'Ajam of Kuwait

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Ayam
العيم
Regions with significant populations
Kuwait
Religion
Predominantly Shi'a Islam
Minority Sunni Islam
Related ethnic groups
Ajam of Bahrain

Ajam of Kuwait or Ayam or Persians of Kuwait[1][2] are Kuwaiti citizens of Iranian origin, who migrated to Kuwait over the last couple of hundred years.[3][4] Historically, Persian ports provided most of Kuwait's economic needs.[5] Marafi Behbahani was one of the first merchants to settle in Kuwait in the 18th century.[6]

Most Shia Kuwaiti citizens are of Iranian ancestry.[7][8][9][10][11][12][13] However, some Kuwaitis of Iranian origin are Sunni. The Kuwaitis of Iranian Balochi origin are predominantly Sunni Muslim.[14] Balochi families first immigrated to Kuwait in the 19th century.[15]

The Persian sub-dialects of Larestani, Khonji, Bastaki and Gerashi have influenced the vocabulary of Kuwaiti Arabic.[16] There are also Ayam of Sayyid origin.[17]

Notable people[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Article in AL-AAN online newspaper Archived 15 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine. (in Arabic) November 2010
  2. ^ Article by Waleed aj-Jasim in Al-Watan daily newspaper Archived 15 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine. (in Arabic). 25 May 2013
  3. ^ "Policing Iranian Sanctions: Trade, Identity, and Smuggling Networks in the Arabian Gulf" (PDF). pp. 25–27. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 December 2016. 
  4. ^ Taqi, Hanan (2010). Two ethnicities, three generations: Phonological variation and change in Kuwait (PDF) (PhD). Newcastle University. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 October 2013. 
  5. ^ "The Emergence of the Gulf States: Studies in Modern History". J. E. Peterson. 2016. p. 107. Archived from the original on 5 January 2014. 
  6. ^ "The Shia Migration from Southwestern Iran to Kuwait: Push-Pull Factors during the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries". Georgia State University. 2014. Archived from the original on 27 December 2016. 
  7. ^ "Citizenship and the State in the Middle East: Approaches and Applications". Nils August Butenschøn, Uri Davis, Manuel Sarkis Hassassian. 2000. p. 190. 
  8. ^ Binder, Leonard (1999). Ethnic Conflict and International Politics in the Middle East. p. 164. ISBN 9780813016870. Archived from the original on 8 December 2013. Unlike the Shi'a of Saudi Arabia or Bahrain, the Kuwaiti Shi'a mostly are of Persian descent. 
  9. ^ "Business Politics in the Middle East". Rivka Azoulay. 2013. p. 71. Archived from the original on 20 August 2017. 
  10. ^ "Islam in the World Today: A Handbook of Politics, Religion, Culture, and Society". Werner Ende, Udo Steinbach. 2002. p. 533. Archived from the original on 31 December 2013. 
  11. ^ "Sectarian Politics in the Persian Gulf". Lawrence G. Potter. p. 135. 
  12. ^ "Transnational Shia Politics: Religious and Political Networks in the Gulf". Laurence Louër. p. 47. 
  13. ^ Dénes Gazsi. "The Persian Dialects of the Ajam in Kuwait" (PDF). The University of Iowa. 
  14. ^ "The Baluch Presence in the Persian Gulf" (PDF). 2013. pp. 742–743. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 April 2014. 
  15. ^ "The Shia Migration from Southwestern Iran to Kuwait: Push-Pull Factors during the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries". Georgia State University. 2012. pp. 71–72. Archived from the original on 5 January 2014. 
  16. ^ "Lang & Linguistic in Bahrain Mon". Al-Tajir. 2013. p. 11. Archived from the original on 5 January 2014. 
  17. ^ Murtadha Mutahhari, Majmu'at al-Athaar, Part 18. Qum, Tehran. p. 124