Ein Yabrud

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Ein Yabrud
Other transcription(s)
 • Arabic عين يبرود
 • Also spelled 'Ein Yabrud (official)
Ayn Yabrood (unofficial)
EinYabrud10.jpg
Ein Yabrud is located in the Palestinian territories
Ein Yabrud
Ein Yabrud
Location of Ein Yabrud within the Palestinian territories
Coordinates: 31°56′51″N 35°14′55″E / 31.94750°N 35.24861°E / 31.94750; 35.24861Coordinates: 31°56′51″N 35°14′55″E / 31.94750°N 35.24861°E / 31.94750; 35.24861
Palestine grid 173/151
Governorate Ramallah & al-Bireh
Government
 • Type Municipality
 • Head of Municipality Awni Hasan Sha'ib
Area
 • Jurisdiction 11,488 dunams (11.5 km2 or 4.4 sq mi)
Population (2007)
 • Jurisdiction 3,000
Name meaning The spring of Yebrud[1]

Ein Yabrud (Arabic: عين يبرود‎‎) is a Palestinian town in the Ramallah and al-Bireh Governorate in the central West Bank. It is located approximately 7 km northeast of the city of Ramallah and its elevation is 800 m. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) the town had a population of 3,000 in 2007.[2]

History[edit]

Sherds from the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine eras have been found here.[3] A grave, with three arcosolia, and with coins from the reign of Constantine the Great have been excavated here.[4]

Sherds from the Umayyad, Crusader/Ayyubid and Mamluk eras have also been found.[3]

Yaqut noted about Ein Yabrud and Yabrud: "A village lying north of Jerusalem, on the road from the Holy City to Nabulus, between which and Yabrud is Kafar Natha. It possesses orchards and vineyards, and olives and Sumach trees."[5]

Ottoman era[edit]

Ein Yabrud, like the rest of Palestine, was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517, and in the census of 1596, the village was noted in the Nahiya of Quds of the Liwa of Quds under the name of 'Ayn Ibrud. The population was 24 households, all Muslim, the villagers paid a fixed tax rate of 33,3% on various agricultural products, such as wheat, barley, olive trees, vineyards, fruit trees, goats and/or beehives, in addition to "occasional revenues"; a total of 8,700 akçe.[6][7]

In 1838, Edward Robinson noted Ein Yabrud "on the top of a hill",[8] it was further noted as Muslim village, located in the Beni Murrah region, north of Jerusalem.[9]

In 1863 Victor Guérin found it to have 800 inhabitants, he further noted that a number of houses were built with antique materials.[10]

Socin found from an official Ottoman village list from about 1870 that the village had 66 houses and a population of 282, though the population count included men, only.[11][12]

In 1882 the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine (SWP) described 'Ain Yebrud as: "A village of moderate size on the top of a hill, well built, surrounded with fine groves of olives, with a well on the north-east."[13]

In 1896 the population of 'Ain jabrud was estimated to be about 573 persons.[14]

British Mandate era[edit]

In the 1922 census of Palestine, conducted by the British Mandate authorities, the population numbered 576 Muslims,[15] increasing in the 1931 census to 788 inhabitants, in 178 houses.[16]

In 1945 Ein Yabrud had a population of 930 Muslims,[17] and a total land area of 11,488 dunams.[18] 3,151 dunams were for plantations and irrigable land, 3,632 for cereals,[19] while 88 dunams were built-up areas.[20]

Jordanian era[edit]

In the wake of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and after the 1949 Armistice Agreements, Ein Yabrud came under Jordanian rule. Jordan confiscated lands of Ein Yabrud and nearby Silwad for the construction of a military camp before the Six Day War.[21]

Post-1967[edit]

After the Six-Day War in 1967, Ein Yabrud has been under Israeli occupation.

The Jordanian buildings formed the initial basis of the Israeli settlement of Ofra founded in 1975.[21] Plans for further expansion of Ofra in this land in 2011 resulted in legal challenges and public dispute.[21] Land belonging to the residents of the village has been used to construct hundreds of structures in the neighbouring Israeli settlement of Ofra.[22]

Ein Yabrud is the home village of Hamas military commander Maher Udda.[23]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Palmer, 1881, p. 224
  2. ^ 2007 PCBS Census Archived December 10, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.. Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. p.114.
  3. ^ a b Finkelstein et al, 1997, p. 563
  4. ^ Dauphin, 1998, p. 832
  5. ^ le Strange, 1890, p. 550
  6. ^ Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 121
  7. ^ Toledano, 1984, p. 289, gives the location as 31°57′15″N 35°14′20″E, noting a spring called Ayn Abrud located nearby, at 31°57′00″N 35°13′40″E
  8. ^ Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol 2, p. 80
  9. ^ Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol 3, Appendix 2, p. 125
  10. ^ Guérin, 1869, pp. 42 -43
  11. ^ Socin, 1879, p. 143
  12. ^ Hartmann, 1883, p. 115 noted 67 houses
  13. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 291
  14. ^ Schick, 1896, p. 121
  15. ^ Barron, 1922, Table VII, Sub-district of Ramalllah, p. 16
  16. ^ Mills, 1932, p.49
  17. ^ Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 26
  18. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 64.
  19. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 112
  20. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 162
  21. ^ a b c State moves to expand settlement on Palestinian land confiscated by Jordan, Chaim Levinson, Jun 17, 2011, Haaretz
  22. ^ Israel's 'Ulpana neighborhood is built on years of land theft and forgery, Akiva Eldar, 24 April 2012, Haaretz
  23. ^ Israel arrests Hamas leader March 15, 2010, Al Jazeera

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]