied Councils adopted Hungarys first charter-like constitution, however, that regime was crushed two months later and Hungary returned to its historical, unwritten pre-1918 constitution. Despite the lack of a constitution, several constitutional laws were passed during the interwar period of the Kingdom of Hungary. Statute I of 1920 confirmed the monarchical form of government and vested legislative power in a diet, Statute XLVII dethroned the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. A second chamber was established by Statute XXII of 1926, successive constitutional acts increased the power of the regent, who was empowered to nominate forty senators at first, and during World War II, eighty-seven. Its basic features remained in place until 1989, although a number of important amendments were made, while the constitution guaranteed certain fundamental rights, their scope was limited by provisions stating they had to be exercised in harmony with the interests of the socialist society. In 1989, as the Communist regime crumbled, the legislature approved a constitutional revision that brought in a civil democratic form of government. After the opposition won free elections in 1990, references to democratic socialism, further modifications followed over the ensuing two decades, as successive plans for a new constitution did not reach fulfillment
4. Hungarian Constitution of 1949 – The Hungarian Constitution of 1949 was adopted on 20 August 1949 and heavily amended on 23 October 1989. The Constitution of Hungary, adopted in 2011, declares the 1949 constitution to be invalid, following the end of World War II and after the country had been occupied by the Soviet Union, democratic elections were held under Statute VIII of 1945. Then, Statute I of 1946, a constitutional statute passed on 31 January, formally ended the thousand-year monarchy. Then in 1949, after the Hungarian Working Peoples Party had assumed undisputed control of the country, the date of its adoption,20 August, made a new national holiday that coincided with the traditional holiday of the feast of Saint Stephen. Now, Hungary became a republic, which was the state of the workers. A Presidential Council elected by parliament was to be head of state, the National Assembly met for some ten days each year, with most rules taking the form of presidential and ministerial decrees. A variety of rights was guaranteed, but only for the working people. Moreover, no means existed of ensuring these rights mandatory nature or of rendering them enforceable, until 1989, the charters basic features remained in effect, although the regime added important amendments in 1950,1953,1954,1972, and 1983. Notably, Act I of 26 April 1972, comprehensively redrafted the constitution, while the social, economic and political order remained the same, fundamental rights were now guaranteed for all citizens. The preamble still paid tribute to the Soviet liberators but took a historical perspective. From 1988 on, as the situation deteriorated and opposition groups emerged. However, time constraints did not allow a new constitution to be written. On 18 October, the National Assembly adopted an amendment to the 1949 Constitution. This reform was the first thoroughgoing constitutional transformation in the Soviet bloc and it was adopted like a normal constitutional amendment, with at least two-thirds of MPs approving, and went into effect on 23 October, the anniversary of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. The 1989 reform established Hungary as an independent, democratic, constitutional republic that was both democratic and democratic socialist. The economy was to be a market one, with planning employed and public. The people were sovereign, with parties functioning freely, outside the preamble, all references to socialism were carefully deleted. The Constitutional Court, whose members are elected by two-thirds of parliament, can annul laws declared unconstitutional, the parliamentary term was reduced from five to four years
5. Government of Hungary – The Government of Hungary exercises executive power in Hungary. It is led by the Prime Minister, and comprises ministers and it is the principal organ of public administration. The Prime Minister elected by the National Assembly and serves as the head of government, the Prime Minister is the leader of the party with the most seats in parliament. The Prime Minister selects Cabinet ministers and has the right to dismiss them. Cabinet nominees must appear before consultative open hearings before one or more parliamentary committees, survive a vote in the National Assembly, the cabinet is responsible to the parliament. Since the fall of communism, Hungary has a multi-party system, the last Hungarian parliamentary election took place on 6 April 2014. This parliamentary election was the 7th since the 1990 first multi-party election, the result was a victory for Fidesz–KDNP alliance, preserving its two-thirds majority with Viktor Orbán remaining Prime Minister. It was the first election according to the new Constitution of Hungary which went into force on 1 January 2012, the new electoral law also entered into force that day. The voters elected 199 MPs instead of previous 386 lawmakers, list of cabinets since 1989, Following the Hungarian parliamentary election,2014, the current prime minister, Viktor Orbán is serving with his government since 6 June 2014. The Minister of Interior of Hungary is a member of the Hungarian cabinet, the current foreign minister is Sándor Pintér. Between 2006 and 2010 the ministry was split into the Ministry of Local Government, in 2010 the prior organization was restored. Ministry of Local Government Ministry of Justice and Law Enforcement The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Hungary is a member of the Hungarian cabinet, the current foreign minister is Péter Szijjártó. The Minister of National Economy of Hungary is a member of the Hungarian cabinet, the current minister of national economy is Mihály Varga
6. Prime Minister of Hungary – The Prime Minister of Hungary is the head of government of Hungary, and the most powerful person in Hungarian politics. He or she leads the majority party or coalition in the National Assembly of Hungary, the current Prime Minister is Viktor Orbán, who has served since 29 May 2010. The title of Hungarys head of government in Hungarian is miniszterelnök, if there is no party with a majority, the President asks the leader of the largest party to attempt to form a government coalition. Therefore, the election of members of a party to parliament is the equivalent to a vote for that partys leader for Prime Minister. There is no limit to the number of mandates as Prime Minister, he/she is appointed by the President of the Republic, after the legislative elections and after an audience with every leader of a party represented at the Assembly. It is usual for the leader of the party receives a plurality of votes in the elections to be named Prime Minister. The Prime Minister has a role in the executive branch in accordance with the Hungarian Constitution. Further, the Prime Minister selects Cabinet ministers and has the right to dismiss them as is the case with the Chancellor of Germany. Cabinet nominees appear before one or more parliamentary committees in consultative open hearings and they must then survive a vote by Parliament and be formally approved by the President. The palatine was the highest dignitary in the Kingdom of Hungary after the king from the rise up to 1848/1918. Initially, he was in fact the representative of the king, in the early centuries of the kingdom, he was appointed by the king, later elected by the Diet of the Kingdom of Hungary. After the Habsburgs solidified their hold of Hungary, the dignity became a position once again. Finally, it became hereditary in a branch of the Habsburg dynasty after King Francis appointed his brother Joseph. During the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 the revolutionaries wanted the creation of a Hungarian cabinet which would be independent from the Austrian Empire, one of the 12 points said,2. Ferdinand V appointed Count Lajos Batthyány for the position of Prime Minister of Hungary on 17 March 1848, the government was called ministry, differently from the current acceptation. Batthyány resigned on October 2,1848 he was succeeded by Lajos Kossuth as President of the Committee of National Defence and this executive body has not been allocated the portfolios. In April 1849, when the Hungarians had won many successes, after sounding the army, in May Bertalan Szemere was appointed Prime Minister. The position was vacant after the defeat of the freedom fight, List of rulers of Hungary List of heads of state of Hungary List of palatines of Hungary List of Prime Ministers of Hungary by tenure